Illustrated Textbook of Pediatrics Md Salim Shakur
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table.
A
Abdomen 776, 813
Abdominal pain
diagnosis of recurrent 265
functional 264
in child 867f
acute 267
recurrent 263265
syndrome, functional 265
Abdominal scar mark splenectomy in thalassemic child 799f
Abdominal wall defects, anterior 137
Abnormal chest radiograph 554
ABO
hemolytic disorder of newborn, management of 113
incompatibility 112
Abort seizures 480
Abuse
emotional 546
physical 544
Abusive bruising, sites of 544f
Abusive scald, sites of 545f
Acanthosis nigricans 224f
Accidental and abusive bruises, difference between 545t
Accidental bruising, sites of 544f
Accidental scald 545f
Achondroplasia 670
Acid production 162
Acid-base
bacilli 352
balance
and disturbance 162
respiratory system 165, 305
disorders 162
disturbances 162
regulation 162
status 163
Acidosis, correction of 720
Acne 834
Acquired hypopituitarism, causes of 664
Acquired hypothyroidism 678
classification of 677
Acrocyanosis 833
Acrodermatitis enteropathica 208
Acropustulosis of infancy 834
ACTH-dependent causes 694
ACTH-independent causes 694
Activated partial thromboplastin time 330
Acute diarrhea, management of 237
Addison’s disease 698
Adefovir 279
Adenoidectomy 329
Adenovirus 320
Adipokines 223
Adipose tissue 223
Adjunct therapy 97
Adrenal
androgen deficiency 698
cortex 692
crisis 699
management of 699
gland 692
disorders 692
hormones, excess secretion of 693
hyperplasia, congenital 710, 730
insufficiency 698
causes of 698t
signs of 698
symptoms of 698
medulla 692
steroid-dependent 704
Adrenaline 139
Adrenarche 700
Adrenocortical hormones, disorders of 693, 730
Adrenoleukodystrophy 505
Aedes 574
aegypti 574, 575, 585
mosquito 575f
Aerophagia 264
Agglutination test, direct 112
Airway 862
measure 862
AKI
management of 778
pathogenesis of 776f
pathophysiology of 776
staging of 776
Akin staging of AKI 777t
Alanine transaminase 330
Aldosterone secretion 693f
Alemtuzumab 807
Alexander disease 505
ALF, management of 287f
Alkaline phosphatase 330
Allergic
dysmotility 259
eosinophilic gastroenteropathies 260
rhinitis 329
diagnosis 329
treatment 329
allergen avoidance 329
symptom relief 329
Allergy 333
Allogeneic bone marrow stem cell transplantation 796
Alpha granule 784
Alpha-thalassemia 800
major 800
trait 801
Alveolar gas equation 304
Alveolar ventilation 60
Amblyopia 529
Amebiasis 248, 267
treatment of 250, 250t
Amikacin 365, 488
Amines 661
Aminoglycoside 366
Aminophylline 140
Ammonia metabolism
disorders 10
disturbance in inborn errors of metabolism 10
Amniotic fluid
abnormal 3t
assessment of 42
Analgesia oral preparation 899
Ancylostoma duodenale 253
Androgen 693, 810
Anemia 784, 785, 799
and iron therapy in breath-holding spells 474
cause of 207
in children 785f
in infants and children, causes of 785f
in malnourished children 188
in newborn, diagnosis of 80
of prematurity 79
diagnosis 79
introduction 79
management 79
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 896
Anisocoria 449
Ankle
clonus, testing for 447f
edema 183f
foot orthoses (AFO) 503
jerk (S1, S2) 447
in small infant 448f
Ann-Arbor staging system 812t
Anomalous pulmonary venous return, types of total 423f
Anopheline mosquito 636f
Anorchidism 738
Anorectal anomalies 134
introduction 134
management 135
prognosis 135
types 134
Anorectal malformation 16f
Anorexia nervosa 222, 222f
etiology 222
treatment 222
Antagonists, left receptor 338
Antenatal
care (ANC) 91
diagnosis 734
investigation 3
Anthrax 623
bacteriology 623
clinical manifestations 623
differential diagnosis 624
epidemiology 623
incubation period 623
laboratory investigations 624
meningitis 624
pathogenesis of 623, 623f
prevention 625
prognosis 625
specific 624
supportive 624
treatment 624
vaccination 625
Anthropometry 848
Antiarrhythmic drugs (SVT) 897
therapy for supraventricular tachycardia 438f
Antibiotics 808, 886
associated diarrhea (AAD) 243
choice of 743
first-line of 95
for treatment of toxoplasmosis, dose of 573t
resistance
bacteria 97
Gram-negative bacteria 96
Gram-positive bacteria 97
infection, treatment of 96
nonfermentive Gram-negative bacteria 97
transfer of 244
second-line of 95
theory, duration of 96, 488
therapy 826
empirical 826
Antibody tests 593
Antibody-dependent enhancement 576
Anticoagulant factor concentrate 825
Anticoagulants 825
Anticonvulsant therapy, weaning and duration of 122
Anticonvulsants 808
Antidiabetic 808
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 181
Antidote, specific 863
Antidromic AVRT 435
Antiepileptic drugs (AED) 470, 472, 477, 480
discontinuation of 471
for different seizure types, efficacy of newer 470t
on first seizure, indications of 469
properties of 469
side-effects of 471
treatment, goals of 471
Antiepileptic surgery 480
Antifibrinolytic
agents 822
therapy 822
Antifungal
drugs 890
prophylaxis 827
therapy 827
pre-emptive 827
Antigiardiasis 891
Anti-glomerular basement membrane 764
Antihelmintics 267
Anti-inflammatory 808
Antilymphocytic secretion for tuberculosis 358
Antimalarial 808
Antimalarial See Antiparasitic
Antimicrobials 886
for prophylaxis of urinary tract infections 744t
prophylaxis in recurrent UTI and in UTI with reflux 743
therapy 743
dosages of 743t
specific 488
Anti-obese drugs 225
Antiparasitic 891
Antiprotozoal antiamebic 891
Anti-TB drugs 890
for children, first-line 359t
for treatment of MDR-TB in children 365f
side-effects of 362t
Antithrombin 825
Antithyroid 808
antibodies 674
drug therapy 682
Anti-trichomonas 891
Antituberculosis drugs, use of 362
Antiviral 890
prophylaxis 827
treatment, dose for 555
Aorta (Ao) 416, 424
classification on defect of 413
Aortic regurgitation 432
hemodynamics 432
management 432
Aortic stenosis (AS) 128, 131, 432
anatomical site of 408f
changes of 411
Aortic stents 415
postprocedure 415f
preprocedure 415f
Aortic valve stenosis, congenital 408
Aortic valvular stenosis 131f, 408f
management of 412
Apgar score 12t
in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy 83
interpretation 12t
Aplastic anemia 808, 831
development of 808t
severity of 809, 809t
Apnea 306
causes 58
definition of 58
management 58
of prematurity 58
prematurity, drug treatment of 58
stages of 58f
Appendicitis in children 267
Appetite, return of 190f
Aromatase inhibitors 672
ART drugs HIV 602
Arterial
blood gas for acute severe asthma 347
carbon dioxide partial pressure 304
oxygen partial pressure 304
pulse 403
Arteriovenous malformations, aneurysm of 456f
Arthritis 428
Ascariasis 253
Ascaris lumbricoides 249, 253
ASD, classification of 400
Ashworth scale, modified 444
Asperger’s syndrome 534
Aspiration 866
of feeds 64
diagnosis 64
management 66
presentation 64
pneumonia 319, 866
in hospitalized patient, prevention of 319
investigation 320
management of 319, 320
prevention 320
Asplenia 619, 620
functional 619
organic 619
Asthma 332, 333, 555
acute 342, 345
atopic 333, 836f
attacks, severity of 337t
child with
acute 345f
persistent 341f
chronic severe 336
classification of 335
severity of persistent 336t
depending upon severity of symptoms, classification of 336
diagnosis of 334
differential diagnosis of childhood 333
drug
delivery in acute 343
induced 337
treatment of acute 344
used in 337t
acute 343
exacerbation 336
exercise-induced 336, 337
in children 347
intermittent 335
management of 341
acute 344
exacerbation of 346f
mild persistent 336
moderate persistent 336
occupational 337
patients of various age 339f
persistent 336
severe persistent 336
stepwise care management of 342f
triggers of 333
variants of 336
Asymmetric cry with deviation of angle of mouth 18f
Asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis 726
Asymptomatic 746
bacteriuria 743
UTI 739
Ataxia 448
acute 508
chronic progressive 508
telangiectasia 509
on bulbar conjunctiva 509f
Ataxic
cerebral palsy 495, 497
gait 443
Atelectasis, right upper 321f
Athetosis 509
Atopic dermatitis 835, 844
complications of 837
Atopy 333, 835
Atosiban 41
Atresia 128
duodenal 133
Atrial
flutter 436
hypertrophy, electrocardiography analysis 391
septal defect (ASD) 126, 395, 400f, 424
types of 400f
tachycardias 436
Atrioventricular
nodal re-entry tachycardia 435
septal defect 402, 425
Atrophy 500
Atropine 871
Atropinisation, maintenance of 871
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
definition of 537
differential diagnosis of 539t
treatment of 538
Auricle
left (LA) 416, 424
right 416, 424
Autism 534
pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified and Asperger’s syndrome, differences between 536t
spectrum disorders 534, 535t
assessment of 535
differential diagnosis of 535
Autistic disorders 533
Autocrine 661
Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) 780
Autosomal recessive 9
Auxology 666
Avian influenza
clinical manifestations 559
epidemiology 558
H5N1 559
implications for human death 559
incubation period 559
pathogenesis 558
prevention of 559
transmission 558
treatment 559
Azathioprine 858
B
B symptoms 811
B. renal 769
Baby care area, guidelines for entry into 98
Baby warm 42
Baby’s abdomen 26
Baby-friendly hospital initiative 28
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) 352, 354
vaccine 350
Bacteremic shock 649
Bacteria, drug-resistant 97
Bacterial infections 604, 605, 839
antibiotics in MDR typhoid 606
carbapenem 606
cephalosporines 606
clinical features 604
complications 605
diagnosis 605
duration of treatment 606
enteric fever 604
epidemiology 604
incubation period 604
macrolide 606
non-typhoid Salmonella infection 607
pathogenesis 604
presentation 608
prevention 607
treatment 605
uses of steroid 607
vaccination 607
Bacterial meningitis
acute 485
complication of acute 487
management of acute 488
Bacterial vaginosis, treatment of 41
Bacteriuria 741f
Baggy pant wasting 185f
Ballismus 509
Balloon pulmonary valvoplasty 407
Barbiturate poisoning 865, 874
Barley baby 183
Bartter syndrome 767
Basal ganglia
in pseudohypoparathyroidism, calcification of 688f
lesion 82
B-cells evaluation 826
BCG
adenitis 361f
test 356
vaccination 361
typical intradermal wheal 361f
Beau lines of fingernails 628f
Becker’s muscular dystrophies 145
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome 117
Belimumab 858
Bells staging 55
Benign pustular dermatoses 833
Benzathine penicillin 430
Benzodiazepine 470, 471
poisoning 864, 874
Beriberi 198
Beta 2-agonist, long-acting 338
Beta-hemolytic
streptococci, group A 312
streptococcus, complications of 510
Beta-lipotropin levels, increased 698
Beta-thalassemia 790
minor and major, hematological parameters of 791t
Bifidobacterium lactis 243
Bilateral renal agenesis 734
Biliary atresia 114
features of 114
Bilirubin
encephalopathy 494
unconjugated 105
Biopsy, duodenal 251
Biosynthesis 661
of adrenocortical hormones 692
of thyroid hormones 674
transport and metabolism 661
Birth asphyxia 80, 83, 494
child 456f
guidelines for 90
interventions 91t
management of 85, 89, 90, 92t
treatment of 89
Birth defects, assessment for 7t
Birth injuries
common 21t
evaluation of 21
Birth normal heart, circulatory changes at 125f
Birth size 666
Birth weight IUGR, normal 36, 37
Bitot’s spot 201f
Biventricular hypertrophy 392
Bladder
capacity, reduced 770
exstrophy 738, 738f
Bleeding, types of 123
Bleeds, warning 123
Blindness 486
Blink response to light 18f
Blood 760
choice of 111, 877
film fragmented RBCS 768f
film microcytic hypochromia with target cells 207f
