Psychology for Nurses M Basavanna
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table
A
Aaron Beck 504f
A-B-C theory of emotion/personality 503
Abraham Maslow 23, 267f
Acetylcholine 49
Achievement
motivation 214
tests 184
Acquaphobia 449
Acrophobia 449
Addiction disorders 474
Additive color mixture 73
Adoption studies 64
Adrenal
glands 61
medulla 61
Adrenaline 61
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 61
Aggression 218, 238, 385387
Agoraphobia 449, 450
Albert Bandura 116f, 263, 265f
Albert Ellis 502f
Alcohol
abuse 475
dependence 475
Alfred Adler 258f
Alfred Binet 171f
Algophobia 449
Allport’s trait theory 275
Alzheimer’s disease 126, 138
American Psychological Association 5
Amnesia 137
Amniocentesis 304
Amygdala 54
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 48
Anal
stage 255
triad 255
Androgens 210
Androphobia 449
Anemophobia 449
Anger 238, 343
rape 482
Anorexia nervosa 206, 473
Anterograde amnesia 137
Antianxiety drugs 515
Antibodies 62
Anticipatory nausea and vomiting 97
Antidepressant drugs 513, 514
Antidiuretic hormone 61, 203, 207
Antimanic drugs 515
Antipsychotic drugs 513
Anxiety 253
disorders 445, 448
hierarchy 497
Aphasia 160
Aptitude tests 184
Arousal theory of motivation 199
Asch’s
conformity experiment 369f
studies of conformity 369, 370f
Astraphobia 449
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 483
Attitudes 361
Attribution 351, 353
Atypical sexual behavior 212
Audience 366
Auditory stimuli 74f
Autism 484
Automatic vigilance 360
Autonomic nervous system 51, 59, 60f, 283
Autonomous morality stage 323
Autosomes 63
Aversion therapy 98, 497
Axon 47
B
Babinski reflex 305
Barbiturates 476
Bargaining 343
Basic anxiety 259
Basilar membrane 76
Basket nerve endings 79
Bathophobia 449
Beck’s cognitive therapy 504
Behavior
modification 497
therapy 494
Behavioral
activation system 199
assessment 292
inhibition system 199
interventions 420
neuroscience 5
perspective 20
signature 266
theories 262
Bell-Magendie law 12
BF Skinner 19, 99f
Bibliophobia 449
Big five personality factor 279t
Binocular
cues 85
disparity 85
Biological amnesia 137, 138
Biopsychology 5
Bipolar
cells 70
disorders 459
Birth of
experimental psychology 15
psychophysics 14
Blind spot 71
Blood-injection-injury phobia 449
Body
dysmorphic disorder 457
language 352
Book figure 82f
Brain 52, 138, 227
and happiness 244
and intelligence 190
development 328
in schizophrenia 468
physiology 13
Brainstem 52
Brightness 72
constancy 84
Broca’s
aphasia 161
area 14, 57, 161
Bulimia nervosa 206, 474
Bystander
apathy 392
effect 392
intervention 392
C
Cancer 412
Cannon-bard theory 231
Cardinal traits 275
Carl Jung 257
Carl Rogers 23, 269f
Carroll’s
model of intelligence 176f
three-stratum theory 176
Castration
anxiety 256
complex 256
Catatonic schizophrenia 466
Catharsis 389, 390
Cathexes 252
Cattell’s 16
factors 277t
factor-analytic theory 276
theory of crystallized and fluid intelligence 174
Causalgia 424
Causes of
anxiety disorders 452
somatoform disorders 457
CE Spearman 173f
Cell body 47
Cellular-dehydration thirst 207
Central
fissure 55
nervous system 51
traits 275
Cerebellum 53
Cerebral
commissures 55
cortex 55, 55
Cerebrum 54
CG Jung 257f
Child sexual abuse 482
Childhood psychological disorders 483
Chromosomal anomalies 63
Chromosome 63, 300
and sex determination 301
Chronic stressor 408
Cingulotomy 517
CL Hull 19
Claustrophobia 449, 454
Cochlea 75
Cognition 226
Cognitive
affective personality system 265
appraisal 227
of stress 410
behaviorism 22
development 307, 329, 337
disorders 446
dissonance theory 363
distortions 505
interventions 390, 420
neuroscience 20, 22
perspective 21, 367
psychology 5
relaxation 421
restructuring 420, 505
roots of prejudice 382
theories of
emotion 232
learning 111
motivation 200
therapies 502
Color
constancy 85
vision 72
Community
mental health centers 519
psychology 7
Companionate love 241
Comparative psychology 6
Complexity of sexual behavior 212
Components of working memory 126f
Computerized axial tomography 52
Concerns of health psychology 406
Concrete operational stage 310
