Concise Pocket Midwifery Dictionary UN Panda
Chapter Notes

Save Clear


a. scan an ultrasound procedure
abacavir An anti-HIV drug
abasia inability to walk
abatement decrease in severity of symptoms or pain
ABC the mnemonic used for remembering the correct protocol, in order of priority, for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A refers to airway, B to breathing and C to circulation
abciximab a human–murine monoclonal antibody that inhibits platelet aggregation, used in PTCA and unstable angina
abdomen that part of body lying between thorax and pelvis. a. acute intra-abdominal condition like perforation, obstruction that needs emergency surgical intervention
abdominal regions the nine regions of the abdomen artificially delineated by two horizontal and two parasagittal lines. The horizontal lines are tangent to the cartilages of the ninth ribs and iliac crests, respectively, and the parasagittal lines are drawn vertically on each side from the middle of the inguinal ligament. The regions thus formed are: (1) above—the right hypochondriac, the epigastric and the left hypochondriac; (2) in the middle—the right/left lateral or lumbar, umbilical, and (3) below—the right inguinal or iliac, the pubic or hypogastric, and the left inguinal or iliac
abdominal respiration A type of respiration caused by the contraction of the diaphragm and the elastic expansion and recoil of the abdominal walls
zoom view
abdominoposterior in obstetrics, designating a fetus position in which the belly is forward
abducens drawing away
abduct to draw away from midline
aberration deviation from normal or usual
abetalipoproteinemia a congenital hereditary syndrome with absence of apolipoprotein B marked by acanthocytosis, ataxic neuropathy, retinitis pigmentosa, hypocholesterolemia and malabsorption
ablation removal or destruction
ablatio placentae abruptio placentae
ABO blood group blood groups containing A, B, AB, or no agglutinogen (O). AB group has no agglutinin or antibody and hence can receive blood of any group. Since O group has no agglutinogen, they can donate to any other group (universal donor)
2 ABO-incompatibility occurs in 1 in 200 pregnancies when mother is of blood group ‘O’ containing anti A and anti B, fetus is of A, B, or AB group, the maternal antibodies cross placenta to cause hemolysis of fetal RBC
abort to bring to premature end, especially a pregnancy
aborticide 1. the killing of an unborn fetus. 2. an agent that destroys the fetus and produces abortion.
abortifacient any agent causing abortion, e.g. drugs like quinine, ergot and prostaglandins
abortion expulsion of product of conception from uterus before 20 weeks of gestation (viability). a. complete. The product of conception is expelled in full, a. habitual Spontaneous abortions occurring in three or more successive pregnancies, a inevitable A condition where cervix is fully dilated and abortion is invariable, a. missed Retention of dead product of conception with regression of features of pregnancy a. therapeutic Interruption of pregnancy for medical and psychological reasons, e.g. carriage of pregnancy harmful to mother’s health, genetically diseased fetus unlikely to survive or likely to be grossly malformed, conception arising out of rape or contraceptive failure a. threatened a condition where bleeding is minimal and cervix is not dilated and abortion may or may not occur
zoom view
zoom view
abortion incomplete in which, part of the product of conception has been passed but part (usually the placenta) remains in uterus
zoom view
zoom view
abortive poliomyelitis an early form of poliomyelitis, characterized clinically by relatively mild symptoms of upper respiratory infection, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, and vomiting but which does not progress to involve the central nervous system. Definite diagnosis rests upon isolation of the virus and serologic reactions
abortus the aborted fetus
abrachia absence of arms
abrachius an armless individual
abrasion rubbed or scrapped skin or mucous membrane
abruptio separation. a. placentae Premature separation of placenta
abscess localized collection of pus; a. Bartholin’s pus in Bartholin’s gland near orifice of vagina a. pelvic In pouch of Douglas
absorbent able to take in or suck up and incorporate; a substance that absorbs or promotes absorption
abstinence voluntary self-denial or forbearance from indulgence of appetites, especially from food, alcoholic drink or sex relations
abulia lack of will power, initiative and drive
abuse misuse or excessive use
acarbia pronounced reduction in bicarbonate of the blood
zoom view
4 acardia congenital absence of the heart, a condition sometimes present in the parasitic members of conjoined twins
acardiacus a conjoined twin parasitic on its mate or utilizing the placental circulation of its mate and having no heart