film of thalassemia minor target cell with microcytosis 791f
film spherocytes in hereditary spherocytosis 787f
flows across atrial septum from left to right 400f
gas 10
analysis 697
status 347
glucose, target range of 717
pressure 388
screened for hypothyroidism 8
sucking sandfly 633f
tests 750, 768
transfusion 208, 799
aim of 793
complications to 796
fresh 98
indication 80
reducing for 79
tumor markers 816
volume for exchange transfusion 878
Bloody diarrhea, acute 229
Blue sclera in osteogenesis imperfecta 860f
Bluish skin episodes of
crying 419f
feeding 419f
Blunt centrotemporal spikes in a child with benign childhood epilepsy 464f
Body
composition 196
temperature 862
hyperthermia 862
hypothermia 862
water 196
Bone
age 171, 666, 671
marrow 783
aspiration 883
in child 884f
indications of 884
method 884
needle with trocar and cannula 884f
biopsy 809f
blast cells 805f
examination LD bodies 635f
infiltration with neuroblastoma cells 817f
underway 884f
with rosette formation with NB cells 817f
Botulinum toxin 502
Bowel
atresia
small 133
types of small 133f
disease, chronic inflammatory 244
ischemia 54
Bowman’s capsule 731
Brain
diffused calcification 573f
injury in preterm infants 50
MRI of 704, 706
natriuretic peptide (BNP) 396
stem glioma 828
stimulation, deep 502
Brainstem
examination of 522
response, auditory 8
Branchiootorenal syndrome 735
Breakbone disease 576
Breast
abscess treatment 34
crawl 25f
development in girls 701, 702f
engorgement 34
treatment 34
milk jaundice 106
advantage of 106
beginning in second week 106
persisting unconjugated serum bilirubin 106
milk, affect production of 33
milk, types of 24
Breastfed and non-breastfed children, evaluation of 598f
Breastfeeding 23, 28
adequate 27
advantages of exclusive 23
attachment during 27f
contraindication of 28
delayed establishment of 33
establishment of 33
exclusive 23
guidelines for successful 25
in first hour of life 25, 28
in hepatitis B positive mother 104
in special situation 30
initiation, barriers to normal 26
methods of 32
optimal 24
positioning during 26f
problems with 33
promote exclusive 24
supplementer using feeding tube 33f
twins and high multiples 31
Breastmilk
diarrhea 33
management 33
in malnourished mother, insufficient 32
in preterm LBW babies 30
insufficient 32, 32f
jaundice 33
of calcium 78
of phosphate 78
Breath-holding spells from epilepsy, differentiate 473
Breathe, failure to 80
Breath-holding
attack 473f
spells 473
Breathing 862
at birth, failure of 80
control of 303
central 303
first establish 873
measure 862
Breathlessness, common presentation 309
Bronchial asthma 331, 553, 556
pathophysiology of 332f
Bronchiectasis 599
cystic fibrosis 318
Bronchiolitis 313, 320
treatment of 321
Bronchitis 313
Bronchopneumonia 617
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) 65
Brownish discoloration 561f
Bruises in vitamin K deficiency bleeding disorder 123f
Bubble CPAP 62
Budesonide 338
Bulimia 248
nervosa 222
self-induced vomiting 223f
Bull neck 608f
Bullous impetigo 839
Butterfly distribution 760f
Buttocks, wasting of 185f
Butyric acid analogs 796
C
C. jejuni 229
C. neurological 769
C. tetani, eradication of 614
Café-au-lait macule 463f
CAH
complications of 712
in neonatal period, management of 712
management of 712, 713
Calciopenic rickets 218
Calcium 157
deficiency 218
gluconate 140
homeostasis 689
Calculate score 825
Calf hypertrophy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy 517f
Caloriegenic/thermogenic effects 674
Campylobacter jejuni 852
Candida 183
infections management strategies 632t
Candidiasis 842
Capillary
blood collection, heel pricking for 8f
hemangioma 325
Capreomycin 365
Caput succedaneum 14f, 22, 22f
treatment 22
Carbamazepine (CBZ) 468, 469, 470, 471, 511
Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae 96
Carbohydrates 176
malabsorption 265, 267
metabolism, impaired 797
Cardiac
anatomy 387
left heart 387
right heart 387
and noncardiac disease in cyanotic newborn 127t
catheterization 399, 401, 404, 407, 410, 414
causes See Causes of heart failure
complications
management strategy of 798
of thalassemia 798
prevention of 799
cycle 388
cycle diastole 388f
systole 388f
defects 691
disorders 387
iron 794
lesions, classification on 413
malformations leading to heart failure 395
output 388
heart rate 388
stroke volume 388
primary 396
Cardiomegaly 351f
Cardiometabolic risk 40
Cardiopulmonary
features 856
resuscitation
discontinuation of 873
initiation of 873
Cardiovascular
age 389
anatomy 387
disease 392
examination 392
function 389
physiology, applied 388
risk in ex-IUGR 40
system 426
Carditis 428
treatment of 429
Carpopedal spasm, part of 687f
Cataract 15f
Catecholamines 692
Catheter
ablation 437, 439f
closure of PDA 54
CD4 criteria for severe HIV immunodeficiency 602t
Ceftriaxone 488
Cell surface membrane receptors 661
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) 210
Cells, chief 684
Cellulitis 617
Central cyanosis, evaluation of 124
Central nervous system (CNS) 768, 477
development 674
disease 165
examination of 441
investigation of 455
tumors of 827, 832
Central precocious puberty 703, 706
cause of 706f
Central venous catheter using internal jugular vein 876f
Centrotemporal spikes 464f
Cephalhematoma 22, 22f
fate 22
left sided 14f
treatment 22
Cerebellar
function, measure of 448
hypoplasia 500
Cerebellum 508
Cerebral
angiography 457
cortex 82, 82f
disorder 125
dysgenesis 465
edema 485, 721
signs of 721
symptoms of 721
treatment of 721
malaria 637
in deep coma 638f
in opisthotonic position 638f
palsy 494, 495
Association of 498
classification of 495
diagnostic approach of 495
prognosis of 504
spastic 497f
salt waisting 154
Cerebrospinal fluid 461, 499
findings 490
Cervical
adenitis 617
lymph gland, swelling of right 648f
Cheilosis 198f
Chemoprophylaxis 490
for children 361
Chemotherapeutic agents 817
Chemotherapy, induction 808
Cherry red spot on fundoscopy in Tay-Sachs disease 506f
Chest
compression during neonatal resuscitation 87f
deformity 217f
failure to expand 80
indrawing 648f
X-ray for kerosene poisoning, grades of 868t
Chickenpox See Varicella zoster
Child
abuse 544
behavior abnormalities with 546
classification of 545
definition of 544
types of 544
development 172
febrile seizure, evaluation of 482
friendly atmosphere 514
hydrocephalus with periventricular calcification 570f
in postictal sleep 462f
protection 544, 548
definition 548
suffering from kwashiorkor 183f
taking food from
bowl 382f
cup 382f
using ankle foot orthoses 503f
with anemia 784
with ataxic gait with broad-based walking and outstretched upper limb 443f
with bilateral ptosis in myasthenia gravis 531f
with caput succedaneum caused by birth trauma 22f
with clonic 462f
with congenital rubella syndrome 568f
with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) with splenomegaly 787f
with neuroblastoma proptosis of left eye 815f
with prolonged fever
assessment of 652
management of 653
with refractory epilepsy 472
with suspected Guillain-Barré syndrome 513
with tetralogy of Fallot 419f
with tonic 462f
Childhood
absence epilepsy 466
disintegrated disorders 534
epileptic syndrome 462
growth 169, 170
illness, integrated management of (IMCI) 370
malignancies 619
phase 169
tuberculosis
timetable of 349
treatment of 359
Children
assessment in 392
cytotoxic drugs for malignancies 619
with calcium-deficiency rickets, treatment proposal for 219t
with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 306
with HIV infection, management of 602
Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system 288t
Chlamydia 313, 320
psittaci 314
Cholestatic
jaundice 105
liver disease, complication of 291
Cholesterol
desmolase 692
ester hydrolase 692
Chorea 428, 509
treatment of 429
Choreoathetoid movement 499f, 510f
Chorionic villus sampling procedure 800f
Chorioretinitis microphthalmia and strabismus 573f
Chromosomal
abnormalities 728
disorders 146
Chronic liver disease 289f
complications of 290
Chronic lung diseases 553
Chvostek’s sign 687
Ciprofloxacin 235, 365
Ciprofloxacin See Fluoroquinolone
Circulation measure 862
Cirrhosis in children 290
CKD
management of 779, 780f
stages of 779, 779t
Claw hand 678f
Clean-catch midstream urine 741
Clinical conditions associated with VUR 746
Cloacal exstrophy 739
Clobazam (CLB) 469
Clonus 447
Clostridium
botulinum 502
difficile 243
Clotting disorders 819, 831
CMV with microcephaly at birth newborn period 570f
CNS
disease 588
tumors
management of individual 828
modalities of management of 828
Coagulation screening 768
Coarctation of aorta (CoA) 128, 131, 132f, 412, 412f, 416f, 425
ductus tissue theory 412
hemodynamic theory 412
postductal type 412f
preductal type 412f
prevalence and etiology 412
Coarctation, associations of 413
Cocktail party 691
Cognitive function and personality 691
Cold
abscess 353f
water with ECG monitoring to treat SVT 438f
Colistin 96
Colitis 571
Collapse-consolidation 349
Collateral vessels in coarctation of aorta 414f
Colloids 153
Coma 521
etiology 521
infective causes 522
management of child in 523
neurological examination 522
primary assessment 522
Communication 514
Community health worker (CHW) 90, 194
management by 314
Community management of acute
malnutrition (CMAM) 384
respiratory infections 313
Community outreach activities 192
Community skilled birth attendant (CSBA) 90
Community-acquired
aspiration pneumonia 319
pneumonia 310
Community-based management
criteria for 196t
for acute malnutrition 191, 192
of mam, enrolment in 196
of pregnant and lactating woman 193
of SAM without complications 193
Comorbid
conditions 721
symptoms 535
Complementary feeding 23, 35
Complex partial
epilepsy 468
seizure 463
status epilepticus 478
treatment 478
and prognosis of 478
Complications
acute 718
chronic 718
Congenital
adrenal hyperplasia newborn period 713f
CMV disease 570
heart diseases 424
hypothyroidism 676
management of 679f
treatment of 677
pneumonia/sepsis, diagnosis of 59
Conjugate eye movements, abnormal 451
Consciousness
decreased level of 521
level of 522
Consolidation 806
Constipation 261
acute 261
causes of 261
development of 262
high fiber diet for 263f
stepwise management of 263t
types of 261
Constitutional symptoms 854
Consumption, measurement of 303
Contracture, management of 501
Coordination disorder, developmental (DCD) 506
Core autism See Autistic disorders
Core domains of autism 534t
Core variables of criteria for JIA 850
Corneal
clouding 201f
opacity to vitamin A deficiency in malnourished child 187f
ulcer with pus in anterior chamber, infected 201f
ulceration 201f
Coronary
heart disease 40
sinus 400f
Corpus callosum, agenesis of 500, 500f
Cortex 692, 731
Corticosteroid in HSP nephritis, role of 759
Corticosteroids 359, 429, 479, 513, 753, 856
Corynebacterium diphtheriae 313
Cough 308, 867f
based on age and anatomy 308t
differential diagnosis of acute 308
dominant asthma 336
variant asthma 336
Cover test 450f, 531f
Cow’s milk
diagnosis 258
intolerance 258
investigations 258
management 259
prognosis 259
protein 259
allergy 258
induced enteropathy 259
induced proctocolitis 259
sensitive eczema 260
reaction to 258
treatment 258
Coxiella burnetii 314
CPAP
adequacy of 75
advantages of 75
aim of 75
disadvantages of 75
guidelines for initiation of 74
indication of 74
weaning from 75
Cranial
bone 804f
MRI 499
nerve 448
III, IV and VI 450
IX, X (palatal and bulbar function) 452
palsy 451f, 486
V 451
VII 451
VIII 451