Conduct disorder 484
Conduction deafness 77
Conjugal love 241
Consumer psychology 6
Contact comfort 241
Contemporary perspectives 20
Context-dependent memory 132
Continuous reinforcement 107
Convergence 85
Conversion
disorders 456
hysteria 456
Coping strategies 416t
Coronary heart disease 413
Counseling psychology 7
Critical period theory 162, 298
Cross
cultural psychology 6
gender identification 481
sectional method 299
Crystallized intelligence 338
Cutaneous senses 79
Cyberphobia 449
Cyclothymic disorder 460
Cynophobia 449
D
Dark adaptation 72
Day care controversy 320
Death
and dying 343
instincts 252
Decay theory 135
Declarative memory 132
Deep structure 157
Definition of psychology 3
Delayed
conditioning 95
reinforcement 106
Delirium 446
Delusional disorder 467
Delusions 443
Demand characteristics 39
Dementia 138, 446
Demophobia 449
Dendrites 47
Deoxyribonucleic acid 63
Depression 343
and suicide 463
Depressive cognitive triad 461
Depth perception 85
Descriptive
research 32
statistics 41
Determinants of attention 81
Development of
brain 306
personality 254, 271
self-concept and gender identity 321
Developmental psychology 6, 295
Deviation IQ 182
Diathesis-stress model 470
Dichromats 73
Dieting and losing weight 205
Discriminate attachment 318
Discrimination 381, 384
Discriminative stimulus 101
Disgust 240
Disorganized schizophrenia 466
Dissociative
amnesia 458
disorders 445, 457
fugue 458
identity disorder 458
Distraction-conflict theory 398
Distributed processing models 131
Divergent thinking 151
Divisions of nervous system 51f
Dizygotic twins 65
Doctrine of specific nerve energies 12
Door-in-face technique 372
Dopamine 50, 468
hypothesis 468
Double bind
hypothesis 469
procedure 39
situation 438
Double depletion hypothesis 207
Down’s syndrome 64, 186, 302
Dream analysis 492
Drive theories 197
of aggression 387
of social facilitation 398
Drive-reduction theory 197
Dual coding theory 129
Dynamics of personality 252, 270
Dyspareunia 479
Dysthymia 459
E
Early studies of helping behavior 391
Eating disorders 206, 446, 473
EB Titchener 19f
Ebbinghaus 16
curve of forgetting 135f
EC Tolman 113f
Echoic behavior 110
Educational psychology 8
Edward B Titchener 19
Ego 250, 251
cathexis 252
defense mechanisms 253
Egoistic theory 396
Eidetic memory 123
EL Thorndike 19, 99f
Electroconvulsive therapy 516
Electroencephalography 52
Ellis’s rational emotive behavior therapy 502
Emotion 222, 223, 226
eliciting stimuli 226
focused coping 415
Emotional
disclosure 416
life of adolescents 335
motivational roots of prejudice 383
Empathic joy hypothesis 396
Empathy 394
altruism theory 395
Empty
chair technique 501
nest syndrome 342
Encoding
failure 136
specificity principle 132
strategies 265
Endocrine system 61, 61f
Endorphins 50, 425
Engram 136
Environmental
factors 469
influence 189, 303
psychology 8
Episodic
buffer 126
memory 132, 338
Epistemophobia 449
Equilibration 309
Ergophobia 449
Erik Erikson 330f
Erikson’s
psychosocial stages 331t
theory of psychosocial development 330
Erogenous zones 254
Eros 252
Erotophobia 449
Estrogen 62, 210
Ethic of caring 326
Ethical principles in research 42
Etiology of schizophrenia 467
Evaluation of
biological theories of personality 283
Kohlberg’s theory 325
Piaget’s theory 312
psychoanalytic theory 261
psychotherapy 508
Rogers’ theory 272
Evolutionary
psychology 8
theory 395
Exercise 433
Exhaustion stage 411
Exhibitionism 213, 480
Expectancy effects 39
Experiment with various solutions 153
Experimental
group 36
neurosis 96
psychology 5
research 35
Explicit memory 132
Exposure therapy 97, 495
Expressed emotion 469
Expression and recognition of emotions 225
External
auditory meatus 75
validity 38, 39
Extinction 105
and spontaneous recovery 95
Extraneous variables 36
Extraversion 279
Extrinsic motivation 200
Eye
and vision 69
blink reflex 305
Eysenck’s dimensions 278
F
Facial
expressions 352
feedback hypothesis 232
Factitious disorders 445
Factor theories 276
of intelligence 172
Factors influencing obedience 375
Failure of prospective memories 137
Family therapy 506
Fear 237
Female
orgasmic disorder 478