acceleration refers to a periodic rise in fetal heart rate from the baseline in response to stress of lowered oxygen availability or fetal movement
accessory extra or supplementary
accoucheur one who conducts delivery
accreta morbid attachment. a. placenta A placenta attached to uterine muscle due to deficiency of decidua basalis
acetabuloplasty An operation performed to improve the depth and shape of the hip socket in correcting congenital dislocation of the hip or in treating osteoarthritis of the hip
acetabulum a cup-shaped socket in the pelvic bone into which fits the head of femur
acetaminophen analgesic, antipyretic but with weak anti-inflammatory property, potentially hepatotoxic in large doses
acetoacetic acid a ketone produced in liver from fat breakdown
acetylcholine it is a neurotransmitter at cholinergic synapses, responsible for nerve transmission and muscle contraction
acetylcysteine a mucolytic and also antidote in acetaminophen overdose
acheilia congenital absence of the lips
achlorhydria absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice
achondroplasia a form of dwarfism with large head, normal trunk but short limbs, of autosomal dominant inheritance
acid a substance which when combined with alkali forms salt
acidfast not readily decolorized by acids after staining, e.g. tuberculosis bacilli and lepra bacilli
acidosis a condition arising from accumulation of acids or depletion of alkalies with decline in blood pH, can be metabolic acidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, lactic acidosis) or respiratory acidosis due to retention of carbon dioxide
acinus a small sac-like dilatation, particularly in a gland
acitretin a metabolite of etretinate, used in treatment of psoriasis
acme the critical stage or crisis of a disease
acne an inflammatory disease of the skin with formation of papules or pustules, involves face, back
acognosia a knowledge of remedies
acoustic relating to hearing or the perception of sound
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by HIV leading to T4 cell destruction, immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections
5 acrania lack of cranium
acrocephaly malformation of the head consisting in a high or pointed cranial vault due to premature closure of the sagittal, coronal and lambdoid sutures
acrocyanosis the slightly bluish, grayish discoloration of newborn’s hands and feet within the first 24 hours of birth
acromegaly a disease due to excess of GH secretion from pituitary in adult
acromion a process of the scapula
acrosome the cap on head of spermatozoon, it contains enzymes for penetration into ovum
actinomyces a fungus, anaerobe causing actinomycosis of jaw, intestine and lungs
actinomycin an antineoplastic agent
active transport movement of ions or molecules across cell membranes against concentration gradient utilizing ATP
acupressure a system of complementary medicine in which points in body are stimulated to cure diseases
acupuncture a system of complementary medicine based on energy lines or meridians running from head to toe through which flow the positive and negative energy. Disequilibrium in energy flow causes disease. Application of fine needles to specific acupuncture points along meridians can rebalance the energy flow
acute developing rapidly and running a short course
acute renal failure sudden and severe renal compromise due to shock, drugs or infection
acute yellow atrophy a rare complication of pregnancy with rapid progressive atrophy of liver with 80% mortality
acyclovir antiviral used in herpes simplex
adactyly congenital absence of finger or toes
adaptation the ability to adjust to changing circumstances
addiction physiologic or psychological dependence on some agents or drug, usually psychotropic
adduct to draw towards center or median line
adenitis inflammation of gland
adenocarcinoma carcinoma from any glandular tissue
adenofibroma a tumor containing connective as well as glandular tissue
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary
adenoid pharyngeal tonsils
adenoma benign tumor arising from gland
adenosine a purine nucleotide consisting of adenine and ribose, component of RNA and used IV in treatment of PSVT, forms adenosine diphosphate, monophosphate and triphosphate
adhesion a fibrous band or structure joining parts to each other
adipocere a waxy substance formed during decomposition of body
6 adiposis obesity, fatty change in organ
adipsia absence of thirst
adjuvant assisting or aiding in any remedy
adnexa appendages or accessory structures, uterine adnexa, the ovaries and fallopian tubes
adolescence the period of development from puberty to cessation of physical growth, i.e. 11 to 19 years
adrenaline a secretion from adrenal medulla, acts as vasopressor
adrenal pertains to adrenal or suprarenal glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from anterior pituitary that stimulates adrenal cortex
aerobe organism requiring oxygen for survival
