Concise Pocket Midwifery Dictionary UN Panda
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_FM1Concise Pocket Midwifery Dictionary_FM2
_FM3Concise Pocket Midwifery Dictionary
Second Edition
UN Panda MD Senior Physician New Delhi, India
_FM4
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Concise Pocket Midwifery Dictionary
First Edition: 2010
Second Edition: 2015
9789351525844
Printed at
_FM5Preface to the Second Edition
Midwives play an important role in maternal and child healthcare and delivery. In developing countries, rural health essentially hinges on shoulders of an energetic, well-informed and dedicated midwife.
Revised edition of Midwifery dictionary would serve as a useful guide for midwives and rural health delivery personnel. It is basically written to impart and inform the midwife about basic terms used in medical science, particularly obstetrics and gynecology. The language and elaboration have been made simple and easy to comprehend. Several new diagrams (more than 100) and appendices (13) have been added to this new edition.
Since medicine is a constantly changing field, utmost care has been taken to maintain the authenticity and credibility of the information provided in this dictionary. However, some inadvertent human errors remain unavoidable. Therefore, all suggestions for improvement are cordially welcome.
Last but not least, I would like to thank the medical editors, Dr Anchal Kaushik and Ms Dikshika Joshi for helping me in revising this dictionary. I am also especially grateful to the entire staff of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for bringing out this fantastic dictionary.
UN Panda _FM6
_FM7Preface to the First Edition
Midwife plays an important role in maternal and child healthcare delivery. In developing countries, rural health essentially hinges on shoulders of an energetic, well-informed and dedicated midwife.
Midwifery dictionary is basically written to impart and inform the midwife about basic terms used in medical science, particularly obstetrics and gynecology. The language and elaboration have been simple and easy to comprehend. Common procedures, instruments and interventions have been also described in brief at appropriate places. The book is handy and easy to comprehend.
All suggestions for improvement are cordially welcome.
UN Panda

A

a. scan an ultrasound procedure
abacavir An anti-HIV drug
abasia inability to walk
abatement decrease in severity of symptoms or pain
ABC the mnemonic used for remembering the correct protocol, in order of priority, for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A refers to airway, B to breathing and C to circulation
abciximab a human–murine monoclonal antibody that inhibits platelet aggregation, used in PTCA and unstable angina
abdomen that part of body lying between thorax and pelvis. a. acute intra-abdominal condition like perforation, obstruction that needs emergency surgical intervention
abdominal regions the nine regions of the abdomen artificially delineated by two horizontal and two parasagittal lines. The horizontal lines are tangent to the cartilages of the ninth ribs and iliac crests, respectively, and the parasagittal lines are drawn vertically on each side from the middle of the inguinal ligament. The regions thus formed are: (1) above—the right hypochondriac, the epigastric and the left hypochondriac; (2) in the middle—the right/left lateral or lumbar, umbilical, and (3) below—the right inguinal or iliac, the pubic or hypogastric, and the left inguinal or iliac
abdominal respiration A type of respiration caused by the contraction of the diaphragm and the elastic expansion and recoil of the abdominal walls
abdominoposterior in obstetrics, designating a fetus position in which the belly is forward
abducens drawing away
abduct to draw away from midline
aberration deviation from normal or usual
abetalipoproteinemia a congenital hereditary syndrome with absence of apolipoprotein B marked by acanthocytosis, ataxic neuropathy, retinitis pigmentosa, hypocholesterolemia and malabsorption
ablation removal or destruction
ablatio placentae abruptio placentae
ABO blood group blood groups containing A, B, AB, or no agglutinogen (O). AB group has no agglutinin or antibody and hence can receive blood of any group. Since O group has no agglutinogen, they can donate to any other group (universal donor)
2 ABO-incompatibility occurs in 1 in 200 pregnancies when mother is of blood group ‘O’ containing anti A and anti B, fetus is of A, B, or AB group, the maternal antibodies cross placenta to cause hemolysis of fetal RBC
abort to bring to premature end, especially a pregnancy
aborticide 1. the killing of an unborn fetus. 2. an agent that destroys the fetus and produces abortion.
abortifacient any agent causing abortion, e.g. drugs like quinine, ergot and prostaglandins
abortion expulsion of product of conception from uterus before 20 weeks of gestation (viability). a. complete. The product of conception is expelled in full, a. habitual Spontaneous abortions occurring in three or more successive pregnancies, a inevitable A condition where cervix is fully dilated and abortion is invariable, a. missed Retention of dead product of conception with regression of features of pregnancy a. therapeutic Interruption of pregnancy for medical and psychological reasons, e.g. carriage of pregnancy harmful to mother’s health, genetically diseased fetus unlikely to survive or likely to be grossly malformed, conception arising out of rape or contraceptive failure a. threatened a condition where bleeding is minimal and cervix is not dilated and abortion may or may not occur
abortion incomplete in which, part of the product of conception has been passed but part (usually the placenta) remains in uterus
3
abortive poliomyelitis an early form of poliomyelitis, characterized clinically by relatively mild symptoms of upper respiratory infection, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, and vomiting but which does not progress to involve the central nervous system. Definite diagnosis rests upon isolation of the virus and serologic reactions
abortus the aborted fetus
abrachia absence of arms
abrachius an armless individual
abrasion rubbed or scrapped skin or mucous membrane
abruptio separation. a. placentae Premature separation of placenta
abscess localized collection of pus; a. Bartholin’s pus in Bartholin’s gland near orifice of vagina a. pelvic In pouch of Douglas
absorbent able to take in or suck up and incorporate; a substance that absorbs or promotes absorption
abstinence voluntary self-denial or forbearance from indulgence of appetites, especially from food, alcoholic drink or sex relations
abulia lack of will power, initiative and drive
abuse misuse or excessive use
acarbia pronounced reduction in bicarbonate of the blood
4 acardia congenital absence of the heart, a condition sometimes present in the parasitic members of conjoined twins
acardiacus a conjoined twin parasitic on its mate or utilizing the placental circulation of its mate and having no heart
acceleration refers to a periodic rise in fetal heart rate from the baseline in response to stress of lowered oxygen availability or fetal movement
accessory extra or supplementary
accoucheur one who conducts delivery
accreta morbid attachment. a. placenta A placenta attached to uterine muscle due to deficiency of decidua basalis
acetabuloplasty An operation performed to improve the depth and shape of the hip socket in correcting congenital dislocation of the hip or in treating osteoarthritis of the hip
acetabulum a cup-shaped socket in the pelvic bone into which fits the head of femur
acetaminophen analgesic, antipyretic but with weak anti-inflammatory property, potentially hepatotoxic in large doses
acetoacetic acid a ketone produced in liver from fat breakdown
acetylcholine it is a neurotransmitter at cholinergic synapses, responsible for nerve transmission and muscle contraction
acetylcysteine a mucolytic and also antidote in acetaminophen overdose
acheilia congenital absence of the lips
achlorhydria absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice
achondroplasia a form of dwarfism with large head, normal trunk but short limbs, of autosomal dominant inheritance
acid a substance which when combined with alkali forms salt
acidfast not readily decolorized by acids after staining, e.g. tuberculosis bacilli and lepra bacilli
acidosis a condition arising from accumulation of acids or depletion of alkalies with decline in blood pH, can be metabolic acidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, lactic acidosis) or respiratory acidosis due to retention of carbon dioxide
acinus a small sac-like dilatation, particularly in a gland
acitretin a metabolite of etretinate, used in treatment of psoriasis
acme the critical stage or crisis of a disease
acne an inflammatory disease of the skin with formation of papules or pustules, involves face, back
acognosia a knowledge of remedies
acoustic relating to hearing or the perception of sound
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by HIV leading to T4 cell destruction, immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections
5 acrania lack of cranium
acrocephaly malformation of the head consisting in a high or pointed cranial vault due to premature closure of the sagittal, coronal and lambdoid sutures
acrocyanosis the slightly bluish, grayish discoloration of newborn’s hands and feet within the first 24 hours of birth
acromegaly a disease due to excess of GH secretion from pituitary in adult
acromion a process of the scapula
acrosome the cap on head of spermatozoon, it contains enzymes for penetration into ovum
actinomyces a fungus, anaerobe causing actinomycosis of jaw, intestine and lungs
actinomycin an antineoplastic agent
active transport movement of ions or molecules across cell membranes against concentration gradient utilizing ATP
acupressure a system of complementary medicine in which points in body are stimulated to cure diseases
acupuncture a system of complementary medicine based on energy lines or meridians running from head to toe through which flow the positive and negative energy. Disequilibrium in energy flow causes disease. Application of fine needles to specific acupuncture points along meridians can rebalance the energy flow
acute developing rapidly and running a short course
acute renal failure sudden and severe renal compromise due to shock, drugs or infection
acute yellow atrophy a rare complication of pregnancy with rapid progressive atrophy of liver with 80% mortality
acyclovir antiviral used in herpes simplex
adactyly congenital absence of finger or toes
adaptation the ability to adjust to changing circumstances
addiction physiologic or psychological dependence on some agents or drug, usually psychotropic
adduct to draw towards center or median line
adenitis inflammation of gland
adenocarcinoma carcinoma from any glandular tissue
adenofibroma a tumor containing connective as well as glandular tissue
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary
adenoid pharyngeal tonsils
adenoma benign tumor arising from gland
adenosine a purine nucleotide consisting of adenine and ribose, component of RNA and used IV in treatment of PSVT, forms adenosine diphosphate, monophosphate and triphosphate
adhesion a fibrous band or structure joining parts to each other
adipocere a waxy substance formed during decomposition of body
6 adiposis obesity, fatty change in organ
adipsia absence of thirst
adjuvant assisting or aiding in any remedy
adnexa appendages or accessory structures, uterine adnexa, the ovaries and fallopian tubes
adolescence the period of development from puberty to cessation of physical growth, i.e. 11 to 19 years
adrenaline a secretion from adrenal medulla, acts as vasopressor
adrenal pertains to adrenal or suprarenal glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from anterior pituitary that stimulates adrenal cortex
aerobe organism requiring oxygen for survival
aerophagia excessive swallowing of air
aerosol suspension of liquid or solid particles (drugs) in a gas for inhalation
afebrile without fever
affect pertaining to emotional tone or feeling
afferent towards the center, e.g. afferent nerve fibers carrying information from periphery to center
affinity attraction
afibrino genemia absence of fibrinogen in blood causing bleeding as in DIC
aflatoxin toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus infecting groundnut seeds causing hepatic malignancy
after birth term used for delivery of placenta and membranes
after pains painful uterine contractions occurring after fetal delivery
AGA Abbreviation for “Appropriate for Gestational Age”, when a newborn’s birth weight is within the 10th to 90th percentile expected for that length gestation
agar used in culture media, extracted from red algae
agenesis absence of an organ due to nondevelopment
ageusia absence of taste sensation
agglutination aggregation of different particles or cells
agglutinin antibody which aggregates a particulate antigen (agglutinogen) present in sample or on cells
agnathia absence of jaw
agnosia inability to recognize the sensory inputs
agonist a drug that acts on receptor in a manner similar to naturally occurring substance
agoraphobia fear of open spaces
agranulocytosis reduction in number of granulocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils), usually drug-induced
agraphia impaired ability to write
air hunger deep sighing respiration due to oxygen lack
airway 1. mechanical device used to secure air passage 2. the passage through which air enters the lungs
7 alantois membranous sac projecting from ventral surface of embryo that helps to form placenta
ala wing, e.g. sacral ala
albinism congenital absence of body pigmentation—partial or complete (hair, skin, eyes)
albumin the major plasma protein responsible for plasma colloidal osmotic pressure
albuminuria passage of albumin in urine, normally <30 mg/24 hours
albuterol a beta agonist used in bronchial asthma
alcohol organic compounds containing OH group. a. ethyl The commonly consumed alcohol, excess consumption causing liver damage, neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Ingestion during first trimester can cause fetal damage. a. methyl Industrial spirit, accidental ingestion causes fatal acidosis and blindness
aldeslukin recombinant interleukin 2, used in treatment of metastatic renal cancer
aldosterone mineral corticoid from adrenal cortex, essential for sodium and water retention in body and potassium excretion
alendronate a bisphosphonate used for treatment of osteoporosis
alesthesia experiencing a sensation away from site of its occurrence
alexia inability to understand written language due to cerebral lesion
alfentanil opioid analgesic derived from fentanyl
alginate derivative of alginic acid used as absorbent in dressing and for dental impression
algorithm step-by-step method of solving a problem
alkali any compound with pH more than 7, turning red litmus blue, form soap in combination with fatty acids
alkaline phosphatase an enzyme secreted by liver, formed in bone and by neutrophils
alkaloid nitrogenous organic compounds of plants like morphine, atropine
alkalosis base excess in body with loss of hydrogen ions, can be respiratory (excess CO2 wash out) or metabolic (excess H+ loss)
alkaptonuria a condition in which urine darkens on standing and there is arthritis
allele one of the two or more forms of a gene at corresponding sites (loci) on homologous chromosomes defining a characteristic
allergy hypersensitive state to some drugs, pollens, food items causing asthma, urticaria, angioedema
alopecia baldness, can be patchy, male pattern, total or universal (entire body)
alopurinol xanthine oxidase inhibitor used in gout
alpha-fetoprotein a plasma protein produced by fetal liver; level increased in hepatocellular carcinoma and germ cell tumors; amniotic fluid AFP is raised in neural tube defect
8 alteplase a tissue plasminogen activator used in thrombolysis of acute MI and thrombotic stroke
alternative medicine a holistic system of healthcare that recognizes interplay of body, mind and spirit in causation of disease
alum a local astringent and styptic, also used as adjuvant in vaccines and toxoids
alveolus a sac-like dilatation
amanita a genus of poisonous mushrooms
amantadin antiviral agent against influenza A; also dyskinetic agent used in Parkinsonism
amastigote the intracellular non-flagellated stage of hemoparasite Leishmania
amaurosis blindness without an apparent cause
ambenonium a cholinergic agent used to treat muscular weakness of myasthenia gravis
ambient surrounding or prevailing
amblyopia dimness of vision without detectable organic lesion of eye
amblyoscope an instrument for training amblyopic eye to take part in vision and for increasing fusion of the eyes
ambroxol a mucolytic.
Ambu bag a hand operated, self-reinflating bag used during resuscitation. It is connected by tubing and non-rebreathing valve to a face mask or endotracheal tube and is used for artificial ventilation
amebiasis infection with ameba especially histolytica producing dysentery and liver abscess
ameboma a tumor-like growth in intestine in amebiasis
amelia congenital absence of limb
ameloblast a cell that forms enamel of tooth
amenorrhea absence of men-struation
ametropia condition of eye in which image fails to be focused on retina
amifostine a chemoprotectant used to prevent renal toxicity of cisplatin
amikacin aminoglycoside antibiotic active against aerobic gram-negative bacilli causing UTI and other infections
amino acid protein constituents essential for nutrition
amino caproic acid a plasmin inhibitor, used in bleeding
aminophylline bronchodilator, used in asthma
amlodipine calcium channel blocker used in hypertension
ammonia a colorless gas of pungent odor produced from protein breakdown in intestine, converted to urea in liver
amnesia loss of memory
amniocentesis transabdominal or transcervical puncture of amniotic sac to obtain amniotic fluid for analysis of alpha-fetoprotein (neural tube defect) and genetic analysis, bilirubin level, L:S ratio, etc. (fetal maturity)
9
amnion the innermost membrane covering fetus
amnioscope an endoscope introduced through cervix to visualize fetus
amniotic fluid also called liquor amni, surrounds fetus, formed from fetal urine, GI secretions and placental secretion. The amount varies from 500 ot 1500 mL at term
amniotic fluid embolism entry of amniotic fluid to maternal circulation via placental sinuses causing collapse and shock
amniotomy the artificial rupture of amniotic membranes when an amnihook or other rupturing device is introduced into the vagina and a small tear is made in the membranes
amoxapine an antipsychotic agent
amoxicillin semisynthetic derivative of ampicillin, a broad spectrum antibiotic
amphetamine sympathomimetic amine, a CNS stimulant
amphoric sound resembling that made by blowing across neck of a bottle
amphotericin B antifungal antibiotic, effective also against Leishmania
ampicillin acid-resistant semisynthetic penicillin
amprenavir a protease inhibitor for HIV
ampulla flask-like dilatation of tubular structure, e.g. Fallopian tube
amrinone a cardiac stimulant used in congestive failure
amsacrine antineoplastic agent
amygdale an almond-shaped structure of brain related to limbic system
amylase an enzyme causing hydrolysis of starch
10 amyloid extracellular amorphous waxy substance stained pink by congo red
amyloidosis a group of diseases characterized by deposition of amyloid in various tissues with organ dysfunction
amyotrophy muscular atrophy
anabolism constructive process of synthesis of complex compounds for cell growth, opposite of catabolism
anaerobe organism growing in absence of oxygen
anagen the first phase of hair cycle in which hair growth takes place
anagrelide an agent used to reduce elevated platelet count
analgesia loss of sensibility to pain
analgia freedom from pain
anaphylaxis immediate hypersensitivity with vascular collapse, bronchospasm, angioedema, pruritus, etc.
anaplasia loss of differentiation of cells leading to tumor formation
anastomosis communication between vessels and hollow tubes
anastrozole antineoplastic agent for breast cancer
anatomy the science of structure of an organism
androgen a hormone that promotes masculinization
anemia reduction in number of red cells or their hemoglobin content
anencephaly congenital absence of cranial vault, i.e. cerebral hemispheres
anesthesia loss of ability to feel pain
anesthesiologist physician specializing in anesthesiology
anesthetize to induce anesthesia
aneurysm localized dilatation of vascular wall
angina crushing agonizing retro-sternal pain of cardiac ischemia
angiography visualization of vessel in X-ray after injection of dye into the vessel
angiology science of blood vessels and lymphatics
angioma a tumor whose cells tend to form blood vessels or lymph vessels
angiopathy any disease of blood or lymph vessel
angioplasty dilatation of narrowed vessel segment using inflatable balloon or laser
angiotensin a powerful vasopressor formed from plasma decapeptide angiotensinogen
angular pregnancy implantation of fertilized ovum in the angle where the Fallopian tube enters the uterus
anhidrosis absence of sweat secretion
ankylosis immobility of a joint due to fibrous or bony tissue growth
anode positive electrode to which negative ions are attracted
anomaly deviation from normal
anorexia loss of appetite
anoscope speculum for examining anus and lower rectum
anovulatory cycle menstrual cycle not preceded by ovulation
11 anovulatory not associated with ovulation
anoxia lack of oxygen
antacid a substance neutralizing gastric acid
antagonist acting opposite, a drug or muscle
ante prefix, meaning before
anteflexion abnormal bending forward, e.g., especially of uterine body at its neck
antemortem before death
antenatal before birth
antenatal period the time of pregnancy from the first day of last menstrual period (LMP) to the start of true labor
antepartum before parturition. a. hemorrhage Bleeding from genital tract any time after 24 weeks of pregnancy until parturition
anterior fontanel diamond-shaped fontanel located at the juncture of the coronal, frontal and sagittal sutures
anteroinferior infront and below
anterolateral infront and to one side
anteromedian infront and toward midline
anteroposterior passing from front to rear
anterosuperior infront and above
anteversion turning forwards, e.g. body of uterus in relation to vagina
anthelmintic an agent destructive to worms
anthrax infectious disease, contacted from soil or slaughter house
anthropology the study of men; physical, cultural, linguistic and archeologic
antibiosis an association between two organisms that is detrimental to one of them
antibiotic chemical substance produced by microorganisms or synthesized that inhibits growth of other microorganism or tumor cells
antibody an immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with specific antigen that induced its synthesis. Antibody can be complement fixing, blocking and cytotoxic
12 antibody titers a test used to indicate the relative concentration of a particular antibody present in a person’s blood. For example, a high rubella titer indicates a person has been exposed to rubella (German measles) and has formed a significant amount of antibody against the rubella virus and therefore, will most likely be able to ward off another attack of the virus without becoming ill
anticholinesterase a drug that inhibits acetylcholine esterase thus potentiating action of acetylcholine, principally used in myasthenia gravis
anticoagulant agent that prevents blood coagulation
anticonvulsant drug that suppresses convulsion
anti D antibody against D antigen, a part of Rh antigen, given to Rh negative mothers conceiving Rh positive baby
antidepressant a drug used to treat depression
antidiuretic a drug that suppresses urine formation
antidote an agent that counteracts the affect of poison
antiemetic drug against nausea and vomiting
antiestrogen substances that block or modify action of estrogen, e.g. clomiphene citrate
antigen any substance which on introduction into body brings about immunity by stimulating antibody production
antihistamine drugs that block tissue receptors for histamine, useful in allergy (H1 receptors) and acid peptic disease (H2 receptors)
antihypertensive an agent that reduces blood pressure by central alfa adrenergic action, peripheral vasodilatation, beta adrenergic blockade, etc.
anti-inflammatory counteracting inflammation
antineoplastic agents that prevent the development, growth and proliferation of malignant cells
antioxidants agents that prevent or inhibit oxidation, e.g. vitamin A, C and E
antipyretic agent effective in treatment of burn
antipyrotic agent that reduces fever
antiseptic agent that prevents sepsis or infection
antiserum serum derived from animal or human body containing antibodies against particular viral or bacterial antigens, e.g. antitetanus serum
antispasmodic agent that relieves spasm
antithrombin any substance that neutralizes thrombin, thus preventing coagulation. Antithrombins are normally present in blood. In their congenital absence, one is prone to thrombosis
13 antitoxin antibody produced in response to toxin of bacteria
antitussive agent effective against cough
antivenin material (serum product) that neutralizes venom of snake, spider
antroscope an instrument for inspecting maxillary antrum
anuresis absence of urine
anuria failure of the kidneys to secrete urine as in shock due to abruptio placentae, septic abortion
anus opening of rectum to exterior for discharge of feces
aortic regurgitation leakage of blood from aorta into left ventricle during the diastole
aortic stenosis narrowing of aortic valve. Normal valve diameter is 2 cm per square meter
aperient drug that stimulates defecation
aperture an orifice or opening
Apert’s syndrome congenital disease with fusion of cranial sutures at birth and webbed fingers
apgar score scoring system designed by Dr Virginia Apgar to assess birth asphyxia
aphakia absence of lens of the eye
aphasia loss of power of speech/expression
apheresis withdrawal of blood followed by separation of desired component (leukocyte, plasma) and retransfusion of remainder to the donor
apicitis inflammation of apex of tooth
aplasia failure of development
apnea cessation of breathing
apocrine a form of glandular secretion in which the free end of secreting cell is cast off along with secreted product, e.g. mammary and sweat gland
apomorphine a central emetic used to induce vomiting, in poisoning treatment
aponeurosis a sheet-like tendinous expansion connecting muscle to bone
apophysis any bony outgrowth or swelling
apoplexy sudden neurologic compromise due to CVA or collapse due to adrenal hemorrhage (adrenal apoplexy)
apparatus 1. a mechanical device or appliance used in operations or experiments. 2. a group of structures or organs that work together to perform function, e.g. a. auditory, a. biliary, a. juxtaglomerular, a. lacrimal
appendicitis inflammation of vermiform appendix, a very serious condition if occurs during pregnancy as it is drawn up in the abdomen and inflammatory process may progress rapidly
apraxia loss of ability to carry out purposeful movement
aprotinin an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes, used as antihemorrhagic and to reduce perioperative blood loss during cardiopulmonary by pass
14 APTT activated partial thromboplastin time
aqueduct a canal or passage. cerebral a. a narrow channel in midbrain connecting third and fourth ventricles
arachidonic acid a polyunsa-turated essential fatty acid formed from linoleic acid, a precursor to leukotrienes, prostaglandins and thromboxane
arachnoid resembling spider web, the middle covering of brain and spinal cord between dura and pia matter
arcuate arched or bow-like
ardeparin low molecular weight heparin and anticoagulant and antithrombotic used in deep venous thrombosis
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome
areolar gland (Montgomery’s glands). Large modified sweat glands beneath the areola secreting a lipoid material that lubricates the nipple
areola the pigmented area surrounding the nipple
Arnold-Chiari deformity a condition in which the inferior poles of cerebellar hemispheres and medulla protrude through foramen magnum causing hydrocephalus. It is commonly associated with spina bifida and meningomyelocele
aroma pleasant odor
aroma therapy treatment of ailment using highly concentrated essential oils extracted from plants, a form of complementary medicine
arrectores pilorum involuntary muscle in skin connected to hair follicle whose contraction due to cold, fright causes erection of hair and “goose flesh” appearance of skin
arrhythmia abnormal rhythm of heart beat
arteriosclerosis hardening and thickening of arterial walls due to formation of atheromatous plaques
arteritis inflammation of an artery. a. giant cell occurs in elderly with severe headache, cord like superficial temporal artery with danger of blindness, a. takayasu pulseless disease, progressive obliteration of brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian and left common carotid arteries
artery a vessel carrying blood from heart to periphery or lungs
artesunate an antimalarial for resistant Falciparum malaria
arthralgia joint pain
arthritis inflammation of a joint
arthrodesis surgical fusion of a joint
arthrography visualization of interior of a joint after injection of contrast or air
arthropathy any joint disease
artificial insemination introduction of semen to vagina artificially other than coitus to achieve conception
artificial respiration maintenance of respiration by other means, e.g. mouth to mouth or by ventilator
artificial rupture of membranes (ARM) amniotic sac is ruptured via vagina to induce or accelerate labor
15 ascites accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
ascorbic acid vitamin C
aseptic free from pathogenic bacteria
aseptic technique technique that prevent contamination of operative wounds
aspartame artificial sweetner, 200 times sweeter than sucrose
aspergillus a genus of fungus infecting ear canal and lungs
aspermia lack of or failure to ejaculate semen
asphyxiant an agent, especially gas producing asphyxia
asphyxia suffocation; a neonatorum. Failure of child to breathe after birth
aspiration suction of fluid or air from a cavity; inhalation of foreign substance
assay determination of the amount of a particular constituent in a mixture
asthma airway hyper-reactivity with spasm and narrowing usually due to hypersensitivity
astigmatism ametropia caused by differences in curvature in different meridians of cornea
asymptomatic without any symptoms
asynclitism a parietal presentation of fetal head in which the transversely placed sagittal suture lies close to symphysis pubis or sacrum; the sideways rocking mechanism of fetal descent during labor. It can be anterior or posterior
ataxia failure of muscular coordination leading to disturbance of equilibrium, can be motor or sensory
atelectasis incomplete expansion of lungs at birth or collapse of adult lung
atherosclerosis a sclerodegenerative disease of arterial wall marked by intimal lipid deposit, fibrous tissue accumulation and smooth muscle cell proliferation
athetosis repetitive involuntary, slow, sinuous and writhing movements of hands
atopy genetic predisposition towards immediate hyper-sensitivity
atorvastatin a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, hypolipidemic agent
atovaquone an antibiotic for pneumocystis pneumonia and malaria
atracurium a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used as adjunct to general anesthesia
atresia congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening or passage or tubular structure
atrichosis congenital absence of hair
atrium a chamber
atrophy diminution in size of an organ
atropine anticholinergic belladonna alkaloid used as smooth muscle relaxant, and in Parkinsonism and organophosphorus poisoning
attachment the establishment of a reciprocal relationship between the parents and the newborn after a period of bonding; development of a deeper intimacy, which grows over time
attention-deficit disorder a disease of infancy or childhood, mainly boys characterized by inappropriate attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity
16 attitude the relationship of the fetal head and limbs to its trunk
audiometry measurement of acuity of hearing for various frequencies of sound
augmentin amoxycillin-clavulanic acid
aura a subjective sensation or motor phenomena, usually preceding epileptic seizure
auscultation listening to the sounds produced in the body, i.e. cardiac contraction, air entry-exit from lungs, turbulent flow within vessels and intestinal peristalsis
autism a behavioral disorder in children with poor interpersonal relationship and expression, related to advanced paternal age
autoclave a self-locking apparatus for sterilization of materials by steam under pressure
autocrine a mode of hormone action in which the hormone secreted affects the function of the cell that produced it
autoimmune disease diseases in which antibodies are produced against body’s own tissues to cause organ damage, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, rheumatic carditis, myasthenia gravis
autoimmunity a state where body produces antibodies against its own cells/tissues
autologous related to self
automaticity capacity of a cell to initiate an impulse without external stimulation
autonomic self-governing
autosomes the chromosomes in the body other than the sex (X and Y) chromosomes
autotrophic self-nourishing
avascular blood less
avitaminosis a state of vitamin deficiency
avulsion tearing away of a structure or part
axilla armpit
axis a line through center of body or about which structure revolves; the second cervical vertebra with its odontoid process around which atlas rotates
axis of birth canal the course taken by fetus during parturition; first downwards and backwards and then downwards and forwards
azathioprine 6 mercaptopurine, antineoplastic and immunosuppressive
azatidine an antihistaminic
azelaic acid a dicarboxylic acid used topically in acne vulgaris
azelastine an antihistaminic used as nasal spray in nasal allergy
azithromycin a macrolide, useful against bacteria and anaerobes and tuberculosis
azoospermia absence of spermatozoa in semen
aztreonam a monobactam antibiotic used in gram-negative sepsis
azygos unpaired structure/organ, e.g. a. vein