XI 452
XII 452
ultrasound 455, 499
intraventricular hemorrhage 499f
Craniopharyngioma 829
Crazy pavy dermatosis 183
C-reactive protein 181, 396
Cream ointment for dermatological disorders 901
Creatine phosphokinase 499
Creating awareness 799
Creatinine clearance 732
Crises, management of 802
Crohn’s disease 264
Croup syndromes 322
CRRT, types of 781
Cryoprecipitate 821, 825
Cryptorchidism 738
Crystalloids versus colloids 153
Cup/spoon feeding 31
advantages of 31
over bottle feeding, advantage of 31
procedure of 31, 31f
Cushing’s syndrome 693, 694
causes of 696t
features of 695f
management for 697, 697f
treatment of 697
Cutaneous
anthrax 623
disease 624
leishmaniasis 633f
nevi 325
Cutis marmorata 833
Cyanosed neonate, management of 417
Cyanosis 306
central 419f
to congenital cyanotic heart disease, infant with 126f
with increased pulmonary blood flow 425
with systemic hypoperfusion 394, 416
Cyclophosphamide 754, 856
Cycloserine terizidone 365
Cyclosporine 754
CYP11A1 692
Cyst 251f
Cystic
adenomatoid malformation, congenital (CCAM) 69
encephalomalacia 499
fibrosis 329
diagnosis 329
management of 330
problems with 330
Cystinosis 766
Cystinuria 765
Cystourethrogram bilateral grade II vur 746f
Cytogenetics alteration 807
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) 109, 272
infection 569
active immunization 571
blood product 571
clinical features 569
congenital 570
detection of infectious agent 571
differential diagnosis 570
epidemiology 569
health measures 571
in adolescents 569
in adults 569
incubation period 569
mode of transmission 569
mononucleosis syndrome 570
passive immunoprophylaxis 571
prevention 571
serology 571
treatment 571
virology 569
D
Dactylitis in sickle cell anemia 801f
Deafness 486
audiogram bilateral
conductive 528f
sensory neural 528f
Decompensated shock 580
Deferasirox 795
Deferiprone 795
Degenerative disorders, investigation of 506
Dehydration 186, 231f
actual (subclinical) 231f
dyselectrolytemia with 238
estimation of 153
in patients with diarrhea 230t
physical signs of 232
severity of 230, 384, 385
Delayed puberty 701, 797
diagnosis of 705f
etiology of 701
management of 705f
Demyelinating diseases 493
mimicking encephalopathy 493
treatment of 494
Dengue 574
antibody-dependent enhancement 576
autoimmunity 576
basic principle of management 581
biochemical test 581
classification of 576
severity 578f
clinical features 576
coagulopathy 576
compensated shock 583
course of disease 578
critical phase 579
discharge criteria 584
encephalopathy 580
epidemiology 574
febrile phase 579
fever 576, 581
Grades of 579t
hemolytic uremic syndrome 580
hemorrhagic
fever 577, 579t
rash in 577f
in clinical situation, criteria for 579t
infection
classification of 577
severe of 575
laboratory investigations 580
modified 2011
classification of 578
pathophysiology of 575
prevention 585
radiological investigations 581
severe 579
hemorrhage 580
organ involvement 580
shock syndrome 577
strategy to combat fluid overload 584
thrombocytopathy 576
to severity 578f
treatment of
fluid overload 584
hemorrhagic complications 584
shock 583
uncompensated shock 583
vaccination 585
vaccines for 585
vector 574
virus 272
infection, classification of 577f
Dennie-Morgan fold in child 836f
Dense deposit disease 763
Deoxyribonucleic acid 294
Department care, emergency 864
Deprivational abuse 544
Dermatitis
atopic 836f
herpetiformis 844
Dermatological manifestation of SLE 855t
Dermatophytes 842
Dermatoses of malnutrition 183
Dermatosis 189
Desferrioxamine 794, 869
Desmopressin vasopressin analog 821
Devic’s disease 494
Dexamethasone suppression test 696, 697
high dose 696
Dextraposed transposition of great arteries (D-TGA) 128
Diabetes 39, 554
mellitus 715, 716
classification of 715
diagnosis of 715t
in children 714, 730
and adolescents 715
phases of 716
Diabetic
ketoacidosis 719, 719f
mother
infant of 118
with macrosomia, infant of 115f
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 809
Diarrhea 186, 189, 211, 229
chronic 240
continued management of 372
definition, chronic 240
dyselectrolytemia with 238
etiology of acute 229
introduction 229
invasive 234
persistent 190, 229, 239
severe persistent 384
treatment of 230
with dehydration, persistent 384
with severe malnutrition 229
Diarrheal disease 236
control of 237
types of 229
Diarrheal pathogen, distribution of 234
Diastolic dysfunction 389
Diazepam 140
Diet 236
Dietary
advises 225
changes for treatment of epilepsy 479
intake and absorption 209
management 778
in chronic liver disease 291
in thalassemia 797
manipulation 479
sources of iron 204, 205f
Digoxin 139
dosage 73
Dimercaptosuccinic acid scan 744
Dimpling 835
Diphtheria 313, 608
clinical features 608
complications 608
control 609
diagnosis 609
diaphragmatic paralysis 609
differential diagnosis 609
management for 609, 609t
microbiology 608
myocarditis 608
pathogenesis 608
prevention 609
toxic neuropathy 608
Diphtheria transmission 608
Diplegia, spastic 495
Diplegic
cerebral palsy scissoring of lower limbs 496f
gait 443
Diplococcus pneumoniae 313
Diplopia (double vision) 451
Disconjugate eye movement, abnormal 451
Discontinue anticonvulsant drug 122
Disease
disseminated 564
hematological 557
process, complications to 796
severity 321
Disinfectants 99t
Disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute 493
Disseminated intravascular coagulation, pathophysiology of 824f
Distal
convoluted tubule 732
femoral epiphysis, absence of 677f
tubule 732
Distraction test 451
Distraction test See Hearing response test
Diuretics 897
Dizygous 11
DKA
management of 719
severity of 719
DMARDs, early use of 849
Dobutamine 139
Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) 178
Dog tapeworm 251
Dolls eye reflex 522
Domperidone 31, 246, 247
Doose syndrome 463
Dopamine hydrochloride 139
Doppler
features 401
velocimetry 42
Down’s syndrome 16f, 146, 325
with increasing maternal age 146t
with mild protrusion of normal size tongue 678f
Dravet syndrome 463
Drowning 872, 874
prevention of 874
Drug
cautious use of 778
emergency 139
prophylaxis 322
resistance
tuberculosis in children, management of 364
types of 362
therapy 343, 672, 771
used in respiratory disorders 898
withdrawal 471
DSDS
classification of 724
diagnosis of 726
medical management of 728
pathophysiology of 724
Duchenne
dystrophy 443
muscular dystrophy 517
Duct treatment, blocked 34
Duct, blocked 34
Ductal differentiation 723, 723f
Duct-dependent congenital heart disease 124
Ductus arteriosus, anatomy of patent 403f
Dumb
rabid dog 591f
rabies 591
Duodenitis 265
Dyselectrolytemia 120
Dysentery 189
Dyskinetic 495
cerebral palsy 499f
child 498f
Dyslexia 532, 532f, 533
definition 532
diagnosis 533
etiology 532
incidence 532
management 533
Dyslexic child, mirror imaging of 533f
Dysmorphic facies 691
Dyspepsia
diagnostic criteria, functional 264
functional 264
types, functional 264
Dyspnea subcostal 306
Dyspraxia 506
Dystonias 444, 509, 510
measurement scale of 444
primary 510
secondary 510
with oculogyric crisis, acute onset 510f
Dystonic
gait 443
hyperextended neck 498f
Dystrophia myotonica 516
Dystrophinopathies 517
etiology 517
pathology 517
E
Ear
drum of acute otitis media 524f
infection
acute 386
chronic 386
problem, management of 374
Eating disorders 222
definition 222
Ebstein’s anomaly 129, 130f , 423, 424f
Echinococcus granulosus 249, 251
lifecycle of 254f
stage of 251
Ecthyma 617
Eczema
distribution of 836f
severity of 836
Edema 160, 749f
grading of 182t
management of 751
mechanisms of 160
Edematous and non-edematous malnutrition, difference between 183, 184t
Edwards syndrome 148, 148f
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 515
Elbow
of affected side 442f
right 498f
Electrode placement 457
Electroencephalography
characteristics, basic 458
indication for 457
montage 458f
Electrolytes 151
balance 150, 690
disorders 150
imbalance 154
correct 186
management 43t
relevant to renal disorder, disorders of 772
Electromyography 460
Electron-dense subepithelial deposits 756f
Electroretinogram 459
Elicit deep tendon reflexes 497
Eliciting
bicep reflex (C5) 446f
Chvostek’s sign 157f
knee jerk (L3, 4)
in upper motor neuron lesion with hyper-reflexia 447f
in young child 446f
infant 447f
supinator reflex (C5, 6) 446f
triceps reflex (C6, 7) 446f
ELISA
technique 358
tests 593
Emotional support 190
Emotional well-being, promotion of 480
Empiric antibiotic, initial 488
Empyema
diagnosis of 327
management of 327
stages of 326
thoracis 326
common organisms causing 326t
Enamel hypoplasia in girl with hypoparathyroidism 687f
Encephalitic disease, depressed 591
Encephalitis 491, 493, 571
Encephaloceles 519
Encephalomyelitis with impaired sensorium, acute disseminated 493f
Encephalopathies 83, 493
etiology of 493
grading of 84
symptoms consistent with 105
with birth asphyxia 83
Encourage active outdoor play 225f
Endocardial cushion defect (ECD) 126, 395
Endocarditis
infective 433, 434f
negative 435
Endocrine 147
complications, growth and 796
diseases 668
disorders 671
dysfunction 291
definition 291
diagnosis 291
management 291
glands of body 662
Endocrinopathies 715
Endoscopic treatment of esophageal varices 298
Endotracheal
intubation 882
tube
in position 882f
size and length of 883t
Energy balance 176
Entamoeba histolytica 229, 248250
Enterobacter species 326
Enterobiasis 255
Enterobius vermicularis 249, 255
lifecycle of 255f
Enterococci 433
Enterovirus 587
Enuresis 770
alarm 771
components of 771f
profile 770t
Enzyme immunoassay 593
Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis 834
Ependymoma 829
Epiglottitis 323t
acute 322
Epilepsy 464
active 461
and nonepileptic attack disorder, difference between 474t
and syncope, difference between 475t
diagnosis of 468
diagnostic of childhood absence 466f
discouraged in 481f
encouraged in 480f
epidemiology of 461
etiologies of 462
guideline for antiepileptic drug level monitoring 471
in children 461
refractory 471
international league against 462
localization-related 468
management of 457
principles of 469
nonpharmacological treatment of 480, 481
of childhood with central-temporal spikes, benign 464
prevalence of active 461
role of
neuroimaging in 469
vitamins in 479
types 461
Epileptic
encephalopathy 462
early infantile 464, 464f
seizure 461
antiepileptic drug in different 470t
international classification of 462
syndromes 464
antiepileptic drug in different 469t
in infancy 463
Epilepticus
absence status 477
atypical absence status 478
convulsive status of 476t
treatment of absence status 478
Epinephrine 343
Epinephrine See Adrenaline
Episodic ataxia 508
Epituberculosis 349
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) 272
Erythema 842f
marginatum 427, 427f
nodosum 428
leprosum 626
toxicum
neonatorum 833
over chest and trunk 13f, 833f
Erythromycin 246, 247
Erythropoietin 79
Escherichia coli 54, 59, 96, 310, 326
Esomeprazole 247
Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula 69f
Esophagitis 571
Esotropic squint (convergent) in child, bilateral nonparalytic 530f
Estradiol 706
Estrogen 700
Ethambutol 359, 366
Ethionamide 361, 366
Ethnicity 332
Ethosuximide 470
Exaggerated knee jerk with hitting left patellar tendon 447f
Exocrine pancreas, diseases of 715
Exomphalos 137
Exophthalmos in hyperthyroidism 681f
Expiratory pressure, positive end 63
Extensive seborrheic dermatitis 838f
Extensor response 448f
Extracellular fluid (ECF) 150, 154