aerophagia excessive swallowing of air
aerosol suspension of liquid or solid particles (drugs) in a gas for inhalation
afebrile without fever
affect pertaining to emotional tone or feeling
afferent towards the center, e.g. afferent nerve fibers carrying information from periphery to center
affinity attraction
afibrino genemia absence of fibrinogen in blood causing bleeding as in DIC
aflatoxin toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus infecting groundnut seeds causing hepatic malignancy
after birth term used for delivery of placenta and membranes
after pains painful uterine contractions occurring after fetal delivery
AGA Abbreviation for “Appropriate for Gestational Age”, when a newborn’s birth weight is within the 10th to 90th percentile expected for that length gestation
agar used in culture media, extracted from red algae
agenesis absence of an organ due to nondevelopment
ageusia absence of taste sensation
agglutination aggregation of different particles or cells
agglutinin antibody which aggregates a particulate antigen (agglutinogen) present in sample or on cells
agnathia absence of jaw
agnosia inability to recognize the sensory inputs
agonist a drug that acts on receptor in a manner similar to naturally occurring substance
agoraphobia fear of open spaces
agranulocytosis reduction in number of granulocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils), usually drug-induced
agraphia impaired ability to write
air hunger deep sighing respiration due to oxygen lack
airway 1. mechanical device used to secure air passage 2. the passage through which air enters the lungs
7 alantois membranous sac projecting from ventral surface of embryo that helps to form placenta
ala wing, e.g. sacral ala
albinism congenital absence of body pigmentation—partial or complete (hair, skin, eyes)
albumin the major plasma protein responsible for plasma colloidal osmotic pressure
albuminuria passage of albumin in urine, normally <30 mg/24 hours
albuterol a beta agonist used in bronchial asthma
alcohol organic compounds containing OH group. a. ethyl The commonly consumed alcohol, excess consumption causing liver damage, neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Ingestion during first trimester can cause fetal damage. a. methyl Industrial spirit, accidental ingestion causes fatal acidosis and blindness
aldeslukin recombinant interleukin 2, used in treatment of metastatic renal cancer
aldosterone mineral corticoid from adrenal cortex, essential for sodium and water retention in body and potassium excretion
alendronate a bisphosphonate used for treatment of osteoporosis
alesthesia experiencing a sensation away from site of its occurrence
alexia inability to understand written language due to cerebral lesion
alfentanil opioid analgesic derived from fentanyl
alginate derivative of alginic acid used as absorbent in dressing and for dental impression
algorithm step-by-step method of solving a problem
alkali any compound with pH more than 7, turning red litmus blue, form soap in combination with fatty acids
alkaline phosphatase an enzyme secreted by liver, formed in bone and by neutrophils
alkaloid nitrogenous organic compounds of plants like morphine, atropine
alkalosis base excess in body with loss of hydrogen ions, can be respiratory (excess CO2 wash out) or metabolic (excess H+ loss)
alkaptonuria a condition in which urine darkens on standing and there is arthritis
allele one of the two or more forms of a gene at corresponding sites (loci) on homologous chromosomes defining a characteristic
allergy hypersensitive state to some drugs, pollens, food items causing asthma, urticaria, angioedema
alopecia baldness, can be patchy, male pattern, total or universal (entire body)
alopurinol xanthine oxidase inhibitor used in gout
alpha-fetoprotein a plasma protein produced by fetal liver; level increased in hepatocellular carcinoma and germ cell tumors; amniotic fluid AFP is raised in neural tube defect
8 alteplase a tissue plasminogen activator used in thrombolysis of acute MI and thrombotic stroke
alternative medicine a holistic system of healthcare that recognizes interplay of body, mind and spirit in causation of disease
alum a local astringent and styptic, also used as adjuvant in vaccines and toxoids
alveolus a sac-like dilatation
amanita a genus of poisonous mushrooms
amantadin antiviral agent against influenza A; also dyskinetic agent used in Parkinsonism
amastigote the intracellular non-flagellated stage of hemoparasite Leishmania
amaurosis blindness without an apparent cause
ambenonium a cholinergic agent used to treat muscular weakness of myasthenia gravis
ambient surrounding or prevailing
amblyopia dimness of vision without detectable organic lesion of eye
amblyoscope an instrument for training amblyopic eye to take part in vision and for increasing fusion of the eyes
ambroxol a mucolytic.