B

B. scan a two-dimensional cross sectional display in ultrasound
Babinski’s reflex dorsiflexion of great toe and fanning out of other toes on stimulation of lateral part of sole of foot is called positive Babinski’s reflex; commonly results from pyramidal tract interruption; also positive in infants below 6 months (before myelination)
baby-blues a common transient mild depression or emotional disturbance affecting the mother after delivery due to hormonal changes, sleep deprivation and emotional let-down
baby-friendly initiative (BFI) part of a global campaign by WHO and UNO childrens fund to encourage breastfeeding. The ten steps of the program are:
  • breastfeeding policy is communicated to all staff
  • healthcare staff trained to implement the policy
  • all pregnant mothers informed of benefits of breastfeeding
  • mothers assisted to start breastfeeding half an hour after delivery
  • educate mothers to breastfeeding and maintenance of lactation
  • neonates be given only breast milk
  • 24 hour rooming in
  • on demand breastfeeding
  • no pacifiers or teats to be given to breastfeed babies
  • establishment of breastfeeding support groups. A global award is given for a hospital implementing all 10 steps and has approximately 75% breastfeeding rate and a certificate of commitment when a hospital is working towards the 10 steps
bach flower remedies a system of complementary medicines, based on homeopathic principles, 38 flower remedies are available to treat emotional and psychological disorders
bacillus any rod-shaped micro-organism
bacillus Calmette-Guérin the attenuated vaccine given to infants within first week of birth left deltoid against tuberculosis
bacitracin topically used antibacterial agent
backache any pain in back, due to muscle spasm, disk, ligaments, vertebral body, nerve roots and meninges
backache in pregnancy is usually due to exaggerated lordosis requiring postural correction and lumbar support
baclofen GABA inhibitor used to reduce muscle spasticity
bacteria any microorganism of the class Schizomycetes; can be spherical or ovoid (cocci) rod-shaped (bacilli) or spiral
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
bacteriuria presence of bacteria in urine, significant if concentration exceeds 105 mL
18 bag of membrane the amnion and chorion which contain the liquor amni
Baker’s cyst synovial cyst in popliteal fossa
balanoposthitis inflammation of glans and prepuce
ballottment palpatory technique for examining flating, objects, e.g. fetus in uterus, hydronephrotic kidney
bandage a piece of gauze to be wrapped around a body part as dressing
Bandl’s ring ring like thickening at the junction of upper and lower uterine segments
barber’s itch folliculitis of face mostly by Staphylococcus aureus
barbiturates a large group of hypnotic drugs, also used as anticonvulsants, can cause tolerance and dependency
Barlow’s test a test to diagnose congenital dislocation of hip (CDA) in the newborn. The baby lies on back both feet pointing towards examiner who grasps each leg with knee and hip flexed, placing middle fingers of each hand over greater trochanter and thumb of each hand on inner aspect of thigh. The thighs are then abducted and the middle finger of each hand pushes the greater trochanter forward. If there is CDH, the femoral head will be felt to ‘clunk’ as it inters acetabulum. In CDH femoral head can be displaced backwards on slight pressure when the hips are flexed and adducted (Barlow’s sign)
barr body sex chromatin mass seen within the nuclei of normal female somatic cells, representing inactivated X-chromosome
barrel chest rounded chest due to air trapping as in emphysema. In normal chest, AP diameter is more than transverse, hence elliptical shape
barrier contraception mechanical barrier to prevent sperm from entering cervical canal, e.g. diaphragm
barrier nursing precaution taken to prevent infection spreading from the patient to other patients and attending nursing staff. Staff wears gown, gloves, masks goggles, overshoes and baby is nursed in separate cubicle
Bartholin’s duct duct of sublingual salivary gland that runs parallel with Wharton’s duct and opens with it
Bartholin’s gland a compound mucus gland lying in lateral wall of vestibule of vagina, at the junction upper and middle one-third
Bart’s test antenatal screening test that helps to identify mothers having risk of having a baby with Down’s syndrome or open neural tube defect. Serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha and beta chorionic gonadotro-phin and unconjugated estriol are estimated and if risk is high, amniocentesis is advised
basal body temperature chart daily temperature charting to predict ovulation
19 basal ganglia four masses of gray matter (caudate, lentiform, amygdaloid and claustrum) lying deep in cerebral hemispheres
basal metabolic rate (BMR) normal value is 40 kcal/m2/hour, a test of thyroid function
base any substance that accepts hydrogen ion, strong bases feel slippery and are corrosives
basophil a leukocyte having affinity for basic dyes, the cytoplasm containing coarse bluish-black granules and nucleus is pale and bilobed
battered child syndrome physical injuries inflicted upon children
battery unlawful touching of a patient without consent, justification; battery occurs if a surgical or medical procedure is done without prior consent
battledore placenta placenta with the umbilical cord attached to margin rather than center
beclomethasone synthetic corticosteroid
bedsore pressure sore, i.e. ischemic necrosis of tissue especially over bony prominences
belching expulsion of stomach gas through mouth and nose
Bell’s palsy sudden unilateral lower motor facial palsy due to swelling/ischemia of the nerve in bony canal
Benedict’s test 8 drops of urine is added to 5 mL of Benedict’s solution and boiled to see for green, yellow, red precipitate
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) prostatic enlargement in elderly due to hyperplasia causing obstruction of prostatic urethra
benzidine used for test of occult blood in stool (to a solution of benzidine in glacial acetic acid is added 3% H2O2 and the stool sample. Appearance of blue color indicates presence of blood
benzodiazepine psychotropic agents with potent hypnotic and antianxiety effects
bereavement loss of loved one or loss of good health, wealth or position leading to depression, anguish
beriberi a vitamin B1 deficiency disease, can be dry or wet types
betadine povidone-iodine
betahistine drug used for vertigo
betalactamase an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates antibiotics
betamethasone synthetic bezoar accumulation of vegetable or organic fibers (hair) in stomach glucocorticoid
betatron electron accelerator that produces high energy electrons or X-rays
bicarbonate salt of carbonic acid (NaHCO3), used to treat acidosis
biceps a muscle with two heads
bicornis users with two horns due to incomplete union of Müllerian ducts
bifocal eye glasses with lenses for distant and near vision
bigemini group of two beats separated by a long pause, commonly due to regular extra-systoles (e.g. digitalis toxicity)
20 bilateral both sides
bile acid cholic, taurocholic and glycocholic acids that exist as salts in bile and are helpful for intestinal fat absorption (micelle formation)
bile a thick viscid fluid with bitter taste secreted by liver. The bile when secreted in liver is straw-colored but down below is yellow, brown or green in color
bile pigment bilirubin and biliverdin, imparting brown color to urine and feces
bilirubin bile pigment; yellow to orange-colored, can be direct acting when conjugated to glucuronic acid or indirect acting when unconjugated
biliverdin greenish pigment, formed by oxidation of bilirubin
Billing’s method a method of family planning where one avoids intercourse during vulnerable period, i.e. 3 days before to 3 days after ovulation when cervical mucous becomes thin to facilitate sperm movement
bimanual examination by both hands
bimanual uterine compression a method of arresting postpartum hemorrhage where left hand on abdomin pulls uterus forward and right hand within forward and right hand within vagina closed to form a fist presses the anterior vaginal wall so that anterior and posterior uterine wall as pressed firmly
bioassay determination of strength of a drug in live animal/humans
bioavailability the rate and extent to which an active drug or metabolite enters the general circulation to be available at the acting site
biochemistry chemistry of living things
biofeedback a training program aimed at controlling in function of autonomic nervous system
biological pregnancy test pregnancy test based on hCG in urine, e.g. gravindex test
biophysical profile a non-invastive test of fetal well-being using ultrasound to monitor fetal heart rate, fetal tone, body movements, breathing movements and amniotic fluid volume
biopsy microscopic examination of tissue taken from body to look for pathological changes
biparietal diameter distance between two parietal eminences of fetal skull, usually 9.5 cm at term measured in ultrasound as an indicator of fetal growth and maturity when biparietal diameter passes through pelvic brim the head is said to be engaged
bipolar in bipolar disease, patient has alternating mania and depression
birth canal the bony and soft tissue structures through which fetus must pass during parturition
birth control prevention or control of conception
birthing chair a chair for delivery which should be titled to 40’ to the 21vertical immediately before delivery and throughout third stage of labor
birthing room delivery or labor room
birth mark nevus, pigmentation or vascular tumor
birth rate the number of births during one year per 1000 population (crude birth rate) or 1000 female population in childbearing age of 15 to 45 years (true birth rate)
birth weight weight of a baby immediately following delivery normally 3.2 kg in full-term
bisacadyl alaxative
bisacromial diameter distance between two acromion processes on fetal shoulders; usually 12 cm
Bishop’s score
criteria
score
0
1
2
3
cervix dilatation(cm)
closed
1-2
3-4
5+
length(cm)
3
2
1
0
consistency
firm
medium
soft
position head
posterior
central
anterior
cm above ischial spine
–3
–2
–1
0
score below 5 in prime is unfavorable
Bishop’s score a method of assessing the favorability of cervix prior to induction of labor
Bitot’s spot Triangular, shiny, gray spots on conjunctiva seen in vitamin A deficiency
black measles also called hemorrhagic measles implying a severe hemorrhagic measle eruption
bladder receptacle to hold secretions (urinary bladder, gallbladder)
blanch to lose color. In blanching test, the nail is pressed quickly and then released. When circulation is good, color returns within 5 seconds
Bland diet Diet without irritant foods, e.g. milk, cream, prepared cereals, eggs, lean meat, fish, cheese, custard, cookie, etc.
blastocyst a stage of mammalian embryo next to morula and consists of outer trophoblast to which is attached an inner cell mass. The enclosed cavity is blastocele
blastomere one of the cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized ovum
bleeding time time required for blood to stop flowing from a pin prick. Normal range 1–3 minutes (Dukes) or 1–9 minutes (Ivy)
blind spot physiological scotoma situated 15’ to outside of visual fixation point, corresponding to optic disk
blister collection of fluid within epidermis
block regional anesthesia
  1. b. epidural injection of local anesthetic to extradural space beneath ligamentum flavum for pain relief
  2. b. paracervical injection of local anesthetic into lateral fornices of vagina to block inferior hypogastric plexus for relief of labor pain
  3. b. pudendal local anesthetic injection around ischial tubero-sity to block pudendal nerve
blood the fluid with suspended cells and other constituents that circulates 22within heart and blood vessels providing oxygen to tissues, carrying carbon dioxide for exhalation
blood-brain barrier a barrier membrane, i.e. endothelium and basement membrane, which prevents entry of damaging substances into CNS
blood gas analysis study of pH, (PaCO2) partial (pressure of oxygen, (PaO2) partial pressure of (CO2) and (SO2) oxygen saturation of blood
blood group A genetically determined system of antigens located on surface of RBC. AB and O system is the commonly accepted one. There are 30 Rh antigens too
blood pressure pressure exerted by moving blood on the vessel wall. A value beyond 140/90 mm Hg in those below 50 years and 160/95 mm Hg in those above 60 years is abnormal
blood product products derived from blood, i.e plasma, platelet concentrates, factor VIII concentrate
blood sugar concentration of sugar commonly glucose in blood, normal value 60 to 100 mg/dL
blood urea urea concentration in blood, normal value 15 to 40 mg/dL
blood volume quantity of blood in body, usually 70 mL/kg; decrease in blood volume decreases cardiac output and can cause shock
bloody show rupture of the small cervical capillaries when the cervix begins to dilate and efface; when the mucus plug is lost, the resultant cervical drainage is pink-tinged
body mass index (BMI) weight in kg divided by height in m2 normal BMI is 20 to 25, below 20 being under weight and above 25 over weight, above 30 obese, above 35 morbidly obese
boil a furuncle, acute inflammation of subcutaneous tissue including glands and hair follicles
bonding the initial attraction and period of exploration between the parents and newborn; becoming acquainted
bone age estimation of biological age based on development of ossification centers of wrist and long bones
bone densitometry method of determining bone density by radiographic or ultrasonic means for diagnosis of osteoporosis
bone marrow bone marrow is highly vascular, pulpy, network of reticular tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. The major function of the bone marrow in adult bones is hematopoiesis or production of new blood cells
borborygmus a gurgling splashing sound heard in abdomen caused by passage of gas
botulin the neurotoxin responsible for botulism
botulism a severe form of food poisoning due to botulinous toxins A, B, C, D, E, F and G
23 bougie a slender flexible instrument for dilating tubular organs, e.g. urethra
bowleg outward bending of lower limbs (genu varum, due to rickets)
Bowman’s capsule a bilayered membrane closely applied to glomerulus functioning as a filter for formation of urine
Boyle’s apparatus machine for general anesthesia delivering anesthetic agents as gases, i.e. nitrous oxide, halothane, cyclopropane, etc.
brachial relating to arm, b. artery continuation of axillary artery along inner side of upper arm b. plexus a nerve plexus at root of neck formed by C5-C8 and T1 giving rise to median radial and ulnar nerves
bradycardia sinus rhythm <60/minute in adult, <100/minute in a child and <120/minute in fetus
bradykinin a peptide smooth muscle dilator
brain composed of neurons and neuroglia, average weight 1350 to 1400 g of which 2% in spinal cord and 85% in cerebrum, divided into:
  1. diencephalons (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)
  2. mesencephalon (tegmentum, crura cerebri, medulla)
  3. metencephalon (cerebellum, pons) and
  4. telencephalon (cerebral, cortex).
brain death isoelectric EEG for at least 30 minutes with no change in response to sound and pain stimuli; absent respiration and all reflexes (barbiturate, diazepam, methaqualone can produce short periods of isoelectric EEG)
branchial arches five pairs of arched structure that form lateral and ventral walls of pharynx of the embryo from which structures of face and neck are formed
branchial clefts openings between branchial arches
Brandt-Andrews maneuver a method of delivery of placenta and membranes after their descent into vagina. One hand lifts up the contracted uterus, the other hand gently pulls cord down
24
brassiere pregnant women should wear well-fitting wide strap brassiere
Braxton Hicks’ sign painless intermittent uterine contractions occurring after 3rd month of pregnancy
breast the mammary glands placed anteriorly over 2nd to 6th ribs
breastfeeding Feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts
breast pump a suction pump for manual expression of milk by vacuum
breech presentation fetal buttocks present at pelvic inlet
bregma that point on skull where coronal and sagittal sutures join
brittle diabetes changing and unpredictable response to insulin leading to ketosis, particularly in childhood diabetes
broad ligaments two folds of peritoneum continuous with that of uterus and extending to pelvic side wall containing Fallopian tubes parovarium ovarian blood vessels and lymphatics
25
bromhexine a sputum liquefier
bromocriptine a dopaminergic ergot derivative that is used in hyper prolactinemia and Parkinson’s disease
bronchiectasis chronic irreversible and permanent dilatation of bronchi, may be congenital or acquired
bronchiole respiratory bronchiole is the last division of bronchial tree and continues as alveolar duct into alveolus. Terminal bronchiole is next to last subdivision of a bronchiole
bronchiolitis inflammation of bronchioles, commonly in small children
bronchitis inflammation of bronchioles, commonly in small children
bronchogram radiopaque material opacification of bronchi
bronchopneumonia inflammation of terminal bronchioles and alveoli
bronchopulmonary dysplasia pulmonary fibrosis and impaired oxygen transfer in babies who are ventilated for long that disrupts growth of lungs
bronchoscope an endoscope for visualization of tracheobronchial tree, biopsy and foreign body removal
brown fat a thermogenic layer of adipose tissue of embryonic life present between shoulder blades, behind sternum, in neck, around kidneys. It is utilized by newborn for production of heat
brow presentation a form of cephalic presentation where attitude of head is midway between flexion and extension, the presenting fetal diameter being mentovertical 13 to 13.75 cm which cannot negotiate with pelvis causing obstructed labor contributing factors are anencephaly, hydrocephaly, android pelvis
brucellosis Infection caused by Brucella organism (B. abortus, B. suis and B. melitensis)
26 bruise injury with effusion of blood into subcutaneous tissue and skin discoloration with intact skin
Brushfield’s spots gray or pale yellow spots present at the periphery of iris in Down’s syndrome
buccal smear scrapting from oral mucosa examined for Barr bodies
buffer A substance that maintains hydrogen ion concentration in blood. Principal blood buffers are bicarbonates, carbonates, carbonic acid, dibasic phosphates, Hb and plasma proteins
buffy coat a light colored layer containing white cells that forms when blood is centrifused or is allowed to stand in a test tube
bulbocavernous reflex contraction of bulbocavernosus muscle on percussing of dorsum of penis
bulimia excessive and insatiable appetite, bouts of overeating followed by vomiting in young girls
bulla a large blister or skin vesicle filled with fluid
bullaquine an antimalarial
bupivacaine a local analgesic used for epidural intrathecal and paracervical block-duration of action being 2 to 4 hours
Burkitt’s lymphoma undifferentiated lymphoblastic lymphoma involving sites other than lymph nodes and RE system, with strong association with EB virus infection
burn an injury to tissues caused by: (a) physical agents, the sun, excess heat or cold, friction, nuclear radiation; (b) chemical agents, acids or caustic alkalis; (c) electrical current. Burn are described as being partial thickness (involving only the epidermis) or full thickness (involving the dermis and underlying structure). Clinically, emphasis is placed on the percentage of shock and prevention of infection and malnutrition needs specials attention
burning foot syndrome burning in the sole of feet due to vitamin deficiency and chronic renal failure
Burns-Marshall technique a method for delivery of head in breech delivery. Once trunk is delivered the baby is allowed to hang by its own weight to aid flexion and descent of head till hairline appears. Then the baby is elevated holding at the ankles that aids in delivery of head, often aided by low forceps
bursa a pad like cavity in the vicinity of joint lined with synovial membrane, acting to reduce friction between tendon and bone
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
busulphan an antineoplastic drug often used in chronic myeloid leukemia
butyrophenone a class of chemicals of which haloperidol is a member antipsychotic agents
Byler’s disease inherited disease with cirrhosis and mental retardation in children
byssinosis pneumoconiosis of cotton and textile workers

C

cachet used for administering medicines with a bitter taste
cachexia a state of ill health, malnutrition and wasting
café-au-lait spot spots of patchy pigmentation of skin, usually light brown in color-characteristic of neurofibromatosis
caffeine an alkaloid of tea and coffee. CNS stimulant, analgesic
calamine a pink powder containing zinc oxide and little ferricoxide, used as protective, astringent
calcaneus the heel bone articulating with talus and cuboid
calciferol vitamin D2, ergocalciferol
calcitonin calcium lowering hormone, used in hypercalcemia, Paget’s disease; secreted by D cells of thyroid
calcitriol a sterol of vit D activity, very potent
calcium channel-blockers a group of drugs that act by slowing the influx of calcium ions into muscle cells resulting in decreased arterial resistance and decreased myocardial O2 demand
calcium most abundant mineral in body, essential for blood, clotting, cardiac contraction and bone formation
calculus any abnormal concretion in the body
Caldwell-Moloy classification the classification of female pelvis as gynecoid, android anthropoid and platypelloid calipers
calf fleshy muscular back part of leg formed by gastrocnemius and soleus
callus localized hypertrophy/thickening of skin at friction or pressure points calorie
cancer malignant tumor which is invasive and metastasizes to new sites by lymph/blood
Candida a genus of yeast-like fungi that develop a pseudomycelium and reproduce by budding
candidiasis infection of skin and mucous membrane by candida early warning signs of cancer
canker ulceration of mouth and lips
cannula a tube for insertion to cavity or into blood vessel, its lumen is fitted by trocar
capsule Gelatin enclosure for drug delivery
caput succedaneum swelling on presenting part of fetal head during labor
28 carbachol cholinergic drug for producing miosis, also used for emptying bladder
carbamazepine antiepilepsy drug used for temporal lobe epilepsy and trigeminal neuralgia
carbidopa dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, used in combination with levodopa for Parkinsonism
carbimazole antithyroid drug
carbohydrate chemical substances containing carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, e.g. sugar, glycogen, starches, dextrin and celluloses. Sucrose is glucose + fructose; maltose is 2 D glucose; lactose is glucose + galactose
carbon dioxide final metabolic product of carbon compounds present in food. CO2 combining power is a test of buffer capacity of blood. Solid CO2(–80°C) used for removal of naevi, telangiectasis, warts, hemorrhoids, etc.
carbon monoxide present in automobile exhaust fumes, displaces O2 from hemoglobin, hence diminishing O2 transport
carbon tetrachloride A colorless toxic anesthetic liquid previously used for ankylostomiasis but toxic to liver and kidney
carbuncle Spreading inflammation of deeper skin
carcinoembryonic antigen a class of antigen in fetus and expressed by colonic tumors. CEA level returns to normal after complete removal of colonic tumor
carcinogen carcinoma inducing chemicals, e.g. benzpyrines
carcinoid tumor of Argentaffin cells in the GI tract, bronchi, ovary, secreting serotonin
carcinoma malignant growth of epithelial tissue; basal cell carcinoma is from basal layer of skin, rarely metastasizes (rodent ulcer); epidermoid carcinoma. For tumor on the surface either wart-like or infiltrating. medullary carcinoma. Carcinoma that is soft because of predominance of cells and paucity of fibrosis. Squamous cell cancer. Cancer from squamous epithelium with rolled out everted edges. Scirrhous carcinoma. A form of cylindrical carcinoma with a firm, hard structure
cardiac cycle the period from beginning of one heart beat to beginning of next beat. It comprises atrial systole 0.1 second and ventricular contraction of 3 second relaxation of 0.5 seconds
cardiac failure condition resulting from inability of heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the body needs
cardiac output blood ejected from left/right ventricle per minute, usually 3L/min
cardiac plexus branches of vagus and sympathetic trunk encircling base of heart
cardiac reserve the capacity of heart to increase cardiac output and raise in arterial blood pressure (Marey’s law)
29 cardinal ligament also known as transverse cervical or Mackenrodt’s ligaments. Two thickened bands of parametrium fixing cervix to lateral pelvic wall
cardinal movements the predictable sequence of movements through the birth canal that the fetus will go through during labor and birth: descent, flexion, internal rotation, extension, external rotation and expulsion
cardiocentesis puncture of heart
cardiogenesis formation and growth of embryonic heart
cardiogram recording of electrical activity of heart
cardiomegaly enlargement of heart
cardiopulmonary resuscitation emergency medical care to a person whose heart and lung function is going to stop or has recently stopped. Artificial respiration and cardiac massage are the two principal components of CPR
caries attrition of enamel and dentin
caries the decay or death of bone which becomes soft, discolored and porous
carneous mole a mass of blood clot surrounding a dead embryo and retained in uterus
carotene Yellow crystalline pigments of plant and animal tissue, converted to Vitamin A in liver
carotid body a pressure and hypoxia sensitive flat structure present at carotid bifurcation
carpal tunnel the canal beneath flexor retinaculum of wrist in which flexor tendons and median nerve pass
carpal tunnel syndrome pain, tenderness and weakness of muscles of thumb caused by pressure on median nerve in carpal tunnel
carpopedal spasm spasms of hand and feet seen in tetany and hyperventilation
carrier a person who harbors a pathogenic organism without any sign or symptom of disease but is capable of spreading the organism to others
cartilage a type of dense connective tissue capable of withstanding high pressure and tension. Cartilage is avascular and is without nerve supply
caruncle small fleshy growth
casein the principal protein in milk derived from casinogen
cast 1. a solid mold of a part, usually applied for immobilization of fracture, dislocation and severe injuries. 2. in dentistry a positive copy of tissues of jaw over which denture base is to be made. 3. pliable or fibrous matter which mold to the shape of the part in which they accumulate. According to source they can be classified as bronchial, intestinal, nasal, esophageal, renal, vaginal, etc. According to constituents casts can be bloody, fatty, hyaline, granular, waxy, etc.
castle factor also known as Castle’s intrinsic factor, it is a small mucoproein secreted by the gastric parietal cells. 30This factor is required to facilitate adequate absorption of vitamin B12 by the stomach. Deficiency of this factor can result in pernicious anemia
castrate to remove or inactivate ovaries or testis
casualty accident/injury/death
catabolism breakdown of complex substances into simpler substances with consumption of energy; opposite of anabolism
cataphasia involuntary repetition of same word
cataplexy the brief sudden loss of muscle control brought on by strong emotion, i.e. excitement, anger
cataract opacity of lens nucleus, capsule or both. Immature stage: lens swollen, anterior chamber shallow; mature stage: lens shrinks, no iris shadow on transillumination cataract can be polar, lamellar, nuclear, cortical, congenital, traumatic, diabetic but senility is the single most common cause
catarrh inflammation of mucous membranes especially of nose and throat
catecholamine biologically active amines like epinephrine and nor epinephrine derived from amino acid tyrosine
catgut suture made up of ship’s intestine. Chromium trioxide treatment enhances strength of the suture
catheter a hollow tube for evacuation and injection of fluids. Arterial and venous catheters for recording of pressure, pacing catheter for atrial/ventricular pacing, self-retaining bladder catheter; Tenckoff peritoneal catheter for peritoneal dialysis
cation an ion with positive charge that travels onto cathode
CAT scan computerized axial tomography; computerized X-ray picture of any body part
cat scratch fever febrile disease with lymphadenopathy transmitted by cats
cauda tail or tail-like structure. Terminal portion of spinal cord is cauda equina. Inferior portion of epididymis cauda epididymis
caudal block regional analgesia through sacral hiatus, less reliable than epidural analgesia
causalgia intense burning pain accompanied by trophic skin changes due to injury to sympathetic innervation
caustic an agent particularly an alkali that destroys living tissue
cauterization destruction of tissue by caustic, electric current, freezing, etc
cavity a hollow space in viscus or tooth
cecum the dirated pouch distal to ileum giving off the vermiform appendix
cefadroxil long acting oral cephalosporin
cefotaxime a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic having a broad spectrum of activity, used to treat intra-abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, gonorrhea, and other infections due to susceptible organisms including penicillinase-producing strains
31 celiac disease intestinal malabsorption syndrome mostly gluten induced
cell kinetics the study of growth and division of cell
cell membrane the envelop surrounding cell, composed of carbohydrate, lipid and protein
cell organelle structures in the cytoplasm like mitochondria, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, etc.
cell the basis structural unit of all plants and animals containing protoplasm and nucleus
cellular immunity T-cell mediated immune reaction, basis of organ transplant rejection, lepromin test and BCG vaccination
cellulitis inflammation of cellular or connective tissue
central venous pressure the pressure in right atrium indicating adequacy of venous return and blood volume
centrifuge a machine that spins test tubes at high speed, causing heavy particles to settle down to the bottom. RBCs settle down at bottom, and WBCs form a thin layer between RBC and plasma
cephalexin analog of antibiotic cephalosporin
cephalhematoma subcutaneous swelling containing blood found on the head of a newborn baby disappearing within 2 to 3 months
cephalic index maximal length of head divided by maximal breadth × 100
cephalic presentation when the head of the fetus is the presenting part, may be vertex, face, sinciput or brow presentation
cephalometry measurement of the head using various bony points, used to assess growth and in determining orthodontic or prosthetic treatment
cephalopelvic disproportion a mismatch between fetal head and maternal pelvis diagnosed when fetal head does not engage by 36 weeks of pregnancy
cephaloridine an analogue of the antibiotic cephalosporin
cerclage encircling of a part with a ring or loop as in incompetent cervix
cerebellum largest portion of rhombencephalon lying dorsal to pons and medulla oblongata: involved in coordination of fine movements, maintenance of posture, equilibrium, muscle tone, etc.
32 cerebrospinal fever inflammation of brain and meninges
cerebrospinal fluid the cushioning fluid formed in the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricle. Normal amount 100 to 140 mL, specific gravity 1003 to 1008
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral events due to embolism, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, A V malformation, etc.
cerebrum consists of two hemispheres united by two commissures; corpus callosum, anterior and posterior hippocampal commissures
cerumen the wax like, soft brown secretion in external auditory canal
cervical dilatation the opening or enlargement of the external cervical os from a few millimeters to 10 centimeters when completely dilated
cervical incompetence a patulous cervix that causes repeated abortion after 12th week of pregnancy
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) CIN-I mild reversible CIN-II moderate but reversible CIN-III severe but irreversible or carcinoma in situ demanding surgery
cervical plexus the plexus formed by joining of anterior rami of first four cervical nerves, communicating with sympathetic ganglia
cervical spondylosis degenerative disease of cervical vertebral, disks and articulations often causing cord compression
cervical vertebra first seven bones of spinal column
cervicitis inflammation of uterine cervix
cervix the neck or part of an organ resembling neck
cesarean section an operation for delivery of fetus by putting incision on anterior abdominal wall and uterus after 24th week of pregnancy
cesarean section, lower segment (LSCS) involves horizontal incision on lower uterine segment. Classical caesarean section involves vertical incision on body of uterus with danger of scar rupture in subsequent pregnancies
Chadwick’s sign The bluish or purple coloration of the vagina and cervix when pregnancy is presumed.
chalazion distention of a Meibomian gland of eyelid with hard secretions, resembling tumor
chancre hard painless syphilitic primary ulcer on exposed part with slough leather base
chancroid nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer due to Haemophilus ducrey
cheilitis inflammation of lips
cheilosis red lips, with fissured angles of mouth commonly due to riboflavin deficiency
chest the body part accommodating heart and lungs
chickenpox varicella infection with vesicles on skin that dry up in 5 to 7 days
33
chikungunya an arboviral infection with fever, joint pain and rash
chilblain a form of cold injury characterized by local erythema, itching and often blistering
child abuse direct or indirect harm to children damaging prospect of their development— physical, social, intellectual and emotional
chill shivering with sensation of coldness and pallor of skin
Chlamydia a genus of microorganisms causing ornithosis, lymphogranuloma venereum, trachoma and genital infection
chloasma skin pigmentation (localized) following trauma, idiopathic or pregnancy
chlorambucil cytotoxic agent used to treat CLL, Hodgkin’s disease, etc.
chlordiazepoxide a benzodia-zepine, used to treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, etc.
chlorhexidine an antiseptic, often used for mouthwash
chloroxazone muscle relaxant
chlorpheniramine an antihistamine agent
chlorphenoxamine drug for Parkinsonism
chlorpromazine tranquillizer used in psychosis
chlorpropamide oral hypoglycemic agent of sulfonyl urea group
chlorthiazide a diuretic
choanal atresia congenital obstruction of the posterior nares (between the nose and throat). Since babies breath mainly through their noses, a baby with choanal atresia will have severe respiratory distress at birth. The immediate treatment is insertion of an oral airway
cholangiography radiography of biliary system
cholangioma tumor of bile ducts
34 cholecystitis inflammation of gallbladder manifesting with fever, chills, upper abdominal pain and mild jaundice, nearly always caused by gallstones
cholecystokinin hormone secreted by duodenum that stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion
cholelithiasis stone formation within gallbladder
cholera profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting with dehydration caused by Vibrio cholerae
cholesterol a monohydric alcohol, principal constituent of gallstones and constituent of cell membrane, precursor of cortisol hormones
chondritis Inflammation of cartilage
chorditis inflammation of vocal/spermatic cord
chordoma a tumor along vertebral column composed of embryonic nerve tissue
chorea a movement disorder due to extrapyramidal damage charac-terized by quasipurposive, involuntary, nonrepetitive limb movements, e.g. Sydenham (rheumatic) chorea, chorea gravidarum, Huntington’s chorea
choreoangioma a collection of fetal blood vessels in Wharton’s jelly forming a tumor on the placenta, of little clinical significance
choreoathetosis bizarre limb movements of extrapyramidal disease
chorioamnionitis inflammation of membranes covering fetus, i.e. amnion and chorion
choriocarcinoma malignant neoplasm of chorion usually following hydatid mole, abortion or often normal pregnancy
chorion an extraembryonic membrane that covers outerwall of blastocyst from which develop chorionic villi
chorionic gonadotropin a hormone produced by blastocyst stimulating the corpus luteum to produce progesterone to maintain the pregnancy
chorionic villi minute finger-like projections arising from trophoblasts. They have outer syncytotrophoblast and inner cytotrophoblast encasing fetal capillaries, oxygen, transfer from maternal blood to fetal blood and carbon dioxide transfer from fetal to maternal blood occurs across the villi
chorionic villus sampling A procedure to obtain a sample of the chorionic villi from the placenta via aspiration; tests for chromosomal and biochemical disorders during early pregnancy
choroid plexus vascular finger-like folds in pia mater in third, fourth and lateral ventricles of brain forming CSF
christmas factor a thromboplastin activator present in plasma
chromatin it is a DNA structure present in the cell nucleus. Males are chromatin negative and females are chromatin positive (inactivated X-chromosome)
chromatography a method of separating two or more chemical 35compounds in solution by passing across the surface of an absorbent paper
chromosome the structures containing DNA that store genetic information. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosome in every cell
chyle the protein and fat rich fluid of lymphatic channels drained to left subclavian vein via thoracic duct
cilia hair-like processes projecting from epithelial cells of bronchi propelling up mucus and foreign particles
ciliary process about 70 folds arranged meridionally so as to form a circle, secrete nourishing fluid for cornea, lens and vitreous
ciprofloxacin a quinolone antibiotic against Chlamydia and gram-negative organism, be used with caution in pregnancy
circle of Willis the anastomosis at base of brain where posterior cerebral and middle cerebral vessels meet
circulatory failure inadequate cardiac pump action to meet oxygen demand of body tissues. Peripheral circulatory failure means pooling of blood in expanded vascular space consequent to vasodilatation resulting in decreased venous return to heart
circumcision removal of extra prepucal skin covering glans penis
circumduction circular movement performed by the limb, the joint performing the movement is at the apex of the cone
circumvalate papillae v-shaped row of papillae at base of tongue
cirrhosis chronic liver disease characterized by bridging fibrosis, hepatic cell degeneration and regeneration and evidence of portal hypertension
cisapride a dopaminergic drug used for GI motility disorders and in GE reflux
cisplatin antineoplastic agent for treatment of ovarian and testicular tumors
clamp a surgical instrument meant to compress to prevent hemorrhage, e.g. holister clamp for occluding vessels in umbilical cord
Clark’s rule a formula for calculating pediatric dose, i.e. weight of the child in lb × adult dose/150
claudication pain in calf muscle during walking due to inadequate blood supply
claustrophobia fear of closed space
clavicle collar bone, articulating with acromion and sternum, can be fractured during birth
clavulanic acid beta lactamase inhibitor, usually combined with synthetic penicillins
claw foot excessively high longitudinal arch of foot with dorsal contracture of toes
claw hand a hand characterized by hyperextension of proximal phalanges and extreme flexion of middle and distal phallanges
36
clean catch method contamination-free urine specimen collection
cleft lip a congenital defect arising from failure of fusion of median nasal and maxillary processes, can be unilateral or bilateral
cleft palate a defect in palate, central or to one side often associated with cleft lip, hampers with ability to suck and with speech
cleidotomy division of fetal clavicles to facilitate delivery
cleptomania impulsive stealing in which motive is not related to value of stolen object
climacteric menopause or end of woman’s reproductive ability. Male climacteric points to lessening male sexual activity
clindamycin an antibiotic against gram-positive cocci, implicated to produce pseudomembranous colitis due to resistant Clostridium difficile
clitoridectomy This refers to partial or total removal of the clitoris. This has been defined by the WHO as type I female genital mutilation (type I FGM)
clitoris small erectile body beneath anterior labial commissure of female, homologous to penis of male
clitoris crises involuntary orgasm in female in tabes dorsalis
clobetasol a locally applied steroid
clofazimine antileprotic agent that stains skin
clofibrate lipid lowering agent, may be carcinogenic and causes gallstones
clomiphene clomiphene citrate, a nonsteroidal agent to stimulate ovulation in females and spermatogenesis in males
clonazepam anticonvulsant for myoclonic seizure
clonidine antihypertensive agent, also used for migraine prophylaxis
clonus alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles, sign of upper motor lesion
Clostridium anaerobic spore forming rods common in soil and GI tract of animal and man
clotrimazole antifungal agent for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis
clotting formation of jelly-like mass at bleeding site or within vessel due to activation of coagulation factor embedding platelets and RBCs in fibrin mesh
cloxacillin beta lactamase resistant penicillin
clozapine diabenzodiazepine group of antipsychotic agent
37 clubbing bulbous enlargement of finger and toes tips with exaggerated lateral and longitudinal curvatures. Most commonly found in infective endocarditis, suppurative lung disease, cyanotic heart disease and often congenital
cluster headache nocturnal headache, 2–3 hours after falling asleep, continuing for months associated with watering from eyes
coach A person who assumes the role of advocate and support person for the laboring woman, assists with conditioned techniques for relaxation and breathing
coarctation a stricture, compression of walls
cocaine CNS stimulant, in toxic doses causes CNS depression, cardiac arrhythmia and respiratory depression
coccydynia persistent pain around coccyx
coccygeus one of two muscles arising from ischial spines and inserted into lateral borders of sacrum and coccyx forming part of pelvic floor
cochlea a winding cone-shaped tube resembling a snail shell, winding two and three quarter turns about a central bony axis, organ responsible for hearing
cochlear implant an electronic device that receives sounds and transmits the resulting electric signals to implanted electrodes in cochlea so that the sound is perceived
codeine derivative of opium used as analgesic-hypnotic, cough suppressant
cod liver oil oil extracted from liver of fish rich in Vitamin A and D
cognition awareness with perception, reasoning, judgment, memory, etc.
cohort a group of people who possess a common characteristic
coitus sexual intercourse between male and female
cold common SYN nasal catarrh, acute catarrhal inflammation of mucous membrane of nasal cavity, sinuses and pharynx caused by rhinovirus
cold pack wrapping patient in cold water soaked clothing to reduce fever, for relief of pain and diminution of swelling in bruise
colic spasmodic pain originating from any hollow viscus
colitis inflammation of colon
collagen vascular diseases A group of diseases of blood vessels of unknown etiology manifesting with joint pain, skin rash, muscle ache and bleeding manifestations. Included in this group are SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, etc.
Colles’ fracture transverse fracture of distal end of radius with displacement of lower fragment backward, upward and laterally
colon irritable motility disorder of colon manifesting with abdominal pain, frequent small ribbon like stools, usually triggered by anxiety
38 colonoscope a flexible fiberoptic instrument to visualize interior of colon
color blindness defective perception of color; color blindness in which all colors are perceived as gray is called monochromasia
colostrum breast fluid secreted during first 2 to 3 days after delivery, rich in protein, calories and antibodies
colpectomy surgical removal of vagina
colpocele a hernia into the vagina
colpocystitis Inflammation of the bladder and vagina
colpoperineoplasty plastic repair of the vagina and perineum
colpoperineorrhaphy surgical repair of the ruptured vagina and perineum
colpopexy fixation of vagina
colpoplasty also called vaginoplasty. It is the plastic surgery of the vagina
colporrhaphy repair of vagina
colporrhexis a tearing or laceration of the vaginal vault
colposcope a speculum for examining vagina and cervix for early detection of malignancy
colposcopy examination of vagina and vaginal portion of cervix by colposcope, usually to select sites of abnormal epithelium for biopsy in patient with abnormal Pap smear
colpostenosis narrowing of the vagina
colpotomy incision on vaginal wall, e.g. to drain pelvic abscess
colpoxerosis a condition characterized by unusual dryness of the vaginal mucous membrane
coma a state from which patient cannot be aroused by painful stimuli and he does not respond to inner needs
comedo Blackhead, discolored dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin, e.g. acne involving face, back and neck in adolescents
commensal organisms that live in an intimate nonparasitic relationship
commissure a transverse band of nerve fibers passing over the midline in the CNS
communicable disease a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another
complement a series of enzymatic proteins in normal serum that once activated augment immune mechanisms by leukocyte chemotaxis, and bacterial opsonization
complement fixation some antigen-antibody reactions fix complement for completion of reaction. The process is the basis of Wasserman reaction for syphilis
compliance the property of altering size and shape in response to application of force, weight or release from such force, e.g. pulmonary compliance a measure of the force required to expand the lungs. Children have higher pulmonary compliance in comparison to adults
compound fracture fracture with communication to exterior by breach in the skin
computed tomography a radio-logical imaging technique that images 1 to 10 mm thick slices of body part
39 conceptional age age of the fetus calculated from the day of fertilization
conception fertilization of ovum by spermatozoon
condom a contraceptive sheath to be worn by male for contraception
condyloma a wart-like growth in the skin around anus/external genitalia. c. acuminata Usually venereal, caused by virus. c. latum A mucous patch on the vulva or anus characteristic of syphilis
cone biopsy removal of cone shaped portion of cervix to exclude malignancy confabulation
congenital born with, i.e. mal-formation present from birth
congenital dislocation of hip (CDH) common to breech delivery and girls, often familial, best confirmed by US
congestion the presence of excessive amount of blood or tissue fluid in an organ or tissue
conjugate paired or joined
conjugation a coupling together. In biology, the union of two unicellular organisms accompanied by an interchange of nuclear material
conjunctivitis inflammation of conjunctiva
connective tissue tissue that binds together or supports the structures of body. Blood, bone cartilage and fibrous tissue are connective tissues
consanguinity blood relationship
consciousness a state of awareness, i.e. orientation in time, place and person
consent granting permission by patient for a procedure
constipation infrequent defecation with passage of unduly hard and dry fecal material, sluggish action of bowels
constriction ring localized annular spasm of uterus usually at junction of upper and lower uterine segments, can form around neck of fetus or causes retention of placenta, rexalation of it may occur with amylnitrite
contact dermatitis Dermatitis due to an irritating or sensitizing chemical
contact mutual touching or apposition of two persons/objects or one who has recently been exposed to contagious disease
contagion communication of disease from one person to another by direct contact
contamination 1. introduction of disease germs or infectious materials into normally sterile objects. 2. radiation in or on a place where it is not wanted
continent capable of controlling urination and defecation or sexual indulgence
continuing professional education periodic updating and refreshing of professional knowledge and skill
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) a method of ventilation where pressure of 2 to 5 cm H2O is generated in respiratory tract by nasal face mask or endotracheal route
contraception prevention of conception
40 contraceptive any process, device or method that prevents contraception. They include spermicides, estrogen-progesterone pills, and physical barriers like IUD
contracted pelvis pelvis in which brim, cavity or outlet is less than normal causing obstructed labor
contraction stress test a procedure to help measure fetal well-being by stimulating the uterus to contract with oxytocin administration or nipple stimulation and measuring the response of the fetus to the contractions; it can be interpreted as positive, negative or equivocal.
contracture permanent contraction of a muscle due to paralysis/spasm/ischemia
contrast in radiology radiopaque material to provide a contrast in density between tissue of organ being X-rayed
contrecoup injury injury to one part of brain with lesion on opposite side, e.g. blow to the back of head causing injury to frontal lobes as they are forced against anterior portion of cranial valt
contusion a bruise, injury with subcutaneous hemorrhage but intact skin
convalescence the period of recovery after an illness/operation
convulsion paroxysms of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation
Cooley’s anemia thalassemia major, an inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis
Coombs’ test a test for detection of antiglobulins in blood, helpful in diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia
coordination working together of various muscles for performing certain movements
cordocentesis percutaneous umbilical blood sampling under US guidance form study of karyotyping, genetic analysis, IUGR, etc.
corneal transplant either partial thickness or full thickness transfer of cornea from a healthy cadaver, donor to treat corneal opacity obstructing vision
cornea the clear transparent anterior portion of eye covering 1/6 the surface of globe functioning as an important refractive medium. It is composed of 5 layers: Epithelium, Browman’s membrane, substantia propria, Descemet’s membrane and layer of endothelium
coronal plane plane dividing into front and back portions
coronary angiography opacification of coronary arteries by injection of iohexol or urograffin or any such contrast agent
coronary bypass surgically established shunt between root of aorta and involved coronary distal to block or diverting internal mammary to augment myocardial blood flow
cor pulmonale right heart failure secondary to pulmonary pathology
corpuscle any small rounded body, an encapsulated sensory nerve ending, blood cell
41 corpus the principal part of any organ or body
corrosive poisoning poisoning by strong alkalies, acid, antiseptics e.g. hydroxides of sodium, ammonium potassium
cortex outer layer of an organ like kidney, adrenal, ovary, lymph node, thymus, cerebrum and cerebellum
cortical necrosis damage to renal cortex due to hypoperfusion as in shock
corticoid steroid hormone secreted by adrenal cortex
corticosterone hormone of adrenal cortex influencing carbohydrate metabolism, Na+ and K+ homeostasis
corticotropin (ACTH) the anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates adrenals to secrete glucocorticoids
corticotropin releasing factor the hypothalamic factor regulating secretion of corticotropin
cortisone adrenal hormone, largely inactive till converted to active cortisol; influences metabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein N+ and K+
coryza acute nasal catarrh with profuse watery secretion
cosmetic surgery commonly known as plastic surgery, done to improve appearance, i.e. correction of ugly burns and scars, elephantiasis, localized obesity, pendulous breast, facial wrinkles
cough forceful expiratory effort with closed glottis, to expectorate mucous and foreign body
counseling providing of advice and guideline to a patient by health professional
counterincision a second incision made to facilitate drainage or to reduce tension on the stitches
counterirritant an agent applied locally to produce mild inflammatory reaction to relieve pain of adjacent or deeper structures
couplet care a system in which one nurse cares for the postpartum mother and her newborn as a single unit; it is also known as mother-baby dyad.
couvelaire uterus the appearance of uterus in severe accidental hemorrhage the uterus appearing purplish blue bruised due to entry of blood into myometrium
Cowling’s rule age of child on next birthday divided by 24 to give pediatric dose
coxa hip joint. c. vulga hip deformity with increase in the angle between neck and shaft of femur. c. vara opposite to coxa vulga
cracked nipple soreness of nipple during breastfeeding if baby is not fixed to nipple correctly
cramp spasmodic painful contraction of a muscle
craniostenosis contracted skull due to premature closure of cranial sutures
craniotomy perforation and crushing of fetal skull to aid in delivery of dead fetus
42 creatine methylglycocyamine, a colorless substance excreted in urine, combines with phosphate to form creatine phosphate
Crede’s method expulsion of placenta by putting downward pressure on the uterus through anterior abdominal wall and squeezing uterus but inversion is a danger
crepitation crackling sound heard 1. in lungs in pneumonia, 2. movement of fractured bones, 3. in soft tissues in anaerobic gas forming infections and in 4. subcutaneous emphysema
cretin hypothyroidism in babies manifesting as rough skin, mental subnormality, potbelly, coarse features, hypoactivity and delayed dentition
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease a neuro-degenerative disease caused by prion
cri-du-chat syndrome a chromo-somal deletion disorder characterized by cry like a cat, microcephaly, mental retardation, dwarfism and laryngeal defect
crib a small bed with high legs and sides for infant and babies
Crohn’s disease regional enteritis, a granulomatous inflammation involving all the three coats of small intestine and often colon
cromolyn sodium disodium chromoglycate, useful in bronchial asthma, mast cell stabilizer
cross-fertilization Fusion of male and female gametes from different persons
cross matching a test for compatibility in blood transfusion where donor red cells are matched with recipient plasma and vice versa
croup laryngitis marked by barking cough, stridor, and respiratory difficulty usually due to formation of diphtheritic membrane
crowning showing of fetal head in vulva during parturition
crown-rump length a measurement in US to assess fetal age in uterus
cryoprecipitate precipitation of immune complexes in patients with autoimmune diseases when their serum is stored in cold
cryopreservation preservation of biological material, e.g. sperm, organs, tissue, plasma in subzero temperature
cryosurgery tissue destruction by application of cold probe (–20ºC or below) as to control pain, bleeding, e.g. hemorrhoidectomy, tonsillectomy, conization of cervix, thalamotomy
cryptomenorrhea monthly subjective symptoms of menstruation without vaginal bleed usually due to unperforated hymen
culture propagation of micro-organisms or living tissue in special media
currett a spoon-shaped scrapping instrument used in dentistry, gynecology and orthopedics
Cushing’s syndrome symptoms arising out of hypercortisolism with buffalow hump, stria hypertension and weight gain
43cyanocobalamin vitamin B12 deficiency causes anemia, neuropathy and CNS degeneration
cyanosis bluish discoloration of skin due to raised (>5 gm%) of reduced hemoglobin in blood
cyst a closed sac or pouch with a definite wall containing fluid, semisolid material
cystic fibrosis inherited disease of exocrine gland affecting respiratory tract, pancreas and intestine characterized by dry viscid mucus respiratory infection, pancreatic insufficiency, increased sodium content of sweat, SYN: mucoviscidosis
cystitis inflammation of urinary bladder
cystocele protrusion of urinary bladder into vaginal volt
cytokines a chemical substance secreted by activated macrophages and lymphocytes influencing inflammation and repair
cytology study of cell structure and function. Vaginal and cervical cytology can indicate hormonal status and malignancy potential
cytomegalic inclusion disease a viral disease causing encephalitis, retinitis and fetal death
cytoplasm protoplasm of a cell excluding nucleus, contains mitochondria
cytotrophoblast the inner cell layer of blastocyst becoming less obvious after 20th week