Extracorporeal liver assist device (ELAD) 286
Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) 109, 113
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis 356
of spine 599f
Extrapyramidal in nature 443
Eye 147
contact 866
downward conjugate movement of 451f
dry 201
movement
related to squint 530
with retained consciousness, abnormal multidirectional 511f
Eyelids, edema of 757f
Eyes 867
F
Fab classification 805, 805t
Face
brightness of 676
edema of 757f
Facial palsy, asymmetric facial cry to left-sided 452f
Facies, change of 676
Falciparum malaria, ring form of 639f
Fallot, tetralogy of 128, 130f, 389, 418, 485
Family welfare assistant (FWA) 90
Fanconi’s
anemia 809
syndrome 766
Fasting glycemia, impaired 715
Fats 177
Fatty acids, essential 177
Faucial diphtheria 609
Febrile
disease, severe 384
illness
antipyretic intervention, acute 649
children acute 647, 648
with fever and shock, acute 649
without source 646
including measles and malaria, management of 373
interleukin, acute 649
procalcitonin, acute 649
treatment, acute 649
without source, investigation of acute 647
neutropenia 825, 826t, 832
seizure 481, 487
complex 482
evidence-based management of 484
physical management of 483
prognosis of 483
prophylaxis 483
types of 482
UTI 739
Fecal incontinence with constipation 262t
functional 261
Feeding
cues 25f
disorder 220
intolerance, symptoms and signs of 30
management 42
methods of 30
problem
in preterm LBW 43
treatment of 503
volume 55
FEH2O, calculation of 152
Felbamate 470
Female
anorectal malformations 135f
genitalia with testis 726f
infant with CAH with ambiguous genitalia 711f
Femoral
and internal jugular central venous line insertion 875
vein 876
Fetal
abnormalities, prenatal detection of 7t
care by allied medical departments 2
circulation 124f
fibronectin, positive swab for 41
growth, assessment of 4t
lung development 302
introduction 302
lower airway 302
pulmonary mechanics 302
maturity 4t
risk factor of IUGR and LBW 42
urinary tract obstruction, renal
dysplasia to 735
hypoplasia to 735
Fetus
and neonate, effects on 3
during pregnancy, growth of 36
effects on 4
normal growth of 37t
prenatal assessment of 3
Fever 386
collagen diseases 652
management of 484
Fibrin
degradation products 824
deposition
initiation of 824
propagation of 824
Fibrinogen 824
Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes 716
Finger-nose test 448
Fingers in scabies, small linear burrow between 844f
Fish 196
Fissured nipple 34
causes 34
treatment 34
Flaccid foot drop 443
Flaccid paralysis
acute 514, 589t
differential diagnosis of acute 515t
surveillance, acute 514
Flaky paint dermatoses 183, 183f
Flare 850
Floppy infant 514
Flow cytometric immunophenotyping 805
Flu, seasonal and pandemic 553
Fluid
balance 150, 638, 769
deficits 153
estimation of 230t
disorders 150
disturbances 284, 285t
management 43t , 778
of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) 489
replacement 720
Fluidized bed combustion 476
Fluorescent in situ hybridization 146
Fluoroquinolone 96
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 755
Fog’s test 442, 443, 496f, 507
pronator drift 442
Folic acid 199
daily requirement 199
deficiency 199
functions 199
treatment 199
Follicular tonsillitis, acute 757f
Food
adverse reaction to 257
allergy 257
definition 257
management of suspected 257
treatment 257, 258
insecurity and malnutrition 179
GI value
of high 718f
of low 718f
of medium GI value 718f
protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome 259
refusal See Feeding disorder
rich in vitamin A 200f
Foreign body aspiration 319
FP disease 748
Frasier’s syndrome 755
Frequent respiratory diseases in newborn, pathophysiology of 57
Fresh frozen plasma 821, 825
Friedreich ataxia 509
with plantar extensor 509f
FRNS
and SDNS, management of 753f
treatment of 752
FTT, underlying causes of 219
Full blood count 109, 330
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) 273, 282, 298
Functional constipation, definition of 261
Fundoscopic examination 527
Fundus, examination of 449
Fundus-choroid tubercles, pathognomonic of tuberculosis 353f
Fungal infections 631, 632, 842
candida species 631
classification 631
clinical features 631
laboratory investigations 632
of skin 842f
Furious
rabid dog 591f
rabies 591
Furosemide 139
Fused labia with labioscrotal fold in CAH 16f
G
G. duodenalis See G. intestinalis
G. intestinalis 250
G6PD deficiency 787
Gabapentin 470
Gag reflex 452
Gait 442
Galactagogues 31
Galactosemia 9, 117
treatment 9
Galant reflex 19f, 145
Gangrenous hand in rickettsia 630f
Gastric acid suppressants 246
Gastritis 265
Gastrochisis 137
Gastroenterology 229
Gastroesophageal reflux 244, 244f, 265, 267
definition 244
disease 244, 247t
Gastrointestinal (GI)
anthrax 624
fluids, composition of 154t
involvement 855
signs 55
tract and airways, disorders of upper 319t
Gatifloxacin 365
Gender
assignment in newborn infants 727
identity 727
role 727
Gene
and sex determination 721
cluster of different HB types 783t
structure of 143f
therapy 796, 822
with enlargement of thyroid gland 682t
Genetic
analysis 816
basis of CAH 710
counseling 143, 859
etiology 419
defects
in insulin action 715
of β-cell function 715
disease 299
with parathyroid disorders 686t
disorders 143
assessment for 7t
factors with resistance to malaria 640t
leukodystrophies 505
predisposing factors 846
skeletal diseases 858, 861
achondroplasia 858
syndrome 686
testing 146
Genital development in boys 701, 702f
Genitalia
and sex differentiation, development of 721, 730
external 723
Gentamicin 488
Gentian violet, treat mouth ulcers with 383
Genuine steroid resistant asthma 348
GER
and GERD, diagnosis of 245
GERD, management of 246
or mild GERD, treatment of 246
GERD, management of moderate to severe 246
Germicides 99t
Gestational
age
assessment of 4t
prolonging 41
diabetes 715
mellitus 120
period, decrease 41
GFR in
adolescents 733t
children 733t
neonates 733t
Ghon complex 351f
Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, papular dermatitis of 276f
Giardia lamblia 249, 250
Giardiasis 250, 267
treatment 251
Gingival hypertrophy in scurvy 199f
Gitelman syndrome 767
Glasgow coma scale 522t
Glomerular
filtration rate 732
function, disorders of 747
Glomerulonephritis 755
Glomerulonephritis
acute 617, 755
rapidly progressive 759, 764
Glossitis in vitamin B2 deficiency 198f
Glucocorticoids 692, 693
deficiency 698
Glucose
decreased 117
homeostasis 116
replacement
emergency 118
parenteral 118
tolerance, impaired 715
Glucose-6-phosphatase, pathway of 295f
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 80
deficiency 113
Glycated hemoglobin 330
Glycemic index 718
Glycogen storage disease 294
types of 295t
GnRH
agonists 672
test 706
Goiter 682
colloid 683
dependence upon thyroid function test, diagnosis of 683f
false 682
in children, management 684
algorithm of 685f
simple 683
Gonadal
dysgenesis 726, 726f
sex 722
steroid-dependent 704
Gonadarche 700
Gonadectomy 728
Gonadorelin stimulation test 704
Gonadotropin
dependent precocious puberty 706
independent 704, 705
precocious puberty (GIPP) 707
releasing hormone 704
secretion, abnormal pattern of 707
Goose flesh-like appearance 618f
Gower sign 518
in Duchenne muscular dystrophy child 517f
Gower’s maneuver with Gower sign positive 445f
Graft transplantation 299
Gram-negative
group of 235
sepsis 9
Grasp reflex 452
Graves’ disease
pathogenesis of 684
pathophysiology of 681
Great arteries, transposition of 126, 128f, 395, 420
Great vessels, transposition of 425
Grommet, inserted 525f
Growth
and puberty, constitutional delay of 668
disorders 171
disorders 664666, 729
hormone
doses for 672t
effects of 169, 665
growth factors 169
provocation tests 704
sex steroid 169
test 671
therapy 673
thyroxine 169
in infancy 170t
parameters, increment of 170t
physiology of 665
Guillain-barré syndrome 448, 511, 513
definitive care 513
diagnosis 512
investigation 512
management 513
phases of 512
presentation of 512f
Gum involvement in AML 808f
Gut 199
decontamination 863
H
H. pylori infection 267
H5N1 avian influenza in human 559
Hemoglobin, synthesis of 104
Hemophilia
inhibitors in 822
mild to moderate 821
Haemophilus 799
influenzae B conjugate vaccine 313
influenzae 312, 314, 322, 326, 330, 490, 555, 561, 563, 621, 858, 888
B (Hib) 317
clinical features 622
complications 623
duration of therapy 622
epidemiology 621
infection 488
meningitis 488
microbiology 621
prevention 623
prophylactic antibiotics 623
resistance to antibiotics 621
transmission 621
treatment 622
type B (HIB) infection 622
vaccination 623
Hand
expression of expressing milk 34f
stiff 498f
to mouth movement 25f
washing
six steps of 99f
steps of effective 98
Handshake examination 517
Harlequin color change 833
Harmful resuscitation practices 93t
HB E antigen 103
HB surface antigen 103
HB, functions of 783
HBE β-thalassemia
mild 790
moderately severe 790
scoring for classifying 790t
severe 790
HBV infection, staging of chronic 277t
HBV/HIV-coinfected children, treatment of 279
Head 813
in newborn, significant 19f
of femur in acetabulum, telescoping 17f
Health assistant (HA) 90
Healthcare
associated bacteria 97
providers in child protection, role of 548
role 547
Hearing 524
assessment 527
in children (0–5 years) 528
loss, early identification of 8, 525
milestones of 174t
response test 451, 527f
speech and communication 524
types of 524
Heart
anatomic position of defects 397
disease
classification of congenital 124, 126, 394
complications, congenital acyanotic 398
congenital 72, 424, 568, 584
acyanotic 131, 394, 396
cyanotic congenital 127, 417, 425
in newborn, congenital 124
cyanotic 126
with mild, congenital 416
failure
acute 132
biomarkers 396
causes of 132
common causes of 395
congestive (CHF) 394, 399
definition 132
during neonatal period 132
in infants and children 394
management 132
causes of 396
principles of managing 396
symptoms and signs of 132
with structurally normal heart 396
normal 125f, 128f, 397f, 399f, 420f
rate at different ages 307t
secondary effects on 400
sound 53
structures, normal 387f
Heinz body 787f
Helicobacter pylori 265, 889
infection 256, 265
positive 256
treatment 256
Helminthiasis 189
Hemarthrosis 820f
Hematinic 79
Hematochezia 56
Hematogenous spread 818
Hematological disorders 783, 831
Hematopoietic
growth factors 827
stem cell transplantation 810
Hematuria 749
Hematuria in acute PSGN 757f
Hemiphagic child pronator drift, left side 442f
Hemiplegia 486
flexion of hip, left-sided 442f
spastic 495
Hemodialysis 781
Hemodynamics 430
Hemoglobin 783
dissociation curve 305
E 789
carriers 789
disease 789
β-thalassemia 790
electrophoresis 792
H disease 800
types, proportion of 783
values in preterm, normal 79t
Hemolytic
anemia 786
causes of 786t
disease of newborn (HDN) 112
kernicterus 120
disorder of newborn 80
causes of 113
uremic syndrome 767, 769f
Hemophilia 819
Haemophilus pneumonia 312
complications 312
treatment 312
Hemopoiesis 783
location of 783
Hemopositive stool See Hematochezia
Hemorrhage in inhibitors of hemophilia, control of 822
Hemorrhagic disease of newborn 122
Hemostasis, management of 821
Henoch-Schönlein purpura 852, 861
renal involvement of 759t
Heparin binding growth 666
Hepatic
assistant devices, artificial 286
encephalopathy 283, 284
staging of 283t
glycogenesis, most common 295t
Hepatitis 571
A 272
prevention 274
serology of acute 274f
virus (HAV) 272
acute 289
autoimmune 282
chronic 276
core antigen immunoglobulin 103