Ambu bag a hand operated, self-reinflating bag used during resuscitation. It is connected by tubing and non-rebreathing valve to a face mask or endotracheal tube and is used for artificial ventilation
amebiasis infection with ameba especially histolytica producing dysentery and liver abscess
ameboma a tumor-like growth in intestine in amebiasis
amelia congenital absence of limb
ameloblast a cell that forms enamel of tooth
amenorrhea absence of men-struation
ametropia condition of eye in which image fails to be focused on retina
amifostine a chemoprotectant used to prevent renal toxicity of cisplatin
amikacin aminoglycoside antibiotic active against aerobic gram-negative bacilli causing UTI and other infections
amino acid protein constituents essential for nutrition
amino caproic acid a plasmin inhibitor, used in bleeding
aminophylline bronchodilator, used in asthma
amlodipine calcium channel blocker used in hypertension
ammonia a colorless gas of pungent odor produced from protein breakdown in intestine, converted to urea in liver
amnesia loss of memory
amniocentesis transabdominal or transcervical puncture of amniotic sac to obtain amniotic fluid for analysis of alpha-fetoprotein (neural tube defect) and genetic analysis, bilirubin level, L:S ratio, etc. (fetal maturity)
zoom view
amnion the innermost membrane covering fetus
amnioscope an endoscope introduced through cervix to visualize fetus
amniotic fluid also called liquor amni, surrounds fetus, formed from fetal urine, GI secretions and placental secretion. The amount varies from 500 ot 1500 mL at term
amniotic fluid embolism entry of amniotic fluid to maternal circulation via placental sinuses causing collapse and shock
amniotomy the artificial rupture of amniotic membranes when an amnihook or other rupturing device is introduced into the vagina and a small tear is made in the membranes
amoxapine an antipsychotic agent
zoom view
amoxicillin semisynthetic derivative of ampicillin, a broad spectrum antibiotic
amphetamine sympathomimetic amine, a CNS stimulant
amphoric sound resembling that made by blowing across neck of a bottle
amphotericin B antifungal antibiotic, effective also against Leishmania
ampicillin acid-resistant semisynthetic penicillin
amprenavir a protease inhibitor for HIV
ampulla flask-like dilatation of tubular structure, e.g. Fallopian tube
amrinone a cardiac stimulant used in congestive failure
amsacrine antineoplastic agent
amygdale an almond-shaped structure of brain related to limbic system
amylase an enzyme causing hydrolysis of starch
10 amyloid extracellular amorphous waxy substance stained pink by congo red
amyloidosis a group of diseases characterized by deposition of amyloid in various tissues with organ dysfunction
amyotrophy muscular atrophy
anabolism constructive process of synthesis of complex compounds for cell growth, opposite of catabolism
anaerobe organism growing in absence of oxygen
anagen the first phase of hair cycle in which hair growth takes place
anagrelide an agent used to reduce elevated platelet count
analgesia loss of sensibility to pain
analgia freedom from pain
anaphylaxis immediate hypersensitivity with vascular collapse, bronchospasm, angioedema, pruritus, etc.