D

danazol a progesterone used in endometriosis and fibroadenosis of breast
dandruff seborrhea, exfoliation of epidermis of scalp with white greasy, dry scales
Dandy-Walker syndrome congenital hydrocephalus due to blockage of foramen of Luschka and Magendie
dapsone a sulfa drug used for leprosy
Darier’s disease (keratosis follicularis) a congenital disorder characterized by verrucous popular growths that coalesce into plaques of various sizes on scalp, face, neck and trunk
DDT dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (chlorophenothane) an insecticide used in mosquito control
deafness complete or partial loss of ability to hear
death permanent cessation of all vital functions including that of brain, heart, lung
death rate number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given time
decadron dexamethasone, a long acting corticosteroid
decidua endometrium of uterus during pregnancy with outer compact layer and inner spongy layer
decidual cast the expulsion of the decidua intact in the shape of uterine cavity, following the death of the ovum in an ectopic pregnancy
deciduoma uterine tumor containing decidual tissue, when malignant termed choriocarcinoma
deciduous teeth primary dentition of 20 teeth that erupt between 6 months and 3 years
Chart: Eruption of deciduous (milk) teeth
Upper
Eruption
Lower
Eruption
Central incisor
5–7 Mths
Second molar
20–30 Mths
Lateral incisor
7–10 Mths
First molar
10–16 Mths
(Cuspid) canine
16–20 Mths
(Cuspid) canine
16–20 Mths
First molar
10–16 Mths
Lateral incisor
8–11 Mths
Second molar
20–30 Mths
Central incisor
6–8 Mths
Chart: Eruption of permanent teeth
Upper
Completed by
Lower
Completed by
Central incisor
9–10 yr
Third molar
18–25 yr
Lateral incisor
10–11 yr
Second molar
13–16 yr
(Cuspid) canine
12–15 yr
Second premolar
13–14 yr
First premolar
12–13 yr
(Bicuspid)
(Bicuspid)
First premolar
12–15 yr
Second premolar
12–14 yr
(Bicuspid)
(Bicuspid)
First molar
6–7 yr
First molar
6–7 yr
(Cuspid) Canine
10–13 yr
Second molar
14–16 yr
Lateral incisor
9–10 yr
Third molar
18–25 yr
Central incisor
8–9 yr
45decision analysis a logically consistent approach to the common clinical problem of needing to make a decision when its consequences cannot be foretold with certainty. The biological variation, inconsistent drug response and poor clinical outcome data on many drug/therapeutic procedures make decision analysis a charter so that patient can be foretold in advance all about the possible outcome of treatment and he can choose the one he thinks the best
decision making the process of using all the informations available about a patient and arriving at a decision concerning therapeutic plan
decompensation failure of heart to maintain adequate circulation to meet oxygen demand of tissues
decongestant reducing congestion or swelling
decubitus ulcer skin ulceration due to prolonged pressure, commonly over bony prominences
deep transverse arrest obstruction to passing down of fetal head during second stage of labor resulting from occipitoposterior position in first stage
deep vein thrombosis thrombosis of deep veins in the leg threatening pulmonary embolism. It is of particular danger during puerperium
defecation bowel evacuation
defecation syncope syncope occurring during or immediately after defecation
defeminization loss of female sexual characteristics
defibrillation stoppage of fibrillation of heart by drugs or electrical current
deflexion partial or nonflexion of fetal head as in persistent occipitoposterior position
deformity an alteration in the natural form or alignment of an organ
degeneration deterioration in organ structure or function
dehydration excessive fluid loss or inadequate fluid intake resulting in hemoconcentration and renal failure
deletion the loss of genetic material from one chromosome
delirium a state of mental confusion in which patient is disoriented for time and place with illusions and hallucinations. This may occur during fever, after head injury, drug intoxication, etc.
delivery childbirth
deltoid muscle the prominent muscle covering shoulder—attached to deltoid ridge of humerus
delusion a false belief inconsistent to ones knowledge and experience, and with evidence to contrary
demand feeding feeding when baby appears hungry and not according to fixed time table
dementia global impairment of intellectual function (cognition) interfering with social and occupational activities
demineralization loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, from bone
46 demography statistical and quantitative study of characteristics of human population like size, growth, density, sex, age, etc.
dengue a group of B arbovirus disease caused by bite of Aedis egypti mosquitoes, characterized by fever, myalgia, lymphadenopathy and often purpuric spots
denominator in obstetrics, a particular point on the presenting part of the fetus used to indicate its position in relation to maternal pelvis
dental plaque a gummy mass of microorganisms and minerals that grows on the crown and causes dissolution of enamel and tooth substance
dentition the type, number and arrangement of teeth in the dental arch
dentrifice a powder or other substance used for cleaning the teeth
deodorant an agent that masks or absorbs foul odor
deoxyribonucleic acid a protein consisting of deoxyribose, phosphoric acid, two purine bases (adenine and guanine) and two pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), principally present in cell nucleus, principal protein of genes and chromosomes
dependence psychic raving for a drug that may or may not be accompanied by physiological dependence
depletion removal of substances, like water, electrolyte, blood, from the body
depression 1. altered mood with loss of interest in pleasurable activities, feeling of worthless, excessive guilt, self-reproach, suicidal ideation 2. lowering of a part, 3. decrease in the activity of a vital organ
dermatitis inflammation of skin, may be allergic, actinic, infective, exfoliative, etc. characterized by redness, itching, etc.
dermoid cyst a nonmalignant cystic tumor containing ectodermal elements like skin, hair and teeth
descent downward movement of fetal head during labor; often measured in fifths
desensitization prevention of anaphylaxis usually by administering repeated small doses of the agent causing anaphylaxis/allergy
detoxify to remove toxic quality of a substance. To treat toxic overdose of a drug/alcohol
detrusor external muscular coat of urinary bladder
developmental milestones development of skills like crawling, sitting, laughing, walking in infants and children
dexamethasone synthetic glucocorticoid
dextran a plasma volume expander, a polysaccharide fermented from sucrose
dextroamphetamine an isomer of amphetamine, a CNS stimulant
dextropropoxyphene analgesic with high addiction potency
47
Table   Developmental milestones
Age
Ideal body wt.
Height
Body surface
% Adult dose
Newborn
3.4 kg
50 cm
0.23 m
12.5%
1 month
4.2 kg
55 cm
0.26 m
14.5%
3 months
5.6 kg
59 cm
0.32 m
18%
6 months
7.7 kg
67 cm
0.4 m
22%
1 year
10 kg
76 cm
0.47 m
25%
3 years
14 kg
94 cm
0.62 m
33%
5 years
18 kg
108 cm
0.73 m
40%
7 years
23 kg
120 cm
0.88 m
50%
12 years
37 kg
148 cm
1.25 m
75%
dextrose C6H12O6 (SYN: glucose), a simple monosaccharide sugar
diabetes a general term for diseases causing excessive urination
diadanosine an antiviral used in HIV infection
diagnosis the term used to denote the name of disease or diseased process using scientific and skillful methods
diagonal conjugate an internal measurement of pelvis taken from promontory of sacrum to the lower border of symphysis pubis normally measuring 12.5 cm subtracting 1.3 cm from this gives true conjugate
dialysis the process of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials
diameter distance from one point to another diagonally opposite point on the perimeter of a sphere
diamox acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
diaphoretic agents that increase sweating/perspiration
diaphragmatic hernia a condition when the diaphragm does not close completely and the abdominal contents slip into the thoracic cavity; causes respiratory distress in the newborn
diaphragm the musculomembranous wall separating abdomen from thoracic cavity. It contracts with each inspiration permitting descent of base of lung. The attachment is to 6th rib anteriorly and 11–12th ribs posteriorly. Diaphragmatic contraction aids in defecation, parturition and urination by increasing intra-abdominal pressure. It becomes spasmodic in hiccough and sneezing. Contribution of both diaphragms to respiratory inflow is 40% and nerve supply is by phrenic nerves
diaphysis the middle part of long bone
diarrhea frequent passage of unformed watery stool due to inflammation, irritation, retention, emotion, etc.
48 diastole that period of cardiac cycle (usually of 0.5 sec) during which the heart dilates, ventricles fill with blood
diastolic pressure the period of least pressure in the arterial vascular system
diathermy the therapeutic use of a high frequency current to generate heat within some part of body
diatom one group of unicellular microscopic algae seen in lungs of patients with antemortem drowning
diazepam antianxiety benzo-diazepine useful in treatment of cocaine poisoning, status epilepticus, convulsion and a variety of anxiety disorders
Dick test a skin test for susceptibility to scarlet fever similar to Schick test for diphtheria
diclofenac analgesic anti-inflammatory agent
dicumarol an anticoagulant that increases prothrombin time
dicyclomine an anticholinergic agent
didelphic pertains to double uterus
dienestrol synthetic estrogen
dietetics the science of applying the principles of nutrition to the feeding of individuals or groups
diet food substances normally consumed in the course of living
diethylstilbestrol a synthetic estrogen
dietician one who provides dietary guidelines in treatment of disease and to maintain good health
differential blood count determination of number of each variety of leukocytes in one microliter of blood
diffusion a process by which various gases intermingle as a result of incessant motion of their molecule i.e. there is always a tendency of molecule or substances (gas, liquid, solid) to move from a region of high concentration to a low concentration
digestion the process by which food is broken down by enzymatic action into absorbable forms
digitalis cardiotonic glycoside that increases myocardial contraction and refractory period of A-V node
digital radiography radiography using computerized imaging instead of conventional film or screen imaging
dihydroergotemine vasoconstrictor used in migraine
dilantin a derivative of glyceryl urea (diphenyl hydantoin sodium) used as antiepileptic best for clonic/tonic clonic seizure
dilatation and curettage cervical canal dilatation and scraping of uterine cavity
dilatation and evacuation cervical canal dilatation and evacuation of product of conception by suction/forcep
dilatation expansion of a vessel or an orifice
dilators insturments used to dilate canals, cavities or openings
49 diltiazem calcium channel blocker, useful for ischemic heart disease
dimenhydrinate a drug for control of dizziness, vomiting and nausea
dimorphism the quality of existing in two different forms. d. sexual having some properties of both sexes, e.g. hermaphrodites
diphtheria acute infectious disease, characterized by fever, sore throat, cervical lymphadenopathy and formation of gray pseudomembrane at the site of infection, i.e. tonsil, pharynx, larynx, nose, etc. Causative agent is club shaped Bacillus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae
diplegia paralysis of legs and hands of one side
diplococci cocci always found in pairs; can be encapsulated (pneumococci) intracellular gonococci)
dipstick A chemical impregnated paper strip used for analysis of chemical constituents in urine
disaccharide a carbohydrate formed of two simple sugars, e.g. lactose sucrose and maltose
disc a rounded flat plate. d. intervertebral a layer of fibrocartilage in between vertebral bodies
discharge the flow of substances from body. d. vaginal white mucoid non-irritating vaginal discharge during pregnancy, if profuse irritating or offensive, investigation be advised
disease lack of ease, illness or suffering; can be hereditary, autoimmune infective, degenerative or malignancy
disengagement the emergence of fetal head from within the maternal pelvis
disinfectant a substance that prevents infection by killing pathogenic organisms
disinfection the process of making rooms/linens/organs germ free. The common methods of disinfection are by autoclaving, boiling in water, ethylene oxide/formaldehyde gas, alcohol, iodine, phenols, etc.
dislocation displacement of any part
disodium edetate a chelating agent used to treat hypercalcemia
disorientation inability to be aware of time, place and person
displacement removal from normal position. Normal uterus is antiflexed and anteverted. Retroversion and prolapse are displacements
disproportion lack of proper harmony in size between two parts. d.cephalopelvic disparity between fetal head and maternal pelvis through which it has to pass
dissect to split, to go into detail, to separate various parts of cadaver
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) a coagulation disorder with bleeding tendency due to consumption of clotting factors and platelets due to thrombin generation in blood stream
dissociation separation of complex compounds into simpler ones
distal farthest from the center, from a medial line
50 distance space between two objects
distillation condensation of vapor that has been obtained from a liquid heated to volatilization point
diuresis passage of large amounts of urine
diuretic an agent that increases formation of urine
diurnal daily
diverticulum a pouch or sac in the wall of a hollow organ
dizygotic pertaining to or derived from two separate zygotes, e.g. d. twins
dizziness a sensation of unsteadiness or whirling
doctor to teach, a person qualified to practice medicine
doderleins bacillus a nonpathogenic Lactobacillus of vagina producing lactic acid from glycogen metabolism to maintain vaginal pH of 4.5
dolicocephalic having a skull with long anteroposterior diameter
domiciliary within or at home
dominance 1. genetic quality through which one gene of pair of allele expresses, while the other is suppressed. 2. preferred hand or side of body. 3. in psychiatry, the tendency to control others
domperidone antiemetic, increases gastric motility, useful in dyspepsia
donor one who donates blood, tissue or an organ for use in another person
dopamine a vasopressor catechol-amine and neurotransmitter, also implicated in some forms of psychosis and abnormal movement disorder
Doppler a method to measure blood flow in arteries and veins
dorsal pertains to back, opposite of ventral
dose amount of medicine/radiation to be given at one time
double blind trial a test for the real effect of new drug or treatment in clinical practice. Neither the patient nor the administering staff knows about the placebo and new drug
double contrast examination radiographic examination in which both a radiopaque and a radioluscent contrast medium are used simultaneously to visualize internal anatomy
douche a current of vapor or stream of hot/cold water directed against a part
Douglas pouch peritoneal space lying between uterus and front of rectum
doula a woman who serves other women
Down syndrome congenital anomaly due to trisomy 21 manifesting with mental retardation, skeletal anomalies and light yellow spots at periphery of iris
doxycycline broad spectrum tetracycline used in bid dose
drainage the free flow of fluid from a wound/cavity
dramamine diphenhydramine, an agent for vertigo
drepanocyte sickle cell
51
dressing protective or supportive covering for injured part
droplet infection infected particles coming as spray from patient’s mouth and nose
drowsiness the state of almost falling asleep
drug abuse self-administered drug overuse
drug addiction a condition caused by excessive or continued use of habit forming drugs
drug interaction interaction between drugs taken concurrently
drug rash rash produced in some individuals by intake or application of drugs
drug reaction adverse and undesired reactions to a substance
Dubowitz score a method for assessment of gestational age
Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy a form of childhood muscular dystrophy
Ducrey’s bacillus small rod-shaped organism found in pairs, causative agent of soft sore
duct a narrow tubular vessel or channel to convey secretions from gland
ductus arteriosus the channel communicating ascending aorta to left pulmonary artery in the fetus
ductus venosus a fetal blood vessel that connects the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava
duffy system a blood grouping system
duodenum the first part of small intestine from pylorus to jejunum, about 10” long
dura mater the outer membrane covering the brain and spinal cord
duration of pregnancy averages 266 days from conception to delivery and 280 days (40 weeks or 9 months plus 7 days) from last menstrual period to delivery
dwarf an abnormally short or undersized person
dydrogesterone orally effective synthetic progestin used mainly in diagnosis and treatment of primary amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea
dysentery inflammation of mucosal lining of GI tract with passage of blood, pus and mucus in stool
52 dysfunctional labor occurs when there is a problem with the frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions, and/or the resting tone of the uterus between contractions
dysgenesis defective development
dyslexia inability to interpret written language even though vision is normal
dysmenorrhea painful menstruation
dyspareunia painful sexual intercourse experienced by females
dyspepsia imperfect digestion with abdominal bloating, heart burn, flatulence, anorexia, nausea, etc. can be gastric, hepatic, biliary, alcoholic in origin
dysphagia difficulty in deglutition, can be due to spasm of pharyn-goesophageal musculature, stricture, neoplasm, paralysis
dysphasia impairment of speech both articulation and comprehension
dysphoria excessive depression feeling without apparent cause
dysplasia abnormal tissue growth/differentiation
dyspnea labored or difficulty in breathing either due to vigorous physical activity, anemia, cardiac or pulmonary disease
dyspraxia a disturbance in the programming, control and execution of volitional movements
dystocia Abnormal or difficult labor or delivery. Used to refer to weak or ineffective uterine contractions; may also be used to describe the situation in which the shoulders of a baby in vertex presentation become trapped after delivery of the head (shoulder dystocia)
dystonia increased muscle tone
dystopia displacement of any organ
dystrophy defective muscle power, nutrition and metabolism
dysuria painful micturition either due to concentrated acid urine, urinary crystals/concretions, urinary infections, pelvic pathology and prolapse uterus

E

Eales’ disease retinal vein thrombophlebitis with recurrent hemorrhages into retina and vitreous
early deceleration a transitory decrease in the fetal heart rate caused by head compression, which stimulates the vagus nerve to slow down the heart rate
Ebstein’s anomaly downward displacement of septal leaflet of tricuspid valve with gross tricuspid regurgitation
ecchymosis collection of blood beneath the skin causing discoloration
eccrine sweat glands sweat glands of skin with density of over 400 per sq. cm on the palms and about 80 per sq. cm on thigh
echocardiography the technique of imaging the cardiac structures non-invasively through passage of ultrasound
echoencephalogram recording of midline shift of brain structures by ultrasound waves
eclampsia coma and convulsion occurring after 28th week of pregnancy and in immediate postpartum
econazole a topical antifungal agent
ecstasy methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA) a hallucinogen widely abused, can cause cardiac arrhythmia, hepatotoxicity, hyperthermia, DIC
ecthyma a shallow skin lesion with crusting, often followed by pigmentation and scarring
ectoderm the outer layer of cells in developing embryo giving rise to skin, teeth, nervous system, organs of special sense, pituitary, pineal and suprarenal glands
ectomorph linear slender body build with poor musculature
ectopia malposition or displacement
ectopic pregnancy implantation of fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity, can be abdominal, tubal or ovarian with liability for rupture and hemorrhage
ectopic rhythm any abnormal or irregular cardiac rhythm
ectropion eversion of eyelid margin
54
eczema acute or chronic cutaneous lesion with erythema, papule, vesicles and crusts leading to itching, lichenification and pigmentation: mostly atopic or allergic
edema excessive tissue accumulation water, either localized or generalized, can be due to poor venous drainage, lymphatic obstruction, increased venous pressure (CHF), hypoalb-uminemia or increased water retention
Edward’s syndrome trisomy 18 with peculiar facies, congenital heart disease and mental retardation
effacement dilatation of cervix and stretching of birth passage
effect result of an action or force. e. cumulative drug effect on repeated administration of a drug
efferent carrying away from a central organ
effleurage a form of abdominal massage which can reduce pain perception during labor
effluent fluid discharged from sewage treatment or industrial plant
effusion escape of fluid/air into a cavity, e.g. hydropneumothorax, chylothorax, pleural effusion
Ehler-Danlos syndrome an inherited disorder of elastic connective tissue characterized by fragile hyperelastic skin and hypermobile joints
Eisenmenger’s complex in a case of congenital heart disease with left to right shunt (ASD, VSD, PDA, etc.) when the pulmonary vascular resistance equals or exceeds systemic resistance it is called Eisenmenger’s complex
ejaculation ejection of seminal fluid from male urethra
elastic bandage bandage that can be stretched to exert continuous pressure
55
elastic cartilage yellow cartilage of epiglottis, pharynx, external ear, auditory tubes
elective therapy a planned convenient therapy/operation
electrocardiogram (ECG) record of electric activity of heart
electrocardiograph the machine used to record electrocardiogram
electrocoagulation electrode coagulation of tissue by means of a high-frequency current in a medium intervening between an electric conductor and the object to which the current is to be applied
electroencephalogram (EEG) recording of electrical activity of brain through surface electrodes
electrolysis dissolution of tissue by electric current e.g. destruction of hair follicle
electrolyte 1. a solution which conducts electricity. 2. ionized salts in blood, tissue fluids and cells
electronic fetal monitoring a type of monitoring in which information about the fetal heart rate and the laboring woman’s uterine contraction pattern is continually assessed; can be either direct (invasive or internal) or indirect (noninvasive or external)
56 electrophoresis the movement of charged colloidal particles as a result of changes in electric potential
elephantiasis hypertrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue due to lymphatic stasis, e.g. in filariasis that involves scrotum, penis, legs, breasts and hands
elimination diet a diet regime used to determine which foods cause allergic response. Offending food then is discovered when one by one food is gradually introduced into diet
emaciation to become excessively lean
embolism obstruction to blood flow by mass of red blood cells and fibrin mesh. Atrial fibrillation and pelvic-leg vein thrombosis predispose to embolism
embolus a mass of undissolved matter in blood vessel, may be clot, fat, air bubble, clumps of bacteria, amniotic fluid
embryo 2nd through 8 weeks of fetal development
embryogeny the growth and development of an embryo
embryology the science that deals with origin and development of an organism
embryonic plate that portion of inner cell mass of the blastocyst from which the embryo itself is formed
emergency cardiac care (ECC) care necessary to deal with an acute cardiopulmonary event like infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism
emetic agent producing vomiting, e.g. apomorphine
57 emetine ipecac derivative, used for extraintestinal amebiasis
emmenagogue any substance that can induce menstrual bleeding
emphysema 1. pathological distension of tissues by air/gas. 2. chronic pulmonary disease with dilatation of airspaces beyond terminal bronchioles
emulsion a mixture of two liquids not mutually soluble
enalapril an ACE inhibitor used in hypertension and congestive heart failure
enamel hard glistening white substance forming a covering on crown of teeth
encephalitis inflammation of brain parenchyma, manifesting with changes in level of consciousness, increased intracranial pressure, sensory motor dysfunction
encephalopathy any dysfunction of brain
encephalocele protrusion of brain substance through a cranial defect
encephalogram X-ray of brain with air injected into ventricular system
encopresis condition associated with constipation and passage of watery colonic content across the hard fecal mass, mimicking diarrhea
endarteritis inflammation of intima of an artery resulting from syphilis, trauma, infective thrombi
endemic a disease occurring repeatedly in a particular population conferring some immunity and hence low mortality
endocarditis inflammation of endothelial lining of heart chambers and heart valves; may be due to invasion of microorganisms or abnormal immunologic response
endocervicitis inflammation of mucus lining of endocervix
endocervix the mucous membrane lining the cervical canal
endocrine gland glands secreting directly into blood stream
endogenous produced or arising from within a cell or organism
endometriosis proliferation of endometrium at ectopic sites, i.e. sites other than uterine cavity
endometritis inflammation of endometrium
endometrium the mucous membrane lining the body of uterine cavity
endorphins polypeptides produced in the brain tissue that bind to opioid receptors and block them there by producing analgesia. The most important is beta endorphin
endosalpingitis inflammation of lining of Fallopian tubes
endoscope a device containing optical system for observing or conducting surgery in hollow structures like abdomen, pelvis
endotoxic shock cardiovascular collapse due to endotoxin (lipid A) produced by gram-negative sepsis particularly E. coli, C. aelchii and often betahemolytic streptococci
58
endotracheal tube an airway catheter inserted into trachea for ventilation, resuscitation and during general anesthesia
enema stimulation of bowel activity by introduction of soothing, cleansing and chemical agents into rectum. Drugs can be given as enema, e.g. steroids in ulcerative colitis, paraldehyde
energy the capacity of a system in doing work
engagement in obstetric descent of presenting part into true pelvic cavity, i.e. the part is immobile
engorgement of breasts painful accumulation of milk in breast after delivery with lymphatic and venous stasis and edema, best relieved by breastfeeding or application of dry dark green cooled cabbage leaves
enkephalins polypeptides produced in brain that bind to opioid receptors to produce analgesia
enteral tube feeding feeding patient with a tube passed into stomach
enteric coated tablet or capsule coated with special coating that only dissolves in intestine
enterocele herniation of upper posterior vaginal wall where a portion of small bowel bulges into the vagina
enterocolitis inflammation of intestine and colon
entonox nitrous oxide and oxygen 50% each premixed in one cylinder used as an analgesic in labor
enuresis involuntary passage of urine in bed after the age of 5 years, often a familial tendency
enzyme complex proteins catabolizing reactions but without being changed themselves, can be synthesizing, coagulating, branching, debranching, digestive, fermenting, glycolytic, lipolytic, mucolytic
enzyme induction increase in enzyme level due to its increased production or decrease degradation. Drugs commonly causing hepatic enzyme induction are barbiturates
59 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) a test to detect antigen or antibody, hormones
eosinophil granular leukocyte staining with acid stain eosin
eosinophilia increased blood eosinophil count beyond 6 to 8% or 300/cmm
ephedrine sympathomimetic agent used locally as decongestant and systemically for bronchodilation and raising blood pressure
epicanthus a vertical fold of skin extending from root of nose to the median end of eyebrow covering inner canthus and caruncle
epidemic appearance of a disease in a high proportion not expected for a community in a geographical area
epidemiology science concerned with study and analysis of interrelationship of factors that determine disease frequency
epidermolysis bullosa a severe blistering skin disease often autosomal dominant inheritance
epididymis a small long convoluted organ lying behind testes and containing the ducts of testes. It ends in spermatic duct
epididymitis inflammation of epididymis, usually as a complication of gonorrhea, syphilis, tuberculosis, mumps, filariasis, etc.
epidural analgesia a form of pain relief by injection of bupivacaine into extradural or peridural space best suited for first and second stage of labor; sudden hypotension is a danger leading to fetal hypoxia
epigastrium region over pit of the stomach
epiglottis leaf-shaped flat membrane covering entrance of larynx during swallowing
epilepsy recurrent paroxysmal electrical dysfunction of brain characterized by altered consciousness and motor/sensory phenomena
epinephrine hormone of adrenal medulla, synthesized from phenylalanine having ionotropic, bronchodilator and sympathomimetic effects
epiphora abnormal over flow of tears either due to excess secretion or blockage of lacrimal duct
epiphysis an ossification center separated from parent bone by a cartilage in infants and children; an indicator for assessment of bone age
episiotomy incision of perineum to facilitate delivery and avoid laceration
60 epispadius congenital opening of urethra on dorsal aspect of penis or clitoris
epistaxis bleeding from Kiesselbach’s area of nose
epithelia tissue those tissues covering outer surface of body and lining the internal passages or cavities. The cells lie in close proximity of each other with little intercellular substance
epithelioma malignant tumor arising from epithelium, e.g. skin or mucous membrane
Epsilon-aminocaproic acid synthetic substance, antifibrinolytic, used to check bleeding
epstein’s pearls small white epithelial spot at junction of hard and soft palate in neonates
eradication complete elimination of disease
Erb’s palsy paralysis of muscles supplied by C5 and C6
erection swelling, hardness and stiffness of penis on sexual arousal/physical handling
erethism excessive excitation or irritation
ergometrine the alkaloid from ergot commonly used oxytocic to augment uterine contraction to prevent post partum hemorrhage
ergonomics the science concerned with how to fit a job to man’s anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics in a way that will enhance human efficiency and well-being
ergonovine meleate an ergot derivative used in treatment of migraine. It also stimulates contraction of uterus
erosion destruction of surface layer
erotism sexual desire
erysipelas spreading inflammation of skin and subcutaneous tissue accompanied by systemic disturbance
erythema toxicum neonatorum an urticarial condition affecting newborns in the first few days of life, the lesions consist of dead white papules, grainy to the touch, with or without surrounding areas of redness
erythroblastosis fetalis hemolytic disease of newborn usually due to Rh incompatibility or ABO mismatching
erythrocyte the nonnucleated biconcave disc of 7.7 micron, matured red blood cell containing hemoglobin, involved in oxygen transport
erythropoiesis formation of red blood cells
61 erythropoietin an alfaglobulin secreted by kidney that stimulates erythropoiesis
Escherichia coli gram-negative bacillus of intestine causing diarrhea, urinary infection and endotoxic shock
esophageal atresia a condition in which the esophagus ends in a blind pouch or narrows into a thin cord; usually occurs between the upper and the mid-third of the esophagus
esophagus the musculomembranous tube extending from pharynx to stomach
essential hypertension hypertension without an identifiable cause
essential oils highly concentrated oils extracted from plants used in aroma therapy
estradiol C18H24O2 steroid hormone of ovary with estrogenic properties
estrogen substance having estrogenic activity, i.e. development of female sex characteristics, cyclic changes in endometrium and vaginal epithelium, breast changes
estrone C18H22O2 natural estrogenic hormone less active than estradiol but more active than estriol
estrus the cyclic period of sexual activity in mammals; during estrus animal is said to be in heat
ethambutol antitubercular bacteriostatic agent
ethamsylate a hemostyptic used to control bleeding
ethics moral principles or standards governing conduct
ethinylestradiol an estrogenic hormone, very potent
ethionamide bacteriostatic second line antitubercular drug
ethionine progestational agent used in contraception
ethylchloride C2H5Cl volatile liquid used for topical anesthesia
ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) a chelating agent
ethylene oxide C2H4O a fumigant. Also used for sterilizing articles that cannot withstand heat
etodolac a pain killer
eucapnia Normal CO2 concentration in blood
eugenics the science dealing with genetic and prenatal influences that affect the expression of certain characteristic in offsprings
euphoria exaggerated feeling of wellbeing
Eustachian tube 4 cm long mucus lined tube extending from middle ear to pharynx
euthanasia mercy killing; dying easily, quietly and painlessly; ending one’s life with an incurable disease
euthyroid normal thyroid function
evacuate to discharge especially bladder and bowel
eventration removal of contents of abdominal cavity, partial protrusion of abdominal contents through an opening in the abdominal wall
eversion turning outwards
62 evidence-based medicine evaluation, risk benefit and analysis of prescribing or adopting particular form of therapy
Ewing’s tumor diffuse endothelioma causing a fusiform swelling of long bone
exacerbation aggravation of symptoms
exchange transfusion transfusion and withdrawal of small amounts of blood until blood volume is entirely replaced; used in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia
exercise in pregnancy gentle exercises including yoga, aquatic exercises taken during pregnancy
exercise performed activity of muscles
exfoliation the shedding of cells
exhalation the process of breathing out
exomphalos a herniation of umbilicus along with abdominal contents covered with peritoneum
exotoxin toxins produced by microorganism to surrounding medium
expected date of delivery (EDD) 9 months and 7 days from LMP; for long cycles add days in excess of 28 days and for short cycles subtract days less than 28
expulsion forcible driving out, e.g. of fetus from uterus
exsanguinations excessive blood loss to the point of death
extension movement by which both ends of a part are pulled apart
external os the opening of cervix into vagina
external version a procedure to change malpresentation to normal position, e.g. turning breech to cephalic or transverse or oblique to longitudinal lie
extrauterine pregnancy embedding of the fertilized ovum outside uterine cavity, i.e. ovary, Fallapion tube, abdominal cavity
extravasation exit of fluid from its normal channel to surrounding
extremity the terminal part of anything, an arm or leg
extrinsic of external origin. e. factor a factor secreted from stomach for absorption of vit B12
extroversion eversion, turning inside out
extubation removal of tube, e.g. laryngeal
exudates a protein rich fluid, high in cell count; can be pus, catarrhal, hemorrhagic, fibrinous