diagnosis 276
disease burden of 275
immunization 103
immunoglobulin 103
in children chronic 276
management of chronic 278
infection 275
acute and chronic 277t
perinatally acquired 103
months after infection 275f
route of transmission 275
status of mother and treatment of baby 103t
vaccine 550
virus (HBV) 103, 272
virus infection 274t
chronic 277
with recovery, acute 275f
C 280
acute 281f
duration of therapy 281
treatment 280
virus (HCV) 272
infection 280
management of 281f
protocol of 280
cause of post-transfusion 280
D 281
incubation period 281
route of transmission 281
virus (HDV) 272, 281f
in presence of hepatitis B virus 281f
infection 281
E 281
virus (HEV) 272
Hepatocyte transplantation 300
Hepatology 272
Hepatopulmonary syndrome 290
Hepatorenal syndrome 286, 290
HEPB vaccination 553f
Hereditary spherocytosis 786
Hernia
congenital diaphragmatic 68
diagnosis, congenital diaphragmatic 68
presentation, congenital diaphragmatic 68
prognosis, congenital diaphragmatic 69
treatment
congenital diaphragmatic 69
suppurative, congenital diaphragmatic 69
surgery, congenital diaphragmatic 69
Herpes
gingivostomatitis 572f
simplex 109, 840
encephalitis 491
treatment 491
virus (HSV) 272
virus infection 571
clinical features 571
complications 572
incubation period 571, 572
microbiology 571
prevention 572
treatment 572
zoster 598f
Herpesviridae 562
High frequency ventilator, disadvantages 76
High-sensitivity CRP (HS-CRP) 396
Hippocampus 469f
Hirschsprung’s disease 104, 135
type 135
Histamine-2-receptor antagonists 246
Histone deacetylase inhibitors 796
HIV 620
acute retroviral syndrome 595
advanced signs 597
symptoms 597
antiretroviral therapy 602
in children 602
ART regimen 603
associated immunodeficiency CD4 count, classification of 600t
blood collection and testing 594
care of
infant birth 601
mother 601
clinical latency/asymptomatic disease 595
culture 594
current ART regimen in children 603
diagnosis, epidemiology of 593
disease 595
encephalopathy 599f
epidemiology of 593
infant feeding choices 601
infection
and breastfeeding 28
diagnosis of 363, 600
in children, diagnosis of 593, 595
staging of 595
maternal ART plus infant ARV prophylaxis 601
mild signs and symptoms of 596
national plans 603
presumptive diagnosis of 595, 602
prevalence rates and trends 603
prevention 600
of parent to child transmission 600
primary infection 595
testing 357
and dried blood sample 594
by virology in infants 594
time of initiation of ART 602
Hodgkin’s disease 810, 812f, 831
Hodgkin’s lymphoma 812t
prognosis of 811t
Hoffman sign 447
Home-based nutrient-dense foods 192
Homemade oral rehydration salt 385f
Homocystinuria 9
Hookworm 253
prevention 253
treatment 253
Hormone (GH) deficiency, congenital growth 169
Hormones 661, 729
of anterior pituitary 662
of parathyroid gland 685
of posterior pituitary gland 663
types of 661
Horner’s syndrome 21f, 531
with ptosis, right 449f
Horseshoe kidney 735, 736f
Hospital-acquired pneumonia 310
Hospitals facilities 29
HSP
diagnosis of 853, 854t
diagnostic features of 853
nephritis
classification of 759
grading of 759t
treatment of 759
treatment of 853
Human
chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 2, 5
stimulation test 704
genome project 143
growth hormone 665
immunodeficiency virus 352, 354
infection 363
related tuberculosis in children 349
infections caused, classification of 631t
kidney, development of 731
leukocyte antigen 838
milk 571
Humerus
in osteopenia of prematurity, fracture of 51f
to osteopenia of prematurity, fracture of shaft of 79f
Huntington’s chorea 510
HUS
atypical 767
complications of 769
management of 769
pathogenesis of 768f
prevention of 770
typical 767
Hydatid
cyst 251
treatment 253
disease 251
Hydrocarbon poisoning 865, 866, 874
Hydrocephalus 520
acquired 520
congenital 520
development of 520f
differential diagnosis 521
etiology 520
management 521
sun-setting eyes sign 520
treatment 521
variants of 520
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) 856
Hydroxyurea 796
Hyper aldosteronism 697, 730
Hyper androgenism 712
Hyper calcemia 690, 691
Hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit (ADHD) 147, 537, 510
Hyperacute liver failure 282
Hyperaldosteronism
etiology of 697
primary 691, 697, 698
secondary 691, 697
Hyperbilirubinemia 104
causes of unconjugated 105
conjugated 105
direct 105
prolonged unconjugated 105
with kernicterus 494
Hypercalcemia 158
causes 158
etiology of 690
treatment 158
Hypercapnia 304, 305
Hypercyanotic spell, management of 419
Hyperextension right knee joint 445f
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism 9
Hyperhidrosis (sweating) 870f
Hyperinsulinemia 117
Hyperkalemia 156, 774
causes 156
ECG changes in 774f
etiology of 774
treatment 156
Hyperlipidemia 39, 752
Hypermagnesemia 159, 775
treatment 159
Hypernatremia 773
induction of 286
Hypernatremic dehydration 229
with diarrhea 239
Hyperoxia test 417
Hyperoxia-hyperventilation test 417
Hyperparathyroidism 691
Hyperpigmentation
in axilla in adrenal insufficiency 699f
mechanism of 699
over gums 699f
Hyperreflexia 447
Hypersensitivity reaction 258
Hypertelorism causing pseudosquint 531f
Hypertelorism-widely separated eyes 15f
Hypertension 39, 748, 897
development of 413
management of 751
portal 296
causes 296
management 298
Hypertensive
encephalopathy 756
retinopathy 523f
Hyperthyroid goiter 684
Hyperthyroidism 568, 675, 729, 681
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 138f
Hyperventilation 458
Hypnotherapy 266
Hypocalcemia 120, 157, 689, 690
causes 157
etiology of 690
in neonate 689
management 157
to hypoparathyroidism 687f
Hypochloremic, mechanism of 138f
Hypochondroplasia 670, 859
in mother and two children 670f
Hypoglycemia 118, 120, 185, 285, 718
definition 116
management of (neonatal) 119
neonatal 116
prevention of 719
to increased glucose utilization 117
treatment of 118
Hypogonadism 797
Hypokalemia 156, 285, 773
causes 156
ECG changes in 156f, 774f
etiology of 773
management 156
Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, mechanism of 138f
Hypomagnesemia 120, 158, 775
Hypomyelination, delayed myelination 499
Hyponatremia 229, 238, 285, 772, 772t
causes 238
consequences with hypotonic IV infusion 151
etiology of 772
in PICU, causes of 154, 154t
sodium depletion 238
treatment of 155, 238
chronic 155
Hypoparathyroidism 686, 797
manifestation of 686
treatment of 687, 689
with neonatal period 687
Hypopituitarism 117, 664
Hypoplasia 500
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome 131f, 416, 425
Hypoproliferative anemia, diagnosis of 207t
Hypotension 748, 759
and septic shock with meningitis 485
management of 489
Hypotensive shock 580, 583
management in 585f
Hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytoma 706f
Hypothalamic-pituitary axis, investigations of 830
Hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis 700f
Hypothalamus 662
with nuclei in hypothalamus 662f
Hypothermia 186
induction of 286
prevent 97
Hypothyroid goiter 683
Hypothyroidism 568, 675, 678f, 683, 707, 797
acquired 677
before and after treatment 676
causes of 675t
congenital 676
Down syndrome and mucopolysaccharidosis, comparison between 678t
short stature to 668f
Hypotonia 444, 514
in preterm baby with hyperabducted hip 20f
on ventral suspension, evidence of 516f
peripheral 516
Hypoxemia 304
evaluation of 305
Hypoxia
correction of 72
requiring supplemental oxygen 554
Hypoxic ischemic
encephalopathy (HIE) 80, 120, 499
birth asphyxia 81
management of 85
injury (HII) 80
Hypsarrhythmia high-amplitude 465f
I
Ibuprofen 405
Ictal period 461
Idiopathic 763
form 716
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 106, 137
short stature 667
unilateral (right) ptosis in child, congenital 531f
IGA nephropathy treatment 762t
IGAN, classification of 762
IGE and non-IGE-mediated cow’s milk protein allergy, management of 260
IGE-mediated
allergic reaction 258
reactions, medical management of 260
wheezing 333
Ileocolic intussusception 268f
Illness
chronic 671
integrated management of 196
Imatinib 807
IMCI
case management, steps of 370
components of 370
facility-based 370
Immune
complex 764
dysregulation 811
mediated 716
staging of HIV infection 600
stimulation, excessive 244
thrombocytopenic purpura 802, 803f
Immunization 751
in children 549
subcommittee 551t
Immunoadsorption 822
Immunodeficiency 619
syndrome in children, acquired 593
Immunofluorescence 756
positive staining of IGA deposition in mesangium 762f
Immunoglobulin 479
nephropathy 761
Immunologic criteria 761
Immunomodulatory drugs in MS 494
Immunoreactive trypsin 109
Immunosuppression 822
Immunosuppressive
agents 856
therapy 810
Impetigo
contagiosa 839
to staphylococcal infection 615f
Inborn errors of metabolic syndrome 10
Indometacin 140
Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) 23
Infantile
acropustulosis 844
HSP 853
seborrheic dermatitis 838
spasm 464
causes of 465
idiopathic, causes of 465
perinatal, causes of 465
postnatal, causes of 465
Infants
of diabetic mother 120
requiring oxygen supplementation, discharge of 67
antibody testing in 594
Infection 210
congenital 102
control of 778
management of 751
prevention of 98
Infectious diarrhea, acute 243
Infective endocarditis, prophylaxis for 399
Influenza
diseases 551
virus, dosing schedule of 557t
Infrequent relapse, therapy for 752
Ingestion 866, 867
Inguinal hernia 269
in infant, right-sided strangulated 269f
Inguinoscrotal disorders 738
Inhalational anthrax 624
Inhaled 863, 866
nitric oxide (INO) 67, 72
Inhaler 339
devices 339
Inhibitors in hemophilia, management of 822
Inspiratory pressure, peak 63
Insulin
dose 717
like growth factor 181
regimens 717
therapy 720
in T1DM 716
types of 717t
Intact HPG axis 701
Intensive care unit, treatment at 873
Interferon
alpha 278
therapy
advantages of 278
disadvantages of 278
Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) 75
Internal jugular vein 876
International neuroblastoma staging system 817
Interstitial and pulmonary edema, physiology of 390
Intoxication, mild to moderate 865
Intra-articular injection of corticosteroid 849
Intracellular
cystine crystals in cystinosis 766f
receptors 661
Intracranial
infection 484, 490
treatment of complications 490
pressure 120
management of raised 523
Intramuscular
hematoma on right cuff muscles in hemophilia patient 819f
phytomenadione mixed micellar 123
vitamin K, disadvantages of 123
Intrapartum hypoxia, evidences against (birth asphyxia) 81
Intrathecal
baclofen 502
therapy 806
Intrathoracic disease 350
Intrauterine growth restriction 36
Intravenous
aminophylline 343
or intravenous salbutamol 343
bronchodilator therapy 347
fluid 152
and electrolyte 150
immunoglobulin 513
high-dose of 112
magnesium sulfate 343
salbutamol 343
solution 151
urography 733
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) 50, 120, 405
with hemorrhagic parenchymal infraction, large right 455f
Intussusception 268
definition 268
in dehydrated child 269f
investigation 269
management 269
Invasive pneumococcal disease 619
Iodine deficiency 675
Iron
chelating agents 794
chelators
comparison between different 795t
complications to 796
deficiency 205, 206
anemia 204, 205f, 206
causes of 205
severe 205
diagnosis of 206
evaluation of 204t
stages of 204
deficient erythropoiesis 204
overload 799
store measurement 204t
store depletion 204
therapy 208
parenteral 208
Irritable bowel syndrome 264
diagnostic criteria 264
