Manual of Optics & Refraction PK Mukherjee
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1Manual of Optics and Refraction
23Manual of Optics and Refraction
PK Mukherjee MS (Ophth) Retired Professor and Head Department of Ophthalmology Pt Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
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Manual of Optics and Refraction
First Edition: 2015
Printed at
Errors of refraction are the most common ocular disorders for which people seek ophthalmic consultancy. The number of such persons is so high that WHO has put errors of refraction among the top six causes of blindness.
Errors of refraction cannot be cured, but only given palliation by a method as simple and cheap as spectacles or as complex and costly as refractive surgery. The latter is beyond the scope of this book. It has been given only a passing reference. The book mostly deals with spectacle, contact lenses and a lesser degree low vision aids. Contact lenses and low vision aids by their own merits are subspecialties for which to study them in detail larger books on specific subjects may be consulted.
The aim of prescribing spectacles is not only improving vision but also to give a useful and comfortable vision. The refractive errors and their management cannot be dealt without the knowledge of light, optics of various optical devices, and both physical optics and its pathological counterpart.
The present book is a compendium of physical properties of light, its modification as laser and fiberoptic devices, various types of optical devices, their optics, errors of refraction—their clinical presentation and management. The details of surgical procedures have been avoided. The book is illustrated with lots of colored and black/white diagrams, flow charts and tables. Appropriate photographs have also been provided wherever required.
There are many books available on the subject of errors of refraction. Some of these books are too large and cumbersome for undergraduates to comprehend. The postgraduates also sometimes try to avoid these due to sheer volume.
The students would prefer a handy book for ready-reference. The present book has been written not to do away with the classics, but to be used as a backup supplement. The book is written in simple language mostly for postgraduates, trainee and practicing optometrists, and medical teachers. The undergraduates will also find it useful.
PK Mukherjee
I express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr SL Adile, Director, Medical Education, Government of Chhattisgarh, India, and Mr AK Chandrakar, Professor and Head, Upgraded Department of Ophthalmology, Pt JNM Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, for going through the manuscript and their constructive suggestions. I am thankful to Prof ML Garg and Mrs Nidhi Pandey, Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Pt JNM Medical College, for all the help they have rendered to me by way of providing much needed reference, and Dr Santosh Singh Patel, Assistant Professor of the same department who provided me with the valuable photographs. I am thankful to all of them.
I am indebted to Dr Lalit Verma, General Secretary, All India Ophthalmological Society (AIOS), for his permission to use photographs and diagrams from the Continuing Medical Education (CME) books and the booklets published from time to time. I am thankful to Dr MD Singh for permitting to use figures from his article on Applanation Tonometers.
Shri Sravana, Local Representative of Appasamy Associates for his help to get approval of the firm to use the photographs from their books. I extend my thanks to Arvind Kasthuri and RK Narayanaswami, Executive Directors, Operations, Appasamy Associates, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India for their permission to use the materials published in their books.
I am thankful to Shri Maneesh Dandekar of Hypersoft, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India for all the trouble he has taken to hasten the preparation of the final manuscripts.
Young computer wizard Kumar Rahul (Anish) Ash, for all the trouble he has taken to draw the figures and diagrams as many times as required. He deserves a special mention and thanks.
My wife Protima was always there to collect, store and classify my ever-increasing correspondence. My two sons-in-law, Shri Satyadeep Sahukar and Dr Abir Bandyopadyay, and my two daughters, Dr Protima M Sahukar and Dr Preeti Bandyopadyay helped me to find the references from the Internet and drawing the figures on computer. Their efforts are duly acknowledged with thanks.
I am thankful to all the paramedics and the patients who have permitted to use their photographs in this book.
I wish to thank Shri Jitendar P Vij, Group Chairman, M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, for his suggestion, which motivated me to write this book. I am also thankful to him for the permission he has granted to use diagrams and figures published by Jaypee Brothers, in the books namely, Principles and Practice of Refraction and Optics by NC Singhal and Ophthalmic Assistant by me. Besides this, I am thankful to all the members of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, especially Mr Ankit Vij (Group President), Mr Tarun Duneja (Director–Publishing), Ms Samina Khan (Executive Assistant to Director–Publishing) and the Bengaluru Branch for all the cooperation they have extended to me in writing this book.