F

Fabry’s disease an inherited disorder of metabolism with accumulations of glycolipid in tissues
face anterior part of head from forehead to chin, composed of 14 bones
face presentation a cephalic presentation in which head and spine of fetus are extended with mentoanterior or mentoposterior position. Persistent mentoposterior can cause obstructed labor
facet a small, smooth area on a bone or hard surface
face to pubis persistent occipitoposterior
facial nerve seventh cranial nerve supplying facial muscles, platysma, submandibular and sublingual glands, and carrying taste sensations from anterior two thirds of tongue
facial palsy paralysis of facial muscles leading to drawing of angle of mouth to healthy side, improper closure of eye; can follow forcep delivery but spontaneous recovery is usual factor
facies the expression or appearance of the face; certain congenital syndromes present with a specific facial appearance
factitious disorder feigning illness
factor coagulation factors essential for blood coagulation; a group of serine proteases
Fahrenheit a temperature scale with freezing point of water at 32º and boiling point at 212º point
failure loss of function of an organ
faint temporary loss of consciousness due to cerebral ischemia
Fallopian tube the oviducts 10 cm long extending from ovaries to uterus
Fallot tetralogy congenital cyanotic heart disease characterized by over riding of aorta, infundibular stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and a ventricular septal defect
false labor uterine contractions causing pain but no dilatation of cervix
false negative a test indicating that the disease is not present when actually it is present
false pelvis the region between brim of true pelvis and iliac crests
false positive a test indicating that the disease is present when in fact it is not
false ribs the lower five pair of ribs that do not unite directly with the sternum
64 famciclovir antiviral agent for herpes
familial disease occurring more frequently in a family than would be expected by chance
family 1. a group of individuals descending from a common ancestor 2. a group of people living in a household who share common attachments, such as mutual caring, emotional bonds, common goal, etc. 3. in biology, the division between an order and genus
family planning planning and spacing of child birth according to wishes of the couple rather than to chance
famotidine H2 receptor blocker, used for peptic ulcer disease
farsightedness an error of refraction in which parallel rays are focused at a point behind retina, so that near objects are not seen clearly
fascia fibrous membrane covering, supporting or separating muscles, uniting skin with underlying tissue
fat adipose tissue of body serving as energy reserver, providing fat-soluble vitamins
fatigue feeling of tiredness resulting from continuing activity
fatty acids omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids present in fish and certain vegetables, not synthesized in body. They reduce platelet adhesiveness and lower serum triglyceride; hence used in coronary artery disease prevention
favism hereditary hypersensitivity to a kind of bean, vicia faba characterized by fever, hemolytic anemia, vomiting common to patients of G6 PD deficiency
febrile convulsion convulsion precipitated by fever
feces excreta, stool
feculent resembling stool
fecundity fertility, ability to produce children
female condom a pouch made of polyurethane, which lines the vagina and external genitalia
female woman, sex that produces ova
feminism male developing secondary sexual characteristic of female
feminization testicular an apparent female with genetic characteristic of male due to tissue resistance to androgenic hormones secreted by testes
65 femoral pertaining to femur. f. artery the continuation of external iliac artery to thigh. f. vein continuation of popliteal vein and continues up as external iliac vein
femur the thigh bone 20” long in adults, articulating with ileum at hip and with tibia at knee
fenestra an aperture frequently closed by membrane
fentayl citrate synthetic potent analgesic
fern pattern palm leaf (arborization) pattern of cervical mucus when allowed to dry on a glass slide; dependent on salt concentration in mucus which is further dependent upon amount of estrogen in the mucus. This test is only positive in mid cycle. If positive in late cycle, indicates lack of progesterone
ferokinetic study of absorption, utilization, storage and excretion of iron
ferritin iron-phosphorus protein complex containing about 23% iron, the principal tissue storage form of iron
ferroprotein important oxygen transferring enzyme
ferrous bivalent iron
fertile capable of producing offspring f. period 1. 9 days around ovulation, i.e. 5 days before and 3 days following ovulation 2. reproductive life of woman, i.e. 15 to 45 years
fertility ability to reproduce
fertilization union of ovum with spermatozoa or union of male and female gametes in plants
fetal alcohol syndrome birth defects and mental retardation in babies born to alcoholic mothers who continued alcohol ingestion during first trimester
fetal bradycardia the fetal heart rate is less than 120 beats/minutes during at least a 10-minute period of continuous monitoring
fetal circulation oxygenated blood from placenta passes via umbilical vein and ductus venosus to inferior vena cava by passing liver and then to right atrium and then via foramen ovale to left atrium, left ventricle and aorta. Some blood from right atrium also enters right ventricle and pulmonary artery to be shunted to aorta via ductus arteriosus. Blood to placental villi are returned via the two umbilical arteries which are continuation of bypogastric arteries
66 fetal distress fetal hypoxia manifesting with tachycardia or bradycardia, exaggerated or slowness of fetal movement and meconium-stained liqour demanding immediate delivery; can be due to maternal shock, eclampsia, CPD, intrauterine infections, cord round the neck, fetal anemia placenta previa, uterine hypertonicity
fetal heart rate acceleration an increase in the fetal heart rate that occurs during a uterine contraction, with the fetal heart rate decreasing to its previous rate as the contraction subsides
fetal heart rate baseline average fetal heart rate between periodic rate changes (accelerations or decelerations). The baseline fetal heart rate is the average fetal heart rate during any 10-minute period. The normal baseline range is between 120 and 160 beats per minute
fetal heart rate deceleration a decrease in the fetal heart rate that occurs in response to a uterine contraction. There are three types of decelerations (early, late and variable)
fetal heart rate variability the beat-to-beat changes that occur in the baseline fetal heart rate
fetal lie relationship of the fetus to the long axis of the mother. There are three possible lies: longitudinal, transverse and oblique
fetal position the relationship of the landmark on the presenting fetal part to the front, sides or back of the maternal pelvis
fetal presentation part of the fetus, which lies at the pelvic brim or in the lower pole of the uterus
fetal skull composed of two frontal bones separated by frontal suture, two parietal bones separated by sagittal suture and separated from frontal bones by coronal suture, occipital bone separated from parietal bone by lambdoid suture. Anterior fontanelle lies at junction of frontoparietal bones and 2 posterior fontanella at junction of occipitoparietal bones. Base of skull is formed by 2 temporal bones, ethmoid and sphenoid bones and contains foramen magnum transmitting spinal cord
fetal surveillance methods to assess and monitor the wellbeing of the fetus during pregnancy, labor and birth; includes fetal biophysical profile, biochemical assessments, amniocentesis, genetic studies, antenatal testing, fetal movement counting, non-stress testing, contraction stress testing and clinical assessments
67
fetoprotein a fetal antigen often present in adults. Amniotic fluid fetoprotein level can indicate about fetal wellbeing and maturity. Level is increased in defects of neuroaxis. Increased levels in adults indicates hepatoma
fetoscope a flexible optical device of fiberoptic material used for direct visualization of fetus in utero
fetotoxic materials toxic to developing fetus, e.g. alcohol sedatives, tetracycline, tobacco
fetus child in utero from third month to birth
fever elevation of body temperature above 37º (98.6ºF). Rectal temperature is 0.5 to 1ºF higher than oral temperature. Body calorie expenditure is increased by 12% for each 0ºC of fever
fiber a thread-like structure. f. dietary the portion of undigested food stuff giving bulk to stool and preventing constipation. High fiber diet is good for diabetes and prevents colon cancer
fibrillation spontaneous contraction of individual muscle fibers
fibrinogen a coagulation protein of plasma that is precursor of fibrin
fibrinolysis dissolution of fibrin
fibrin whitish filamentous protein formed by action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Fibrin entangles RBC and platelets to produce the clotting
68 fibrocartilage a type of cartilage in which the matrix contains thick bundles of white or cartilaginous fibers, found in the intervertebral discs
fibrocystic disease of pancreas fibroid cystic fibrosis
fibroid fibromyoma of uterus which may grow inwards or outwards to become subperitoneal
fibroma encapsulated, irregular, firm, slow growing connective tissue tumor. Can arise within muscle, breast, uterus (cause menorrhagia)
fibromatosis simultaneous development of multiple fibromas
fibromyositis inflammation of muscle and surrounding connective tissue; a nonspecific illness characterized by pain, tenderness and stiffness of joint capsule
fibromyxoma a fibroma that has undergone partial myxomatous degeneration
fibronectin a group of proteins whose presence in cervical secretion may act as marker for preterm labor
fibroplasias the formation of fibrous tissue as in healing of a wound. f. retrolental a condition characterized by retinal vascular proliferation and turtuosity and presence of fibrous tissue behind lens leading to detachment of retina
fibrosis abnormal fibrous tissue formation
fibula the outer and smaller bone of leg, often sacrificed in bone grafting
filariasis a chronic disease due to Filaria species
fimbria finger-like projections as that of fallopian tube
fine motor skills skills pertaining to synergy of small muscles of hand
fingerprint an imprint made by the cutaneous ridges of fingers, used for the purpose of identification
69
first aid emergency assistance to injured/sick individuals prior to physician’s care or transportation to hospital. Common situations necessitating first aid are: foreign body, coma, convulsion, burn poisoning, etc.
fission splitting into two or more parts, a method of a sexual reproduction in bacteria, protozoa and other lower forms of life
fissure a groove or natural division, cleft or slit, break in enamel of tooth, crack like sore, deep furrow in an organ like brain, liver, spinal cord
fistula an abnormal free passage from cavity/or inner organ to exterior/another organ
flaccid paralysis with loss of muscle tone, reduction or loss of tendon reflexes, atrophy of muscles, usually due to lesion of lower motor neuron
flagellum a hair-like motile process on a protozoon
70 flail chest a condition arising from fracture of a number of ribs, at many points, resulting in the flail rib segment moving in paradoxically with inspiration and out with expiration
flail joint joint with excessive mobility due to paralysis of acting muscles
flat foot an abnormal flatness of sole and loss of arch on inner side of foot
flat pelvis a pelvic in which AP diameter is much shorter than transverse diameter, e.g. platypelloid and rachitic pelvis
flatulence excessive formation or passage of gas from GI tract
flatus expulsion of gas from anus. Average person excretes 400–1200 cc of gas everyday, containing hydrogen, methane, skatoles, indoles, carbon dioxide, small amounts of oxygen and nitrogen. Flatulogenic foods are milk, legumes, fried items
flatus tube a rectal tube which is pushed to facilitate expulsion of gas
flexion the act of bending forward
floss to use dental floss or tape to remove plaque or calculus
fluconazole an antifungal, used in vaginal candidiasis
fluid amniotic yellowish fluid of specific gravity 1.006 composed of albumin, urea, water mixed with lanugo, epidermal cells, vernix casceosa, and meconium
fluid cerebrospinal fluid found in central canal of spinal cord, in the ventricles of brain and in the subarachnoid space
fluid synovial fluid contained within synovial cavities, bursae and tendon sheaths
flumazenil benzodiazepine receptor antagonist; antagonizes actions of benzodiazepines on the central nervous system; used in reversal of sedative effects of benzodiazepines
flunarizine calcium channel-blocker for migraine
fluorescence property of certain substances to emit light when exposed to ultraviolet radiation
fluorescent treponemal antibody test (FTABS) test for syphilis using fluorescent antibody
fluorosis chronic fluorine poisoning causing mottling of tooth enamel, and hyperlucency of bone
folinic acid the active form of folic acid
follicle a small secretory sac or cavity
follicle stimulating hormone hormone of anterior pituitary stimulating spermatogenesis in male and maturation of Graffian follicle in female
follow-up the continued care or monitoring of a patient after the initial visit or examination
fomentation a hot, wet application for relief of pain or inflammation
fomite objects that transmit infectious organisms by contamination
71
fontanel unossified space lying between cranial bones of the skull
food allergies allergic reactions resulting from ingestion of food to which one has become sensitized. Common offenders are milk, egg, shellfish, chocolate, oranges, etc.
food and drug administration (FDA) in USA, an official regulatory for food, drugs, cosmetics and medical devices; a part of Department of Health and Human Services
food poisoning illness resulting from ingestion of foods containing poisonous substances, e.g. mushroom poisoning, insecticides contaminating food, milk from cows that have eaten some poisonous plants, ingestion of putrefied or decomposed food
food requirement requirement of calorie and protein depending upon age, muscular work and environment. Average active healthy (70 kg) man requires 2700 cal/day and average healthy woman 2000 cal/day. Persons in sedentary work require less calories. Protein requirement of adult is 1 gm/kg, of their ideal weight. Pregnancy and lactation demand 15–25% extra calories. In growing children, protein requirement is 2–3 g/kg/day
foot terminal portion of lower extremity
foot drop plantar flexion of foot due to paralysis of muscles in anterior compartment of leg (lateral popliteal palsy)
footling presentation a type of breech presentation where feet lie in advance of buttocks
foramen a passage, opening, an orifice, a communication between two cavities. f. ovale the septal opening between the atria of the fetal heart that closes soon after birth
forceps pincers for holding/extracting. f. obstetrics forceps used to extract the fetal head from pelvis
foreskin the prepuce, i.e. skin covering glans penis
forewater the liqour amni contained in membranes below the presenting part of fetus
fornix anything of arched or vault-like shape
72
Fothergill’s operation operation for uterine prolapse
fourchette transverse band of mucous membrane at the posterior commissure of vagina
four Ps the four forces of labor including passage, passenger, power and psyche
Fowler’ position semisitting position with angulation of upper portion of body at 45–60°, knees may or may not be bent
fracture dissolution in continuity of bone
freckle small brownish or yellowish pigmentation of skin free radical
frenulum linguae a fold of mucous membrane that extends from floor of mouth to the inferior surface of tongue along midline
friable easily breakable
Friedman test one of the biological tests of pregnancy
frigid cold irresponsive to emotions or lack of sexual desire in women
frigidity partial or complete inhibition of sexual excitement
frontal lobe 4 main convolutions infront of central sulcus of cerebrum
frontal plane plain parallel with the long axis of body and at right angles to the median sagittal plane
frontal sinus a pair of hollow assymetrical spaces in the frontal bone above the orbits, filled with air and lined by mucous membrane
73 frost bite freezing and death of a body part due to cold exposure
fructose C6H12O6 fruit sugar monosaccharide akin to glucose
fugue a dissociative disorder in which a person acts in normal manner but has complete amnesia for that period of action
fulguration destruction of tissue by high frequency electric sparks
full-term in obstetric child born between 38–41 weeks of gestation
fulminating violently explosive, a disease very severe and sudden
fumigation use of poisonous gases for destroying living organisms like rats, mice, etc. root disinfection
fundal height height of the fundus of the uterus, which is measured in centimeters from the top of the symphysis pubis to the top of the uterus. It is used to assess growth and development of fetus during pregnancy
fundal pertaining to uterine fundus
fundoplication surgical reduction in size of opening into fundus of stomach, used in treating reflux esophagitis
fungus plant-like organism including yeasts and molds but without chlorophil, hence of having parasitic or saprophytic existence
funnel chest sternal depression resembling funnel
funnel pelvis a pelvis that narrows from above downwards, characteristic of android pelvis
furosemide loop diuretic, kaliuretic
furunculosis condition resulting from boil
furunculosis condition resulting from boil
fusion Meeting and joining together

G

GABA gamma aminobutyric acid, a neurotransmitter
gabapentin an antiepileptic agent
gag (1) an instrument to hold open the jaws. (2) to retch or attempt to vomit. g. reflex. Elevation of soft palate and retching on touching the pharynx or back of tongue
Gairdner head box a box placed over baby’s head into which additional oxygen is provided to increase oxygen concentration of inspired air
gait manner of walking
galactagogue agent promoting secretion of milk
galactocele a tumor caused by occlusion of a milk duct; hydrocele containing milk-like fluid
galactorrhea excessive flow of milk; continuation of lactation even without childbirth
galactose C6H12O6 a monosacch-aride, isomer of glucose converted to glycogen in liver
galactosemia an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by inability to convert galactose to glucose due to absence of enzyme galactose-1 phosphate uridyl transferase. Symptoms are diarrhea and vomiting with failure to thrive after birth. Infants urine contains high galactose. Intrauterine diagnosis possible from amniocentesis
galea aponeurotica the tendon of occipitofrontalis forming a layer of scalp
Galen’s vein these veins run through the tela choroidae formed by the joining of the terminal and choroidal veins. They form venacerebra magna, that empties into straight sinus
gallbladder pear-shaped sac on under surface of right lobe of liver holding bile and discharging. It into common bile duct through cystic duct during digestion
gallstone concretion formed in the gallbladder or common bile duct, commonest being cholesterol stone. Excess of cholesterol or decreased bile acid concentration in bile help to precipitate cholesterol leading to stone formation
gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) a form of in vitro fertilization where sperm and ovum are placed in Fallopian tube
gamete the reproductive units of male and female
gamma globulin immunoglobulin fraction in plasma containing IgG, IgA, IgD and IgE
gamma rays electromagnetic waves of extremely short wave length emitted by radioactive substances having high tissue penetration
ganglion 1. mass of nerve tissue composed principally of nerve cell bodies lying outside brain and spinal cord 2. cystic tumor developing in a tendon or aponeurosis
gangrene dead devitalized tissue due to cut off of blood supply or overwhelming infection
75 Gardnerella a genus of gram-negative rod shaped bacteria inhabiting vagina (G. vaginalis) producing thin grey vaginal discharge with fishy odor
Gardner’s syndrome familial polyposis of colon, an autosomal dominant condition with propensity for development of carcinoma
gargoylism congenital condition characterized by dwarfism, kyphosis, and skeletal abnormalities with mental retardation
gas gangrene gangrene caused by Clostridium welchii that produces gas in necrosed tissues. It can involve uterus following criminal abortion
gastrectomy surgical removal of a part or total stomach
gastric analysis analysis of gastric contents to determine quality of secretion, amount of free and combined hydrochloric acid, absence or presence of blood, bile duct, etc.
gastric juice digestive juice of gastric glands containing HCl pepsin, mucin, small amount of inorganic salts, intrinsic factor, pH is 0.9 to 1.5 total acidity being equivalent to 30 mL of 1/10 N HCl
gastric lavage emptying out of stomach contents to relieve hiccup; before anesthesia for fear of aspiration and in intestinal obstruction, removal of ingested poisons
gastric ulcer ulcer in the stomach
gastrin a group of hormones secreted by antral mucosa that circulating via blood stimulate gastric HCl secretion. Gastrins also affect secretory activity of pancreas, small intestine
gastritis inflammation of stomach characterized by epigastric pain, vomiting and dyspepsia. Gastric mucosa may be atrophic or hypertrophic. Dietary indiscretion, excessive indulgence in alcohol, Campylobacter are responsible
gastrocolic reflex peristaltic wave in colon induced by entrance of food into stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of stomach and intestinal tract manifesting with epigastric pain, vomiting, fever and dysentery
gastroenterology the branch of medical science dealing with diseases of digestive tract and related structures like esophagus, liver, gallbladder and pancreas
gastroesophageal reflux reflux of acid contents of stomach into lower esophagus due to obesity, hiatus hernia, anticholinergic use, pregnancy, etc.
gastroschisis congenital opening of the abdominal wall allowing the abdominal organs to protrude
gate theory the hypothesis that painful stimuli can be prevented from reaching higher centers for recognition by stimulation of sensory nerves, a key mechanism explaning acupuncture analgesia
gelatin a protein derivative of collagen, used in X-ray films to suspend silver halide crystals, used in capsule making
76 gene basic unit of heredity lying in chromosomes. Their mutation gives rise to new characters
gene splicing in genetic molecular biology, the substitution of a portion of a DNA is spliced into the DNA of another gene
genetic counseling the application of knowledge of genetics in providing advice to parents to have offsprings free of hereditary disease
genetic engineering the synthesis, modification or repair of genetic DNA by synthetic means
genetics the study of heredity and its variation
gene transfer transfer of gene from one person to another for repair of inherited defect in the recipient
Geneva convention 1864 declaration in Geneva that the sick and wounded victims of war including persons involved in their care like doctors, nurses, ambulance drivers, stretcher bearers are neutral and would not therefore be target of military action
genitalia reproductive organs
genotype the hereditary combination of genes, which makes up a person
gentamicin an antibiotic from fungi of genus Micromonospora
gentian violet a dye derived from coal tar, having anti-infective and antifungal property used as stain in cytology and histology.
genu knee
genus in biology taxonomic division between species and family
German measles see Rubella
germ an organism that causes disease
germicidal agent destructive to germs
gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) glucose or carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity which develops or is discovered during the present pregnancy; the condition subsides at the completion of pregnancy.
77 gestational period the number of completed weeks of pregnancy calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period
gestation assessment assessment of fetal age and maturity by ultrasound
gestation time span from conception to birth usually 259 to 287 days
gesture a body movement that assists in expression of thoughts (body language)
g. female labia majora/minora, clitoris, fourchette, vestibular gland, Bartholin’s gland, vagina, uterus, two Fallopian tubes and two ovaries
Ghon’s focus sharply defined peripheral lesion in X-ray chest with hilar lymphadenitis, a feature of primary Kochs
giardia a flagellated protozoa inhabiting intestinal mucosa
gibbus humped back, commonly due to compression fracture, collapse
giddiness light-headed sensation
Giemsa stain a stain for staining blood smears for differential count and detection of parasitic microorganisms
gigantism excessive physical development due to increased growth hormone secretion, late fusion of bones (eunuchoid gigantism)
Gigli’s operation pubiotomy or symphysiotomy
Gigli’s saw a fine wire instrument for sawing bone
gingivitis inflammation of gums characterized by redness, swelling and tendency to bleed
girdle structure that resembles a circular belt or band
glabella that portion of frontal bone lying between the superciliary arches just above root of nose
gland a secretory organ
glans the head of the clitoris/penis
Glasgow coma scale a scale for evaluating and quantitating the degree of coma by determining the best motor response, verbal and eye opening to standard stimuli. A score of 9 or greater bears better prognosis
glaucoma raised intraocular pressure which can end in blindness. Narrowing of filtration angle, and sclerosis of canal of Schlemm, ocular diseases are responsible
glibenclamide a sulfonylurea for diabetes
globulin simple protein present in blood
glomeruli cluster of capillary vessels enveloped in Bowman’s capsule in cortex of kidney
glomus a small round mass made up of tiny blood vessels and found in containing many nerve fibers
glossitis inflammation of tongue; can be acute, painful or chronic, due to infection or avitaminosis (B complex group)
glottis larynx with the two vocal cords and the intervening space, the rime glottides
glucagon polypeptide hormone secreted by alfa cells of pancreas that raises blood sugar and relaxes smooth muscles of GI tract
78 glucocorticoid a class of adrenal hormones that are released in response to stress and effect carbohydrate and protein metabolism
glucose called D-glucose, the primary fuel of human body, in tissue either converted to glycogen, or fat or is oxidized to CO2 and H2O
glucose tolerance test a test performed by giving 1.5 g/kg wt of glucose to a patient orally in empty stomach and then examining blood samples every ½ hr for 2 hours. The test helps to assess ability of patient to metabolize glucose and is of primary importance in diagnosis of prediabetic states and hyperinsulinemia
glucosuria abnormal amount of sugar in urine
glucuronyl transferase the liver enzyme that converts toxic fat-soluble bilirubin to water soluble form
glutaraldehyde a sterilizing agent effective against all microorganisms
glutathione a tripeptide of glutamic acid, cystine and glycine, important for cellular respiration
gluten-free diet elimination of gluten from the diet by exclusion of all products prepared from wheat, rye, barley and oats
glycerin C3H8O3. a trihydric alcohol present in chemical combination in fats used extensively as a solvent, preservative and emolient
glycerol used as osmotic cathartic in brain edema and as suppository
glyceryl the trivalent radical of glycerol
glycogen polysaccharide; the storage form of carbohydrate in the body (liver and muscle)
glycopyrrolate an anticholinergic drug used in preanesthetic medication to reduce GI and bronchial secretions
glycosuria presence of glucose in the urine resulting from insulin deficiency, reduced renal threshold, excessive glycogenolysis or adrenopituitary disorders
goblet cells a unicellular gland seen in intestinal and respiratory tract, that secretes mucus by rupture of cell wall
goiter an enlargement of thyroid gland
gonad a generic term referring to male and female sex glands (testes and ovary)
gonadal disgenesis congenital disorder with failure of ovaries to respond to pituitary gonadotropin stimulation resulting in amenorrhea, failure of sexual maturation and short stature. Webing of neck, cubitus valgus may be present. Genetic pattern is 45 XO (SYN: Turner’s syndrome)
gonadotropin secreted by anterior pituitary as FSH and LH, called interstitial cell stimulating hormone in male (ICSH). g. chorionic produced by chorionic villi of placenta
gonorrhea contagious inflammation of genital mucous membrane manifesting with burning micturition, painful induration of penis in males, vaginitis and cervicitis in females. Can 79cause salpingo-oophoritis ending in tubal blockage and sterility in female and chronic prostatitis in male. Can spread to blood to involve principally the joints
Goodel’s sign softering of the cervix during pregnancy
gout hereditary metabolic disease of uric acid metabolism with hyperuricemia and arthropathy
Graafian follicle a mature follicle of ovary which on rupture discharges the ovum. Within the ruptured Graafian follicle, the corpus luteum develops
graft transplanted tissue in a part of body for repair of a defect
Gram’s stain a staining method for microorganisms dividing them into two broad classes; Gram-positive and Gram-negative
grande multigravida woman in her fourth or subsequent pregnancy
grandiose in psychiatry, urealistic and exaggerated concept of self-worth, importance, ability, power and wealth
grand mal a generalized seizure with loss of consciousness and convulsive limb movements
granular cast coarse or fine granules or casts, sometimes yellowish, soluble in acetic acid, seen in inflammatory and degenerative nephropathies (chronic renal failure)
granulation formation of granules often by outgrowth of capillaries
granuloma a granular tumor or growth of lymphoid and epithelioid cell. It occurs in various infectious disease like leprosy, yaws, syphilis, etc.
granulosa cells the cells lining Graafian follicle, secreting estradiol
granulosa lutein cells granulosa cells after ovulation that secrete estradiol and progesterone
80 gravid pregnant
gravidity refers to the total number of a woman’s pregnancies regardless of their duration
gravity property of possessing weight, the force of earth’s gravitational attraction
gray matter nervous tissue lying peripherally in brain and somewhat centrally in spinal cord where myelinated fibers do not predominate
gray scale display the display of texture of tissue in ultrasound
gray syndrome of newborn ashen gray color, vomiting, cyanosis and flaccidity of newborn when treated with chloramphenicol
griseofulvin an antifungal antibiotic given orally
groin inguinal region, area between thigh and trunk
growth hormone anterior pituitary secretion that regulates human growth; SYN: somatotropin
grunting audible sound made by the newborn on expiration often indicating respiratory distress
gumma encapsulated granulo-matous tumor with central necorsis, characteristic of tertiary syphilis seen in skin, liver, testis, brain and bone
gum the fleshy tissue covering the alveolar process of jaw
Guthrie test a blood test for diagnosis of phenylketonuria often done on breast fed babies between 6 to 14 days
gut the bowel or intestine
gynandroid hermaphrodite
gynandromorphism mosaic of male and female sexual characteristics
gynecoid resembling female
gynecology the study of disease of female reproductive organs including breast
gynecomastia abnormally large mammary tissue in male (<2.5 cm in dm) often secreting milk
gyri the raised convolutions of brain surface