sexual arousal disorder 478
Feral children 162, 319
Fetal
alcohol syndrome 303, 475
stage 301
Fetishism 213, 479
FI scallop 107
Figure-ground organization 81
Filial love 240
Fissures 55
Fixed
interval schedule 107
ratio schedule 108
Flashbulb memories 134
Flooding 496
Fluid intelligence 338
Flynn effect 191
Follicle-stimulating hormone 61
Foot-in-door technique 372
Forebrain 53, 54f
Forensic psychology 8
Fovea 71
Fragile X syndrome 64, 186
Francis Galton 170f
François magendie 12
Fraternal love 241
Free
floating anxiety 450
nerve endings 79
Frequency
of sex 242
theory 76
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory 250
Frontal lobe 55, 58
Frustration 218
aggression hypothesis 239, 387
Fully functioning person 272, 500
Functional
autonomy 276
fixedness 149
Fundamentals
attribution error 355
of learning 91
G
Gag reflex 305
Galen’s typology 274t
Galvanic skin response 235
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 453
Gamophobia 449
Ganglion cells 70
Gardner’s multiple intelligences model 178
Gender
constancy 322
dysphoria 481
identity disorder 481
General
adaptation syndrome 411
paresis 490
Generalized
anxiety disorder 450
social phobia 450
Genetic
and sex determination 300
basis of language 163
influence on
behavior 62
fetus 302
intelligence 189
Genital stage 256
Germinal stage 300
Gestalt
principles of perceptual organization 81, 83f
psychology 16, 17
therapy 500
Gonadotropic hormones 61
Gonads 210
Gordon Allport 275f
Group
polarization 400
therapy 505
Guilford’s structure of intelligence model 175f
Gustation 78
H
H Carr 18f
H Ebbinghaus 135
Hallucinations 443, 464
Hans Eysenck 278
Happiness 242
Harlow’s monkeys 318f
Hassles
of everyday life 409
scale 408
Health
enhancing behaviors 433
impairing behaviors 430
psychology 7, 404
Hearing loss 77
Helmholtz 12f
Hemophobia 449
Hierarchical
organization of emotions 236f
theories of intelligence 175
Hindbrain 52, 52f
History of intelligence testing 170
HJ Eysenck 279f
Homeostasis 198
and drive theory 198
Hormic psychology 19
Hormones 61
Hostile aggression 385
Human
ear 75
eye 69, 70f
genome project has 63
immunodeficiency virus 303
Humanistic
psychology 23
theories 266
Hunger motivation 203
Huntington’s disease 339
Hypnophobia 449
Hypnosis 430
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder 478
Hypochondriasis 455
Hypomania 460
Hypothalamus 54
I
Id 250
Imaginary audience 329
Immediate memory span 338
Immune system 62, 412
Implicit memory 338
Impression
formation 351, 356
management 351, 358
Impulse control disorders 446
Inattentional blindness 81
Incentive theory of motivation 198
Incest 483
Increasing contact 384
Individual psychology 258
Industrial organizational psychology 6
Infancy and childhood 304
Infantile amnesia 137
Inferential statistics 42
Influence of
attitudes on behavior 363
behavior on attitudes 363
Insight learning 112, 113f
Instinct theories 196, 386
Instrumental aggression 385
Intelligence 168
quotient 171
Interactionist theories 160
Interference theory 136
Intermittent reinforcement 107
Internal
external scale 264
validity 39
Interpersonal
attraction 377
therapy 494
Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone 61
Intimacy 242
Intrinsic motivation 200
Iophobia 449
IP Pavlov 93f
Ivan Pavlov 21
J
James Marcia extension of Erikson’s theory 332
James-Lange theory 229
of emotion 229
JB Rotter 263f
JB Watson 18, 18f
Jean Piaget 308, 308f
Johannes Müller 12, 12f
John Locke 10
JR Angell 18f
Julian B Rotter 263
K
Kainophobia 449
Karen Horney 259, 259f
Kelley’s theory 355
of causal attribution 354
Kenophobia 449
Kinesthesis 79
Klinefelter’s syndrome 64
Knockin procedure 66
Knockout procedure 65
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development 323
Korsakoff syndrome 138
Kurt Koffka 17f
L
Lactogenic hormone 61
Lalophobia 449
Language
acquisition
device 159
support system 160
development 157
of eyes 352
Latency stage 256
Lateral hypothalamus 204
Lateralization of cerebral hemispheres 58
Lev Vygotsky emphasized 313
Levels of processing theory 127
Libido 252
Lie detector controversy 230