types 264
Isoniazid 359
ITP
acute 803
chronic 803
IUGR
early 37
on individual and community 40
types of 36
Ivermectin 845
IVH, complications of 52
J
Japanese encephalitis 492
outbreaks 492
prevention 492
prognosis 492
suspected 492f
Jaundice 104, 105, 109, 114
causes of exaggerated physiological 105
diagnosis of severe 105
management of 44
prolonged 105
treatment of 109t
options 44
with breastfeeding 106
Jaw thrust maneuver 86f
Jejunal and ileal atresia 133
Jia
and rheumatic fever, differences between 852t
differential diagnoses of 851t
management of 849
pathogenesis of 847
pathophysiology of 847
treatment 849
Jones criteria, exceptions to 426
Julic solution containing sodium phosphate 78
Junk food with fat and sugar-enriched diet, avoid 225f
Juvenile
idiopathic arthritis 846, 861
myoclonic epilepsy 467
K
K. pneumoniae 96
Kala-azar 632
epidemiology of 632
second-line of treatment of 635
treatment of 634
Kallmann syndrome 448
Kanamycin 365
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) 25, 42, 42f
in sleeping position 26f
Kaposi sarcoma 599f
Kawasaki disease 616, 618, 626, 627f, 628f, 654
aspirin 629
clinical features 627
complications 629
cracked lips and rash, facial appearance in 627f
diagnosis of 628
differential diagnosis 628
epidemiology 626
hypersensitivity 628
infectious 628
inflammatory 628
intravenous immunoglobulin 628
laboratory investigations 628
treatment 628
Kayser-Feischer ring 294
junction of cornea and sclera 294f
KCl administration 151
Kenneth jones criteria 355t
Kernig’s test 486f
Kerosene poisoning 867
bilateral pneumonic consolidations in 868f
Ketogenic diet 479
Ketotic hypoglycemia 117
Kidney
anatomy of 731
disease, chronic 778
duplex 736
dysplastic 734
ectopic 736
gross structure 731f
injury
acute 775
causes of acute 775
management of acute 769
investigation of 732
loss of right 733f
major function of 732
multicystic 734
structure of 731
with duplex ureter 736f
with surrounding structures 731f
Klebsiella 54
aerogenes 326
pneumoniae 59, 94, 310, 314, 840
carbapenemases 826
Klinefelter syndrome 149
Klumpke’s palsy 21f
KMC
advantages of 42
procedure of 26, 42
Knee
and elbow of young girl with HSP, swollen joints of 853f
jerk 448f
L3, 4 446f
joint by goniometer, fixed flexion deformity of 497f
Koplik’s spot 560f
Krabbe disease 505
Kramer grading of extent of jaundice 107f, 107t
Kwashiorkor 183, 229
L
Labor, Normal and abnormal 3
Lactobacillus
bifidus bacteria 24
reuteri 238
rhamnosus 238, 243
Lactose intolerance 257, 258
primary 258
Lamivudine 278
Lamotrigine (LTG) 469, 470
Landau-Kleffner syndrome 467
Langerhans cell histiocytosis 829, 829f, 832
Language, milestones of 174t
Lansoprazole 247
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy 267
Laryngeal diphtheria 609
Laryngitis 323
Laryngoscopy, direct 323
Laryngotracheobronchitis 323
Latex agglutination 654
LBW
and premature adrenarche 40
baby, term related to 36
environmental factors associated with 40
types of 36
LCH presentation
multisystem 830
single-system 829
LCH, multisystem 831
Legionella pneumophila 314, 326
Leishmania
donovani 249
species, diseases caused by 633t
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 459f, 466
etiology 466
prognosis 466
treatment 466
Leprae reaction 626
Lepromatous disease 625
Leprosy 625
AFB in skin smears 625
classification of 626
clinical classification 626
clinical features 625
complications 626
differential diagnosis 626
for type 1
reaction 626 2
reaction 626
incubation period 625
microbiology 625
pathophysiology 625
prognosis 626
skin 625
thickened peripheral nerves 625
transmission 625
treatment of 626
reactions 626
Leukemia
acute 804, 831
chronic 804
diagnosis of 805f
Leukocyte count different age, normal 784t
Leukokoria (white pupil) and red reflex 450
Leukokoria to retinoblastoma, right 450f
Leukoplakia, oral hairy 599f
Levamisole 754
Levetiracetam (LEV) 469, 470
Levobuterol 344
Levofloxacin 365
Lichen planus 844
Ligation, complications of 406
Light-emitting diode (LED) 2
Limb movements of neonatal, unusual 120f
Lindane lotion 844
Linoleic acid 177
Lips in adrenal insufficiency 699f
Lissencephaly 500, 500f
Listening 524
language 524
speech 524
Liver 665, 830
bioartificial (BAL) 286
biopsy 114
disease, chronic 288
enzymes in three stages of chronic hbv infection 277f
failure 89, 282
acute 282
chronic 282, 287, 298
definitions 282
etiology of acute 282t
chronic 287
investigations, chronic 287
management, chronic 287
patient with acute 285t
subacute 282
treatment of acute 286
function tests 109, 769
iron concentration 794f
support systems, bioartificial 286
transplantation 298
auxiliary 286
heterotopic 286
contraindications to 299
indications for 298
reduced 299
types of 299
Living with epilepsy, coping strategies for 481
Lobar pneumonia in left lower lobe 311f
Loffler’s syndrome 253
Loop of Henle 732
Low birthweight 2, 708
babies, extremely (ELBW) 405
interventions, guidelines for 47t
neonates, care for 47t
Lower left sternal border (LLSB) 397
Lower limb
deformity in poliomyelitis 587f
to hyperreflexic left knee jerk, right 497f
Low-grade glioma 828
Low-risk group 827
Low-risk patients 827
Lumbar puncture 880
anatomy 880f
in febrile seizure 482
procedure 880f
Luminal amebicides 250
Lungs 830
auscultation of 307
compliance 59
disease 74
chronic 65, 405, 584
function test 518
functions in RDS 59
secondary effects on 400
volume and pulmonary vascular resistance, relationship between 390f
Lupus
criteria 760
nephritis 759
classification of 759, 760t, 855t
diagnosis of 760
treatment of 761
Lymph node
biopsy 830
involvement in Hodgkin’s lymphoma 811f
Lymphoblastic leukemia, acute 805f
Lymphomas 810, 831
Lymphomatoid papulosis 813
Lyon hypothesis 145
Lysosomal enzyme 499
M
M. canis 842
Macroglossia 678f
Macronutrient deficiency 319
Macroscopic urinalysis 732
Macular evanescent rash in systemic onset jia 848f
Maculopapular rash on trunk 560f
Magnesium 157, 158, 343
disorders of 775
sulfate, injection of 156
Malabsorption 242
causes of 242
treatment of 243
Malaria 386, 635, 653
additional considerations for clinical management 641
adjunctive treatment 644
anemia 638
artemisinin-based combination therapy 641
bleeding abnormalities 638
choice 640
circulatory collapse 638
clinical assessment 642
clinical diagnosis 639
clinical features 636, 642
coexisting morbidities 642
complications of severe 638
convulsions 638
diagnosis of 639
differential diagnosis 643
endemic countries 636f
gram-negative septicemia 639
guideline of 645
hemoglobinuria 639
hepatic dysfunction 638
HIV infection 642
hypoglycemia 638
inborn resistance to 640
laboratory findings 642
life cycle of malaria parasite 635
management of seizures 642
non-artemisinin-based combination therapy 640
nonsevere 636
of antiemetics 642
of antipyretics 642
parasite
life cycle of 637f
numerous 639f
parasitological diagnosis 639
pulmonary edema 638
renal function 638
severe 637
malnutrition 642
specific antimalarial treatment 643
symptoms of 637f
treatment objectives 642
uncomplicated 636
Malassezia furfur 842
Maldescent of testis 738
Male 700, 701
anorectal malformations 135f
at birth 711
infant with CAH with virilisation 711f
turner 669
Malnutrition 178, 179, 182
acute on chronic 185
chronic 668
classification of 180, 180t
etiology of 178
Gomez classification of 181t
in children 182
management of acute 193f
moderate acute (MAM) 194, 196
pathogenesis of 181
pathological changes in 182t
severe 384
acute (SAM) 194, 196
underlying determinants of 178
WHO classification of 180t
Malrotation 134
definition 134
management 134
Mantoux test 356
false
negative result 354
positive result 354
Mantoux, causes of false positive and false negative 354
Marasmic kwashiorkor 183, 183f
Marasmus 183, 229
MAS
complications of 68
treatment of 68
Mask, right and wrong positions of 87f
Mastitis/breast abscess 34
Mastoiditis 384
Maternal
and environmental factors 39
disease 11
intensive care unit (MICU) 91
nutrient proper consist 39
nutrition 39
deficiency, late 39
determinant of birthweight 39
during pregnancy 39
in childhood 39
restriction, effect of early 39
serum alpha fetoprotein 5
Maternity facilities 29
Matrix hemorrhage 50
prevention 52
treatment 52
Maturity-onset diabetes of young 716
MCNS, characteristics of 748
MCUG bilateral
grade III VUR 746f
VUR with dilatation of ureter and clubbing of calyces 745f
Mean height velocity 170
Measles 559
clinical features 560
complications 561
diagnosis 561
differential diagnosis 561
dose of vitamin A 561
epidemiology 559
incubation period 560
infective period 560
laboratory investigations 561
microbiology 560
mode of transmission 560
prevention 562
stages of infection 560
status, global and regional targets 562
treatment 561
vaccine 550, 562
Mebendazole 256
Mechanical ventilation (MV) 63, 75
Mechanism of hormone action 661
Meconium
aspiration syndrome 63, 67
causes of delayed passage of 104
delayed passage of 104
ileus 104
on scrotal raphe, low variety with 16f
stained amniotic fluid 4t
Mediastinal lymph node 805f
Mediastinum 813
Medulla 731
Megaloblastic anemia 198
Megaureter 737
primary 737
Meiosis 870f
Meiotic pupil 870f
Melatonin 479
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis 763
Membranous nephropathy 763
Meningeal irritation, testing for 486f
Meningism 487
Meningitis 120, 484, 486f, 617, 620
in neonates and young infants 486
incidence and etiology 485
pathogenesis 485
pathology 485
Meningo encephalitis 491
Meningocele 519
Meningococcal
disease 620, 621
infection 620
clinical features 620
laboratory diagnosis 621
microbiology 620
mode of transmission 620
mortality and prognosis 621
pathogenesis 620
prevention 621
treatment 621
vaccination 621
septicemia with purpuric skin rash 621f
Meningococcemia 620
Meningococci 799
Meningococcus 799, 858
Meningomyelocele 15f
Mental
disorders, manual of 536
retardation, prevention of 8
Mesangial
proliferation in light microscopy 761f
sclerosis, diffuse 755
Mesial temporal sclerosis 469f
Metabolic
acidosis 163, 164f
causes of 163
management of 163
mixed 167
alkalosis 165
causes 165
etiology of 165f
treatment 165
bone disease 78
of preterm baby 78
disease 299
disorders 509
disturbances 284, 285t
liver disease 291, 292
diagnosis of 292
etiology 291
management 292
Metabolism 200
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) 505
Metaiodobenzylguanidine–avid neuroblastoma 816f
Metastasis 818
Methicillin resistant
strain (MRSA) 97
Staphylococcus aureus 488
Methotrexate 849, 858
Metoclopramide 31, 246, 247
Microcytic anemia, diagnosis of 207t
Micronutrient 319
Microsporum canis 842
Micturating
cystourethrogram 735, 744
cystourethrography 733, 733f
dilated posterior urethral valve 738f
Mid upper arm circumference 196
Mid-parental height 170, 666
Midstream urine sample collection in sterile container 741f
Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) 194
Migraine
abdominal 264, 267
polyarthritis 427f
Mikulicz disease 565
Milestones in
fine motor and vision, developmental 174t
gross motor, developmental 173t
Milia 13f, 834, 834f
Miliaria 834
crystalline 834
profunda 834
rubra 14f, 834, 834f
tuberculosis 350
in children 358
management of 360
Milk 196
supply 31
Mineral 260
mix solution, composition of 241t
Mineralocorticoid 692, 693
deficiency 698
Mite biology life cycle 843
Mitral
regurgitation 430
treatment 431
stenosis 431
examination 431
hemodynamics 431
investigation 431
treatment 431