anaplasia loss of differentiation of cells leading to tumor formation
anastomosis communication between vessels and hollow tubes
anastrozole antineoplastic agent for breast cancer
anatomy the science of structure of an organism
androgen a hormone that promotes masculinization
anemia reduction in number of red cells or their hemoglobin content
anencephaly congenital absence of cranial vault, i.e. cerebral hemispheres
anesthesia loss of ability to feel pain
anesthesiologist physician specializing in anesthesiology
anesthetize to induce anesthesia
aneurysm localized dilatation of vascular wall
angina crushing agonizing retro-sternal pain of cardiac ischemia
angiography visualization of vessel in X-ray after injection of dye into the vessel
angiology science of blood vessels and lymphatics
angioma a tumor whose cells tend to form blood vessels or lymph vessels
angiopathy any disease of blood or lymph vessel
angioplasty dilatation of narrowed vessel segment using inflatable balloon or laser
angiotensin a powerful vasopressor formed from plasma decapeptide angiotensinogen
angular pregnancy implantation of fertilized ovum in the angle where the Fallopian tube enters the uterus
anhidrosis absence of sweat secretion
ankylosis immobility of a joint due to fibrous or bony tissue growth
anode positive electrode to which negative ions are attracted
anomaly deviation from normal
anorexia loss of appetite
anoscope speculum for examining anus and lower rectum
anovulatory cycle menstrual cycle not preceded by ovulation
11 anovulatory not associated with ovulation
anoxia lack of oxygen
antacid a substance neutralizing gastric acid
antagonist acting opposite, a drug or muscle
ante prefix, meaning before
anteflexion abnormal bending forward, e.g., especially of uterine body at its neck
antemortem before death
antenatal before birth
antenatal period the time of pregnancy from the first day of last menstrual period (LMP) to the start of true labor
antepartum before parturition. a. hemorrhage Bleeding from genital tract any time after 24 weeks of pregnancy until parturition
anterior fontanel diamond-shaped fontanel located at the juncture of the coronal, frontal and sagittal sutures
anteroinferior infront and below
zoom view
anterolateral infront and to one side
anteromedian infront and toward midline
anteroposterior passing from front to rear
anterosuperior infront and above
anteversion turning forwards, e.g. body of uterus in relation to vagina
anthelmintic an agent destructive to worms
anthrax infectious disease, contacted from soil or slaughter house
anthropology the study of men; physical, cultural, linguistic and archeologic
antibiosis an association between two organisms that is detrimental to one of them
antibiotic chemical substance produced by microorganisms or synthesized that inhibits growth of other microorganism or tumor cells
antibody an immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with specific antigen that induced its synthesis. Antibody can be complement fixing, blocking and cytotoxic
zoom view
12 antibody titers a test used to indicate the relative concentration of a particular antibody present in a person’s blood. For example, a high rubella titer indicates a person has been exposed to rubella (German measles) and has formed a significant amount of antibody against the rubella virus and therefore, will most likely be able to ward off another attack of the virus without becoming ill
anticholinesterase a drug that inhibits acetylcholine esterase thus potentiating action of acetylcholine, principally used in myasthenia gravis
anticoagulant agent that prevents blood coagulation
anticonvulsant drug that suppresses convulsion
anti D antibody against D antigen, a part of Rh antigen, given to Rh negative mothers conceiving Rh positive baby
antidepressant a drug used to treat depression
antidiuretic a drug that suppresses urine formation
antidote an agent that counteracts the affect of poison
antiemetic drug against nausea and vomiting
antiestrogen substances that block or modify action of estrogen, e.g. clomiphene citrate
antigen any substance which on introduction into body brings about immunity by stimulating antibody production
antihistamine drugs that block tissue receptors for histamine, useful in allergy (H1 receptors) and acid peptic disease (H2 receptors)
antihypertensive an agent that reduces blood pressure by central alfa adrenergic action, peripheral vasodilatation, beta adrenergic blockade, etc.