Limbic system 54
Limitations of DSM classification 446
Linguistic relativity hypothesis 144
LL Thurstone 174f
Localization of brain functions 14
Locus of control 264
Longitudinal
fissure 55
method 299
Long-term memory 126
modules 132
Love 240, 379
Luchins jar problem 149t
Luteinizing hormone 61
M
Macrophobia 449
Magnetic resonance imaging 52
Major
depressive disorders 459
psychological disorders 448
Majorit-Wins rule 399
Male
erectile disorder 478
orgasmic disorder 478
Mania 459
Marital therapy 507
Maslow’s
hierarchical theory 201
hierarchy 202f
theory of self-actualization 267
Masturbation 212
Maternal
illness 303
stressors 304
Maturation 303
Max Wertheimer 17f
Maximizing inclusive fitness 395
Meaning of motivation 195
Measures of
central tendency 41
correlation 41
dispersion 41
Measuring stressors 408
Meditation 429
Medulla oblongata and pons 53
Meissner’s corpuscles 79
Memory 121, 122, 138
changes 338
codes 124
Menarche 327
Menstrual synchrony 77
Mental
age 171
control 421
retardation 185, 446
Message 366
Metacognition 315
and theory of mind 315
Methods of
loci 140
study 299
Microphobia 449
Midbrain 52f, 53
Midlife crisis 341, 342
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory 289
Mnemonic devices 140
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 513
Monochromats 73
Monocular cues 85, 85f
Monophobia 449
Monozygotic twins 65
Mood
congruent memory 132
disorders 445, 459, 460
stabilizers 515
Moral
anxiety 253
development 323
Morality of justice 326
Moro reflex 305
Morphemes 155
Motion parallax 86
Motivation 194
Motor
area 55
neurons 47
Myelin sheath 47
Myers-Briggs type indicator 258
Mysophobia 449
N
Nativist theories 159
Naturalistic observation 32
Nature of
information 357
intelligence 172
Necker cube 82f
Negative
punishment 102
reinforcement 102, 103, 454
state relief model 396
Neo-Freudian theories 257, 261t
Nerve
deafness 77
impulse 48
Nervous system 50
Neuralgia 424
Neurochemical basis of pain 425
Neurodegenerative hypothesis 468
Neurons 47, 47f
Neurotic anxiety 253
Neurotransmitters 5, 47, 49, 468
Nocturnal attack 451
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 428
Nonverbal communication 164, 351
Noradrenaline 61
Norepinephrine 49
Norm of
reciprocity 395
social responsibility 395
Normal probability curve 184
Normative social influence 370
Nucleus 47
Null hypothesis 35
Nyctophobia 449
O
Obesity 205
Obsessive-compulsive disorder 451
Occipital lobe 55
Oedipus complex 255
Olfaction 77
Olfactory
bulbs 78
epithelium 78
Operant
conditioning 94, 98
discrimination 107
extinction 106
generalization 106
level 101
Ophidiophobia 449
Oppositional defiant disorder 484
Optic nerve 71
Organ of Corti 76
Organization of
long-term memory 128
nervous system 51
Orgasmic disorders 478
Origins of psychology 9
Oval window 75
Ovum 300
P
Pacinian corpuscles 79
Pain
and pain management 423
disorder 456
Palmar reflex 305
Panic disorder 451
Parallel distributed processing models 131
Paranoid schizophrenia 466
Paraphilias 212, 479
Parasympathetic nervous system 59
Parental love 240
Parietal lobe 55
Parkinson’s disease 339
Partial reinforcement 107
Parturiphobia 449
Passionate love 241
Paul Broca 14
Pavlov’s apparatus 93f
Peak experiences 268
Pedophilia 213, 480
Perception of
movement 86
pain 424
Perceptual
constancy 84
illusions 86
learning 88
organization 81
processes 80
Peripheral nervous system 51
Personal unconscious 257
Personality 246, 247, 296
and coping 418
changes 342
characteristics 376
disorders 446, 470, 473
factors 425
inventories 289
psychology 6
theories 288t
traits 274
types 273
Person-centered therapy 499
Phantom-limb pain 424
Phenomenology 23, 272
Phenylketonuria 302
Pheromones 77
Phobia 449
Phobic disorders 449
Phonemes 155
Phonological loop 126
Phonology 155
Phrenology 13
Physiological
bases of emotions 227
changes in stress 411
interventions 421
psychology 5, 20
Physiology of
hunger 203
sex 209
Piaget’s
problems on conservation 312t
stages of cognitive development 313t
theory of cognitive development 308
Pierre Flourens 14
Pinna 75
Pituitary gland 61
Place theory 76
Plutchik color wheel of emotions 236f