Mixed hearing loss 525
MKAR disease 626
Mobile transfusion 883
Moderate acute malnutrition 194
Molecular genetic alteration 807
Molluscum contagiosum 841, 841f
Mongolian blue spots 14f
Monoresistance 364
Monosymptomatic enuresis 770
Monozygous 11
and dizygous twins, basic differences between 11t
Moro reflex 20f, 455, 455f
Mortality in DKA 720
Mother’s back to stimulate oxytocin reflex, rubbing 32
Motor
coordination, testing for 507
tics 511
Mottled skin 647f
Movement disorder 508
ataxia 508
definition 508
Moxifloxacin 365
MRI of brain, role of 499
MUAC, assessment of 193f
Mucocutaneous 855
Mucopolysaccharidoses 506f
flexion of hand 678f
types of 505t
Müllerian duct remnants 728
Multibacillary disease 626, 626t
Multidrug resistance (MDR) 96
tuberculosis 362, 365
management 364
Multilobulated anterior communicating artery aneurysm 457f
Mumps 564
clinical features 564
CNS complications 566
complications 565
diagnosis 565
differential diagnosis 565
incubation period 564
infectious period 564
management 565
parotitis 565
prevention 566
route of transmission 564
virology 564
Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) 546
Muscarinic effects 870, 870f
Muscle
biopsy 461
power, grading of 445
relaxant 501
Muscular dystrophies 516
Musculoskeletal 855
Myasthenic syndromes 532
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 326, 355, 363, 484
Mycophenolate 754
mofetil 858
Mycoplasma 313, 852
pneumoniae 314, 847
Myeloblast containing auer rod in AML 808f
Myeloid leukemia, acute 807, 831
Myocardial iron load, assessment of 794
Myoclonic epilepsy, severe 463
Myopathic changes 460
Myotonia 460
Myotonic dystrophy 516
N
N-acetylcysteine 286
Napkin dermatitis 837
Nappy rash 837
complications of 837
Nasal
bleeding in DHF 578f
diphtheria 609
Nasogastric 194
tube
feeding, procedure of 30
insertion of 879
Nebulized antiasthma drug from nebulizer by face mask 340f
Necator americanus 253
Neck 813
benign nevus 14f
reflex, asymmetric 453
rigidity 486f
Necrotic skin patches in disseminated intravascular coagulation 824f
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) 54, 244
early feeding 55
epidemiology 54
etiology 54
infection 54
introduction 54
investigation 56
management 56
pathology 55
prevention of 25
Necrotizing fasciitis 840
Neglect and deprivational abuse, differences between 547t
Neisseria meningitidis 485
Neonatal
acne 835f
alloimmune thrombocytopenia 803
care, advanced 2
cholestatic jaundice 113
convulsion 118
etiology 121
cutaneous langerhans cell histiocytosis 829f
depression 81
diabetes mellitus 716
disease 350
encephalopathy 81
causes of 81
grading of 84t
for prevention of mental retardation, role of 8
herpes 840, 841f
hyperbilirubinemia, preventing severe 105
hypoglycaemia
in infant of diabetic mother 115
indicators of 118
intensive care unit (NICU) 91
emergence of 1
isoimmune thrombocytopenia 803
jaundice 107
causing early 113
evaluation of 104
to hemoglobinopathy 113
transfusion in 44f
period, presentations after 413
resuscitation
dose 87t
drugs 87t
used in 93t
risk 52
screening
criteria, initial 4
definition, initial 3
initial 3
types, initial 4
sepsis 93
bacterial causes of 94
etiology of 93
definition of 93
etiology of 93
identification of 102
interventions 100t
introduction 93
treatment of 97
severe primary hyperparathyroidism 691
skin, minor abnormalities of 835
surgical conditions 133
tetanus 120, 613
thrombocytopenia 803
transfer by appropriate transport 2
unit, discharge from 45
ventilation 73
definition 73
Neonates 413
and young infant, developmental assessment of 452
and young infant, neurological assessment of 452
by laryngoscope, intubation of 88f
normal pinkish appearance 38f
position, intubation of 61f
suffering from rubella 568f
with RDS 75f
Neonatology 1
drugs used in 139
Nephritic syndrome 756
Nephrons 731
Nephrotic syndrome 619, 620, 747, 756
atypical presentation of 748
congenital 754
infantile 754
Nerve conduction
studies 460
procedure of 460f
Nervous system
central 147, 306
peripheral 506
Nestroft
method of thalassemia 792f
procedure 791
Netilmicin 488
Neural tube defects
and hydrocephalus 519
classification 519
etiology 519
pathogenesis 519
Neuroblastoma 815, 816f, 831
staging of 817t
Neurodegenerative diseases 505
Neurodevelopmental
comorbidities 534
disability 46
disorder 494
issues 770
Neurogenic change (denervation) 460
Neuroimaging 671
Neurological
condition, birth history relevant to 441
development disorders 454f
disorders, drugs used in 892
gait 442
signs, soft 442
Neurology, general acute 458
Neuromuscular disorder 514
affects 514
classification of 515t
Neuromuscular function disorder 513
Neuromyelitis optica 494
Neuropathies, peripheral 513
Neurophysiological testing of central sensory pathways 459
Neurophysiology, principles of 457
Neuropsychiatric 855
Neuropsychiatric
condition 895
SLE syndromes 855t
Neurosurgery 828
Newborn 675
care, essential (ENC) 90
delivery and after delivery, care of 20
effects on 4
hearing by otoacoustic emission 9f, 526f
hearing program 8
infants 57
and newborn examination 11
normal head in 19f
screening 3, 676
skin, normal changes in 833
with RDS 62f
with thanatophoric dysplasia 861f
Newer antiepileptic drugs, properties of 470
Nicotinic acid 199
deficiency 199
etiology 199
treatment 199
Nicotinic effects 870
Nifedipine 41
Night splints 501
NIPAH
virus 586
diagnosis 586
in domestic animals 587
incubation period 586
key facts 586
outbreak 586
prevention 587
reducing 587
treatment 587
Nipples, inverted/flat 34
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) 469, 470
Nitroimidazole 251
Nocturnal
enuresis
complicated 770
primary 770
secondary 770
uncomplicated 770
polyuria 770
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 293
diagnosis 293
etiology 293
management 293
pathogenesis of 293f
Nonantiepileptic drug
medical treatment 479
treatment 478
Nonarticular steroid 850
Nonatopic wheezing 333
Nonblanching rash 648f
Noncardiac 396
Nonclassic 711, 712
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus 476
Nonencephalopathic demyelinating disease 493
Nonepileptic
attack disorders 473, 474
management of 475
events 473
psychogenic seizure 474
Non-hematological investigations 207
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 812, 831
Noninfectious 755
Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome 615
Nonmetabolic 40
Nonorganic recurrent abdominal pain 267
Nonparalytic poliomyelitis 587, 588
Nonphysiological jaundice, evaluation of 106
Nonpitting pedal edema 669f
Nonrapid eye movement sleep disorders 475
Nonreplicative infection 277f
Nonretentive fecal incontinence 261
Nonsevere aplastic anemia 809
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) 154, 513
Nonstimulant medications 540
Nonsyndromic 524
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenza, infection to 622
Noonan syndrome 669
Nosocomial-induced pneumonia See Hospital-acquired pneumonia
Nucleoside analog
advantages of 279
disadvantages of 279
Nursery environment 99
Nutrient 176
requirements
for healthy children 176
in childhood 177t
Nutrition 717
disorders 176
in LBW babies, feeding and maintenance of 30
of mother of twins 31
Nutritional
dwarfism 184, 668
management 752
of moderate acute malnutrition 195
requirements 176
rickets 213, 214
rickets See Vitamin D deficiency
status, assessing 903
stunted child in comparison to normal 668f
treatment 196t
for SAM without complications 195
O
Obesity 713
management 226
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) 510
Obstetric care
emergency (EMOC) 90
of fetus 2
Obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic 555
Oculocephalic reflex 522
Oculogyric crisis in a child with encephalitis 492f
Odor in urine, abnormal 10
Ofloxacin 365, 366
Ohtahara syndrome 464
Olfactory nerve 448
Oligoarticular 851
jia 847
Oligohydramnios 3
Omeprazole 247
Omphalocele See Exomphalos
Ophthalmic disease 564
Opioids 513
Opisthotonus in child suffering from tetanus 613f
Opsoclonus-Myoclonus syndrome 511, 815, 815f
Optic
atrophy 449f
disk swelling 523f
nerve (II) 448
neuritis 493
OPV and IPV, comparison of 590t
Oral
candidiasis 842f
glucose tolerance test 330
rehydration
salt (ORS) 229, 370
therapy to prevent dehydration 231t
Orchidometer for measuring testicular volume 701f
Organ
dysfunction in sickle cell disease 801
negative, multisystem risk 830
positive, multisystem risk 830
Organic
cases of recurrent abdominal pain, management of 267
cause 265
exclude 266
pain, pointers to 265
Organophosphorus compound poisoning 869, 870, 870f
acute 870f
causes of death in 871
types of 869
Organophosphorus
compounds 870t
poisoning 874
Orlistat 225
Orthopedic surgery 502
Ortolani test 17f
Oscillatory ventilation, high frequency (HFOV) 2, 63
Osmolality oral rehydration salt osmolality, reduced 237t
Osmotic diarrhea 189
Osteogenesis
imperfecta 859
classification of 859t
Osteomalacia, definition 213
Osteomyelitis 617
Osteopenia
definition 213
of prematurity 78
Osteoporosis, definition 213
Ostium primum 400f
ASD 402
defect caused by incomplete fusion of endocardial cushion 400f
Ostium secundum 400f, 402
Otitis media 617
with effusion 524, 524f
Otoacoustic emission 8, 525
Ova of Trichuris trichiura 257f
Ovotesticular DSDS 726
Oxcarbazepine (OXC) 468470
Oximes 871
Oxygen
consumption imbalance 304
delivery 304
assessment of 305
measurement of 303
flux 303
therapy
in RDS 60
through head box, baby receiving 61f
transport 305
Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve 784f
Oxyphil cells 684
P
P. falciparum malaria 645t
management of severe 642
treatment of uncomplicated 645
P. vivax
in blood film 639f
malaria, treatment of uncomplicated 645
Pale optic disk 449f
Pancarditis 427f
Pancreas 768
Pandemic
flu, treatment of 556
H1N1 influenza A virus, isolation of 555
Pan-susceptible TB 363
Papilledema 523f
advanced 449f
to raised intracranial pressure 827
Papular urticaria 844
Para-aminosalicylic acid 365
Paracetamol poisoning 863
Parachute reflex
downward 454
in cerebral palsy 496f
Paracrine 661
Paradoxical aciduria, mechanism of 138f
Paranasal sinuses, infected 485
Parasagittal injury 82f
Parasites, intestinal 248
Parasitic infections 632
case 634
clinical manifestations 633
microbiology 632
personal protective measures 635
prevention 635
of sandfly bites 635
treatment for PKDL cases 635
Parathyroid
deficiency
acquired 686
congenital 686
disorders 686
gland
anatomy of 684
disorders 684, 729
hormones, disorders of 686
Parental nutrition 43
Parotid gland with lymphedema, swelling of left 565f
Paroxysmal dyskinesias 509
movement disorders 510
Partial atrioventricular septal defect 400f
Partial seizures 462
Partial thromboplastin time 330, 823, 824
Patent ductal arteriosus (PDA) 126, 395, 402, 405f, 425
closure 425
complications 404
echocardiogram 405
embryology of 402f
examination 403
genetic factors 403
incidence 403
infection 403
medical management 404
natural history 404
transcatheter closure 404
treatment 405
Patient triggered ventilation (PTV) 2
Paucibacillary disease 626, 626t
Pauci-immune crescentic GN 764
PDA
in preterm, effect of 53
physiologic effects of 405
Pediatric
and adult upper airway, differences between 303f
appendicitis score 268t
cardiac arrhythmias 435
epilepsy 461
management of 478
intensive care unit (PICU) 154, 162, 476
management in 346
neurology 441
cognitive development 441
developmental history 441
investigation, principle of 455
practice of management of febrile seizure 483