anti-inflammatory counteracting inflammation
antineoplastic agents that prevent the development, growth and proliferation of malignant cells
antioxidants agents that prevent or inhibit oxidation, e.g. vitamin A, C and E
antipyretic agent effective in treatment of burn
antipyrotic agent that reduces fever
antiseptic agent that prevents sepsis or infection
antiserum serum derived from animal or human body containing antibodies against particular viral or bacterial antigens, e.g. antitetanus serum
antispasmodic agent that relieves spasm
antithrombin any substance that neutralizes thrombin, thus preventing coagulation. Antithrombins are normally present in blood. In their congenital absence, one is prone to thrombosis
13 antitoxin antibody produced in response to toxin of bacteria
antitussive agent effective against cough
antivenin material (serum product) that neutralizes venom of snake, spider
antroscope an instrument for inspecting maxillary antrum
anuresis absence of urine
anuria failure of the kidneys to secrete urine as in shock due to abruptio placentae, septic abortion
anus opening of rectum to exterior for discharge of feces
aortic regurgitation leakage of blood from aorta into left ventricle during the diastole
aortic stenosis narrowing of aortic valve. Normal valve diameter is 2 cm per square meter
aperient drug that stimulates defecation
aperture an orifice or opening
Apert’s syndrome congenital disease with fusion of cranial sutures at birth and webbed fingers
apgar score scoring system designed by Dr Virginia Apgar to assess birth asphyxia
aphakia absence of lens of the eye
aphasia loss of power of speech/expression
apheresis withdrawal of blood followed by separation of desired component (leukocyte, plasma) and retransfusion of remainder to the donor
apicitis inflammation of apex of tooth
aplasia failure of development
apnea cessation of breathing
apocrine a form of glandular secretion in which the free end of secreting cell is cast off along with secreted product, e.g. mammary and sweat gland
apomorphine a central emetic used to induce vomiting, in poisoning treatment
aponeurosis a sheet-like tendinous expansion connecting muscle to bone
apophysis any bony outgrowth or swelling
apoplexy sudden neurologic compromise due to CVA or collapse due to adrenal hemorrhage (adrenal apoplexy)
apparatus 1. a mechanical device or appliance used in operations or experiments. 2. a group of structures or organs that work together to perform function, e.g. a. auditory, a. biliary, a. juxtaglomerular, a. lacrimal
appendicitis inflammation of vermiform appendix, a very serious condition if occurs during pregnancy as it is drawn up in the abdomen and inflammatory process may progress rapidly
apraxia loss of ability to carry out purposeful movement
aprotinin an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes, used as antihemorrhagic and to reduce perioperative blood loss during cardiopulmonary by pass
14 APTT activated partial thromboplastin time
aqueduct a canal or passage. cerebral a. a narrow channel in midbrain connecting third and fourth ventricles
arachidonic acid a polyunsa-turated essential fatty acid formed from linoleic acid, a precursor to leukotrienes, prostaglandins and thromboxane
arachnoid resembling spider web, the middle covering of brain and spinal cord between dura and pia matter
arcuate arched or bow-like
ardeparin low molecular weight heparin and anticoagulant and antithrombotic used in deep venous thrombosis
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome
areolar gland (Montgomery’s glands). Large modified sweat glands beneath the areola secreting a lipoid material that lubricates the nipple
areola the pigmented area surrounding the nipple
Arnold-Chiari deformity a condition in which the inferior poles of cerebellar hemispheres and medulla protrude through foramen magnum causing hydrocephalus. It is commonly associated with spina bifida and meningomyelocele
aroma pleasant odor
aroma therapy treatment of ailment using highly concentrated essential oils extracted from plants, a form of complementary medicine
arrectores pilorum involuntary muscle in skin connected to hair follicle whose contraction due to cold, fright causes erection of hair and “goose flesh” appearance of skin
arrhythmia abnormal rhythm of heart beat
arteriosclerosis hardening and thickening of arterial walls due to formation of atheromatous plaques
arteritis inflammation of an artery. a. giant cell occurs in elderly with severe headache, cord like superficial temporal artery with danger of blindness, a. takayasu pulseless disease, progressive obliteration of brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian and left common carotid arteries
artery a vessel carrying blood from heart to periphery or lungs
artesunate an antimalarial for resistant Falciparum malaria
arthralgia joint pain
arthritis inflammation of a joint
arthrodesis surgical fusion of a joint
arthrography visualization of interior of a joint after injection of contrast or air