Polygenic transmission 63
Pons 53
Positive
psychology 9, 242, 418
punishment 102
reinforcement 102
Positron-emission tomography 52
Post-traumatic stress disorder 414, 452
Power rape 482
Prefrontal
cortex 58
lobotomy 517
Premature ejaculation 478
Prenatal
period 300
testing 304
Prevalence of
mood disorders 460
psychological disorders 485, 520
Principles of
closure 83f
operant conditioning 100
Private body consciousness 426
Procedural memory 132, 133
Progressive
muscle relaxation 421, 496
relaxation technique 429
Projective tests 290
Properties of language 154
Proprium 276
Prosocial behavior 391
Prospective memory 137, 338
Proximodistal sequence 305
PSI phenomena 89
Psychic
energy 252
secretion 94
Psychoactive
drugs 476, 513
substances 474
Psychoanalysis 19, 250
Psychoanalytic theory of motivation 201
Psychodynamic
perspective 22
therapy 492, 493
Psychological
amnesia 137
disorders 473, 486
factors 453, 461, 469
in pain 425
motives 213
test 180
Psychology 1
abnormal 6
Psychometric
characteristics of good test 180
methods 9
Psychoneuroimmunology 406, 411
Psychopharmacology 512
Psychophysical
law 15
parallelism 10
Psychophysics 69
Psychophysiological disorders 414
Psychosexual stages 254, 255, 257t
Psychosurgery 517
Psychotherapy 491, 511
Psychotic disorders 445
Psychotropic drugs 512
Pubertal changes in boys and girls 328t
Puberty 326
Punishment 101, 104, 390
Pyrophobia 449
Q
Q-technique 270
R
Race differences 187
Rape 482
trauma syndrome 482
RB Cattell 174f, 277f
Realistic conflict theory 383
Reality anxiety 253
Reciprocal determinism 264
Reducing stereotype threat 385
Referred pain 424
Reflexes in newborn 305
Reinforcement 94, 101
Reissner’s membrane 76
Relative refractory period 48
Relaxation techniques 421
Relearning method 135
Remote behavior sampling 293
Remoteness of victim 375
René Descartes 10f
Repression 253
Research methods
in psychology 27
in psychotherapy 508
Residual schizophrenia 467
Resistance stage 411
Reticular formation 53
Retina 70
Retrieval of information 131
Retroactive interference 136
Retrograde amnesia 137
Riarchic theory of intelligence 177
Rods and cones 70
Rogers’ theory 272
of personality 268
Role of
autonomic nervous system 228
hormones on sexual behavior 210
imagery 129
Rooting reflex 305
Roots of psychology within philosophy 10, 11
Rorschach inkblot test 291
S
Sadistic rape 482
Saturation 73
Savings method 135
Scaffolding 314
Schedules of reinforcement 107, 108f
Schema 308, 360
Schizophrenia 445, 464
like disorders 467
Schizophrenic mother 469
Schizophreniform disorder 467
Schools of psychology 9, 16, 16t
Scientific
explanation 29
method 28
Scopophobia 449
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 513
Self-actualization 216, 267
Self-attribution 356
Self-determination theory of motivation 201
Self-efficacy 264
Self-fulfilling prophecy 39, 192, 265, 381, 447
Self-love 241
Self-regulation 434
Self-serving bias 355
Semantic memory 132, 338
Semicircular canals 75, 80
Senile dementia 138, 339
Sensation 67, 68
seeking scale 200
Sense of
smell 77
taste 78
Sensory
abilities 337
memory 123
neurons 47
processes 68
receptors 69
systems 69
Serotonin 50
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 513
Sex
chromosome 63, 301
determination 301f
role stereotypes 322
Sexual
abuse 481
and gender identity disorders 445
arousal disorders 478
aversion disorder 478
desire disorders 478
dysfunctions 478
masochism 480
motivation 208
pain disorders 479
response cycle 209
sadism 480
stimuli 211
variations, abuse and dysfunctions 476
Sickle-cell anemia 302
Sigmund Freud 19, 20f, 22, 250f
Sixteen personality factor test 277
Skeletal muscles 59
Skin
receptors 79f
senses 78
Skinner 21
Skinner box 100, 100f
Sleep disorders 446
Smooth muscles 59
Social
cognition 351, 358
cognitive theories 263, 264
compensation 399
contract orientation 325
decision making schemes 399
emotional and personality development 329, 340
facilitation 398
identity theory 383
influence 368
learning theory 115, 387, 395
loafing 399
norms 397
origins of prejudice 382
perception 351
phobia 450
psychology 6, 348, 350