H

habit a motor pattern following frequent repetition or an involuntary act that comes as a reflex action
hair a thin keratinized and cornified structure arising from hair follicle, the shaft of hair has 3 layers, the outer cortex containing the pigment melanin. Hair of eyebrow has life of 3 to 5 months and that of head 2 to 5 years with continuous turnover
hairy tongue tongue covered with hair like papilla with threads of Aspergillus or Candida
halcinonide a corticosteroid
half life 1. time required for radioactive substance to reduce to one-half its energy due to metabolism or excretion 2. time required for radioactive nuclei undergoing decay to lose half their radioactivity 3. time taken by body to inactivate half of the administered drug/chemical (biological half life)
hallucination a sense of false perception
haloperidol antipsychotic agent used in schizophrenia
halothane fluorinated hydrocarbon used as general anesthetic
Halsted’s operation an operation for inguinal hernia; operation for breast cancer
Halsted’s suture interrupted suture for intestinal wounds
hamartoma disorganized self-limited, benign growth of normal tissue, when occurring in blood vessels called hemangioma, common to lungs and kidneys
handicap a disadvantage resulting from impairment or disability that prevents fulfillment of the role
hand presentation hand may present in transverse/oblique lie or in compound presentation
hangover headache, depression, fatigue and irritability present sometimes after consumption of alcohol or CNS depressant haploid
hapten that portion of an antigen determining its immunological specificity
haptoglobin mucorprotein accepting hemoglobin in plasma on release in hemolytic conditions. Hence haptoglobin is decreased in hemolytic disorders and increased in certain inflammatory conditions
Hartmann’s solution a solution of 0.6 gram NaCl, and 0.31 gram sodium lactate in 100 mL of water used for fluid and electrolyte replacement
hashish an extract from flower, stalk and leaves of Cannabis sativa, smoked or chewed for its euphoric effect
hay fever allergic rhinitis usually caused by airborne pollens, fungal spores
headache acute or chronic pain over the skull not confined to any nerve distribution
head circumference the circumference is 33 cm for a well-flexed head and 35 cm for deflexed head
heaf test a form of tuberculin testing
healing restoration to normal mental or physical state
82 health a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing, not being mere absence of disease or infirmity
health education educational program aimed for improving and maintaining good health
health hazard any substance, condition or circumstances not conducive to good health
hearing aid an apparatus amplifying sound, worn by persons with impaired hearing
heart a hollow muscular 4-chambered contractile pump in the chest cavity, the principal organ of circulating system
heartburn retrosternal pain due to acid peptic disease
heart lung machine a machine that takes over functions of heart and lung during open cardiac surgery
Hegar’s dilators a type of cervical dilator
Hegar’s sign softening of lower part of uterus in early pregnancy allowing fingers to meet in bimanual examination, a test of early pregnancy
Hellin’s law 1 in 89 birth is twins, 1 in 892 birth is triplet and 1 in 893 birth is quadruplets
HELLP syndrome a complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis, raised liver enzymes and low platelet
helminthiasis an infestation with worms
hemangioma 1. a benign neoplasm characterized by blood vascular channels. A cavernous hemangioma consists of large vascular spaces. A capillary hemangioma consists of many small blood vessels. 2. a benign tumor composed of newly formed blood vessels
hematemesis vomiting of blood
hematochezia passage of bloody stool
hematocrit (Packed-cell volume) 1. the percentage of the total blood volume composed of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Normal values are 42 to 45%. (2) The percentage of the total volume of a blood sample that is taken up by the red blood cells. Normal values: children, 32 to 65%; adult men, 42 to 53%, adult women 38 to 46%
hematology the scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues. h. tests diagnostic tests of the blood and its constituent parts
hematoma a mass of blood in the tissue as a result of trauma or other 83factors that cause the rupture of blood vessels. h. subdural a collection of extravasated blood trapped below the dural membranes of the brain causing pressure on the brain, resulting in pain and neural dysfunction. Subdural hematomas may be life-threatening
hematometra accumulation of blood in uterus
hematuria blood in the urine. h. gross visible evidence of blood in the urine. It may occur from neoplasms of the kidney and bladder, hemorrhagic diathesis, hypertension with renal epistaxis, or acute glomerular nephritis. h. microscopic the demonstration of hematuria during the microscopic examination of centrifuged urine. It may result from the same causes as gross hematuria or from toxicity of drugs, embolic glomerulitis, vascular diseases, or chronic glomerular nephritis
heme the pigmented, iron containing, nonprotein portion of the hemoglobin molecule
hemiplegia paralysis of one half of body
hemisphere either half of the cerebrum or cerebellum
hemoconcentration an increase in the number of red blood cells resulting from a decrease in the volume of plasma.
hemodialysis a method of removing poisonous substances, urea creatinine, etc. from plasma by passing the patient’s blood across semipermeable membr-anes, SYN: hemoperfusion
hemodynamics study of blood circulation
hemoglobin the iron containing protoporphyrin IX, responsible for carriage of oxygen from lungs to tissues
hemolytic anemia anemia resulting from hemolysis of red blood cells
hemolytic disease of newborn ABO or Rh incompatibility resulting in hemolysis, anemia, jaundice, edema and hepatic enlargement
hemolytic uremic syndrome characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute nephropathy and thrombocytopenia in children usually preceded by upper respiratory illness or GI upset
hemophilia a sex-linked hereditary disorder of coagulation with prolonged clotting time, repeated hemarthrosis and bleeding from nose or after trivial trauma. There is deficiency of factor VIII
hemorrhage bleeding either external or internal. h. antepatrtum bleeding after 28 weeks of gestation and before onset of labor. h. accidental retropla-cental bleeding. h. postpartum bleeding in excess of 500 mL after child birth
hemorrhagic disease of newborn bleeding from nose, umbilical stump in newborn due to inadequate prothrombin synthesis (premature fetal liver/poor bacterial flora)
hemorrhoid dilated tortuous veins in the anorectal region
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hemosalpinx bleeding into Fallopian tube
heparin a polysaccharide produced by mast cells of liver and basophils, inhibits conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
hepatic coma impaired CNS function due to liver dysfunction. Coma results from increased serum ammonia, false neurotransmitters and middle molecules, the toxic products of protein metabolism. Common precipitating factors are high protein diet, bleeding into GI tract (varices), infections, electrolyte imbalance, diuretics and drugs. Mousy odor, flapping tremor and EEG changes are characteristic
hepatitis B vaccine a recombinant vaccine with hepatitis B surface antigen given as 20 μg dose—3 doses, to persons at high risk
hepatitis inflammation of liver, causative agents include viruses (hepaitis A, B, C delta agent) bacteria, alcohol, drugs and autoimmune disease. Common symptoms and signs are nausea, vomiting jaundice, fever and hepatomegaly
hepatoma a primary malignant tumor of liver
hepatomegaly an enlargement of liver, may be upward or downward, commonly due to alcohol, hepatitis, amebiasis, congestive failure, infectious fevers, etc.
hereditary genetic characteristic transmitted from parent to offspring
hernia protrusion of an organ or part of it through a defect in the wall surrounding it
heroin an extract of morphine with strong analgesic and addictive potential. Acute intoxication produces euphoria, respiratory depression, hypotension and hypothemia
herpes vesiculated eruptions caused by herpes virus
heterogenous composed of different kinds of substances
heterologous 1. composed of tissue not normal to the part. 2. tissue cell or blood obtained from a different individual/species
heterosexual one whose sexual orientation is to members of opposite sex
85 heterozygote an individual with different alleles for a given characteristic
hexachlorophene polychlorinated phenol, antiseptic disinfectant
Hick’s sign Intermittent painless uterine contraction occurring after third month of pregnancy
high blood pressure blood pressure above the normal range of age. Usually 140/90 mm Hg if below 50 years and above 160/90 if above 60 years
hindwater in labor, the amniotic fluid is divided into fore and hindwaters. Fore-water is ahead of descending part and hind-water surrounds body
hippocrates Greek physician who first established the scientific basis of medical practice, hence known as father of medicine
Hippocratic oath the oath hippocrates exacted from his students which reads like “I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgement, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischiveous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked nor suggest any such counsel, and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary for abortion. With purity and holiness I will pass my life and practice my art, into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and I will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption, and further from seduction of females or males, of freemen and slaves. Whatever in connection with my professional practice, or not in connection with it, I see or hear in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. “While I continue to keep this Oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of this art, respected by all men in all times. But should I trespass and violate this Oath may the reverse be my lot”
Hirschsprung’s disease a dynamic megacolon due to failure of development of myenteric plexus in the rectosigmoid area of colon
hirsutism excessive hair growth in women
histamine a derivative of histidine that is secreted by mast cells and is responsible for triple response
histocompatibility the ability of cells to survive without any immunological influence or interference; important in blood transfusion and tissue transplantation
histology study of minute structure, composition of tissue and organs
history taking a detailed synopsis of history including life style, habits, medications, past surgical obstetric complications that help to plan of management for current pregnancy
HIV I human immunodeficiency virus I
HIV II human immunodeficiency virus II
86 HIV wasting syndrome wasting of body, a feature of HIV infection
hoarseness a rough quality of voice due to simple chronic laryngitis, vocal cord palsy or infiltration of vocal cords
Hodge pessary a pessary used to maintain position of uterus after correction of retroversion
Hodgkin’s disease a lympho-proliferative disease with painless lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and often relapsing fever. Reed-Sternberg’s giant cells in lymphnode biopsy are characteristic
Hogben test a pregnancy test based on injection of pregnant lady’s urine to dorsal lymph sac of toad; when gonadotropic hormone is present, the toad ovulates 8 to 15 hours after injection
holistic medicine comprehensive and total care of a patient, taking into account his physical, mental, social economic and spiritual needs
holter monitor an ECG recording system capable of recording ECG for 24 hours, particularly useful for recording arrhythmias, and silent ischemia
Homan’s sign pain in the calf on passive dorsiflexion of great toe, an evidence of deep vein thrombosis
homeopathy a system of alternative medicine
homeostasis state of equilibrium of internal environment of the body
homogeneous uniform in structure, composition or nature
homologous having the same structure or pattern
homosexual individual attracted to a person of same sex; female homosexuality is known as lesbianism
homozygous having a pair of similar genes
hookworm the intestinal parasite inhabiting duodenum and jejunum and sucks blood for its nourishment
87 hormone a chemical substance secreted to bloodstream with specific regulatory action
Horner’s syndrome myosis, ptosis, enophthalmos and loss of sweating overaffected side of face due to paralysis of cervical sympathetic trunk
host the organism on which the parasite lives and draws its nourishment
hot water bag a rubber or plastic bag for application of dry heat or keeping moist applications warm
hourglass constriction a constriction ring in uterus occurring during third stage of labor and causes placental retention
human insulin insulin prepared by recombinant DNA technology using E. coli
human placental lactogen placental secretion that helps to prepare the breast for milk secretion
humerus bone of upper arm that articulates with scapula above and radius-ulna below
Huntington’s disease mucopoly saccharidosis II
Hutchinson’s teeth a feature of congenital syphilis in which the lateral incisors are peg-shaped and the central incisors are notched
hyaline it refers to any alteration within cell or in the extracellular space, which gives a homogenous, glassy, pink appearance in histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin
hyaluronic acid an acid mucopolysaccharide forming the ground substance of connective tissue; functioning as a binding and protective agent
hyaluronidase an enzyme that deploymerizes hyaluronic acid, thereby increases permeability of connective tissues
hydatidiform mole degenerative process of chorionic villi with formation of multiple cysts within uterus
hydralazine antihypertensive acting through vasomotor center in CNS
hydramnios an excess of liquor amnii around the developing fetus
hydrocele fluid accumulation in tunica vaginalis testes or in any sac-like cavity
hydrocephalus increased content of CSF within the ventricles resulting from decreased absorption of CSF, its increased production or blockage to its circulation resulting from developmental anomalies, infection, injury or tumor
hydrochloric acid produced by oxyntic cells of gastric glands, serves to convert pepsinogen into pepsin, dissolves and disintegrates nucleoproteins, 88precipitates caseinogen, hydrolyzes sucrose, inhibits bacterial multiplication, etc.
hydrocortisone a steroid hormone of adrenal cortex
hydronephrosis collection of fluid in renal pelvic caliceal system usually due to obstruction to urine flow, ultimately causing atrophy of renal parenchyma
hydrophobia morbid fear for water, synonym for rabies in which attempt to drink water causes spasm of pharynx due to CNS irritation
hydrops fetalis severe edema of the fetus due to Rh/ABO incompatibility
hydrosalpinx distended Fallopian tube due to accumulated secretions
hygiene study of methods and means of preserving health
hymen a fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the entrance to vagina
hyoscine scopolamine
hyperacidity excess of acid in stomach
hyperbilirubinemia a condition when there is an excessive amount of bilirubin in the blood; excessive levels can lead to brain damage
hypercalcemia excessive amount of calcium in the blood (>12.2 mg%) either idiopathic or secondary to malignancy, prolonged recumbency, vit D intoxication, etc.
hyperemesis gravidarum severe vomiting of early pregnancy due to hydatidiform mole
hyperesthesia increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli especially pain and touch
hyperglycemia accumulation of amino acid glycine in blood manifesting with mental and growth retardation
hyperkalemia serum potassium exceeding 5 mEq/L
hyperlipoproteinemia increased lipoprotein content in blood due to increased synthesis or decreased breakdown
hypermenorrhea abnormal increase in duration or amount of menstrual blood loss
hypernatremia excess sodium content of blood (>150 mEq/L)
hyperplasia excessive growth of normal cells with normal tissue architecture
hyperprolactinemia amenorrhea, galactorrhea produced by increased serum prolactin due to hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction
hyperpyrexia body temperature exceeding 106°F (41.1°C)
89 hypersplenism enlarged spleen with enhanced removal of blood components from circulation
hypertelorism abnormal width between two paired organs, usually the eyes
hypertension blood pressure considered abnormally high for an age
hyperthermia unusual high fever; a treatment modality by which foreign protein is introduced into body to raise body temperature
hyperthyroidism increased production of thyroid hormones with palpitation weight loss, stare BMR
hypertonic having high osmotic pressure or having greater than normal tension
hypertonic uterus labor contractions lasting longer than 90 seconds, caused by too much stimulation of the uterus
hypertrophy nontumorous enlargement of an organ or structure due to increase in size or number of cells
hyperuricemia increased serum uric acid (8 mg%)
hyperventilation increased rate and depth of inspiration and expiration
hyperviscosity excess adhesive-ness or stickiness property of fluid, commonly blood
hypervitaminosis excessive vitamin content of body tissues, commonly involves, fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K; usually secondary to excess ingestion
hypervolemia abnormal increase in volume of circulating blood
hypnotic drugs that cause insensitivity to pain by inducing hypnosis
hypocalcemia decreased plasma calcium manifesting with stridor and tetany
hypocapnea decreased CO2 tension in blood
hypocarbia decreased CO2 in blood
hypochlorhydria decreased HCl secretion in stomach often indicative of malignancy of stomach
hypochondriac abnormal and excessive fear of disease
hypochondrium part of the abdomen below the lower ribs
hypochromasia lack of hemoglobin in RBC SYN: hypochromia
hypodermic inserted under the skin
hypogammaglobulinemia decrea-sed gammaglobulin concentration in blood leading to frequent infections; can be congenital or acquired (AIDS)
hypogastrium region below the umbilicus, between the right and left inguinal regions
hypoglycemia decreased blood glucose below 50 mg% manifesting as tremor, sweating, weakness, etc.
hypomagnesemia decreased plasma magnesium with neuromuscular excitability
hypomenorrhea decreased menstrual flow
hyponatremia decreased blood sodium concentration (<130 mEq/L)
90 hypoparathyroidism insufficient parathormone production with hypocalcemia and tetany
hypopituitarism diminished pituitary hormone secretion secondary to pituitary destruction by tumor, infraction, compression resulting in secondary dysfunction of thyroid, adrenal, testis/ovary and growth disturbance in children
hypoplasia underdevelopment of a part or organ
hypospadias abnormal urethral opening, either in the under surface of glans, penile shaft or in perineum
hypostasis diminished blood flow or circulation
hypotension abnormally low blood pressure
hypothalamus the portion of diencephalon comprising the ventral wall of third ventricle and adjacent structures responsible for regulation of body temperature, sugar and releasing and inhibiting hormones. It is the principal center for integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities
hypothermia subnormal (below 96ºF) body temperature, induced for open heart surgery and neurological procedures
hypothyroidism deficiency of thyroid hormones causing thick coarse hair, dry, thick inelastic skin, hoarse voice, obesity, depressed muscular activity, slow pulse and hypercholesterolemia. Mental retardation and growth failure may occur in children (cretinism)
hypotonia loss of muscle or arterial tone
hypotonic refers to solutions which are more dilute than physiological saline. h. buterus weak ineffective uterine contraction causing prolongation of labor
hypotonic labor occurs during the active phase of labor causing ineffectual contractions and a lack of progression of labor
91 hypovolemia diminished circulating blood volume
hypovolemic pertaining to hypovolemia. h. shock or hemorrhagic shock can occur following antepartum or postpartum hemorrhage
hypoxemia insufficient oxygen content of blood
hypoxia decreased O2 concentration in inspired air
hysterectomy h. supracervical operation in which only the main body of the uterus is removed, to the level of the internal os, leaving the cervix in place. Also called as subtotal hysterectomy. total h removal of the entire uterus
hysterectomy surgical removal of uterus either by abdominal or vaginal route. It can be subtotal, total or radical. In radical hysterectomy (Wertheim’s operation) uterus, tubes, ovaries, adjacent lymph nodes and part of vagina are removed, usually done in stage I and II cancer cervix
hysteria a conversion disorder in which patient transforms long-standing mental conflict into somatic symptoms. There is no organic disease to account for the symptoms. Patient is amnesic for the period of illness as the primary consciousness reasserts itself
hysterography recording of frequency and intensity of uterine contractions
hysteromyomectomy excision of uterine fibroid
hysterosalpingectomy excision of uterus and tubes
hysterosalpingography X-ray visualization of uterus and the tubes by introduction of contrast media
hysterosalpingostomy anastomosis of uterus with the remaining healthy portion of Fallopian tube after excision of diseased part
hysterotomy incision of uterus as in evacuation of mole, dead fetus or cesarean section

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iatrogenic adverse body effect induced by drug, procedure or the doctor
ibuprofen a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent
icebag a watertight bag to hold ice for cold sponging over bruised or sprained area
ichthammol a reddish-brown viscous fluid acting as an antiseptic, often used in ear-dressing and skin applications
ichthyosis condition in which skin is dry, scaly resembling fish skin. Ichthyosis vulgaris is hereditary
icterus pertains to jaundice
identical exactly alike
identity the physical and mental characteristic by which an individual is known and recognized
ideology a philosophy, the science of ideas and thoughts
idiocy severe mental deficiency due to defective mental development, the cause of which may be genetic, vascular or birth asphyxia
idiopathic a disease without recognizable cause
idoxuridine antiviral agent; used for herpes infection of eye in the form of ointment 2%
IgA principally present in exocrine secretions like milk, saliva, intestinal secretions and tear. Hence it protects against mucosal invasion by pathogenic organism. IgE is secreted by mast cells and is responsible for allergy, asthma, eczema, etc. IgG is the principal immunoglobulin and is the major antibody against bacteria, viruses and fungi. IgM is formed during early period of antigenic stimulation or infection
ileocecal valve A muscular ring at the terminal ileum that regulates passage of food from small intestine to large intestine and prevents re-entry of food back into small intestine
ileum lower 3/5 of small intestine from jejunum to ileocecal valve. Average length 15 to 31 feet
ileus a form of intestinal obstruction due to intestinal muscle paralysis, spasm or obstruction in intestinal lumen, e.g. meconium ileus of newborn
iliac crest upper free margin of hip bone or ileum
iliac region inguinal region on either side of hypogastrium
iliac spine one of the four spines of ilium namely the anterior and posterior inferior spines, and the anterior and posterior superior spines
ilium the upper broad part of innominate bone
illusion inaccurate perception, misinterpretation of sensory impressions; when an illusion becomes fixed, it is called delusion
imaging production of image of an object by X-ray, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, etc.
imatinib anticancer agent for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
imbalance loss of balance usually between opposing body forces
93 imipramine a tricyclic antidepressant, also used in migraine and enuresis
immature not fully developed or mature
immune protected from or resistant to disease due to development of antibodies
immune system a biochemical complex that protects the body against pathogenic organisms and other foreign bodies. The system incorporates the humoral immune response, which produces antibodies to react with specific antigents, and the cell-mediated response, which uses T cells to mobilize tissue macrophages in the presence of a foreign body. The immune system also protects the body from invasion by creating local barriers and inflammation. The principal organs of the immune response system include the bone marrow, the thymus, and the lymphoid tissues
immunity state of being protected against disease either by previous infection or by vaccine. i. acquired immunity due to active or passive immunization. i. cell-mediated the T cells interact with antigen with a delayed response as seen in graft rejection or infection with tuberculosis, leprosy. i. natural immunity conferred by natural inherent factors like race, species. i. passive immunity due to transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies, antibodies secreted in milk or injection of hyperimmune specific sera
immunization the process of rendering a person immune by active (toxoid, inactivated, killed organisms) or passive process
immunoassay assay of concentration of a substance by using the reaction of an antigen with specific antibody
immunoglobulin proteins capable of acting with antigens; can be IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD and IgM
immunological pregnancy test test based on hCG in urine hCG antibodies are added to urine so also latex particles covered with hCG. In absence of pregnancy, there will be agglutination
immunology study of immunity to disease
immunosuppressant agent supp-ressing body immune response, usually employed in treatment of autoimmune diseases
impaction condition of being tightly wedged into a part, e.g. tooth impaction, impaction of feces in bowel
impairment any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function
imperforate without an opening. In imperforate hymen, the menstrual blood accumulates behind to cause hematocolpus. In imperforate anus, the infant has absolute constipation
impetigo inflammatory skin disease marked by formation of pustules which rupture with crust formation, may occur in crops, are contagious. i. herpetiformis a rare pustular 94eruption of unknown etiology that occurs especially during pregnancy and in association with hypocalcemia
implant introduction into body tissues, drugs or prosthesis, e.g. knee implant, drug implant
impotency inability of male to achieve erection, can be anatomic (defect in the genitalia), atonic (paralysis of nervi erigentis), functional or vasculogenic
impregnate saturate, to make pregnant
impulsion idea to do something or commit some act suddenly imposed upon the subject that tortures him until the accomplishment of that act
inborn error of metabolism a hereditary disease caused by deficiency of a specific enzyme
incarcerated confined, constricted, constriction as in hernia, incarceration of retroverted gravid uterus—the uterus is imprisoned under sacral promontory
incest coitus between close relatives
incidence the frequency of occurrence of any event or condition over a period of time in a specified population
incidental hemorrhage bleeding from vagina due to extraplacental causes like cervical polyp, erosion, vaginitis, etc.
incise to cut, as with a sharp instrument
incompatible not being in harmony
incompetence inadequacy in function of a part or organ or commonly a valve (ileocecal, mitral, aortic, pulmonary, venous, etc.)
incompetent cervix a condition in which the cervix dilates prematurely, causing a spontaneous abortion or preterm delivery
incomplete abortion abortion in which placenta is retained
incontinence inability to retain urine, feces because of sphincter laxity
incontinence stress (urinary) leaking of urine during coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting, etc.
incoordination inability to produce harmonious, rhythmic muscular movement
incubation interval between exposure to an infection and appearance of first symptoms; in bacteriology period of culture
incubator 1. enclosed crib in which temperature and humidity are controlled for nursing premature babies 2. apparatus for maintaining bacterial culture
indigenous native to a country or region
indigestion imperfect digestion manifesting as nausea, vomiting, heart burn, belching, etc.
indomethacin antiprostaglandin agent with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties
induction the process of facilitating labor with oxytoxic drugs
inertia 1. sluggishness, lack of activity 2. in physics, tendency of body to remain in its state uptil acted upon by external force. i. uterine absence of uterine contractions
95 inevitable that which cannot be avoided i. abortion abortion is sure to occur and unavoidable
infant from time of birth to one year of age. i. preterm born prior to 37 weeks of gestation. i. post-term born after 42 weeks of gestation. i. term born between 38 to 41 weeks of gestation
infanticide killing of an infant
infant mortality rate the number of death of infants below 1 year of age for every 1000 live births registered in a given year
infarct area of necrosis consequent to cessation of blood supply
infection tissue invasion with pathogenic agent that produces injurious effect. i. acute infection appearing suddenly. i. chronic infection having protracted course. i. concurrent existence of two or more infections at the same time. i. cross transfer of one disease from one hospitalized patient to another. i. droplet infection acquired through microorganisms disbursed to air via breath or nasobronchial secretion. i. pyogenic infection by pusforming organisms. i. lowgrade mild inflammation without pus formation
infectious disease disease caused by an infecting agent, not necessarily contagious
infertility inability to conceive. i. primary not conceived in past. i. secondary had conceived but aborted
infiltration the process of passing into or through a substance or space
inflammation tissue reaction to injury with vasodilatation, exudation, leukocyte migration followed by healing. i. acute rapid onset and short course. i. catarrhal inflammation of mucous membrane with excessive mucous secretion. i. exudative inflammation with extreme vasodilatation, and large accumulation of blood cells. i. granulomatous inflammation with excessive granular tissue production as in tuberculosis, syphilis and systemic fungal infections
influenza a viral acute contagious upper respiratory infection
influenza virus vaccine vaccine containing inactivated influenza virus A and B; given every year with different strains of A and B
infrared rays invisible heat rays beyond the red end of spectrum, of 7500 to 150,000 AU used for local application of heat and pain relief
infundibulum 1. funnel-shaped passage or structure. 2. tube connecting the frontal sinus with middle nasal meatus. 3. stalk of pituitary gland. 4. peritoneal end of Fallopian tube. 5. upper end of cochlear canal
infusion liquid substance introduced into body vein
ingestion intake of food or the process by which cells take foreign particles
inguinal canal the canal ½” long, providing passage for spermatic 96cord in the male and round ligament of uterus in the female. A potential source of weakness; may serve as site of inguinal hernia and undescended testis
inguinal ring interior and exterior openings of inguinal canal, termed as internal and external inguinal rings
inhalation the act of drawing in the breath, vapor or gas into the lungs
inhaler device for administering medicines by inhalation
inheritance something hereditary, acquired through eggs and sperms
inhibition 1. restraint of a function. 2. in physiology slowing or stopping the function of an organ. i. competitive inhibition by competing with cell receptors. i. psychic arrest of an impulse, thought, action or speech
iniencephalus congenitally deformed fetus in which brain substance protrudes through a fissure in the occiput
injection forcing a fluid into body via vessel or skin. i. epidural injection of anesthetic agent into epidural - space. i. hypodermic injection of substance beneath the skin. i. alveolar dental infiltration of anesthetic agent. i. intramuscular injection directly into muscles, e.g. thigh, deltoid, glutei. i. intra-articular injection into joint space. i. z. track an injection technique, the needle taking a Z track to make the injected fluid difficult to track back (see Figure)
inlet pelvic the barrier the entrance to the true pelvis
innate something natural, belonging from birth
inner cell mass the group of cells in the cavity of blastocyst from which the amniotic membrane and fetus develop
innervation nerve supply, distribution and function of nervous system. i. collateral outgrowth of nerves from adjacent nerves, once the original nerve supply is damaged. i. reciprocal an innervation mechanism by which if flexors are stimulated, the extensors are inhibited
innominate bone the hip bone composed of ilium, ischium and pubis
innominate nameless
inoculate to inject microorganism, serum or toxic materials into body
inoculation the process of being inoculated
inquest investigation into cir-cumstances, manner and cause of health
insanitary not conducive to health
insemination fertilization of ovum, semen discharge into vagina during coitus
insertion 1. placement or implanting of something into another. 2. distal end of muscle attachment through which it moves a part
insidious used to denote the onset of a disease so silently without patient’s awareness
insomnia lack of sleep
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inspection visual examination
inspiration sprinkling with powder or a fluid
instillation slowly pouring or dropping a liquid into body cavity
insufficiency inadequacy of function. i. adrenal decreased adrenal function. i. aortic. imperfect closure of aortic leaflets with back flow. i. cardiac poor cardiac pump function. i. coronary. diminished blood flow through coronary vessels. i. hepatic hepatic insufficiency with cholemia. i. mitral inefficient mitral valve closure with backflow of blood into left atrium during ventricular systole. i. respiratory hypoxemia and hypercarbia due to poor pulmonary function
insufflate the act of blowing into or pumping air into a cavity/lung as in infants
insulin Hormone secreted by the beta cells of islets of Langer-hans of pancreas. i. human synthesized by recombinant DNA technology using E. coli.i. monocomponent highly purified insulin containing impurity 10 parts per million. i. isophane (NPH) intermediate acting insulin with 18 to 28 hours of action
98 insulin pump a battery driven pump delivering insulin subcutaneously into abdominal wall according to preset program
insulin shock hypoglycemic shock due to overdose of insulin
interaction the process of two or more things acting on each other
intercourse sexual union; social interaction between individuals or groups
intercurrent intervening
intermission interval between two paroxysm of disease
intermittent fever fever in which there is complete absence of symptoms between paroxysms
intermittent positive pressure breathing, assisted breathing in patients of respiratory failure, myasthenia gravis
internal injury any injury not visible from outside
internal os the opening through which cervical canal communicates with body of uterus
internal version usually internal podalic version that aims at converting oblique lie longitudinal
intersex a person having both male and female sex characteristics but genetically either male or female
intertrigo superficial dermatitis of the skin folds
interval space, time or period between two objects or happenings. i.AV interval between beginning of atrial systole and ventricular systole. i. cardioarterial time between apex beat and radial pulse. i. isometric time between onset of ventricular systole and opening of semilunar (aortic-pulmonary) valves. i. lucid brief remission of symptoms in head injury and psychosis. i. PR period between onset of P wave and beginning of QRS complex. Normal-less than 0.2 sec. i. QR period between onset of Q wave and peak of R wave. i. QRS QRS duration from beginning of Q wave to end of S wave. Normal 0.12 sec. i. QT interval between beginning of Q wave and end of T wave
intestine the alimentary canal extending from pylorus to anus. The small intestine is 7 meter long and the large intestine 1.5 meter. Cecum is the beginning of large intestine and appendix (3-4” long) is attached to it. The duodenum is 8 to 10” long; jejunum 9 feet and ileum 14 feet. In the wall of the small intestine are Brunners glands, crypts of Lieberkuhn and Peyer’s patches
intracellular within a cell, i. organism those organisms that invade cell, e.g. Gonococcus. i fluid the fluid within cell
intracranial within the cranium. i. pressure the pressure exerted by CSF with subarachnoid space and ventricles of the brain
intragasrtric balloon placement of inflatable balloon in stomach to treat obesity
intrapartum occuring during childbirth
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intraperitoneal within peritoneal cavity. i. transfusion introduction of Rh negative blood into peritoneal cavity of Rh positive fetus
intrauterine contraceptive device copper or other metalic device placed within uterus to prevent conception
intrauterine within the uterus
intravenous infusion injection of colloid or crystalloid solutions into a vein to treat hypovolemia or maintenance
intraventricular hemorrhage cerebral hemorrhage in a preterm baby
intrinsic factor substance present in the gastric juice that facilitates absorption of vit B12
introitus entrance into a canal or cavity
intubation to insert a tube, e.g. into larynx
intussusception swelling up or enlarging
in utero (Latin) Inside the uterus
inversion reversal of normal relationship; turning inside out. i. uterine uterus is turned inside out with internal surface protruding at vagina, a serious complication of placental delivery and causes of post-partum bleeding
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in vitro outside the living body, e.g. tests done in laboratory involving isolated tissue or cell preparation
in vivo within the living body or organism
involution turning inward, reduction in size of uterus following delivery, the retrogressive change in vital pro-cesses after their functions have been fulfilled
iodide a compound of iodine, e.g. pot iodide
iodine tincture preparation of iodine in alcohol and water
ion a particle carrying an electric charge. Ions carrying positive charge aggregate near cathode and those with negative charge near anode
iontophoresis introduction of various ions into the skin by means of electricity
ipratropium bromide an anti-cholinergic given by inhalation in bronchial asthma
iris the organ between lens and cornea. i. bombe bulging of iris forwards with annular posterior synechia
iritis inflammation of the iris, with photophobia, lacrimation, irregular pupil, dull-muddy looking iris. i. plastic iritis with fibrinous exudate
iron-dextran injectable form of iron
iron a metallic element existing as Ferrous (Fe++) and Ferric (Fe+++) forms, essential part of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Adult requirement of iron is 0.5 to 1 mg per day; manganese, copper and cobalt are necessary for proper utilization of iron
irradiation therapeutic application of X-ray, radium as in malignancy
ischemia lack of blood supply
ischiocavernosus an erectile muscle extending from ischium to penis or clitoris
ischiococcygeus coccygeus muscle forming posterior portion of levator ani
ischiorectal fossa pararectal fat-filled fossa bounded laterally by obturator internus and ischial tuberosity, posteriorly by gluteus maximus and medially by levator ani
isoantigen a substance present in certain individuals that stimulates production of antibody in other members SYN: alloantigen
isochromosome a chromosome with arms that are morphologically identical and contain the same genetic loci
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isoimmunization immunization of an individual against the blood of another individual of same species
isolation limitation of movement and social contact of patients suffering from or a known carrier of communicable disease
isomer substances having same molecular formula but different chemical and physical properties, e.g. dextrose is an isomer of levulose
isometric contraction contraction without change in muscle length, i.e. tension development without any mechanical work
isoniazid antitubercular agent, bacteriocidal, can cause peripheral neuritis
isopropyl alcohol C3H8O, an alcohol used in medical preparations for external use, antifreeze, cosmetics, and as a solvent
isothenuria passage of urine having constant specific gravity; a sign of advanced renal disease
isotonic exercise contraction of a muscle during which the force of resistance to the movement remains constant throughout the range of motion
isotonic solution a solution with osmotic pressure same as that of another solution with which it is compared
isotope elements with nearly identical chemical properties but different atomic weights and electric charges
isoxsuprine hydrochloride a vasodilator and smooth muscle relaxant
isthmus a narrow passage connecting two cavities, a narrow structure connecting two larger parts, a constriction between two larger parts
itch irritation of skin inducing desire to scratch. i. barber’s fungus infection of beard area. i. dhobie fungus infection of groin and perineum. i. ground itching in feet due to penetration by hookworm larva. i. swimmer’s dermatitis due to swimming in water containing larvae form of schistosomes
itraconazole antifungal agent
ivy method a method for estimation of bleeding time

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jacket a bandage usually applied to the trunk to immobilize the spine or correct deformities
Jacquemier’s sign blue or purple color of vagina in early pregnancy
jactitation restless to and fro movement of body
jamais vu feeling of being placed in a strange environment or unfamiliarity; a feature of temporal lobe epilepsy
jargon speech or writing that includes unfamiliar terms or abbreviations
jaundice yellow coloration of skin, conjunctiva and mucous membranes due to hyperbilirubinemia. j. acholuric jaundice with clear urine, i.e. unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia of hemolysis. j. cholestatic conjugated hyper-bilirubinemia due to stasis of bile excretion, either intrahepatic or extrahepatic. j. hemolytic. jaundice due to hemolysis. j. hepatocellular jaundice due to hepatitis. j. obstructive conjugated hyperbilirubinemia with itching due to bile duct stricture, compression or luminal obstruction
jaw Either of the two bones which support the teeth; upper one is known as maxilla and the lower one is mandible
jejunitis Inflammation of jejunum
jejunocolostomy anastomosis of jejunum and ileum as in Crohn’s disease
jejunum the second portion of small intestine next to duodenum, about 8 feet in length, making about 2/5 of small intestine
jelly a thick semisolid gelatinous substance. j. Wharton’s soft gelatinous connective tissue that constitutes the matrix of umbilical cord
joint an articulation, between two bones. Joints are grouped according to motion: ball and socket (enarthrosis), hinge (ginglymus); condyloid, pivot (trochoid), gliding (arthrodial) and saddle joint. Joints can move in four ways 1. gliding, in which one bony surface glides on another without angular or rotatory movement. 2. angular 3. circumduction and 4. rotation. Angular movement when occurs forwards or backwards is called flexion and extension and away from the body abduction and towards median plain of body adduction. j.ball and socket rounded end of one bone fits into cavity of another. j. Charcots denervated joint with increased range of movement as in syringomyelia and tabes dorsalis. j. condyloid joint permitting all forms of angular movements except axial rotation. j. hinge joint having only forward and backward motion. j. pivot joint permitting rotation. j. saddle joint in which the opposing surfaces are reciprocally concavoconvex
joint capsule the sac-like covering enclosing the articulating ends of bones in a diarthrodial joint. It consists of an outer fibrous layer and inner synovial layer
103 joule work done in one second by current of one ampere against a resistance of one Ohm
jugular foramen opening formed by jugular notches of the occipital and temporal bones
jugular process Projection of occipital bone towards the temporal bone
jugular vein 1. external lies superficial to sternocleidomastoid and joins subclavian vein. 2. internal is direct continuation of transverse sinus and joins subclavian vein to form innominate vein. The vein is more prominent during expiration. The height of pulsating blood column in internal jugular gives an indication of right atrial pressure
junction the place of union of two parts
jurisprudence the scientific study or application of the principles of law and justice j. medical the application of the principles of law as they relate to the practice of medicine
justo minor pelvis a small gynecoid pelvic in which all diameters are proportionately reduced
juvenile youth or childhood
juxta close proximity
juxtaglomerular apparatus the myoepithelioid cell structure cuffing afferent renal arteriole concerned with production of renin
juxtaposition positioned side-by-side

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Kahn test a blood test for syphilis diagnosis
kala-azar protozoal tropical disease caused by Leishmania donovani manifesting with fever, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly with darkening of skin
kalium device for determining alkalinity of a substance
kaliuresis excretion of potassium in urine
kanamycin aminoglycoside antibiotic, used in tuberculosis
kaolin clay powder containing hydrated aluminum silicate used as adsorbent in diarrhea
kaolinosis pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of kaolin particles
karman catheter catheter used in performing suction curettage of uterus
karyocyte nucleated red blood cell, normoblast
karyotype a photomicrograph of a single cell in the metaphase to show chromosomes in descending order of size
Kawasaki’s disease mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome; children are the prime victims and run a risk of coronary arteritis with infarction
kegal exercise an exercise for strengthening the pubococcygeal levator ani muscles in control of urinary and fecal incontinence
keloid hypertrophied, raised, firm, thick scar following trauma or surgical incision
keratin a tough protein substance in hair, nail, horny tissue, produced by keratinocytes
keratinization the process of keratin formation within keratinocytes and its progress upward through the layers of epidermis to the surface stratum corneum
keratitis inflammation of cornea
keratomalacia softening of cornea as in childhood vitamin A deficiency
keratoplasty plastic surgery of cornea. k. optic replacement of corneal scar with healthy donor corneal tissue. k. refractive treatment of myopia or hypermetropia by reshaping corneal curvature either by multiple incision or as in keratomileusis
keratoprotein the protein of hair, nail and epidermis
kernicterus bilirubin infiltration of basal ganglia and other areas of brain and spinal cord occurring in erythroblastosis fetalis of newborns when unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia touches 25 mg% or above
Kernig’s sign reflex spasm and pain in hamstrings when attempting to extend the knee after flexion of hip; a sign of meningitis
ketamine a nonbarbiturate analgesic-hypnotic substance used IM/IV
ketoacidosis acidosis due to excess of ketone bodies
ketone bodies a group of compounds produced during oxidation of fatty acids and include acetone, beta hydroxy butyric acid and acetoacetic acid
105 ketosis the accumulation in the body of the ketones causing acidosis commonly occurring in starvation, high fat diet, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, following ether anesthesia. They impart a fruity odor to the breath
kick chart a chart that records fetal movements; a minimum of 10 fetal movements per day indicates baby’s well being else doctor be consulted
kidney paired retroperitoneal structures, one on each side of spinal column, wt—4 to 6 OZ, size 4” long, 2 to 3” broad. The kidneys in the newborn are about 3 times as large in proportion to body weight as in the adult. The outer cortex contains the glomeruli, 1 million in number. The inner medulla contains the pyramids 8 to 18 in number made up of collecting tubules being penetrated by cortical substance. Known as columns of Bellini; kidneys are instrumental to the formation of urine which in 95% water and 5% solids (urea, uric acid, cretinine, hippuric acid, sodium and potassium); conversion of vit D into active form and secretion of renin and erythropoietin. k. artificial hemodialysis device that removes wastes like that of kidney. k. contracted the small kidneys characteristic of chronic glomerulonephritis or interstitial nephritis. k. fatty kidney with fatty infiltration causing degeneration of renal substance. k. flee bitten arteriosclerotic kidney. k. floating displaceable and movable kidney due to weak fascial support. k. granular kidney of chronic nephritis where it is small, and of fibrous hard granular texture. k. horseshoe congenital malformation where the upper or lower poles of both kidneys united by a fibrous isthmus. k. polycystic kidney with multiple cysts, congenital in origin, can be adult onset type or infantile type. k. sacculated a condition in which renal parenchyma is absorbed leaving behind the distended capsule. k. sponge multiple small cysts in the renal parenchyma. k. wandering hypermobile kidney
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kidney failure Diminished function of the kidneys. This may be acute and temporary or may progress to complete loss of renal function
kidney stone calculus present in renal parenchyma, calyx or renal pelvis, composed principally of calcium, urate, oxalate, phosphates and carbonates, ranging from small granular masses to 5 cm or more in diameter. Most common in patients of hyperparathyroidism, oxaluria, gout and chronic pyelonephritis
Kielland’s forcep a forceps for rotation of baby in pelvis as it has no pelvic curve
kinesiology the study of muscles and body movement
Klebsiella short mump gram-negative bacilli, encapsulated, nonspore forming frequently causing respiratory infection. K. pneumoniae a species causing pneumonia. K. rhinoscleromatis species causing rhinoscleroma, a destructive granuloma of nose and pharynx
Kleihauer test a microscopic test to detect fetal cells in maternal circulation
kleptomaniac a psychopathic personality suffering from impulsive stealing
Klinefelter’s syndrome XXY chromosomal disorder of male manifesting with gynecomastia, tall height, subnormal intelligence, small firm testes
Klumpke’s palsy atrophic paralysis of forearm usually due to birth trauma with stretching, avulsion of brachial plexus
knee femerotibial articulation covered anteriorly with patella. k. internal derangement pertains to a knee with injury to collateral/cruciate ligaments, the menisci, fracture of tibial spine. k. housemaid bursitis of bursa anterior to patella due to prolonged kneeling. k. knock outward bending of legs allowing the knees to touch each other. SYN: genu valgum. k. locked. inability to extend the leg due to torn semilunar cartilage
knee chest position position in which patient is on knees with thighs straight, head and upper part of chest resting on table and arms crossed in front of head. Employed for sigmoidoscopic examination of colon and rectum, repositioning of retroverted uterus or displaced ovary
107 knee presentation a type of breech presentation in which knees lie below the buttocks
knot 1. in surgery, the intertwining of the ends of a suture, ligature, bandage so that the ends will not slip or get loose. 2. An intertwining of a cord or cord-like structure to form a knob or lump
Kocher’s forceps artery forcep used to clamp the umbilical cord, also used for rupture
koilonychia dystrophy of finger nails, thinning, spooning as in iron deficiency anemia
Koplik’s spot of membrane small red spots with blue white centers on the oral mucosa opposite the molars, a diagnostic sign of measles
Korotkoff’s sounds sounds heard in auscultation of blood pressure
kraurosis atrophy and dryness of skin and mucous membrane, esp. of vulva, malignant degeneration may occur
Krukenberg’s tumor a malignant tumor of ovary, usually bilateral and frequently secondary to malignancy of GI tract (through peritoneal seedling)
kwashiorkor A severe protein deficiency syndrome in children manifesting with lethargy, dry brittle hair, growth failure, subcutaneous edema, skin changes and hepatomegaly
kyphoscoliosis forward bending of spine along with increased lateral curvature
kyphosis excessive curvature of spine with convexity backwards. May be congenital or secondary to compression fracture, malignancy. SYN: hump back