pulmonary tuberculosis, symptoms and signs of 352f
versus adult heart failure 389
Pedigree of autosomal
dominant diseases 145f
recessive disorder 143f, 144f
Peeling of skin of fingers 618f
Peginterferon alpha-2b 280
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher syndrome 505
Pellagra 199
Pelvic ultrasound 704, 706
Pelvis, disorders of 736
Pelviureteric junction obstruction 736
causing hydronephrosis 737f
Penicillin 429
resistance pneumococci 488
Penta 549, 612
plus OPV 549
Peptic ulcer disease, pre-existing 584
Percutaneous transcatheter closure 402
Perez reflex 19f, 454
Performance test 527
Periauricular sinuses 835
Perihilar fullness in acute bronchiolitis 321f
Perinatal transmission 94
Perinatally acquired CMV infection 570
Perinaud’s syndrome 827
Periorbital ecchymoses 815f
Peripheral
blood film 109
nervous system, examination of 442
Peritoneal dialysis 779, 780, 884
complications of 780
regimen, types of 779
Periventricular
calcification with hydrocephalus 456f, 499
leukomalacia (PVL) 52, 81, 499
Permethrin cream 845
Persistent
and severe hypoglycemia, treatment of 118
chronic 338
Pertussis 313
Pertussis See Whooping cough
with sensitive, complications of 611f
Pervasive
developmental disorder 534
disorders 533
Pes cavus 509f
pH
and hydrogen ions 162
in BPD, management of 67
study 245
Phagocytic evaluation 826
Pharyngotonsillitis, acute 617
Phenobarbitone 140, 471
Phenotypic treatment 348
Phenyl ketonuria 3, 9
treatment 9
Phenytoin 140, 469471
Pheromonal 661
Phlebotomy, avoidance of 79
Phlyctenular conjunctivitis 353f
Phosphate 157
deficiency rickets 214
level
causes, high 159
high 159
low 159
treatment, high 159
supplement 78
Phospholipid derived hormone 661
Photic stimulation 458
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) 210
Phytomenadione mixed micellar, oral 123
Pie, treatment of 65
Piperazine 256
Pituitary
anterior 662
gland
anterior 662f
posterior 662f
posterior 663
Pityriasis
ALBA 836f
versicolor 842
Planter response (S1) 447
Plasma
creatinine concentration 732
forms of calcium 157
glucose 10
lactate 10
Plasmapheresis 513, 822
Plasmodium falciparum 249
Platelet 784
count 823
disorders 802, 831
function 823f
disorders 803
transfusion 825
Pleural effusion in kerosene poisoning (grade-4) 868f
Pleural fluid culture yielded mycobacterium tuberculosis 351f
Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell 783
Pneumatosis intestinalis 55f, 56
Pneumocystis carinii 892
Pneumococcal
conjugate vaccine 313, 490
disease 619, 623
infection 619
clinical features 619
diagnosis 619
etiology 619
pathogenesis 619
prevention 620
transmission 619
treatment 620
vaccination 620
meningitis 488
prevention of 490
Pneumococcus 799, 858
Pneumocystis carinii 310, 597, 810, 892
Pneumomediastinum, treatment of 65
Pneumonia 190, 309, 313
anatomic classification of 310
classification of 310
congenital 59
diagnosis of 314
lower chest indrawing 311f
persistent 317
definition, 317
prevention of 312
death from 313
reassess for 316
recurrent 317
severe 384
to staphylococcal pneumonia 311
complications 312
diagnosis 311
duration of treatment 312
management 312
to Streptococcus pneumoniae 310
diagnosis 311
treatment 311
Pneumonitis 564, 571
Pneumonococcal infection 748
Pneumoperitoneum 55f
Pneumothorax 64
after insertion of pigtail catheter, resolution of 65f
right-sided 65f
treatment of 65
Poison
absorption, reduction of 863
elimination 863
Poisoning
acute 869
and respective antidotes 863t
chronic 870
mild 871
mode of 867
moderate to severe 871
principle of management of 862, 874
subacute 870
Policy regarding visitors/caregivers 98
Poliomyelitis 587
abortive 587, 588
clinical features 587
complications 590
CSF study 588
differential diagnosis 588
general measures 589
incubation period 587
laboratory investigations 588
paralytic 587, 588, 590
prevention 589
prognosis 590
route of transmission 587
serological test 588
specific 589
stool examination 588
supportive 588
treatment 588
vaccination 589
virology 587
Polyarticular 851
jia 847
Polyhydramnios 3
Polymerase chain reaction 146, 358, 461, 487
Polyresistance 364
Polyspikes characteristics of seizure disorder 459f
Polysymptomatic enuresis 770
Poor attachment, causes of 27
Porencephaly 499
Portal hypertension
causes of 297t
pathophysiology of 297f
Portwine stain on face 14f
Positive airway pressure, continuous (CPAP) 74
Postbronchiolitis wheeze 335
Postcircumcision hematoma in hemophilia A 820f
Postcoarctectomy syndrome 416
Posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) 53
Postnatal growth 40, 169
Postneonatal during infancy 494
Postpneumonic 325
Postrenal 776
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute 756
Potassium
balance, disorders of 773
bromide (PB) 470
replacement 720
Potency vitamin A capsule, high 202f
Power 445
Prader-Willi syndrome 670
Prebiotics 243, 244
Prechemotherapy staging of Wilms’ tumor 819t
Precocious pubarche 708
management of 708, 709f
with LBW and IUGR 708
Precocious puberty 703, 730
etiology of 703
incomplete 705
pathophysiology of 705
Precordium, palpation of 393
Predictive test 146
Predisposing factors 325
Pregabalin 470
Prehospital care 864
advanced 873
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 146
Premature
menarche, isolated 707
sexual maturation, causes of 703
Prematurity, prevention of 41
Prenatal genetic screening, indications for 5t
Prepubertal uterus 707
Prerenal 776
Pre-requisition 885
Preterm
and ex-preterm, evaluation of 50
babies 78
birth, outcome after 45
delivery
history of 41
treatment to delay 41
infant
characteristics of 67
management of extremely 44
labor, management of 41
LBW
and IUGR 38t
difference of clinical features between 36t
babies 37
and IUGR, management of 40
fetal gene 39
genetic 39
immediate problems 37
late complications 37
care for 42
low birthweight, complications of 50
Pretransplant assessment 299
Prevent absorption, methods to 868
Prevent preterm labor, treatment to 41
Prickly heat 834
Prifle class of AKI 777t
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors 829
Primitive reflexes 452
Probiotic 243
action of 243
bacteria 243
definition 243
in acute infectious diarrhea, use of 238
in H. pylori infection 244
in infant formula 244
in prevention of acute Rotavirus gastroenteritis 243
ORS 243
use of 243
Procyclidine administration 511f
Progesterone prophylaxis 41
Prokinetic agents 246
Prokinetic drugs 246
Prolonged fever 653
causes of 653
Kawasaki disease 653
malignancies 652
physical examination 653
probable source of infection 652
protozoal infection 655
rickettsial infection 655
serologic tests 654
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 652
vascular diseases (Vasculitis) 653
viral serology 654
virus diagnosis 654
Prominent ataxia 506
Promyelocytic leukemia, acute 808
Pronator drift 442f
test 496
Prone newborn baby 455f
Prophylactic antibiotic therapy 827
Prophylaxis
continuous 484
drug used in 743
intermittent 484
primary 298, 430
secondary 430
therapy 632
Protein C 825
Proteins 176
Proteus mirabilis 314
Prothrombin complex concentrates 822
Prothrombin time 824
Proton pump inhibitors 247
Proximal tubule 732
Proximal weakness 443
Prune belly syndrome with absence of abdominal wall muscles 737f
Pruritus 291
Pseudo-Cushing’s syndromes 694
Pseudohypoparathyroidism 687, 688
treatment of 689
Pseudo-insufficient breastmilk 33
Pseudomembrane in fauces 608f
Pseudomonas 310, 488
aeruginosa 94, 96, 310, 314, 326, 433, 488
Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism 688
Pseudoseizure 474, 474f
Psoriasis 838
Psoriatic fingernails 839f
Psychiatric
comorbidity, reduction in 481
disorder 147
Psychic symptoms 463
Psychosocial
management 728
stress, etiology 847
support 504, 800, 850
PTH
actions of 685
mechanism of action of 685
regulation of 686
Ptosis 531
acquired 531
causes of 531
congenital 531
left congenital 449f
left-sided 827f
to third nerve palsy 450f
treatment 532
Pubertal
disorder, management of 9
staging 701, 702f
Puberty 700
and disorders of puberty 700, 730
arrested 701
components of 700
disorders of 701
evaluation of delayed 701
late 701
management of delayed 702
phase 169
physiology of 700
Pubic hair development in both sexes 701, 702f
Pubrtal staging parameters 701t
Puffy face 749f
Pulmonary
artery (PA) 416, 424
hypertension 424
aspiration 866
atresia 128
blood flow, decreased 390
complication 290
condition, different 326t
congestion 390
diseases 165, 350, 563
disorder 125
edema 160
cardiogenic 161
noncardiogenic 161
function, assessment of 304
gas exchange 302, 304
hypertension 71
diagnosis 71
investigation 72
of newborn, persistent 71
persistent 71
treatment 72, 73
interstitial emphysema (PIE) 65
plethora, cardiomegaly with 423f
stenosis 669f
valve stenosis 406f
valvular atresia with normal aortic root 129f
vascular resistance (PVR) 60
venous
connection, total anomalous 129f, 426
drainage, total anomalous 129
return, total anomalous (TAPVR) 126, 128, 395, 423
Pulmonic stenosis 406
hemodynamics 406
management 407
Pulse polio immunization 590
Pulsed Doppler studies 733
Pure tone audiometry by sweep test 527
Purpuric rash in congenital rubella 51f
Pustular skin lesion in infected scabies 845f
Pyogenic cervical adenitis and abscess formation, acute 615f
Pyramidal track signs/spasticity 506
Pyrantel pamoate 256
Pyrazinamide 359, 361, 366
Pyridoxal phosphate 479
Pyridoxine See Vitamin B6
Pyruvate kinase deficiency 787
Pyuria 741f
Q
Quadriplegia, spastic 495
R
Rabies 590
category of exposure 592
clinical features 591
diagnosis 591
dumb 591
epidemiology 590
in animal 591
incubation period 591
laboratory investigation 591
management 592
mode of transmission 591
paralytic 591
pathogenesis 591
post-exposure prophylaxis 592
child for 592f
pre-exposure prophylaxis 592
prevention 592
recommended prophylaxis 593
supportive 592
vaccine 592
virology 590
Raccoon eyes 815f
Radio nuclear imaging 733
Radioiodine 682
Radioisotope studies 798
Radionuclide cystography, direct 744
Radius in Fanconi’s anemia, absence of 809f
Ramstedt’s operation 138f
Random blood sugar 330
Ranitidine 246, 247
efficacy of 246
Rapid antibody tests 593
Rapid eye movement sleep disorder 475
Rashes in HSP, typical 852f
Raucous membranes, whitish coating of 842f
RBC
enzyme
defect 113
deficiency 113
indices 792
membrane defect disorder 113
red blood cell 80
RDS
autopsy 60
pathophysiology of 59
risk factors of 60
Red blood cell (RBC) 112, 204, 783, 784t
Red strawberry tongue 618f
Reed-sternberg giant cell in Hodgkin’s lymphoma 811f
Reflux nephropathy 746
Rehydration 153, 236
therapy 232
Relactation 33
procedure of 33
Relapse, treatment of 807
Relaxation techniques 480
Remission induction 806
Remission of disease, definition of 850
Renal 768, 855
agenesis 734
in potter sequence, bilateral 734f
unilateral 734
and bladder ultrasonography 744
biopsy 759, 760, 853
in acute glomerulonephritis, indications for 757
in AKI, indications of 778
coloboma syndrome 735
development, disorders of 734
diseases 584
ectopia 736
failure 286
acute 154
chronic 554
prevention of acute 286
function
investigations for 732
preservation of 779
test 769
hypoplasia 735
primary 735
in Henoch-Schönlein purpura 758
insufficiency 89
physiology 731
pyramids 731
replacement therapy 779
continuous 781
system 731
disorders of 734
tubular
acidosis 765
dysgenesis 735
tubules, disorders of 765
Respiratory
acidosis 165
acute versus chronic 166
causes of