support 417
Somatic
relaxation 421
system 51
Somatization disorder 456
Somatoform disorders 445, 455
Somatotropic hormone 61
Sources of
aggression 388
stress 409
Spearman’s two-factor theory 173
Sperm 300
Spinal cord 51
Split brain studies 58, 59f
Spontaneous
recovery 96
remission 508
Stages of
development 300
prenatal development 300
Staircase illusion 82f
Standard deviation 42
Stanford-Binet intelligence scale 183t
Startle reflex 305
State-dependent memory 132
Status hierarchy 397
Stereotype 380
threat 385
Sternberg’s
triangular model of love 242f
triarchic theory of intelligence 177
Stimulus
discrimination 96
generalization 96
Storage of information 130
Strange situation 319
Stranger anxiety 318
Strength of attitude 368
Stress 407
and disease 412
and stressors 407
and well-being 407
inoculation training 420
response 408, 410
Stressor 407, 408t
Structure of
cochlea 76f
ear 75f
language 155
personality 250, 269
retina 71f
Substance abuse 474
disorders 445
Subtypes of schizophrenia 466
Sucking reflex 305
Sudden infant death syndrome 303
Superego 250, 251
Surface
structure 157
traits 277
Sympathetic nervous system 59
Symptoms of schizophrenia 464
Synaptic transmission 49
Syntactic structure 156f
Systematic desensitization 421, 496
T
Taijin Kyofusho 455
Tapophobia 449
Tardive dyskinesia 513
Taste buds 78
Tay-Sachs disease 302
Telepathy 89
Teratogens 303
Terminal buttons 47
Testis determining factor gene 301
Testosterone 62
Test-retest reliability 181
Thalamus 54
Thanatophobia 449
Thanatos 238, 252
Thematic apperception test 214, 291
Theophobia 449
Theories of
aggression 386
classical conditioning 94
cognitive dissonance 363
correspondent inference 353
emotion 229
forgetting 135
hearing 76
language development 158
mind 315
motivation 196
Thinking and
concepts 145
images 144
language 142, 143
reasoning 146
Thirst motivation 207
Thorndike’s
connectionism 99
puzzle box 99f
Three stage model of memory 123, 123f
Thurstone’s multiple factor theory 174
Thyrotropic hormone 61
Thyroxin 62
Tip-of-tongue 132, 133
phenomenon 133
Token economy 498
Tolman’s maze and learning curves 114f
Topography of mind 250
Toxophobia 449
Transcranial magnetic stimulation 517
Transvestic fetishism 479
Trauma-dissociation theory 458
Treatment of
pain 428
psychological disorders 489
Triangular model of love 241
Trichromatic theory of color vision 73
Trichromats 73
Tricopathophobia 449
Triskaidekaphobia 449
Trisomy 21 64, 302
Truth-wins rule 399
Turner’s syndrome 64
Two-factor theory 173
of emotion 234
Two-third majority rule 400
Tympanic membrane 75
Types of
anxiety disorder 449
emotions 224
memories 134f
psychological tests 180
reinforcement and punishment 104t
research 31
U
Undifferentiated schizophrenia 466
Unipolar depression 459
Universal interventions 520
Universality of developmental sequence 297
Use of
drugs 303
punishment 104
V
Vaginismus 479
Variable
interval schedule 107
ratio schedule 108
Varietie of intelligence tests 184
Vase-face figure 82f
Vasopressin 61
Ventromedial hypothalamus 204
Vernon’s hierarchical model 175, 176f
Vestibular
sacs 80
sense 79
Visible spectrum 69, 70
Visual
cliff 88, 307f
transduction 71
Visuospatial sketchpad 126
Voyeurism 213, 480
Vulnerability-stress model 452
Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory 313
W
W Kohler 112f
W Mcdougall 19f
Watson 18
Weber and Fechner 14
Weber law 14
Wechsler adult intelligence scale 183t
Wernicke’s area 57, 161
Wilhelm Wundt 15, 15f
William James 17, 18f
William McDougall 19
Wolfgang Hohler 17f
Working memory 125, 338
Work-related stress 410
X
Xenophobia 449
Y
Yerkes-Dodson law 200
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory 73
Z
Zone of proximal development 314
Zoophobia 449
Zygote 300
×
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1PSYCHOLOGY for Nurses2
3PSYCHOLOGY for Nurses
M Basavanna MA DMP PhD Professor of Psychology (Retired) Sri Venkateswara University Tirupati, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
4
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Psychology for Nurses
First Edition: 2015
9789351525646