L

la 50 the total body surface size of a burn that will kill 50% of victims, used for statistical analysis of mortality figures in burn patients labetalol both alpha and beta-blocker used in hypertension
labile unstable, emotions that are easily changeable
labioplasty plastic surgery of labium majus or minus
labium a lip-shaped structure, a fleshy margin or fold
labor the onset of forceful uterine contraction to expel the fetus; divided into three phases, first: from onset of contraction till full dilatation of cervix, second: from full dilatation till delivery of fetus and third: delivery of placenta. l. arrested failure of progression of labor. l. dry premature rupture of membranes with escape of liquor. l. false uterine contractions that do not prog-ress. l. induced labor precipitated by drugs, (oxytocics) or artificial rupture of membrane. l. obstructed arrest in progress of labor due to cephalopelvic disproportion, contraction ring, abnormal fetal position, etc. l. precipitate rapidly progressing labor threatening fetal and maternal injury. l. prolonged extended duration of labor as first phase exceeding 20 hours in nullipara, 14 hours in multipara or cervical dilatation less than 1.2 cm/hr in nullipara and 1.5 cm in multipara
laceration tearing of tissues with ragged irregular margins and surrounding contusion. l. first degree obstetric laceration of perineum involving the fourchette, vaginal mucosa, and skin but not underlying fascia and muscle. l. second degree obstetric involves underlying fascia and muscle but does not extend to anal sphincter. l. third degree obstetric laceration 109extends to involve anal sphincter. l. fourth degree obstetric laceration involves anal sphincter and rectum with rectovaginal fistula
lacrimation production of tears, weeping
lactalbumin proteins in milk that are not precipitated with ammonium sulfate. They include alpha and beta lactalbumins
lactation secretion of milk by the breast
lactic acid a product of anaerobic glycolysis in muscles and by milk-souring bacteria
lactiferrous capable of producing, transporting or secreting milk
lactobacillus gram positive, anaerobic nonspore forming bacilli producing D or L lactic acid in the milk
lactoferrin iron binding protein of milk
lactogen agent stimulating lactation, like prolactin; human placental lactogen is a polypeptide hormone structurally related to human growth hormone and prolactin secreted by placenta. It is essential in maintenance of growth of fetus
lactoglobulin a milk protein with a concentration of 3g/L in cow’s milk, second only to casein among milk proteins
lactose the principal sugar of milk hydrolyzed by β galactosidase to glucose and galactose. Those deficient in this enzyme have discomfort on drinking milk
lactosuria presence of lactose in the urine
lactulose an oral laxative
Lamaze method a method for preparation of childbirth training the body and mind for modifying pain perception during labor
lambda the 11th letter of Greek alphabet; the junction of sagittal and lambdoid sutures
lamivudine (3TC) antiviral, nucleoside analog; inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase; also inhibits RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase; used in combination with zidovudine for the treatment of HIV infection
lamotrigene antiepileptic; may be result of blockage of voltage-dependent sodium channels with inhibition of excitatory amino acids; used in adjunctive treatment of refractive partial seizures in adults
Lancefield classification classification of hemolytic streptococci into different groups based on type of hemolysis
lancet a small surgical blade, used for making small drainage incisions
110 lancinating Sudden sharp transient pain as if tearing into pieces
Landsteiner’s classification classification of blood groups into A, B, AB and O
lanolin a waxy fatty secretion of sebaceous glands of the sheep deposited on wool fibers, used as an ointment base
lansoprazole proton pump inhibitor, used in peptic ulcer
lanugo the fine downy hairs devoid of medulla, covering fetus
laparoscope an endoscope devised for examination of abdominoopelvic organs
laparotomy surgical incision of abdominal wall for access to abdominal organs
laryngitis inflammation of lining of larynx, may be catarrhal, chronic hyperplastic (often precancerous), chronic nonspecific, diphtheritic, membranous (diphtheria, strep-tococci, pseudomonas)
laryngomalacia a flaccid supraglottic larynx in babies causing inspiratory stridor but with spontaneous cure
laryngoscopy inspection of interior of larynx. l. fiberoptic Indirect (mirror) laryngoscopy
larynx the organ of voice that is part of the air passage connecting the pharynx with the trachea. It accounts for the large bump in the neck called the Adam’s apple
laser light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. l. carbon dioxide used to remove lesions of skin or other superficial organs. l. argon its blue green light causes coagulation of bleeding sites in surgery. l. neodymium YAG laser used for capsulotomy, vitrectomy
last menstrual period (LMP) the first day of last menstrual cycle useful to calculate expected date of delivery (EDD)
Late deceleration a periodic decrease in the fetal heart rate below baseline occurring after the peak of the contraction, due to uteroplacental insufficiency and a sign of fetal distress
latent existing but not apparent, dormant
lateralization the tendency to perform an act predominantly on left or right side of the body
111 lateral on the side of body
lathyrism spastic paraplegia with sensory impairment due to consumption of khesari dal containing fungus Lathyrus sativatus
lavage the washing out of hollow organ, e.g. gastric, peritoneal, intestinal
laxative agent promoting or stimulating bowel movement
lean body mass body weight without fat content
Leboyer method a method of childbirth, child birth in a dark room in serene atmosphere, baby being born gently and quietly
lecithin a fatty substance like phospholipids found in blood, bile, brain, egg yolk, nerves and other animal tissues
Lee-Frankenhauser pledus nerve network of S3-S4 hypogastric and ovarian nerves related cervical supply
Leeds test a test to identify women at higher risk of carrying fetus with Down’s syndrome, besides alpha fetoprotein, LCG and unconjugated estril, neutrophil alkaline phosphatase is also estimated
legionnaire’s disease an acute bacterial pneumonia caused by infection with l. pneumophila and characterized by an influenza-like illness followed within a week by high fever, chills, muscle aches, and headache. Contaminated air conditioning cooling towers and stagnant water supplies, including water vaporizers and water sonicators, may be a source of organisms
leiomyoma a low mitotic benign tumor of smooth muscle cell. Can be seen on skin (dermatomyoma) uterus, seminal vesicles, blood vessels (angiomyoma)
leishmaniasis infectious disease caused by flagellate protozoan 112parasites and transmitted to man by sandflies
length l. crown-rump (CR L) the length of an embryo from the top of the head to the bottom of the buttocks. l. cranial skull length between glabella and inion. l. crown heel fetal or infant length from crown to heel. l. foot toe to heel length for estimation of age of fetus. l. sitting distance between vertex and coccyx
lentigo a small brown macule resulting from increased number of melanocyte at dermoepidermal junction, Plural: lentigines
leprosy chronic mycobacterial disease of skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae; can be divided into borderline, borderline lepromatous, lepromatous, border line tuberculoid and tuberculoid types. l. borderline affects persons with moderate degree of cell-mediated immunity, can upgrade to tuberculoid or downgrade to lepromatous pole. l. lepromatous diffuse bilaterally symmetrical lesions in persons with poor cell-mediated immunity. Bacilli are plenty and well-disseminated. l. lucio a diffuse non-nodular variant of lepromatous leprosy. l. tuberculoid few hyposthetic macules, enlarged cutaneous nerves, well-developed cellular immunity and few bacteria
lesion a pathological alteration in structure or function of an organ
let down reflex the neurogenic process that stimulates release of milk from breast
lethal deadly, capable of causing death
lethargy a state of excessive fatigue, diminished physical and mental activity
leucine an essential amino acid
leukemia Malignant proliferation of leukocytes and their bone marrow precursors with organ infiltration. Principal types are: acute myeloid, acute lymphoblastic, chronic myeloid, chronic lymphocytic. Acute myeloid has six subtypes: M1 to M6, that includes monocytic, myelomonocytic, promyelocytic and erythroleukemia. l. aleukemic peripheral blood picture is normal but there is pancytopenia. Bone marrow puncture yields the excess blast cells. l.basophilic marked increase in basophils of blood and marrow, a variant of chronic myeloid leukemia. l. eosinophilic peripheral eosinophilia with increased blasts in marrow
leukemoid resembling leukemia with appearance of immature leukocytes in peripheral blood and leukocytosis. Seen in some infectious diseases
leukopenia abnormal decrease in number of blood leukocytes (<4,000/mm3)
leukoplakia epithelial hyperplasia with keratosis of mucous membrane appearing as white patch. It chiefly affects gums, lips, cheeks, tongue, larynx, urinary bladder and female genitalia
leukopoiesis Formation, growth and maturation of leukocytes
113 leukorrhea abnormal white non bloody discharge from vagina
leukotrienes mediators of inflammation derived from arachidonic acid. Leukotriene C4, D4, E4 play roles in anaphylaxis (slow reacting substance) and B4 is a chemoattractant and aggregator of neutrophils
levallorphan tartarate a narcotic antogonist for treatment of respiratory depression caused by narcotics
levamisole the l-form tetramisole, used for treatment of roundworm, hookworm, strongyloides. Also used as an immunopotentiator
levatorani a broad sheet of muscle forming pelvic floor
levonorgestrel a progestin
levothyroxine L thyroxine; yellow crystalline powder for oral supplement in hypothyroid cases
libido sexual desire or appetite
lidocaine a local anesthetic applied as sprays, creams to skin and mucous membrane
lie The relation of long axis of fetus to that of mother; can be longitudinal, transverse or oblique
ligament 1. any band of fibrous tissue connecting bones. 2. any membranous fold sheet or cord-like structure that holds an organ in position. l. broad of uterus fibrous sheets of peritoneum extending from uterus to lateral pelvic wall. l. cruciate of knee one anterior and one posterior crossing each other like x that prevent rotation in knee joint. l. deltoid. the medial reinforcing ligament of ankle. l. falciform a sickle-shaped ligament composed of two layers of peritoneum attaching liver to anterior abdominal wall. l. inguinal rolled inferior margin of external oblique aponeurosis extending from anterior superior iliac spine of ileum to pubic tubercle. SYN: Poupart’s ligament. l. lacunar a triangular band extending horizontally from the inguinal ligament to iliopectineal line of pubis. l. ovarian a cord-like bundle of fibers between the folds of broad ligament joining ovary to uterus. l. periodontal (PDL) the mode of attachment of the tooth to the alveolus. The ligament consists of numerous bundles of collagenous tissue (principal fibers) arranged in groups, between which is loose connective tissue, together with blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves. It functions as the investing and supportive mechanism for the tooth. l. pectineal a strong aponeurotic band extending from pectineal line of pubis to the lacunar ligament. l. round of liver remnant of umbilical vein extending from umbilicus to anterior border of liver SYN: ligamentum teres hepatis. l. round of uterus a fibromuscular cord extending from either side of uterus to labium majus passing through inguinal canal
ligation the action to ligate. l. tubal both Fallopian tubes are tied and cut or crushed for purpose of sterilization
114 ligator surgical instrument facilitating ligation, superficial or deep
ligature surgical instrument facilitating ligation, superficial or deep
Lightening the descent of fetus deeper into pelvis
linea a long thin mark, ridge, crease or line. l. alba. Midline tendinous band extending from xiphoid process to symphysis pubis, formed by aponeurosis of external oblique, internal oblique and transversalis muscles. l. nigra. Pigmented linea alba of pregnancy
lint a loosely woven cotton fabric, one side fluffy other side smooth, used for dressing
lip any projecting labrum, fleshy parts surrounding mouth opening. l. cleft. Notch, furrow or open space in upper lip developmental in origin
lipid any natural compound soluble in apolar but insoluble in polar solvents. Lipids contain fatty acids, one chain alcohols, steroids or sphyngolipids
lipid A the endotoxic component of lipopolysaccharide consisting of glucosamine disaccharide
lipoatrophy atrophy of subcutaneous tissue at sites of insulin injection
lipoma a benign growth of mature adipose tissue cells
lipoprotein compounds of lipid and protein. l. high density contains 50% protein, 25% phospholipid, 20% cholesterol, and 5% fat, originate both in liver and intestine, function in cholesterol transport, have longer half-life and are cardioprotective. l. low density contains more of cholesterol and lipids and little triglyceride high blood level is atherogenic. l. very low density density 1.006 mg/mL. Contains 50% fat, 25% cholesterol and 20% phospholipid
liposuction a method of subcutaneous fat removal
Lippe’s loop an intrauterine contraceptive device
liquor amnii the fluid that fills amniotic sac surrounding the fetus, 99% water rest being protein, fat, Na+, K+, desquamated epithelial cells, vernix caseosa, etc. It functions as shock absorber, permits free movements of fetus and allows unhindered fetal growth. Volume is nearly 1 liter at 37 to 38 weeks
listeria small gram-positive aerobic rods, e.g. L. monocytogenes causing meningitis, septicemia, abscess
lithopedion a retained calcified fetus
lithotomy position the patient lies on her back with thighs and legs flexed, abducted held in place by lithotomy poles. This position is helpful for forceps breech delivery and perinasal suturing
litmus a natural pigment from lichens whose principle is azolitmin. It is used as pH indicator being red at pH and blue at pH 8.3
litter a stretcher for transporting the invalid
115
liver largest glandular organ in the body weighing 1200 to 1600 g. (1/40 of body wt), located in right upper quadrant below right dome of diaphragm; major functions are secretion of bile, synthesis of plasma proteins, fibrinogen, prothrombin; detoxification, metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein and storage of glycogen. l. amyloid large pale gray waxy looking liver due to deposition of amyloid. Amyloid deposits appear as an amorphous eosinophilic substance, in the space of Disse, between hepatocyte and sinusoidal endothelial cells. l. cirrhotic biliary deeply bile stained nodular liver caused by autoimmune damage to small bile ducts (primary biliary cirrhosis) or obstruction to bile outflow. l.cirrhotic scarred nodular liver, post hepatitis, alcoholic. l. Indian childhood cirrhosis enlarged firm liver with a leafy edge. l. fatty Yellow soft greasy liver with increased cytoplasmic fat within hepatocytes. l. nutmeg liver affected by chronic vascular congestion as in CHF. l. polycystic liver with multiple congenital cysts, often associated with polycystic kidney, usually asymptomatic.
lividity a black and blue discoloration of skin such as caused by contusion
lobe a section of an organ, separated from neighboring parts by fissures
lobule a small lobe
lochia discharge from uterus following child birth. l. alba light colored uterine 116discharge consisting of leukocytes. l. rubra bloody uterine discharge immediately after delivery. l. serosa the serous, pinkish-brown watery discharge which follows lochia rubra
lochiometra A condition in which lochia is retained inside the uterine cavity
locked twins twins with their bodies and heads so positioned than neither can be born naturally, a cause of obstructed labor
locus a place or spot, as the specific site occupied by a gene in the chromosome. l. ceruleus a bluish gray area in the floor of fourth ventricle. l. histocompatibility one of the genes located within major histocompatibility complex that specifies transplantation antigens or immune response functions. l. operator a regulator locus that governs the transcription of adjacent structural genes of the operon and is the binding site of a repressor protein molecule
lomefloxacin HCI fluoroquinolone antiinfective; a broad-spectrum acterricidal agent that inhibits the enzyme DNA gyrase needed for DNA synthesis; used in lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, bronchitis); genitourinary infections (prostatitis); preoperatively to reduce UTIs in transurethral surgical procedures due to susceptible gram-negative organisms
longitudinal study investigations that involves making observations of the some group at sequential time intervals
loperamide a meperidine congener, intestinal smooth muscle relaxant
lorazepam depresses subcortical levels of the central nervous system, including limbic system and reticular formation; used in anxiety, preoperative sedation, acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms, muscle spasm
lordosis abnormally increased forward curvature of lumbar spine. Also called sway back or saddle back. l. compensatory lordosis secondary to pelvic obliquity/deformity
losartan angiotensin receptor blocker used in hypertension
Lovset’s maneuver a procedure where by fetal shoulders are delivered when arms are extended during breech. It consists in rotating the fetus through a half circle keeping the back uppermost so as to bring posterior arm into anterior position below symphysis pubis and then delivered. The fetus is then rotated in reverse direction half circle and other arm is delivered
low birthweight baby weighing less than 2.5 kg at birth, either being preterm, or small for gestational age
lower uterine segment the part of uterus lying between the vesicouterine peritoneal fold superiorly and uterocervical junction below
lubricant agent used to reduce friction
lumbar pertaining to loins. l. puncture introduction of needle to 117subarachnoid space to get CSF samples for cytological and biochemical studies. Also used to introduce drugs, anesthetic agents, or to drain out CSF to reduce pressure
lumbosacral pertaining to lumbar portion of spine and the sacrum
lumen the cavity within tubular structure; the SI unit of luminous flux
lumpectomy surgical excision of breast lump, benign or malignant
lung paired organ of respiration in the chest enveloped by pleura. Subserving the function of oxygen uptake and CO2 elimination. l. farmer’s extrinsic allergic alveolitis occurring in farmers due to inhalation of moldy hay manifesting with cough, dyspnea and fever. Repeated exposures lead to pulmonary fibrosis. l. honeycomb small multiple areas of radiolucency with intervening borders of soft tissue density as seen in interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. l. post-perfusion a condition of atelectasis, pulmonary arteriovenous shunting and consolidation following cardiopulmonary bypass. l. uremic pulmonary edema with butterfly appearance of lung in X-ray due to circulatory overload and uremic dysfunction of LV
lupus resembling wolf. l. discoid a disease confined to skin, marked by scaly rash usually in butterfly pattern over nose and cheeks, sometimes extending to scalp but no visceral involvement. l. pernio sarcoid lesions of the hands and face, especially the ears and nose resembling frost bite. l. vulgaris redbrown nodular skin lesions of face in tuberculosis. l. systemic chronic autoimmune disease marked by an erythematous rash on face and other areas exposed to sunlight with vasculitis involving kidneys, brain and arthritis. Antinuclear antibodies to double stranded DNA and native DNA nucleohistone are diagnostic. l. drug-induced similar to systemic lupus induced by drugs like procainamide and hydralazine but without renal and brain involvement
luteal relating to corpus luteum of ovary
luteinization transformation of granulosa cells into lutein cells in the ovary. Other cells may undergo luteinization including theca cells, celomic cells and cervical cells
luteinizing hormone hormone secreted from anterior pituitary acting in concert with FSH causes ovulation, in males stimulates development of intersitital cells of testes to secrete testosterone
lymph a transparent or slightly opalescent fluid containing lymphocytes, which flows through lymph channels and enters finally into venous system via thoracic ducts
lymphangioma a benign growth composed exclusively of lymph vessels lined by a single layer of endothelial cells. The lesion is often congenital, can be subtyped into capillary, cavernous and cystic. The latter two are most frequent in cervical, 118mediastinal and retroperitoneal regions of infants (hygroma); capillary lymphangioma is difficult to identify from hemangioma
lymphangitis inflammation of lymphatic vessels. l. carcinomatosa growth of carcinoma in lymphatics or lymphatic obstruction by carcinoma
lymphedema chronic unilateral or bilateral swelling of extremities caused by obstruction of lymph vessels or disease of lymph nodes, usually congenital, type I: autosomal dominant, associated intestinal protein loss and pleural effusion (Millroy’s disease);. type II: slowly progressive form with onset around puberty. l. praecox lymphedema occurring in girls approaching puberty
lymphocyte a white blood cell derived from lymphoid tissue constituting 25 to 33% of white blood cells in peripheral blood. It has a round nucleus with well-condensed chromatin, no nucleolus, and agranular cytoplasm staining pale blue. l. B derived from bone marrow, involved in humoral immunity. They recognize antigens irrespective of MCH molecule and transform to plasma cells to secrete antibodies on antigenic stimulation. They are thymus-independent. l. T thymus derived lymphocyte, that has been exposed to antigen on an antigen presenting cell. They play large role in cellullar immunity. Can be helper cells, killer cells, suppressor cells or null cells
lymphoma malignant disease of lymphoreticular system. l. Burkitt’s. malignant lymphoma involving extranodal sites like jaw, orbit, abdominal viscera, and ovaries, the most common childhood tumor of tropical Africa. Possibly caused by EB virus and linked to falciparum malaria. l. histiocytic lymphoma composed of histiocytes (poorly differentiated lymphocytic lymphomas). l. lymphocytic a malignant lymphoma composed of lymphocytes. The pattern may be nodulas or diffuse, and the cells may be poorly differentiated, well-differentiated. l. prolymphocytic the cells are larger and have less condensed nuclear chromatin. l. sclerosing a lymphoma with prominent stromal component. l. signet ring cell. Cells with a large cytoplasmic vacuole of immunoglobulin which displaces the nucleus to periphery. l. stem cell. Composed of large basket-like cells
lynestrenol a semisynthetic progestin
lysine one of the twenty amino acids. It is an essential amino acid deficient in plant proteins
lysis 1. destruction of cell by specific lysin 2. gradual recovery from an acute disease
lysozyme an antibacterial enzyme present in tear, sweat, saliva and nasal secretion
lytic cocktail a combination of chlorpromazine, promethazine, and pethidine used in treatment of severe preeclampsia and eclampsia