arthropathy any joint disease
artificial insemination introduction of semen to vagina artificially other than coitus to achieve conception
artificial respiration maintenance of respiration by other means, e.g. mouth to mouth or by ventilator
artificial rupture of membranes (ARM) amniotic sac is ruptured via vagina to induce or accelerate labor
15 ascites accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
ascorbic acid vitamin C
aseptic free from pathogenic bacteria
aseptic technique technique that prevent contamination of operative wounds
aspartame artificial sweetner, 200 times sweeter than sucrose
aspergillus a genus of fungus infecting ear canal and lungs
aspermia lack of or failure to ejaculate semen
asphyxiant an agent, especially gas producing asphyxia
asphyxia suffocation; a neonatorum. Failure of child to breathe after birth
aspiration suction of fluid or air from a cavity; inhalation of foreign substance
assay determination of the amount of a particular constituent in a mixture
asthma airway hyper-reactivity with spasm and narrowing usually due to hypersensitivity
astigmatism ametropia caused by differences in curvature in different meridians of cornea
asymptomatic without any symptoms
asynclitism a parietal presentation of fetal head in which the transversely placed sagittal suture lies close to symphysis pubis or sacrum; the sideways rocking mechanism of fetal descent during labor. It can be anterior or posterior
ataxia failure of muscular coordination leading to disturbance of equilibrium, can be motor or sensory
atelectasis incomplete expansion of lungs at birth or collapse of adult lung
atherosclerosis a sclerodegenerative disease of arterial wall marked by intimal lipid deposit, fibrous tissue accumulation and smooth muscle cell proliferation
athetosis repetitive involuntary, slow, sinuous and writhing movements of hands
atopy genetic predisposition towards immediate hyper-sensitivity
atorvastatin a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, hypolipidemic agent
atovaquone an antibiotic for pneumocystis pneumonia and malaria
atracurium a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used as adjunct to general anesthesia
atresia congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening or passage or tubular structure
atrichosis congenital absence of hair
atrium a chamber
atrophy diminution in size of an organ
atropine anticholinergic belladonna alkaloid used as smooth muscle relaxant, and in Parkinsonism and organophosphorus poisoning
attachment the establishment of a reciprocal relationship between the parents and the newborn after a period of bonding; development of a deeper intimacy, which grows over time
attention-deficit disorder a disease of infancy or childhood, mainly boys characterized by inappropriate attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity
16 attitude the relationship of the fetal head and limbs to its trunk
audiometry measurement of acuity of hearing for various frequencies of sound
augmentin amoxycillin-clavulanic acid
aura a subjective sensation or motor phenomena, usually preceding epileptic seizure
auscultation listening to the sounds produced in the body, i.e. cardiac contraction, air entry-exit from lungs, turbulent flow within vessels and intestinal peristalsis
autism a behavioral disorder in children with poor interpersonal relationship and expression, related to advanced paternal age
autoclave a self-locking apparatus for sterilization of materials by steam under pressure
autocrine a mode of hormone action in which the hormone secreted affects the function of the cell that produced it
autoimmune disease diseases in which antibodies are produced against body’s own tissues to cause organ damage, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, rheumatic carditis, myasthenia gravis
autoimmunity a state where body produces antibodies against its own cells/tissues
autologous related to self
automaticity capacity of a cell to initiate an impulse without external stimulation
autonomic self-governing
autosomes the chromosomes in the body other than the sex (X and Y) chromosomes
autotrophic self-nourishing
avascular blood less
avitaminosis a state of vitamin deficiency
avulsion tearing away of a structure or part
axilla armpit
axis a line through center of body or about which structure revolves; the second cervical vertebra with its odontoid process around which atlas rotates
axis of birth canal the course taken by fetus during parturition; first downwards and backwards and then downwards and forwards
azathioprine 6 mercaptopurine, antineoplastic and immunosuppressive
azatidine an antihistaminic
azelaic acid a dicarboxylic acid used topically in acne vulgaris
azelastine an antihistaminic used as nasal spray in nasal allergy
azithromycin a macrolide, useful against bacteria and anaerobes and tuberculosis
azoospermia absence of spermatozoa in semen
aztreonam a monobactam antibiotic used in gram-negative sepsis
azygos unpaired structure/organ, e.g. a. vein