Printed at
5Dedicated to
My students who challenged me,
enriched me and loved me immensely
during the last 50 years
of my academic life
6
7Preface
Although this book is titled as Psychology for Nurses, but it can be read by anybody who is interested in the science of psychology. After all, psychology will not be different for different people. It is the same for doctors, engineers or men in the street. Anyone can read and understand this text if only he/she is interested in the subject. The book is just an introduction to the science of psychology. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. It is a tough subject, but it is interesting, fascinating and challenging. It is interesting because it is about people, ‘us’ and ‘others’. All of us are eager to know why we think and act the way we do and why others behave the way they do. It is challenging because, in spite of several centuries of hard work, what we know about the human mind and behavior is pretty little. But do not be discouraged, it is the fate of all sciences including physics and physiology. Physics does not know everything about the physical world and physiology has not completely unraveled the mysteries of the human body. So, it is not surprising that psychologists are struggling to understand the marvels of human mind. However, what little we know about mind and behavior is encouraging enough to prod us to move forward. Psychology promises to help you to understand others and yourself; not that you will be able to understand yourself and others fully with the existing knowledge of psychology. That is a difficult task and a distant dream. The complexities and contradictions of the human mind cannot be easily understood and explained. Psychology can only help you to take the first step toward that end. Toward this end, you will find a number of theories, research studies and isolated facts presented throughout this book. Study of these facts may help you to have a better understanding of your own thoughts, feelings and behaviors as well as those of others.
An American psychologist, Ross Stagner, has explained the goals of psychology succinctly. According to him, each individual lives in two worlds; an external world and an internal world. The external world consists of people who affect you in several ways. Their actions may help you or hurt you. Most of the time, you understand why they behave the way they do. But often you are perplexed by some of their actions, which may appear irrational and even bizarre. Sometimes their behavior is beneficial to you and at other times it is not. Some people are highly cooperative and others are violent. You have to understand these people and their actions—normal and abnormal, rational and irrational, good and bad—because you have to live with them. Having a fairly accurate knowledge of their behavior is necessary if you were to have a comfortable social life.
You also live in an internal world, the world of your own memories, thoughts, feelings, emotions, desires and aspirations. Even among these, you realize, some are good and some bad, some are rational and some crazy. To be at peace with yourself, you have to understand your internal world. Psychology, as the science of behavior and experience, tries to help you in understanding these two worlds.
As a nursing student, you will be in constant touch with people, mostly people who are suffering from one or the other ailments. You can see fear, pain and hope or expectation written on their face. Unless you feel with them, empathize with them and understand their 8inner world, you will not be effective as a nurse. Remember, the doctor treats the ‘disease’, but you treat the ‘person’ with a disease. Knowledge of psychology will go a long way in helping you undertake the task of caring for the patient. A special feature of your profession is that you confront death and disease everyday. In order to face such poignant situations you must be psychologically strong and healthy. It is hoped that knowledge of psychology will help you in this regard.