M

M. mode a motion B mode tracing of ultrasound to visualize moving structures
macerate 1. to soften a solid or tissue by soaking the tissue in enzyme/acid. 2. the autolysis of fetal tissue after fetal death
Mackenrodt’s ligaments transverse cervical ligament fixing uterus in pelvic cavity
macrocyte red blood cell 2 micron larger than normal RBC, also called megalocyte
macroencephaly malformation and increase in size and weight of brain due to proliferation of glian with small ventricles and mental retardation
macromelia enlarged limbs
macrophage a large mononuclear cell that ingests degenerated cells, widely distributed in body but greatest accumulation in spleen where they remove senescent RBC. In brain and spinal cord known as microglia and in the blood as it moves on the alveolar surface of lung engulfing airborne particles reaching the alveoli
macropsia condition of seeing objects larger than their actual size
macroscopic visible with naked eye
macrosomia large body size; newborn at term weighing more than 4,000 grams or is large for his or her gestational age
macrostomia abnormally large mouth
macrotia abnormally large ears
macule a nonelevated discolored lesion on the skin
maculopapular spotted and elevated
maculopathy any disease of macula of retina
madarosis loss of eye lashes
magnesium element number 12, the silvery white metal, one of the principal cations governing electrochemical properties of living system. m. carbonate MgCO3, insoluble in water, used as laxative and antacid. m. citrate used as laxative. m. hydroxide insoluble in water, used as laxative and antacid. m. oxide also called magnesia (see above). m. sulfate MgSO4 effective cathartic, antiarrhythmic and antiepileptic, useful in certain poisonings
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. MRI is a diagnostic technique in which the phosphorus in cellular tissues is excited by magnetic force. The distribution and alignment of these cellular elements can be captured on phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance instruments forming a high-resolution tissue image. A higher degree of resolution of soft tissues is possible using this technique than from radiographic techniques. The word nuclear has been dropped from the term because it makes an incorrect inference that radioactivity is involved in the imaging process
120 malabsorption impaired or incomplete absorption of nutrients by the intestine. m. lactose lactase deficiency, mostly inherited, commonly manifesting in adults, with pain and diarrhea after lactose ingestion. Unabsorbed lactose is converted to butyric and lactic acid by colonic bacteria, that causes pain. Lactose being hyperosmolar draws fluid to add to stool volume. m. syndrome manifests with pallor, potbelly, bleeding tendency, weakness due to malabsorption of nutrients, caused by any disease
malacia softening of tissues. m. cordis morbid softening of heart
malabsorption a disease
malady illness
malaise a vague general discomfort or feeling ill
malaria an infectious disease caused by any of the four plasmodia, transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus anopheles, manifesting with chill and fever, anemia, splenomegaly. m. falciparum caused by plasmodium falciparum, the parasite develops within small vessels of internal organs frequently blocking them. Fever paroxysm often occurs daily and is often continuous. Patient can have cerebral, gastrointestinal, renal and pulmonary complications. Also known as malignant tertian. m. malarae caused by Plasmodium malarae, Fever paroxysm occurs on every third day. m. quotidian a form in which paroxysms occur daily, can be caused by combination of Plasmodium vivax and Falciparum or two generations of Falciparum. m. relapsing a type in which exoerythrocytic cycle persists in liver with relapse, e.g. in vivax and ovale infection. m. vivax caused by Plasmodium vivax or ovale, the fever paroxysm occurring every other day
malar relating to cheek or cheek bone
male reproductive system consisting of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis
malformation a defect or deformity. m. Klippel-Feil short-webbed neck due to malformation of cervical vertebrae. m. Mondini congenital deafness due to hypoplasia of latter part of cochlea
malfunction abnormal or inadequate function
malignant denoting any disease resistant to treatment, and of fatal nature. In case of tumor, it denotes uncontrollable undifferentiated growth and dissemination. m. hypertension the most lethal form of hypertension. Malignant hypertension is a fulminating condition, characterized by severely elevated blood pressure that commonly damages that intima of small vessels, the brain, retina, heart, and kidneys. It affects more African Americans than white Americans and may be caused by a variety of factors such as stress, genetic predisposition, obesity, the use of tobacco, the use of oral contraceptives, high intake of sodium chloride; a sedentary lifestyle, 121and aging. m. hyperthermia an autosomal dominant trait characterized by often fatal hyperthermia with rigidity of muscles occurring in affected people exposed to certain anesthetic agents, particularly halothane and succinylcholine
malnutrition faulty nutrition due to inadequate diet, metabolic abnormality, wrong proportions of items, etc.
malpighian body renal corpuscle
malposition misplaced or altered position of an organ in relation to others
malpractice professional misconduct, lack of skill or fidelity in professional duties or illegal immoral conduct
malpresentation any fetal presentation other than vertex
maltase digestive enzyme promoting conversion of maltose to glucose
malt grain, especially barley, containing dextrin, maltose, glucose and some enzymes
maltose C12H22O11; a sugar formed by action of a digestive enzyme on starch
mammography a soft tissue X-ray technique for visualization of female breast; used to detect nonpalpable lesions and identify palpable lesions
Manchester operation amputation of cervix with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy
mandelic acid urinary antibacterial agent
mandible the horseshoe-shaped bone of lower jaw in mammals. Articulating with skull at temporomandibular joint and housing the lower teeth
maneuver a skillful movement. m. Bracht’s in obstetrics, maneuver used in breech extraction whereby breech is allowed to deliver spontaneously upto umbilicus and then the fetal body is held anteriorly toward mother’s abdomen to facilitate delivery of vertex. m. Credés a method of expressing the placenta in which body of uterus is vigorously squeezed inorder to produce placental separation. m. Pinard Method of fetal extraction in frank breech presentation; two fingers 122are passed along fetal thigh to push it away from midline and flex the leg, the foot then easily grasped and brought down and out. m. Prague a procedure used in breech delivery in which the finger is hooked over shoulder of fetus to exert traction and allow engagement of the head. m. Scanzoni’s rotation of fetal head with mid forceps from posterior to anterior position. m. Valsalva 1. forced expiration against closed glottis to increase pressure within lungs. 2. forced expiration with mouth closed and nose pinched to open up auditory tubes
mania emotional disorder characterized by excitement, hyperactivity and garrulousness
manic depressive psychosis (MDP) alternating attacks of mania and depression
manipulation treatment by skillful use of hand in reducing dislocation or changing the fetal position
mannitol an alcohol, C6H14O6, derived from fructose, used in preparation of dietetic sweets and as an osmotic diuretic
manometer an instrument for measuring pressure of liquid and gases
Mantoux test skin test with intradermal injection of tuberculin to determine susceptibility to tuberculosis, the test is positive if wheal exceeds 10 mm in diameter after 72 hours of test
manual with the hand m. removal of placenta introducing hand into uterus to remove the placenta; better be done under anesthesia
maple syrup urine disease an autosomal recessive disorder marked by deficient oxidative decarboxylation of alpha keto acids; the urine has characteristic maple syrup odor and the symptoms soon after birth are hypoglycemia, hypotonia, convulsion, etc. Also known as branched chain ketonuria
marasmus protein calorie malnutrition in young children with progressive wasting, wizened face, shrunken eyeballs but alerted mind
Marfan’s syndrome autosomal dominant trait with defective formation of elastic fibers marked by abnormally long slender extremities, spidery fingers, high arched palate, lax joints, aortic regurgitation, MVP and dislocation of lens
marijuana the dried, chopped leaves, flowers and stems of the common hemp plant canabis sativa, smoked or eaten to induce euphoria
marrow the meshy material filling the medullary cavities of bones. m. red marrow in the cancellous or spongy bones of sternum, ribs, iliac crest, vertebrae and ends of long bones. Concerned with formation of blood. m. yellow the fatty marrow in center of long bones
massage rubbing body parts for therapeutic goals. m. cardiac rhythmic manual compression of heart either by thoracotomy (open 123cardiac massage) or by pressure applied to sternum (closed cardiac massage). m. carotid sinus massage of carotid sinus at the angle of jaw for treatment of SVT or identification of tachycardia. m. prostatic massage of prostate through rectum to express its secretions into prostatic urethra (examination for gonococci)
mastalgia pain in breasts
mast cell a connective tissue cell in bronchi and skin containing histamine, serotonin and heparin release of which cause edema and bronchospasm
mastitis breast infection because of milk in ducts
materia medica the science of the source and preparation of drugs
maternal mortality rate (MMR) the number of maternal deaths due to pregnancy and child birth per 1000 live and still births
maternity care complete care of the pregnant, laboring and newly delivered woman and her newborn; also includes pre-pregnancy counseling, infertility counseling and parenting education.
maternity pertaining to pregnancy, the state of being pregnant
Matthews Duncan expulsion of placenta the placenta is expelled maternal side first at the end of third stage of labor
matrix 1. the intercellular substance in a tissue. 2. the mold for dental restoration in the form of thin steel or plastic strip surrounding tooth. m. bone the ground substance of bony tissue which is composed of protein and mucopolysaccharide. As the bone matures, the content of collagen fibers and bone salt increases. m. cartilaginous a basic, homogeneous basophil substance of embryonic skeletal tissue in the center of which articular cartilage develops. m. mesangial a mesh in the space between the renal glomerular loops, formed from material similar to that of capillary basement membrane. The phagocytic mesangial cells are dispersed in this matrix. The matrix is permeable to substances of higher molecular weight which aggregate to form deposits. m. retainer A mechanical device used to secure the ends of metal or plastic bands around a tooth to provide a form into which a restorative material can be condensed to replace a portion of tooth substance removed in cavity preparation
Mauriceau Smellie Veit maneuver a method of delivering the after coming head in breech delivery
McRobert’s maneuver maneuver involves helping the woman to lie flat and to bring her knees up to her chest as far as possible. This will rotate the angle of the symphysis pubis superiorly and use the weight of the mother’s legs to create gentle 124pressure on her abdomen releasing the impaction of the anterior shoulder
mean an average of a set of values. m. arithmetic the ratio of the sum of the terms in a statistical series to their number. m. geometric a value indicating the central tendency of a statistical series of ‘n’ terms, equal to the positive ‘n’th root of their products. m. harmonic for a given set of values, the reciprocal of the mean of the reciprocals of the individual values
measles highly contagious disease caused by paramyxovirus occurring in young children with fever, coryza, Koplik spots, erythematous maculopapular rash spreading from head to trunk to limbs, often complicated by meningitis, carditis
meatus an opening to a canal, or passage in the body. m. external acoustic S-shaped canal of external ear, upto tympanic membrane lined by skin which continues on to the tympanic membrane. m. internal acoustic a short canal above the anterior part of jugular foramen in the petrous part of temporal bone transmitting facial, intermediate, and vestibulocochlear nerves and the labyrinthine vessels
mebendazole a benzimidazole given for hookworm, roundworm, trichuriasis and enterobiasis
mebeverine a smooth muscle relaxant used for gastrointestinal motility disorder like IBS
mechanism of labor the sequence of fetal movements where by it adopts for safe passage through maternal pelvis during birth
meconium the odorless, sticky, greenish black semisolid intestinal content of fetus. It is replaced by feces within 2 days of birth
median in statistics denoting the middle value in a distribution, i.e. the point in a series at which half of the plotted values are on one side and half on the other
mediastinum 1. The central space in chest bounded anteriorly by sternum, posteriorly by vertebral column and laterally by pleural sacs. 2. Any septum or partition between two parts of an organ. m. anterior that portion of lower mediastinum located in front of heart behind the sternum. It contains thymus gland, few lymph nodes and loose areolar tissue. m. lower the part of mediastinum below the plane of manubriosternal joint in front and lower border of 4th thoracic vertebra behind. It is divided into anterior, middle and posterior. m. middle it contains the heart, pericardium and the emerging great vessels. m. posterior it contains esophagus, thoracic duct, thoracic aorta, vagus and lymph nodes m. superior it lies above the pane of manubriosternal articulation and contains aortic arch and its branches, superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, left recurrent laryngeal nerve, thoracic duct, thymus, vagus nerve and some lymph nodes
125 medical termination of pregnancy It is the deliberate induction of abortion prior to 20 weeks gestation by a registered medical practitioner in the interest of mother’s health and life
medicine a drug: the art and science dealing with the maintenance and restoration of health. m. adolescent the branch of medicine dealing with care and treatment of individuals from onset of puberty to the age of 19. m. aviation a specialized branch of medicine dealing with physiologic, pathologic, psychologic conditions which occur in fliers, and people transported in air. It helps in selection of aircraft personnel, air transport of sick and wounded. m. behavioral the applications of the principles of learning and learning theory to treat those disorders caused at least in part by psychologic factors as if they were behavioral. Specific techniques are applied to reverse the expressions of maladaptive functioning whether purely psychologic as in phobias or partly physiologic as in faulty patterns of learned autonomic nervous system response leading to cardiovascular disease. m. clinical the study and practice of medicine at bed side, as opposed to theoretical and laboratory investigations. m. community medicine dealing with community healthcare and their solution as a whole rather than individual health problem, e.g. preventive medicine, public health services. m. family Medical speciality dealing with first patient contact, long-term care, and a broad responsibility to all members of the family irrespective of age. m. folk treatment of disease at home with remedies and techniques passed from generation to generation. m. emergency a branch of medicine that specializes in providing immediate diagnosis and treatment of those who are acutely or often suddenly ill or severely injured. m. environmental the study of environmental aspects related to health and their modification for better health. m. experimental Study of disease process and various therapies in animal models. m. forensic the application of medical knowledge and skill to the solution of problems encountered in administration of justice. m. geriatric medicine dealing with diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease in elderly. m. holistic an approach to healthcare based on theory that health is the result of harmony between body, mind and spirits and that stress of any kind including physical, psychological and social pressure is inimical to health. m. internal. The branch of medicine which deals with the diagnosis and nonsurgical treatment of diseases. m. nuclear application of nuclear energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, e.g. use of radioisotopes. m. occupational a branch of medicine dealing with prevention of disease and injury among people 126at work. It has two functions: to ensure suitability of an individual for particular work and to identify and control health and safety hazards in the work. m. oral the study and treatment of diseases of soft tissues of mouth. m. perinatal a specialized branch of medicine dealing with the management of mother and fetus during pregnancy and the infant immediately after delivery. m. physical and rehabilitation the branch of medicine concerned with use of physical agents and modalities including electricity light, heat, sound, mechanical devices and physical activity, in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. m. space a special branch of aviation medicine which deals with the stresses imposed on man by projection through and beyond the earth’s atmosphere, flight in interplanetary space and return to earth. Such stresses include the agravic state, exposure to radiation and isolation. m. tropical the medical specialty concerned with diseases and disorders contracted in tropic or which exhibit unique characteristics in tropical countries
medium 1. a material in which a substance, an impulse, or information is transported. 2. a material in which interaction takes place. 3. culture medium. m. contrast. In radiology, a substance of different radiopacity from that of the organ or tissue studied, to allow X-ray demonstration of contour or lumen. When the substance is more radiopaque than tissue is positive contrast, e.g. barium sulfate, iodine, when the substance is less radiopaque than tissue—negative contrast, e.g. air. m. Neal and Nicolle a saline rabbit’s blood medium suitable for culture of Leishmania donovani
medroxyprogesterone a progesterone widely used as contraceptive and to treat precocious puberty in female, functional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, threatened and habitual abortion and to suppress postpartum lactation
medulla the innermost or middle part of an organ. m. oblongata the caudal portion of brainstem that extends between pons and most rostral part of cervical spinal cord. Its upper posterior part forms the floor of fourth ventricle. It contains central nuclei of glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and regulates life sustaining cardiovascular and respiratory reflexes
mefenamic acid an agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties
mefexamide a CNS stimulant, used to treat fatigue and depression
mefloquine antimalarial agent, schizonticide
megacolon abnormally large colon, either segmental or total, manifesting with constipation
megaesophagus abnormal enlargement of lower esophagus
127 megaloblastic anemia anemia due to vit B12 folic acid deficiency
megaloblast large nucleated erythrocyte precursor seen in bone marrow in vit B12 and folic acid deficiency
megaloureter abnormally dilated ureter in absence of obstruction
megavitamin a vitamin dose far in excess of daily recommended dose
megestrol acetate a synthetic progestin used as antineoplastic agent in palliation of metastatic endometrial cancer
meglitinide antidiabetic agent
Meig’s syndrome polyserositis associated with ovarian fibroma
meiosis the reduction cell division during maturation of sex cells in which two nuclear cell divisions occur in quick succession thus forming four gametes each containing half the number of chromosomes
Meissner’s corpuscle endorgan for touch present in epidermis
Meissner’s plexus autonomic plexus in submucosa of alimentary tract regulating intestinal secretions
melalgia pain in the lower extremity melanin the natural pigment of hair and skin formed by oxidation of tyrosine via dopa and dopaquinone to a complex polymeric material
Melanoblast a derivative of neural crest which differentiates in an embryo into a melanocyte
melanocyte a cell capable of forming melanin, mature pigment cell
melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) a hormone from anterior pituitary that controls melanin formation and deposition
melanoma any benign or malignant melanocytic tumor
melasma cloasma affecting cheeks, forehead and lips
melena black tarry stool due to GI bleed. m. spuria melena in breastfed babies where blood originates from fissures in mother’s nipple
membrane a thin tissue covering the surface of certain organs and lining the cavities of the body m. mucous contains mucous secreting cells and limes tubular structures, has four layers—epithelium, basement mem-brane, lamina propria, and lamina muscularis
menacme the height of menstrual activity in a woman life
menarche appearance of first menstrual period
Mendelson’s syndrome aspiration of acid gastric juice into respiratory tract with severe bronchospasm and pulmonary edema
Mendel’s law the law of inheritance, some being dominant and others recessive
meninges the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord; consisting of dense fibrous outer dura mater, thin innermost pia mater and trabeculated middle arachnoid mater. The last two are grouped as leptomeninges
128 meningioma tumor of meninges, specially from dura where arachnoid villi are numerous. Usually benign, producing symptoms due to compression or bone erosion, can undergo sarcomatous changes
meningitis Inflammation of meninges; can be cerebral, spinal or cerebrospinal. Pachymeningitis involves dura mater while leptomeningitis involves pia arachnoid but the latter is more common. m. mollarets acute meningitis with CSF pleocytosis and presence of abundant large endothelial cells in CSF; rapid spontaneous remission. m. tuberculous occurs due to hematogenous spread or rupture of cortical tuberculoma into CSF. Subacute onset with chronic course, often with encephalomyelopathy, cerebral arteritis, subarachnoid adhesions
meningocele a congenital sac-like skin covered protrusion of meninges through a defect in skull or vertebral column. Common to mid-occipital area or lumbosacral area
meningocyte a mesenchymal epithelial cell of subarachnoid space
Meningomyelitis Inflammation of spinal cord and its covering membranes
meningomyelocele a protrusion of spinal cord and associated meninges through a developmental defect in spinal canal
menometrorrhagia abnormal bleeding during or between menstrual periods.
menopause the normal physiologic cessation of menstruation commonly between 45 to 50 years of age. Frequent symptoms include hot flushes, headache, vulvar dyscomfort, painful sexual intercourse and mental depression. m. artificial cessation of menopause by irradiation or surgical removal of ovaries. m. premature early menopause, idiopathic or secondary to pituitary disease, systemic illness
menorrhagia excessive or prolonged menstruation, SYN: hypermenorrhea
menoschesis suppression of menses
menses periodic bloody discharge from uterus, called menstruation
menstruation the periodic discharge from uterus of a non-clotting bloody fluid at 4 to 5 weeks interval. m. anovulatory menstruation not preceded by ovulation. m. vicarious bleeding from sites other than uterus occurring at the time of normal menstruation
menthol peppermint camphor, an organic compound derived from peppermint oil or prepared synthetically. It provides a sensation of coolness in mucosal membranes by stimulation of cold receptors
mentoanterior in a face presentation, having the fetal chin pointing anteriorly in relation to maternal pelvis
mentoposterior in face presentation, having fetal chin pointing posteriorly in relation to maternal pelvis
mentotransverse in face presentation, having the fetal chin pointing laterally in relation to maternal pelvis
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mentum the anterior prominence of mandible produced by mental protuberance; the chin
meptazinol a narcotic analgesic, with less respiratory depression
mercury a heavy, silvery poisonous metallic element liquid at room temperature, atomic no.80, used in thermometer
meridian a line surrounding a spherical body passing through both poles or half of such circle containing both poles
merocrine denoting secretory cells that remain intact during discharge of secretory products as those in the salivary glands
mesentery a double layer of peritoneum attaching various organs to body wall and conveying to them their blood vessels and nerves; commonly referred to peritoneal fold attaching small intestine to the posterior body wall
mesoderm the middle of primary germ layers, in between outer ectoderm and inner entoderm. From this layer are derived the majority of skeletal system, the circulatory system, the musculature, the excretory system and most of the reproductive system in vertebrates
mesosalpinx the upper free portion of broad ligament investing the Fallopian tube
mesovarium a short thick peritoneal fold that attaches ovary to posterior layer of broad ligament and permits passage of blood vessels and nerves to ovary
mestranol an estrogen used in preparation of oral contraceptive
metabiosis the dependence of an organism upon the preexistence of another for its development
metabolism a general term applied to chemical processes taking place in the living tissues for maintenance 130of life. m. acid-base the processes influencing hydrogen ion concentration in the body. m.aerobic metabolic activity dependent upon oxygen. m. intermediary the chemical changes associated with the synthesis of cellular components from food materials and their degradation
metabolite a substance taking part in or produced by metabolic activity
metacarpus the five bones of hand between the carpus and the phalanges
metafemale a female with 3X chromosomes (trisomy X) usually short-statured, mentally retarded and obese
metalloenzyme an enzyme having a metal ion as an integral part of its active form
metalloprotein a protein with metal ion bound to it. Many enzymes are metalloproteins
metamale a male with one X chromosome but two Y chromosomes; usually tall, lean, often having tendency toward aggressive behavior
metaphase the second stage of cell division by mitosis during which the chromatids are aligned along the equatorial plate of cell and attached by spindle fibers to centromere
metaplasia the abnormal transformation from one differentiated adult tissue to another type adult tissue within a given organ
metastasis transfer of a disease from its primary site to a distant location either by blood, lymphatic channel, CSF flow, etc.
metatarsus the anterior portion of foot between the toes and the instep. Composed of 5 cylindrical bones
metformin a structural analogue of phenformin, hypoglycemic agent
methadone a synthetic narcotic analgesic with morphine-like effect. It is used in opium withdrawal and as a maintenance treatment in heroin addicts
methanol methyl alcohol, prepared synthetically or from distillation of wood. Toxic and causes blindness when drunk
methemoglobin a derivative of hemoglobin with oxidized iron, hence incapable of carrying oxygen
methotrexate a potent folic acid antagonist used as cytotoxic agent and immunosuppressant
methotrimeprazine a phenothiazine with potent analgesic properties used in obstetric analgesia, and as a preanesthetic medication
methoxyflurane a colorless nonexplosive liquid used as a slow anesthetic
methyldopa sympathetic activity inhibitor used in treatment of hypertension
metoclopramide HCl central dopamine receptor antagonist; enhances response to acetylcholine of tissue in upper GI tract, which causes contraction of gastric muscle, relaxes pyloric and duodenal segments, increases peristalsis without stimulating 131secretions; antiemetic action occurs centrally; used in prevention of nausea, vomiting induced by chemotherapy, radiation, delayed gastric emptying, gastroesophageal reflux
metrectomy hysterectomy
metritis inflammation of uterus
metronidazole a nitroimidazole compound used for treatment of amebiasis, trichomoniasis, anaerobic infections
metropathia hemorrhagica excessive prolonged bleeding from uterus associated with cyst formation in the endometrium
metrorrhagia it is defined as irregular, acyclic bleeding from the uterus
metyrapone an inhibitor of adrenocortical steroid C-11 betahydroxylation, administered orally or IV as a diagnostic test to determine the capability of pituitary to increase production of corticotropin
miconazole antifungal, topically used 2%
microorganism any single celled organism
microbe a microorganism, a one-celled plant
microcephaly abnormally small hand hence always mentally subnormal
micrognathia abnormal smallness of jaw, specially the lower jaw producing bird-like profile
micronutrient any essential dietary constituent like vitamins and minerals required by body in small quantities
micturition the act of urination
midforceps application of forceps when the head is engaged but the leading part of the fetal head is above +2 station
midpelvis the area of pelvis extending from the posterior inferior aspect of symphysis in a line through ischial spines to sacrum intersecting it at S2 or S3 vertebra
midwife a woman who attends women during delivery
midwifery practical obstetrics
migraine a recurrent hemicranial intense headache associated with nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances. m. abdominal. episodic abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting in migraine sufferers. m. complicated an attack of migraine accompanied by prolonged aphasia, hemi-plegia, hemianopia, epilepsy. etc. m. hemiplegic migraine in which recurrent attacks of hemiplegia occur. m. ophthalmoplegic oculomotor palsy occurring during an attack of migraine. m. equivalent symptoms produced by migraine-like mechanism but without an associated headache, e.g. transient partial loss of vision
milia distended sebaceous glands, which produce tiny pinpoint papules on the skin of newborn infants, commonly found over the bridge of the nose, chin and cheeks
miliaria skin eruption due to retention of sweat in sweat follicles. SYN: sweat fever, summer eruption; can be m. 132papulosa, profunda, rubra and even pustular types
miliary of the size of a millet (2 mm diameter)
milk the secretion of mammary glands. m. witch’s a few drops of milk expressed from newborn’s nipple during first few days of life
milli the prefix indicating one thousandth
mineral any naturally occurring homogeneous inorganic substance, having a characteristic crystalline structure and chemical composition
miscarriage spontaneous abortion
miscarry to give birth to a nonviable fetus
misdiagnosis wrong diagnosis
missed abortion the product of conception fails to grow and is retained within uterus
mitochondria a double membrane cytoplasmic organelle, self-reproducing, present in cell cytoplasm of all living cells; responsible for energy production (ATP), each cell has several hundreds of mitochondria, each of 15.00 Å length
mitosis multiplication or division of a cell that results in formation of two daughter cells normally receiving the same chromosome and DNA as that of original cell
mitral left atrioventricular valve
mittelschmerz intermenstrual pain specially at the time of ovulation
mobilization a process or an operation whereby an object or a substance is freed or made mobile
molding the process of shaping. The changes in shape of fetal head as it passes through the birth canal
133 mole 1. intrauterine mass. 2. pigmented cellular nevus; circumscribed pigmented growth on skin. 3. Gram molecule. m. carneous a spontaneous abortion in which the ovum is surrounded by a capsule of clotted blood. m. hydatidiform a developmental anomaly of placenta consisting of a nonmalignant mass of clear vesicles resembling bunch of grapes formed from cystic swellings of chorionic villi. The moles may cause uterine enlargement disproportionate to period of gestation
molecule the smallest unit of a substance which can exist in a free state and still retain the chemical properties of the substance
Mongolian blue spot a smooth brown to gray blue nerves in the sacral region of newborn
Mongolism Down syndrome due to trisomy 21
Mongoloid having characteristics or resembling mongolism
monilia a genus of molds or fungi, commonly known as fruit molds, now called candida
monitor 1. to keep close watch over. 2. an apparatus used to record or display data. m. apnea an alarm system for alarming attendants to the occurrence of apnea commonly in a premature infant. m. cardiac continuous display of cardiac rhythm in a screen to detect irregularities in the heart rhythm. m. electronic fetal an electronic instrument monitoring fetal heart rate and patterns of uterine contraction
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monoamine compound containing only one amine group. m. oxidase an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of a wide variety of physiologic amines into aldehydes and ammonia. It is important for catabolism of epinephrine and tyramine
monolclonal derived from a single cell or clone of single cell. m. antibody being derived from single clone of cells the antibody molecules are identical and will react with same antigenic site
monosaccharide a carbohydrate which cannot be further broken down, simple sugar
monosomy condition in which one chromosome of a pair of homologous chromosomes is missing
monozygotic denoting identical twins, or twins formed by division into two of the embryo derived from a single fertilized egg
mons in anatomy, a slight prominence, or elevation. m. pubis the fleshy prominence formed by a pad of fatty tissue over the symphysis pubis in female
montelukast leukotriene antagonist for asthma
Montgomery’s glands or tubercles sebaceous glands around nipple
mood A prevailing emotional state of mind
morbid diseased, pathologic, pertaining to or affected by disease
morbidity the condition of being diseased; within a given population, the number of sick persons or cases of disease recorded as of a stated point in time or over a stated period. Thus morbidity can be expressed as the number of new cases arising (incidence) or the number of cases existing whether old or new (prevalence)
more reflex a neonatal reflex in which the baby extends the arms to any sudden movement or noise sick and premature babies lack this reflex
morgue a place where dead bodies are kept pending identification, autopsy or burial/cremation
Moro reflex a normal reflex of young infants in which there is a sudden loud noise causing the child to stretch out the arms and flex the legs
morphine the principal alkaloid of opium; white, crystalline, insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; potent narcotic analgesic, can cause respiratory depression. Repeated use causes physical dependence and addiction. Used as morphine sulfate or tartarate
morphology the study of configuration or structure of living organism
mortality the quality of being mortal. The death rate. m. neonatal death 135during first month or four weeks of life. m. perinatal the combined mortality from stillbirths and deaths in first week of life
morula a cluster of cleaving blastomeres resulting from early division of zygote; a stage in the development of the embryo prior to the blastula
mosaic 1. in genetics, an individual whose cells consist of at least two genotypically distinct populations that arose after fertilization through somatic mutation or somatic non-disjunction
mother surrogate one who replaces an individual’s mother in emotional feelings. A mother who bears offspring of another
motilin a gastrointestinal peptide of 22 amino acids located in enterochromaffin cells, chiefly of duodenum and upper jejunum that stimulates gastric and colonic motility
motion sickness a condition marked by nausea, dizziness, and often vomiting and headache, induced by some movement as in travelled by airplane, train, bus or ship
motor 1. carrying or transmitting an impulse to a peripheral effector organ of the nervous system, either to elicit a response or to inhibit it. 2. producing movement
moulding the process of overriding of cranial bones at the sutures and fontanelles where by the fetus adopts itself to the pelvis. Moulding if abnormal in direction excessive or extremely rapid can tear the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli causing intracranial hemorrhage
moxibustion a technique used in traditional Chinese medicine that uses moxa sticks that acts as a heat source when held over acupuncture points. It is used to turn breech to apholic presentation
mucoid resembling mucus
mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) a group of inherited disorders with accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in reticuloendothelial system, intimal smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within body; manifesting with coarse facies, mental retardation, corneal clouding, skeletal dysplasia, joint stiffness, etc. MPS IH is known as Hurler syndrome. It is due to deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase with accumulation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulphate. MPS IS Scheie’s syndrome it is a variant of MPS IH but without mental retardation. MPS IHS it is intermediate between MPSIH and MPSIS. MPS II Hunter syndrome it is due to deficiency of L-iduronosulfate sulfatase. Unlike MPS IH there is no corneal clouding. MPS III sanfilippo syndrome corneal clouding is absent and skeletal growth is normal. MPS IV Morquio’s syndrome the deficient enzyme is N-acetyl galactosamine-6-sulfatase. Distinguishing features, are dwarfism, kyphoscoliosis, cardiac lesions and joint hypermobility. MPS VI136Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. Deficient enzyme is N-acetyl galactosamine-4-sulfatase. Clinically it is similar to MPS IH but there is no mental retardation. MPS VII the deficient enzyme is beta-glucuronidase
mucopurulent containing mucus and pus
mucosa a mucous membrane with epithelial lining, basement membrane, and often lamina propria. It may contain goblet cells, may be keratinized and the covering epithelium may be stratified squamous, columnar or pseudostratified columnar depending upon location
mucus-trap suction apparatus a type of suction apparatus used in aspirating the nasopharyx and trachea of a newborn infant. It consists of a catheter with a mucus trap, which prevents mucus from the baby from being drawn into the operator’s mouth
mucus a viscid secretion containing mucin, leukocytes, epithelial cells, etc. secreted by mucous membrane
multigravida a woman who has been pregnant two or more times. SYN: multipara
multipara a woman who has given birth to two or more babies live or still excluding abortions
multiple gestation pregnancy with more than one fetus, e.g. twins
multiple pregnancy a pregnancy of more than one fetus
multiple sclerosis (MS) an autoimmune demyelinating disorder due to decrease in suppressor T lymphocyte function, manifesting with visual loss, gait disorder, motor dysfunction and bladder bowel disturbance. Multiple sites of involvement in brain and spinal cord common
mumps a febrile viral disease characterized by inflammation of salivary and parotid glands
murmur a soft blowing or rasping sound heard during cardiac auscultation; produced due to excess blood flow through normal valves or normal flow through diseased valves. m. Austin Flint a mid or late mitral diastolic murmur heard in aortic regurgitation due to partial closure of 137mitral valve due to aortic regurgitant jet. m. Carey Coomb diastolic murmur of mitral valvulitis in rheumatic fever. m. Durozeiz systolic and diastolic murmurs heard over femoral artery in aortic insufficiency. m. Graham Steell’s early diastolic murmur of pulmonary insufficiency in pulmonary hypertension
muscle contractile tissue of mesodermal origin with properties like irritability, conductivity, and elasticity. Can be smooth, striated and cardiac. Smooth muscles (involuntary muscle) are found to line GI tract, bronchi, urinary and genital ducts, gall bladder, urinary bladder. The cells are fusiform or spindle-shaped with one central nucleus. Striated (skeletal) muscles are under conscious control. The muscle fibers are grouped into bundles called fasciculi and each cell or fiber has multiple nuclei. Denervation causes complete paralysis of striated muscle but not of cardiac or smooth muscle
muscle cramp painful contraction of muscle, idiopathic or due to electrolyte imbalance
muscular dystrophy a group of genetically determined painless degenerative myopathies that progressively cripple. MD Duchenne sex-linked recessive developing in childhood with pseudomuscular hypertrophy causing early death
mutation change in genetic structure; can be natural or induced by drugs, chemicals and radiation
mutism unable to speak. m. akinetic condition in which patient can neither speak nor can move body parts
myalgia pain in the muscles often with tenderness
myasthenia weakness of muscles. m. gravis an autoimmune disease with extreme muscle weakness due to presence of acetylcholine receptor antibodies
Mycobacterium a genus of acid-fast organism causing leprosy and tuberculosis. They are gram-positive, nonspore-forming and nonmotile rods. m. atypical forms of mycobacteria causing mild but resistant form of tuberculosis in man. They are M. avium-intracellulare, M. kansasii, M. chelonei, M. marinum, M. xenopi, etc.
mycoplasma organisms in between bacteria and viruses, responsible for atypical pneumonia, urethritis; common forms are — M. hominis, M. orale, M. salivarium
myelocele protrusion of spinal cord through a defect in spinal arch—usually spina bifida
myeloma a tumor originating from marrow element. m. multiple a plasma cell tumor with multiple lytic bone lesions and increased paraprotein in blood and urine
myelomeningocele a condition where spinal cord along with meningeal covering protrudes through the spinal defect
138 myocardial infarction death of myocardium usually due to coronary thrombosis or spasm
myocarditis inflammation of myocardium, mostly viral, due to coxsackie group of viruses
myocardium the thick middle muscle layer of heart
myoepithelial cells spindle-shaped contractile cells found between glandular elements and basement membrane of sweat, mammary and salivary glands
myoma a tumor containing muscle tissue
myometrium the muscular layer of uterus
myxedema a condition resulting from hypofunction of thyroid; commonly autoimmune or due to iodine lack, dyshormonogenesis
myxoma tumor composed of mucous connective tissue similar to that present in embryo or umbilical cord. It is soft, gray, lobulated, translucent and incompletely encapsulated
Müllerian duct the paired embryonic ducts developing into uterus, uterine tubes and vagina in female

N

nabothian cyst retention cysts of the nabothian glands in the cervical canal, usually associated with ectropion
Naegele German obstetrician (1777-1851). n. obliquity anterior parietal presentation of fetal head in labor. n. pelvis an obliquely contracted pelvis. n. rule the method of counting expected date of delivery by counting 90 days backwards from LMP and adding 7 days to that date
naevus a circumscribed area of dilated superficial vessels; a birth mark
nalmefene HCl opioid antagonist; reverses the effects of opioids by competitive antagonism of opioid receptors; used in management of opioid overdose and complete or partial reversal of opioid drug effects, including respiratory depression
nalorphine narcotic antagonist
naltrexone narcotic antagonist
nandrolone anabolic steroid
nape back of neck
napkin rash rash in the area covered by napkins in neonate
naproxen/naproxen sodium nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory; inhibits prostaglandin synthesis by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase needed for biosynthesis; possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic properties; used in mild-to-moderate pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid, gouty arthritis, primary dysmenorrhea
narcissism sexual pleasure sought by observing one’s own naked body; self-admiration
narcolepsy recurrent attacks of uncontrollable desire to sleep but easily awakenable
narcotic an agent that in moderate doses relieves pain but in higher doses causes coma and respiratory paralysis
nares the nostrils n. posterior the opening of nose into nasopharynx
nasal flarings A sign of respiratory distress; the edges of the nostrils fan outward as the baby inhales
nasogastric tube tube inserted through nose into the stomach for feeding or stomach wash
nasopharynx part of pharynx situated above the level of soft palate
naturopathy a therapeutic system that employs natural forces as light, heat, air and water to cure ailments rather than drugs
nausea unpleasant epigastric sensation preceding vomiting. n.gravidarum morning sickness of pregnancy
nebulizer an apparatus for producing fine spray or mist
Necator a genus of nematode hookworms, includes n.americanus
necrobiosis degeneration and swelling of collagen in the dermis, common to diabetics
necrosis death of tissue following cut-off in blood supply, physical or chemical injury, infection, etc. n. coagulation necrosis where the necrosed area is converted to a homogeneous mass
140 necrotizing enterocolitis inflammatory disease of bowel in neonate with edema, ation and hemorrhage that may progress to perforation and peritonitis
negligence in low, the failure to do something that a reasonable person of ordinary prudence would or would not do in a given situation
Neisseria gram-negative bacteria, lie in pairs, e.g. N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, N. sicca and N. catarrhalis (last two cause respiratory infection and often endocarditis)
neomycin an aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces, toxic to kidney and eighth cranial nerve but effective against many gram +ve and -ve bacteria, particularly resistant tubercle bacilli
neonatal pertaining to first 4 weeks after birth
neonate child upto 4 weeks old
neonatologist a pediatrician who specializes in caring for newborn infants, particularly at risk and sick babies
neonatology a branch of pediatrics dealing with disorders of newborn infant
neoplasm a tumor or new growth. n. benign growth having a definite capsule and noninfiltrating. n. malignant growth that lacks a capsule, infiltrates surrounding structures or has distant metastasis, or recurs after surgery
nephritis inflammation of kidneys involving glomeruli, tubules and interstitial tissue singly or combinedly, can be acute/chronic; interstitial, salt losing
nephron the glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule and the tubule system which act as functioning unit of kidney and number one million in each kidney
nephropathy any diseased condition of kidney including inflammatory, degenerative, arteriosclerotic lesions, e.g. analgesic nephropathy, hypokalemic nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, etc.
nephrosis noninflammatory degenerative disease of kidney, e.g. lipoid nephrosis manifesting as nephrotic syndrome
nephrotic syndrome a symptom complex with leakage of protein in urine due to damage to capillary wall of glomeruli
nerve block a block by local analgesic agents in nerve conduction
nerve bundles of nerve fibers connecting CNS or spinal cord with various parts of body. n. adrenergic sympathetic nerves that liberate noradrenaline at the neuroeffector synapse. n. afferent any nerve that transmits impulses from periphery towards centre. n. cholinergic parasympathetic nerve liberating acetylcholine for impulse transmission. n. efferent nerves that transmit impulses from center towards periphery. n. mixed nerve contains both motor 141(efferent) and sensory (afferent) fibers. n. secretory nerve that stimulates secretion from glands. n. spinal 31 pairs of peripheral nerves, 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
neuralgia sharp pain along the course of nerve. n. glossopharyngeal severe pain in the back of throat, tonsils and middle ear along the distribution of glossopharyngeal nerve. n. trigeminal neuralgia involving the gasserian ganglion or one or more branches of trigeminal nerve
neural tube defect defective closure of neural tube during embryogenesis leading to defects like spina bifida, anencephaly, meningocele, meningomyelocele
neuritis inflammation of a nerve
neuroblastoma a malignant tumor of neuroblasts in children giving rise to cells of sympathetic nervous system; specially adrenal medulla
neuron a nerve cell; consisting of cell body and its processes, i.e. axons and dendrites. n. afferent neuron conducting impulses to the brain and spinal cord. n. associative neuron coordinating impulses between sensory and motor neurons. n. efferent neurons conducting impulses away from brain and spinal cord. n. lower motor neuron with cell body in anterior gray column. n. upper motor neuron with cell body in motor cortex. n. preganglionic neuron of autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in central nervous system and axon terminates in peripheral ganglia. n. postganglionic neurone whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and its axon terminates in effector organ
neurosis a minor mental disease where person’s insight is maintained. n. anxiety neurosis where vague anxiety or apprehension interferes with effective functioning. n. obsessional neurosis where obsession dominates
neurosyphilis syphilis affecting the nervous system. n. meningovascular the meninges and the cerebral blood vessels are affected the most with ischemia, infarction, hydrocephalus
142 neurotransmitter chemical sub-stance released by stimulation of presynaptic neuron that excites or inhibits target cell, e.g. acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine
neutron electrically neutral particle equal in mass to proton
nevus congenitally discolored localized area of skin; vascular skin tumor due to hyperplastic blood vessels. n. junctional nevus in the basal layer of epidermis appearing as a nonhairy pigmented area, with high malignancy potential
newborn period from birth through the first 28 days of life
niacin a water-soluble vitamin of B complex group present in animal and plant tissues, required for synthesis of enzymes
nicotine alkaloid of tobacco, a vasoconstrictor, stimulant and addictive agent
nifedipine calcium channel blocker; Inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membrane during cardiac depolarization; produces relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle, dilates coronary arteries; increases myocardial oxygen delivery in patients with vasospastic angina; dilates peripheral arteries; used in chronic stable angina pectoris, vasospastic angina, hypertension
night blindness (nyctalopia) inability to see in dark due to deficient rhodopsin or its slow regeneration after exposure to light, a feature of retinal pigmentary degeneration or vitamin A deficiency
nipple the conical protuberance at center of breast containing erectile tissue and pierced by milk ducts
nitrazepam benzodiazepine, anxiolytic
nitrofurantoin urinary antibacterial agent
nitroglycerine any nitrate of glycerol used for vasodilatation in angina pectoris as 2% ointment or tablets; be kept in tinted glass (not plastic) container without cotton plug
nitrous oxide inhalation anesthetic used in conjunction with oxygen. SYN: laughing gas
node a small swelling or constriction. n. AV the mass of Purkinje fibers at lower end of interatrlal septum giving origin to bundle of His. n. Bouchard’s bony enlargement of proxymal interphalangeal joint in osteoarthritis. n. Heberden’s nodes in terminal interphalangeal joints of hand in osteoarthritis. n’s of Ranvier constriction of myelin sheath along the course of medulated nerve fiber. n’s Osler tender nodes in pulp of finger and toes in subacute bacterial endocarditis. n’s of Parrot osteophytes around anterior fontanel in congenital syphilis. n. Schmorl’s prolapse of nucleus pulposus into vertebral body. n. singer’s small white nodes on vocal cords due to vocal abuse. n. sinoatrial node in the wall of right atrium near entry of SVC acting as the pacemaker of heart
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nodule a small node; collection of cells. n. Aschoff’s myocardial nodule with central fibrinoid necrosis with surrounding epithelioid cells, a feature of rheumatic carditis
nonmaleficence the concept in the healthcare services of the duty to avoid harm to the interests of others
nonspecific urethritis a sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia
nonstress test a noninvasive test used to determine fetal well-being, involves external fetal monitoring of the fetal heart rate and observing the response of the heart rate to fetal movement; interpreted as reactive or nonreactive
norepinephrine (norafrenaline) vasopressor hormone secreted by adrenal medulla
norethandrolone an anabolic steroid
norethindrone progestational agent
norethisterone a progesterone only contraceptive pill, useful for breastfeeding mothers
norfloxacin a quinolone with broad spectrum antibacterial activity
norgestrel a progestational agent used for hormonal contraception
normoblast type of nucleated red blood cell during erythropoiesis
norplant a subdermal implant used for long-term contraception. It consists of six silastic (silicone rubber) capsules containing 35 mg (each) of levonorgestrel (100)
nose the organ of olfaction that bears the nostrils and envelopes the anterior part of the nasal cavity
nosocomial relating to or occurring in a hospital
144 nosophilia an unusual desire to be sick
notifiable diseases all communicable and contagious diseases to be notified to local health authorities under the statutes of law
notochord a flexible supporting rod of cells that forms the supporting axis of the body in chordates and in the embryos of higher vertebrates
nuchal back of neck, US measurement of skin thickness at back of neck at 11–13 weeks can be helpful in diagnosis of Down’s syndrome
nuchal displacement a compli-cation of breech delivery when arm is displaced behind child’s neck
nuclear family family of husband, wife and children, without grandparents, auncles and aunts
nuclear magnetic resonance when certain atomic nuclei with odd number of protons or neutrons or both are subjected to strong magnetic field they absorb and reemit electromagnetic energy. Application of a radio frequency pulse causes deflection in the net magnetization vector and image production. The technique is useful for imaging of brain, soft tissue and heart
nuclear medicine medicine dealing with diagnostic, therapeutic and investigative aspects of radionuclides
nucleic acid a complex product consisting of pentose, phosphoric acid, purines and pyrimidines
nucleolus a spherical body within the nucleus
nullipara a woman who has not produced a viable child
nurse person providing healthcare
nursery newborn care center
nursery school school for children of 2½–5 years
nutrition the process involved in assimilation and utilization of food
NuvaRing a vaginal ring containing female hormones, ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel that prevent ovulation (release of an egg from an ovary)
nylon a synthetic material of exceptional strength used for sutures
nystagmus involuntary to and fro movement of eye ball
nystatin antifungal agent