By the time you complete studying this book, you will have a fairly good view of contemporary psychology. An attempt is made here to introduce you to a broad, exciting field of knowledge, rich in its implications for life and living. It is not intended to make you a full-fledged psychologist but, the aim here is to help you to develop a scientific attitude toward human behavior. The text attempts to help you to ponder over questions such as: What are human beings? What do we know about them? What do we need to know? How to know? How to improve matters?
M Basavanna
9Acknowledgments
Science is created by scientists and I am indebted to all those theorists and researchers whose works I have used in preparing this text. The scientists and their contributions are cited throughout the book and their publications are given in the bibliography. Interested students may look into these original works if they want to learn more about the specific topic that is cited in the text.
Writing is a solitary task. But converting the author's words into a finished book requires help from several sources. Many of my friends, colleagues and students generously spared their time and effort in preparing the book. They have read the draft and made valuable suggestions to improve the text. My special thanks are due to Dr Venkata Reddy, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India, and Dr Jayashankar Reddy and his faculty, Department of Psychology, CMR Institutions, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Ms Anusha and Ms Seema of Bengaluru, and Ms Vandhana of Chennai, who have reviewed the manuscript and offered constructive criticisms and supportive commentaries.
I am thankful to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Group President), Mr Tarun Duneja (Director–Publishing) and Mr Venugopal Vishnumurthy [General Manager–Sales and Marketing (South)], Bengaluru of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for their great support and endeavor in this project.
I am also thankful to other staff of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, especially Mr Santhosh Kumar (Commissioning Editor), Mr Vasudev (Mangalore Branch In-Charge/Commissioning Editor), Ms Sajini SV (Team Head) and all staff of Bengaluru Branch who worked in this project and have helped me in more than one way in preparing the text. I am thankful to all others in the publication division of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, who have taken extra care to make the text presentable.
10To the Students
Psychology is a tough subject. Without concerted effort, it is difficult to comprehend the subject matter. You may follow the suggestions given below in reading the text. First familiarize yourself with the logic of the book's structure. Read the table of contents. It provides you with an overview of the topics covered and how the topics are interrelated. Go through the preface, which describes the features of the text. Concentrate on the key terms and concepts. If you do not understand them, ask the instructor to explain. Consult the glossary given at the end of the book or a dictionary of psychology. Familiarize yourself with the way citations to previous research are made. These are given by name(s) and date, typically set off in parentheses. Each of these names and dates refers to a book or research paper given in the bibliography at the end of the book.
Develop a study skill. Psychologists have devised several excellent techniques for improving study skills. One of which, called SQ3R (SQRRR), is briefly described here. The SQ3R includes five steps designated by the initials S-Q-R-R-R. The first letter S refers to the Survey, the Q to Question, the 3Rs refer to Read, Recite and Review respectively.
The first step is to survey the material in each chapter before reading it. Familiarize with chapter headings, chapter contents and the preview; it provides you with an overview of the major points of the Chapter. The next step is to question. Write down the questions for which you need answers when you complete reading the issues discussed in the Chapter. Questioning makes you an active learner and enhances your ability to understand and retain information. The third and the most crucial step is to read the material. Read the material carefully, actively and critically. While reading, try to get the answers for the questions you have formulated. You may find yourself coming up with new questions as you read along. The next step, recite, is the most unusual one. Here, you talk to yourself or a friend about what you have read. Try to answer the questions you have formulated. Psychological research has shown that communicating material to others and reciting it to yourself enhance your memory for the material and also the capacity for retrieval. The final step, review, consists of three processes: recite the material, recall it and think about it. Re-read the material; try to recall; test yourself; fill in the gaps. Reviewing is a prerequisite to learning and remembering the material. Reviewing is an active process in which you link together different pieces of information to create an overall picture.
Well, this is one way of studying. There are also others. For that matter, you may yourself have method of study. The important thing is when, where and how you study? Study the material in small chunks over several sessions instead of massing your study into one lengthy period. Remember all-night studying just before an examination is going to be less effective and a lot more tiring than employing a series of steady, regular study sessions. You should also choose a convenient place to study. It does not matter where it is as long as it has minimal distractions and is a place that you use only for studying. Identifying a special territory allows you to get into a right mood as soon as you begin. Study psychology with single-minded effort. It is worth the effort. The excitement, challenge and promise that psychology holds for you are significant.
M Basavanna