O

obese fatty
oblique slanting or diagonal
obliquity the state of slanting. o. Litzmann’s inclining of fetal head with posterior parietal bone presenting. o. Naegele’s inclining fetal head with oblique biparietal diameter in relation to pelvic brim
oblongata oblong, e.g. medulla oblongata
obstetric branch of medicine dealing with childbirth, puerperium and management of pregnancy
obstetric conjugate the pelvic diameter measured from sacral promontory to upper inner border of symphysis pubis
obstetrician doctor skilled in art of obstetrics
obstructed labor a state in which it is mechanically impossible for the child to be born often requiring cesarean delivery common factors are cephalopelvic disproportion, Bandl’s ring placenta previa
obturator anything that closes a cavity or opening
obturator foramen an opening in the membrane
occipito anterior the fetal occiput is the lowest and presenting pase as in well-flexed fetus presenting anteriorly in maintenance pelvis
occipito posterior the fetal occiput directed towards right or left of sacroiliac joint of mother’s pelvis
occlusion the state of being closed
occlusive cap rubber cap to cover cervix to prevent conception
occult blood test examination of stool for microscopic hemorrhage
oedema excessive accumulation of fluid with weight gain 50% of women develop mild ankle oedema towards term
oestrogen see estrogen
ointment a semisolid medicinal preparation used as a vehicle for external medication, as an emollient, or as a cosmetic agent
olfaction the act of smelling
oligohydramnios less than normal amniotic fluid, a feature of postmaturity
oligomenorrhea scanty or infrequent menstruation
oliguria decreased formation of urine
ombudsman a person appointed to receive complaints about unfair administration
omentum a double fold of peritoneum attached to stomach, the portion attached to greater curvature of stomach extending to envelop the intestines is called greater omentum and the portion extending from lesser curvature of stomach to transverse fissure of liver is called lesser omentum
omnivorous eating both meat and vegetables
omphalitis inflammation of umbilicus
omphalocele congenital umbilical hernia
146 oncogene genes that can cause tumor formation
oncogenesis tumor initiation and growth
oncology the branch of medicine dealing with tumors
onychomycosis fungal infection of nails
oocyte encysted form of zygote in certain sporozoa
oogenesis growth and maturation of ovum
oogonium the primordial cell from which an oocyte originates
ookinesis the mitotic phenomenon taking place with an ovum during maturation and fertilization
oophorectomy removal of an ovary
oophoritis inflammation of ovary
oophorrhaphy suture of displaced ovary to pelvic wall
operant conditioning conditioning or influencing behavior by rewarding for certain desired acts
operculum the plus of mucus that fills the cervical canal during pregnancy and is shed at beginning of labor
ophthalmia inflammation of the eye. o. gonococcal severe purulent conjunctivitis. o. neonatorum severe purulent conjunctivitis of newborn, usually gonococcal. o. sympathetic uveitis of healthy eye following trauma to other eye
ophthalmoscope instrument for examination of fundus and retina
147 opiate receptor specific receptors on cell surfaces to which combine the opiates, endorphins and encephalins for mediating their effects
opioid synthetic narcotics or endogenous substances with opium-like activity, e.g. encephalins and endorphins
opisthotomus a form of tetanic spasm where the body bends backwards
opium substance derived from juice of unripe capsules of poppy
opportunistic a microorganism which does not ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain circumstances
opsonin a substance present in blood that prepares bacteria for phagocytosis
opsonization the process through which an antibody and/or complement modifies an antigen (e.g. bacteria and other cells) so as to make them more readily engulfed and destroyed by white blood cells
optic pertaining to vision
oral contraceptive pill 1. combined estrogen progesterone pill with failure rate of 0.1–1 per 100 women years 2. posterone only pill prescribed to breastfeeding mothers or those of 35 years with failure rate of 0.3–5 per 100 women year
orbit the bony socket containing the eye formed by frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary and palatal bone
orchiopexy surgical fixation of testis
orchitis inflammation of testis
organic 1. pertains to living organisms. 2. in chemistry pertaining to compounds of carbon. 3. physical not mental or psychogenic
organism any living entity capable of carrying on life process
148 organogenesis development of organs
orgasm the intense pleasure of sexual intercourse at climax with pelvic throbbing, contraction of levator ani and anal sphincters to culminate in seminal ejaculation
orifice an opening or entrance to a cavity
oropharynx portion of pharynx below the level of soft palate
orthostatic standing upright. o. albuminuria. Albuminuria when assuming erect position. o. hypotension. Fall in blood pressure while assuming erect position
Ortolani’s test a method of diagnosing congenital dislocation of hip
os 1 bone. o. calcis the heel bone or calcaneus; o. innominate nameless bone right and left, articulate with sacrum to firm pelvic girdle 2. a mouth or opening o. external Opening of cervix to vagina, o. internal Cervical canal opening into cavity of uterus
Osiander’s sign Increased pulsation felt in the lateral vaginal fornices
osmol the quantity of a solute existing in solution as molecules, commonly stated in grams, that is osmotically equivalent to one mole of an ideally behaving electrolyte
osmosis the passage of solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one
osmotic pressure the pressure developed when two solutions of different concentrations of some solute are separated by a semipermeable membrane
ossification the formation of bone
149 osteoblast cells of mesenchymal origin concerned in the formation of bony tissue
osteogenesis imperfecta autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypoplasia of bone and cartilage leading to fracture with minimal trauma, hypermobility, blue sclera
osteomalacia failure of ossification due to fall in serum calcium, possibly resulting from vitamin D deficiency, inadequate calcium in the diet, renal disease, and/or steatorrhea. Manifestations include incomplete fractures and gradual resorption of cortical and cancellous bone
osteomyelitis inflammation of marrow and hard tissue of bone
osteopathy a school of healing art which teaches that the body is a vital mechanical organism whose structural and functional integrity are coordinated and interdependent
osteopetrosis a familial disease characterized by excessive radiographic density with a tendency towards fracture and obliteration of marrow cavity
osteoporosis absolute decrease in quantity of bone tissue with enlarging marrow cavity and Haversian spaces
osteosclerosis abnormal increase in density of bone
otitis media inflammation of the ear
otolith calcareous concretions within membranous labyrinth
otosclerosis a disease characterized by new bone formation around oval window with immobilization of foot plate of stapes and hence conductive hearing loss
otoscope instrument for visualization of external ear and the tympanic membrane
out growth growth or development from a preexisting structure or state
outlet route of exit or egress o. pelvic. The lower opening of pelvis bounded ischial spines
output yield o. cardiac volume of blood expelled from left ventricle per minute. o. urine when <400 mL/day urine passed in 24 hours; it is oliguria
ovarian agenesis failure of development of ovaries. SYN: Turner’s syndrome
ovarian follicle an ovum and the granulosa cell surrounding it occupying the cortex of ovary
ovarian hormones 1. follicular hormones—estradiol, estrone, and estriol 2. luteal hormone-progesterone
ovarian pregnancy fertilized ovum implanted on ovary
ovarian vein syndrome ureteric obstruction by large dilated ovarian vein, commonly right, during pregnancy causing urinary stasis and infection
ovary the glandular female repro-ductive organ giving rise to ova
ovotestis ovarian and testicular tissue combined in the same gonad
ovulation the maturation and discharge of ovum
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ovum the female germ cell
oxazepam a benzodiazepine, tranquilizer
oxidase enzyme that promotes an oxidation reaction
oxidation an increase in positive valence of an element or decrease in negative valence occurring due to loss of electrons; the process of combining with oxygen
oxygen the colorless and odorless gas that supports combustion and essential to animal life. It constitutes one-fifth of the atmosphere, eight-ninth of water and one-half of the earth’s crust
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oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin combined with oxygen
oxytetracycline an antibiotic of tetracycline group from Streptomyces rimosus. Where the hydrogen atom of tetracycline is replaced by a hydroxyl group
oxytocin an octapeptide secreted by posterior pituitary, causes uterine contraction and promotes lactation
oxytocin challenge test a test to assess fetal wellbeing by administering oxytocin via intravenous infusion to induce uterine contractions and assessing the fetus’s response; can be interpreted as positive (abnormal), negative (normal) or suspicious (inconclusive)
ozone O3 an allotropic form of oxygen, a powerful oxidizing agent, used as disinfectant

P

pack a dry or moist; hot or cold blanket or sheet used for therapeutic purpose
packed cell blood containing cellular elements only, devoid of plasma
Paget’s disease skeletal disease of elderly with thickening, softening and bending of bones
pain sensory and emotional experience associated with irritation/inflammation of tissue
palate roof of the mouth separating it from nasal cavity
palliative an agent which relieves but does not cure a disease
palmar erythema reddening of the palms seen in pregnant women
palpation examination by application of hand or fingers
palpitation rapid throbbing pulsation of heart
palsy paralysis/loss of ability to act. p. Bell’s lower motor facial palsy. p. bulbar paralysis of lower cranial nerves. p. cerebral nonprogressive palsy of childhood from developmental defect of brain, or birth asphyxia or trauma. p. Erb’s palsy of C5–C6 due to lesion of brachial plexus. p. shaking paralysis agitans
pancreas a compound acinotubular gland in front of L1–L2 vertebra behind the stomach, secretes hormones like insulin, glucagon and digestive enzymes. p.annular a portion of pancreas encircles duodenum
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pancreatitis inflammation of pancreas. p. calcareous pancreatitis accompanied by pancreatic calcification. p. chronic scarred pancreas due to chronic inflammation
pancuronium a neuromuscular blocking agent used as muscle relaxant in surgery and in mechanical ventilation
pancytopenia reduction in all cellular elements, i.e. RBC, WBC, platelets in blood
pandemic disease widely prevalent in population
panhysterectomy removal body and cervix of uterus
panic attack acute intense anxiety with sweating, palpitation, nausea, chest pain and feeling of approaching death
Papanicolaou test a study for detection of cancer from examination of cells shed from abnormal mucosal growths
papilla small elevation, nipple-like. p. circumvallate large papilla near base of tongue. p. filiform small papilla at tip of tongue. p. interdental triangular shaped gingiva between the teeth. p. interproximal the cone-shaped projection of the gingiva filling the interdental spaces up to the contact areas when viewed from the labial, buccal, and lingual aspects. When viewed buccolingually or labiolingually, the crest of the interproximal papilla appears as a rounded concavity at an area below the contact point of the teeth. If recession has occurred, this concavity may become an area of pathology, and the entire papilla may require reshaping to restore health. p. lacrimal small elevation at inner end of eyelid through which lacrimal duct opens. p. of hair a conical portion of dermis through which capillaries enter into hair root. p. of Vater elevation in medial wall of second part of duodenum through which pancreatic and common bile duct open. p. renal apex of renal pyramids
papilloma benign epithelial tumors including wart, condyloma and polyp
papule solid circumscribed elevation of skin
papyraceous like paper. p. fetus often in twin pregnancy one fetus dies and becomes flattened
para prefix meaning near, e.g. parametrium connectine tissue near uterus
para woman who has given birth to viable fetus—dead or alive p.nulli para o
154 paracentesis cavity puncture for draining fluid
paracervical block block of cervical plexus by injection through lateral fornix to relieve pain of cervical dilatation but inadvertent injection into uterine artery may cause fetal body candida and even fetal death
paracetamol oral antipyretic analgesic but overdose can cause liver failure
paradoxical respiration 1. seen in open pneumothorax where lungs fill during expiration. 2. moving up of diaphragm during inspiration in diaphragmatic palsy
paraldehyde colorless liquid polymer of acetaldehyde used as a hypnotic, analgesic and anticonvulsant
paralysis loss of muscular function usually due to nerve dysfunction; may be spastic or flaccid. p. agitans Parkinson’s disease characterized by rigidity, akinesia, tremor and gait disorder. p. Bell’s lower motor facial palsy. p. crossed paralysis of one side of body and opposite side of face, a feature of lesion in brainstem. p. familial periodic flaccid palsy usually on awakening due to disturbances in serum potassium. p. hysteric apparent paralysis due to psychiatric conflict. p. Erb’s paralysis of muscles of upper arm due to C5 C6 root lesion. p. Klumpke’s birth injury causing paralysis of arm and hand muscles (Policeman’s hand in bribe). p. Pott’s tuberculosis of spine causing paraplegia. p. pseudobulbar upper motor palsy of cranial nerves due to central lesion. p. Saturday night compression of radial nerve in spiral groove (usually due to alcoholic binge on Saturday night). p. Todd’s transient muscular palsy (upto 24 hours) following epilepsy, due to neuronal exertion
paralytic ileus intestinal palsy with distention of abdomen, vomiting and obstipation
paramedic a trained person to assist doctor
paramedical supplementary to medical profession like occupational, speech and physiotherapy
parametritis inflammation of parametrium
paranasal sinuses frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses
paranoia paranoid schizophrenia
paranoid ideas of persecution, suspicious thinking
paraphilia a psychosexual disorder that includes fetishism, transvestism, pedophilia, voyeurism which mean bizarre acts for sexual excitation
paraphimosis inflamed or narrowed prepuce unable to be retracted over glans and strangulating it
paraphrasia unintelligible speech due to incorrect and jumbling up of words used
paraplegia paralysis of both legs. p. dolorosa extremely painful paraplegia 155due to pressure of a neoplasm on nerve roots and spinal cord. p. Pott’s tuberculosis of spine with paraplegia
parasite organism living at expense of another organism. p. external parasite living on outer surface of host, e.g. lice, fleas, ticks, etc. p. facultative parasite capable of living independent of the host at times
parasympathetic nervous system the preganglionic fibers arise from midbrain, medulla and sacral portion of spinal cord through 3rd, 7th, 9th and 10th cranial nerves and S2-S4 somatic nerves to synapse with postganglionic neurones located in autonomic ganglia. Parasympathetic stimulation causes smooth muscle contraction, increased glandular secretion (except that of sweat) and slowing of heart
parathyroids 4 small glands lying in neck adjacent to thyroid whose extirpation leads to hypocalcemia, carpopedal spasm, and tetany
parenteral any route other than alimentary canal
paresis partial or incomplete paralysis
paresthesia sensation of numbness, pricking, needling, tingling due to irritation of a nerve or its central connections
parietal forming wall of a cavity or outer shell. p. cells large cells or oxyntic cells secreting HCl in stomach
parity carrying pregnancy up to viability (28 weeks gestation)
paronychia infection of nail margin soft tissue
paroophoron vestigial structure consisting of minute tubules, the remains of caudal group of mesonephric tubules, homologous to paradidymis of male
parotid duct the duct of parotid gland 2” long opening into mouth opposite 2nd upper molar
parotid gland one of the salivary glands near angle of mouth secreting saliva
parotitis inflammation of parotid gland
paroxysm periodic recurrence of symptoms
partogram graphical record of progress of labor, particularly the dilatation of cervix descent of fetal head
parturient concerning childbirth
parturition delivery or childbirth
passive exercise exercise to muscle given by an assistant or machine
passive smoking inhaling smoke by persons around the smoke
passivity dependence upon others, not willing to take responsibility
pasteurization the process of sterilizing a fluid without changing its chemical composition
Patau’s syndrome trisomy 13 affecting hand, face and feet with mental retardation
patent ductus arteriosus persistent communication between aorta and pulmonary artery after birth
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157 paternity test group of tests (blood group, HLA) done to determine if a particular individual has fathered the specific child in question
pathogen any microorganism capable of causing disease
pathology branch of medical science dealing with nature and cause of disease and the functional/structural changes caused by the disease
patulous open, spread apart
Paul-Bunnell test test for heterophil antibody in patients of infectious mononucleosis
Pawlik’s grip a method of estimating the mobility and engagement of the presenting part by palpation of lower pole of uterus
pediatrics medical science dealing with children below 14 years of age
pedicle the stem that attaches the tumor to the organ
pedigree the tree or chart involving one’s ancestors as used for genetic analysis
peduncle a connecting band of nervous tissue. p. cerebellar inferior connects spinal cord and medulla with cerebellum. p. cerebellar middle channel for pontocerebellar fibers. p. cerebellar superior connects cerebellum with midbrain. p. cerebral a pair of white bundle connecting cerebrum to midbrain; the pathway for descending corticospinal and corticonuclear projection
pellagra avitaminosis due to want of nicotinic acid manifesting with diarrhea, dermatitis and dementia
pelvic inflammatory disease infection of fallopian tubes, broad ligament and supporting tissues of uterus
pelvic inlet upper pelvic entry, i.e. space between sacral promontory and upper aspect of symphysis pubis
pelvic outlet lower pelvic outlet outlined by tip of coccyx, ischial tuberosities and lower margin of symphysis pubis
pelvimetry measurement of pelvic dimension manually or by X-ray
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pelvis the structure formed by iliac bones, sacrum and coccyx. Inlet A-P diameter = 11 cm. Diagonal conjugate = 13 cm. True conjugate = 11 cm. Transverse diameter = 11 cm. Outlet AP diameter = 11 cm. p. android male type pelvis with shallow sacral hollow. p. anthropoid long narrow pelvis. p. contracted pelvis in which one or more diameters are less so as to impede birth of fetus.
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p. funnel-shaped pelvis with normal inlet but markedly contracted outlet. p. Naegeles obliquely contracted pelvis. p. Otto pelvis in which head of femur extends into pelvic cavity due to depressed acetabulum
pemphigus a bullous disease that appears suddenly on normal skin and disappears leaving pigmented spots. p. erythematous erythematous macules and blebs resembling lupus erythematosus and perphigus vulgaris. p. foliaceus pemphigus with a chronic course and purulent bulous fluid from beginning. p. vegetans pemphigus with pustules instead of bullae followed by warty vegetations. p. vulgaris common form of bullous pemphigus with bilateral distribution
pendulous bulging down
penicillamine a derivative of penicillin used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and heavy metal poisoning
penicillin antibiotic synthesized by various molds, bactericidal to gram-positive cocci, Spirochaetes and Rickettsiae by inhibition of cell wall synthesis
penis the male organ of copulation consisting of root, body and glans penis. The body contains paired corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum through which passes the urethra
160 pentazocine an analgesic with strong addictive potential
pepsin proteolytic enzyme of gastric juice which converts proteins into proteoses and peptones
peptide compound formed by combination of 2 or more amino acids
percentile a term used in statistics to show how common some characteristic is. The chart is used in midwifery for birth weight of babies in different period of gestation.
percussion the use of finger tips to tap the body directly or indirectly to determine position, size and consistency of underlying structure
perforation a hole
pericarditis inflammation of pericardium often with serofibrinous effusion and rarely constriction. p. constrictive pericarditis leading to restriction in ventricular filling with equalization in diastolic pressure in both ventricles and atria
pericardium a bilayer fibroserous sac enclosing heart
perinatal around the time of birth, the first week of life
perineorrhaphy repair of perineum and perineal body following injury sustained during childbirth
perineum the structures occupying the pelvic outlet and constituting pelvic floor. p. tears of first degree tear involves vaginal mucosa, second degree involves the musculature in addition and in third degree tear the anal sphincter is also torn
periosteum a fibrous membrane covering the bone, supporting the blood vessels supplying bone and giving attachment to ligaments and muscles. Its inner cellular layer forms new bone
peristalsis successive waves of contraction and relaxation of the walls of a hollow muscular structure (e.g. intestinal tract, ureter) and moving the contents onward
peritoneum a serous membrane reflected over abdominal viscera and lining the abdominal cavity
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peritonitis inflamed peritoneum manifesting with board-like rigidity of abdomen and aperistalsis, commonly follows rupture of follow organ, pelvic inflammation, or is primary can be localized or generalized; acute or chronic, adhesive and aseptic
periventricular leukomalacia cystic ischemic lesion in periventricular region, a consequence hemorrhage into germinal matrix, associated with spastic cerebral palsy
pernicious anemia vitamin B12 deficient anemia due to antibodies to gastric parietal cells leading to deficient intrinsic factor secretion
peroxidase an enzyme essential for oxygen transfer, hence important in cellular respiration
persistent mentoposterior face presentation with chin towards sacrum causing obstructed labor
persistent occipitoposterior a deflexed vertex with occiput facing the sacrum causing delayed labor but spontaneous face-to-pubes delivery is possible
personality the composition of one’s characteristics, behavior, grooming, etc. p.compulsive. a type of personality where individual’s perfectionism, indecisiveness hampers with social adjustment and interpersonal relationship. p. extroverted individual’s activities and libido are directed to other individuals or environment. p. histrionic personality with self exaggeration, dramatization, irrational and angry outbursts. p. introverted person’s activities and libido are directed towards himself. p. paranoid undue suspiciousness, mistrust and hypersensitiveness. p. schizoid shyness, seclusiveness, eccentricity
perspiration waterloss from skin via evaporation of sweat; 1 liter of sweat evaporation removes 580 calories of heat from the body
pertussis acute infectious respiratory disease caused by B. pertussis. SYN: whooping cough
pessary device inserted into vagina to support pelvic structures like uterus, urethra
petechiae hemorrhagic spots on the skin
pethidine meperidine hydrochloride
petit mal little illness. A form of epilepsy
Pfannenstiel incision a transverse abdominal incision given just above symphysis pubis
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pH the symbol for hydrogen ion concentration ranging from 0–14, 7 is neutral, above 7 is alkaline and below 7 acidic normal blood pH 7.4, i.e. alkaline
phage typing a method of identifying particular strains of bacteria that are lysed by only strain specific bacteriophages
phage viruses that can lyse bacteria
phagocyte a cell capable of ingesting and digesting cell debris, protozoa, bacteria, etc.
phagocytosis the process of ingestion and digestion of bacteria by phagocytes
phalanx bones on finger and toes; proximal, middle and distal
phallus penis
phantom an appearance or illusion of body part. p. limb following amputation, patient feels as if the limb exists. p. tumor muscular contraction or abdominal fat mistaken as tumor
pharmaceutics science of dispensing medicines
163 pharmacodynamics study of drugs and their action on living organisms
pharmacognosy the science of natural drugs and their properties
pharmacokinetics study of metabolism and action of drugs including absorption, distribution metabolism, elimination
pharmacopeia publication depicting standard formula and preparation of drugs
pharmacy the practice of compounding and dispensing medicines; a drug store
pharynx the common gateway in throat for food and air extending from base of skull to 6th cervical vertebra. Nasopharynx is the portion above palate; oropharynx lies between palate and hyoid bone and laryngopharynx below the hyoid bone
phenergan promethazine hydro-chloride
phenindione an anticoagulant
phenobarbital phenylethyl barbituric acid used as a hypnotic and anticonvulsant
phenol a coal tar derivative effective as a bacteriostatic agent. SYN: carbolic acid
phenomenon a change perceivable by senses. p. Bell’s rolling of eyeball upward and outward on attempting to close the affected eye in lower motor neurone facial palsy
phenothiazine the basic compound used for manufacture of tranquilizers, anthelmintics, dyes and some insecticides
phenotype the physical appearance or the sum total of visible traits which characterize the members of a group
phenylalanine an essential aminoacid, normally converted to tyrosine in liver
phenylbutazone an analgesic anti-inflammatory agent sparingly used for adverse effects on marrow
phenylephrine adrenergic agent used as nasal decongestant
phenylketonuria an autosomal recessive disease where due to defective enzyme system phenylalanine is not converted to tyrosine and there is likelihood of brain damage
phenylpyruvic acid a metabolic derivative of phenylalanine
phenytoin anticonvulsant drug, also antiarrhythmic
pheochromocytoma a benign chromaffin cell tumor of adrenal medulla producing adrenaline and noradrenaline
philadelphia chromosome dislocation of long arm of chromosome 21 to chromosome 9, seen in 90% patients of chronic myelocytic leukemia
phimosis narrowing of prepucial orifice so that it cannot be retracted over glans penis
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
phlebolith a concretion in a vein
phlebothrombosis clotting of blood inside vein without any infection
phlegmasia inflammation. p. alba dolens edema of leg due to thrombophlebitis
164 phobia irrational fear resulting in desire to avoid the feared object/situation
phocomelia congenital malformation where proximal part of a limb is ill-developed
phosphatase enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of phosphoric acid esters. p. acid present in semen, prostatic secretion, osteoclasts and odontoclasts. p. alkaline present in developing bone, plasma, and teeth; excreted by liver, increase in obstructive jaundice, bone metastasis and osteomalacia
phosphate salt of phosphoric acid (PO4). Monosodium and disodium phosphates help to maintain acid-base balance of blood. p. acid phosphate in which one or two atoms of hydrogen in phosphoric acid are replaced by a metal. p. triple calcium-ammonium and magnesium phosphate
phospholipids lipid containing phosphorus e.g. sphingomyelin, the principal lipid cell membrane
phosphorus a mineral essential for bone formation and cellular metabolism
photophobia intolerance to light, a feature of keratitis, uveitis, etc.
photoretinitis macular burn on exposure to intense light
photosensitizer substance that compounds abnormal reaction of skin to light
phototherapy therapeutic use of sunlight or artificial blue light to reduce serum bilirubin in newborn
phrenic concerning diaphragm
phthisic concerning pulmonary tuberculosis
physical therapy rehabilitation for restoration of function and prevention of disability by using exercise, heat, massage, ultraviolet, etc.
physiology the branch of science dealing with functions of living organisms
physique the body organization development and structure
phytonadione synthetic vitamin K
phytotherapy treatment using plant substances such as aromatherapy and herbal medicine
pia mater the innermost membrane enveloping spinal cord
pica perverted appetite with eating of uneatables like plastic, clay, plaster, etc.
pie chart a circular diagram divided into segments showing the proportional distribution of observations of particular event
Pierre-Robin syndrome small jaw, cleft palate and absent gag reflex
pigment any organic coloring material in the body. p. bile bilirubin and biliverdin, the hemoglobin degradation products in blood secreted in bile, urobilin and bilifuscin excreted in stool and urine. p. blood hematin, 165hemin, methemoglobin and hemosiderin, all derivatives of hemoglobin
pile hemorrhoid. p. sentinel thickened anal mucous membrane at the lower end of an anal fissure
pilonidal cyst sacrococcygeal cyst from the entrapped epithelial tissue beneath the skin, a developmental defect
pilonidal sinus a small sinus opening near coccyx, a remnant of neural canal
Pinard’s stethoscope a trumpet shoped instrument to hear fetal heart sound
pineal body a gland-like structure near splenium of corpus callosum secreting melatonin
pinna the auricle or external ear
piperazine drug used for enterobiosis and ascariasis
pitressin vasopressin secreted from posterior pituitary (contains ADH + pressor agent)
pituitary endocrine gland of size 1.3 cm × 1 cm × 0.5 cm at base of brain secreting various hormones like TSH, GH, ACTH, LH, oxytocin and vasopressin
placebo an inactive substance, used in controlled studies of drugs
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placenta the oval structure in pregnant uterus through which fetus derives its nutrition. p. accreta placenta whose cotyledons have invaded the uterine musculature so that placental separation after delivery is difficult. p. circumvallate cup-shaped placenta with raised edges. p. percreta placental cotyledons invade uterus right up to serosal lining threatening rupture of uterus. p. previa placenta implanted to lower uterine segment, often causing painless profuse third trimester bleeding. p. retained placenta not expelled even 2 hours after fetal delivery. p. succenturiate an accessory placenta having vascular connection with main placenta. p.velamentous placenta where the umbilical cord is attached to membranes, so that the umbilical vessels enter placenta at its margins
placental dysfunction a placenta that is failing to meet fetal requirements.
placental souffle auscultatory sound of placental blood flow
placenta previa a placenta, which is abnormally implanted in the lower uterine segment so that it partially or fully covers the internal os of the cervix
plagiocephaly irregular closure of cranial sutures resulting in deformed skull
plague disease caused by Pasteurella pestis. p. bubonic common form of plague with suppurative lymphadenitis. p. hemorrhagic rare form of plague with prominent hemorrhagic 167manifestations particularly into skin. p. pneumonic virulent form of plague with extensive involvement of lungs
planned parenthood birth control
plaque a patch on skin or mucous membrane p. dental a gummy mesh harboring microorganism growing on the crowns of teeth, a forerunner of dental caries
plasma exchange removal of patient’s, plasma with replacement by colloid solution. This removes the immune complexes, excess antibodies or drugs and poisons
plasmapheresis similar to plasma exchange
plasma the liquid portion of blood, the medium for transporting nutrients and suspending the corpuscles
plasmid extranuclear cell inclusion having genetic function; commonly seen in bacteria and used in DNA cloning and recombinant DNA technology
plasmin fibrinolytic enzyme derived from plasminogen
plasmodium a genus of protozoa that includes causative agents of various types of malaria
plaster 1. plaster of Paris used to immobilize a part or make an impression. 2. medicinal agents formed into a tenaceous mass, e.g. belladonna plaster
plastibel a sterilized plastic device used for non-operative circumcision. The bell is slipped into penile foreskin and sting is tied. The foreskin becomes gangrenous and drops off
platelet concentrate platelets prepared from few units of blood and suspended in plasma
platelet round or oval disk-like cells in blood which help in blood coagulation and hemostasis
plegia suffix meaning paralysis
pleocytosis increased number of lymphocytes in CSF
plethora congestion with fluid
plethysmography the method of measuring volume of blood flow through a part from change in volume
pleura a bilayered membrane that encloses the lungs
pleurisy inflammation of pleura; may be primary or secondary, acute or chronic, serous or serosanguinous. p. diaphragmatic inflammation of diaphragmatic pleura causing intense pain under margin of the ribs, hiccough, and often dyspnea. p. dry pleurisy where a fibrinous exudate covers the pleural surface causing pain during respiration. p. encysted pleurisy with effusion encysted by adhesion
pleurodesis production of adhesion between visceral and parietal pleura
plexus a network of nerves, lymphatics or blood vessels. p. enteric one of the two plexuses of nerve fibers and ganglion cells lying in the wall of alimentary canal namely Auerbach’s plexus and submucosal Meissner’s plexus. p. pampiniform a network of veins draining the testis in male or ovary in the female
168 pneumonia inflammation of lung tissue. p. alba pneumonia of newborn due to congenital syphilis. p. aspiration pneumonia following aspiration of purulent matter from throat/mouth or gastric content. p. caseous pneumonia associated with tuberculosis. p. interstitial pneumonia with infilration of pulmonary interstitium. p. eosinophilic pneumonia with eosinophilia as during migration of round worm larva, microfilaria or due to drugs like nitrofurantoin, penicillin. p. Friedlanders lobar pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. p. giant cell an interstitial pneumonia of childhood with infiltration of lung by multinucleated giant cells, e.g. postmeasles. p. hypostatic pneumonia of aged and debilitated patients due to congestion of one part of lung at all times. p. atypical mild pneumonia but with radiological evidence of extensive lung infiltration as caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. p. Woolsorter’s pulmonary anthrax
pneumonitis hypersensitive diffuse granulomatous disease due to inhalation of organic dusts
pneumothorax presence of air in pleural cavity. p. artificial intentionally induced pneumothorax to cause pulmonary collapse as a treatment option in pulmonary tuberculosis p. tension a type of pneumothorax where air enters pleural space with each act of respiation but without an exit leading to high pleural pressure and collapse of lung
pO2 partial pressure of oxygen in blood, about 100 mm Hg in adult, 60 to 90 mm Hg in babies
podalic version rotating the fetus to bring feet to the lower pole
polarity the gradient of the strength of uterine contraction being highest in fundus and minimal in lower segment thus bringing about dilatation of cervix
pole one extremity or end of an organ of the body, e.g. uterus or of the fetus
poliomyelitis acute viral disease that causes destruction of anterior horn cells in spinal cord and often cranial nerve nuclei with ensuing palsy. p. ascending the paralysis begins in lower extremity and then ascends up-trunk often to involve respiratory muscles. p. bulbar paralysis of cranial nerves and the respiratory center. p. nonparalytic pain and stiffness in muscles but no paralysis
polycystic having many cysts
polycystic ovary an endocrine disorder with anovulation and multiple cysts in the ovaries
polycythemia an excess of red blood cells. p. rubra vera a malignant disorder of marrow with increase in RBC mass, WBC and platelets
polydactylism having supernumerary fingers or toes
polydipsia excess thirst
polygraph an apparatus for simultaneous recording of BP, pulse, respiration, electrical resistance of skin
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polyhydramnios excess of amniotic fluid
polymenorrhea menses occurring at rapid frequency
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A process whereby a strand of DNA can be cloned millions of times within a few hours. The process can be used to make prenatal diagnoses of genetic diseases and to identify an individual by analysis of a single tissue cell
polymorph a polymorphonuclear leukocyte
polymyositis a connective tissue disorder characterized by inflammation and degeneration of muscles and dermatitis
polyneuropathy involvement of many peripheral nerves
polyp a tumor with a pedicle
polyposis presence of many polyps. p. familial multiple polyps in colon with rectal bleeding and chances of malignant changes
polysaccharide complex sugars which on hydrolysis yield more than 2 molecules of simple sugar
polyuria excessive passage of urine of low specific gravity
pons a structure dorsal to the medulla and intimately related to the pathways to the cerebrum. The cranial nerves whose nuclei lie in the pons are the trigeminal, abducens, and facial nerves, and part of the acoustic nerve. The pons is intimately related to the medulla, has the same blood vessel supply, and is involved in many lesions that affect the medulla. It is specially involved with the cerebellar 170manifestations of disease and may cause serious muscular incoordination in motor function of the head, neck, and facial structures
popliteal concerning back of knee
pore a small opening
porphyrin nitrogen-containing organic compounds obtained from hemoglobin and chlorophyll
portal system the portal vein and its branches which drain the abdominal viscera and carry the blood to liver to be drained to inferior vena cava via hepatic vein
portal vein the vein formed from union of superior and inferior mesenteric, splenic, gastric and cystic veins
position end expiratory pressure a method to prevent collapse of alveoli at end expiration
position manner in which the body of patient is put. p. Fowler’s the position where head end of bed is elevated by 11/2 feet and knees are elevated. p. left lateral recumbent patient lies on left side; right knee and thigh drawn up. p. lithotomy patient lies on back with thighs drawn on abdomen and abducted. p. Trendelenburg dorsal position with patient supine on a bed tilted to about 45° with head low
posseting regurgitation of small amount of milk after feed
postcoital contraception oral contraceptive, usually levonor-gestrel tab to be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse
posterior situated at back or behind; dorsal
posthumous occurring after death
postmature infant born after 42 weeks of gestation
postmortem after death
postnasal located behind the nose
postpartum after child birth
postpartum depression depression occurring in puerperium
postpartum hemorrhage bleeding after childbirth in excess of 500 mL usually due to uterine atony, or cervical laceration
postpartum psychosis psychosis occurring within the six months following childbirth. The symptoms and signs are hallucination, delusion, preoccupation with death, etc.
post-term pregnancy when the pregnancy continues past 42 weeks gestation
posture attitude or position of body
potassium mineral element found in combination with other elements in the body. p. bicarbonate used to neutralize acid in stomach. p. chloride used in IV solutions and as oral preparation to supplement during digoxin and diuretic therapy. p. citrate used as alkalizer. p. iodide Used in expectorant preparations. p. permanganate topical astringent and antiseptic, antidote for phosphorus poisoning. p. tartarate a cathartic
potency strength, power, ability to perform sexual intercourse in case of male
171 Potter’s syndrome congenital renal agenesis with pulmonary hypoplasia umbilical cord has two vessels and face had low set ears with furrows below eye (potter facies)
pouch any pocket or sac. p. Rathke’s an embryonic outpocketing that forms anterior lobe of pituitary
Poupart’s ligament the rolled up lower end of external oblique aponeurosis stretching between anterior superior iliac spine and pubic tubercle. SYN: inguinal ligament
povidone iodine a complex of povidone and iodine used for skin preparation prior to surgery, as vaginal tablets, as lotions and ointments for antiseptic purposes
previa going before in time or place
prandial related to meal
prazosin alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker; antihypertensive agent
precipitate labor childbirth occurring with undue rapidity with feat of severe perineal laceration and fetal intracranial trauma
precipitate the process of deposition of substances from solutions
precocious development, physical or mental earlier than expected
preconception prior to conception p. cane health education and regular medical examination aimed at promoting optimum health during pregnancy and exclusion of diseases like diabetes, syphilis, HIV, toxoplasma, rubella, HSV etc, cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal compromise
precursor a substance that precedes another substance, e.g. angiotensinogen is a precursor substance of angiotensin
prediabetes the stage or condition prior to development of clinical diabetes
preeclampsia toxemia of pregnancy with albuminuria, hypertension and edema
pregnancy-induced hypertension a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy including conditions preeclampsia and eclampsia; characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema
pregnancy test tests employed to confirm pregnancy by using patient’s urine or blood which assess the chorionic gonadotrophins. The test is positive beginning 40th day from the last menstrual period. Radio-immunoassay is better and more accurate
pregnancy the condition of development of embryo in the uterus. p. abdominal development of embryo in the abdominal cavity drawing its blood supply from omentum. p. ampullar implantation of ovum in the ampulla of Fallopian tube. p. cornual pregnancy in one of the horns in a bicornuate uterus. p.ectopic condition where ovum develops outside the uterus. p. molar pregnancy where ovum degenerates into moles. p. gingivitis an enlargement or hyperplasia of the gingivae caused by hormonal imbalance during pregnancy. It is 172usually limited to the interdental papillae. Incomplete cleaning of the interproximal space with dental floss is the initiating factor. The hormonal change is a precipitating factor
pregnanediol progesterone metabolite (end product) in urine
pregnenolone a synthetic corticosteroid
preleukemia some blood changes that may be forewarners of leukemic process, i.e. unexplained anemia, purpura, mucositis
premature ejaculation ejaculation shortly after the onset of sexual excitement
premature infant infant with birth weight below 5 lb or born prior to 37 weeks of gestation
premedication drugs given prior to general anesthesia like atropine, opiates
premenstrual tension syndrome the syndrome of irritability, anxiety, depression, rage, edema and breast tenderness prior to the onset of menstruation
prenatal diagnosis diagnosis of developmental defects and diseases while the baby is in utero by use of chemical tests, ultrasound, amnioscopy and amniocentesis
prenatal period the time of pregnancy from the first day of last menstrual period (LMP) to the start of true labor
prepuce the foreskin or skinfold over glans penis
presbycusis sensory neural deafness of old age
presbyopia recession of near point of eye with advancing age due to loss of elasticity of crystalline lens
prescription a written order or direction for using a drug. A prescription consists of four main parts, i.e. superscription, inscription, subscription and signature
presentation in obstetrics, the fetal part presenting at the pelvic inlet; can be breech, vertex, face, brow
pressure compression, force exerted on any body tissue, e.g. blood vessel. p. blood pressure exerted by moving column of blood against arterial wall. p. central venous pressure in the right atrium. p. end diastolic pressure in the ventricles at the end of diastole. p. intracranial pressure to which CSF is subjected in subarachnoid space. p. intraocular pressure within the eyeball, maintained by vitreous and aqueous humor, usually 10 to 20 mm Hg. p. negative pressure less than atmospheric pressure. p. oncotic osmotic pressure exerted by colloids in a solution. p. osmotic the force at which solvent like water passes through a semipermeable membrane separating solutions of different concentrations. p. wedge pressure obtained by wedging a fluid filled catheter in a distal branch of pulmonary artery which is equivalent to left atrial pressure
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preterm in obstetrics labor occurring before 37th week of gestation
prevalence the number of cases of a disease present in a specified population at a given time
preventive medicine the branch of medicine concerned with prevention of mental and physical illness and disease
priapism painful sustained penile erection without any sexual desire
primigravida woman conceiving for first time
primipara woman who has delivered a viable baby
probe an instrument for knowing depth and direction of sinus and wound. p. lacrimal an instrument useful in probing the lumen of duct structures, such as the nasolacrimal or salivary gland ducts. p. periodontal a fine calibrated instrument designed and used for measuring the depth and topography of gingival and periodontal pockets. Also used to determine the degree of attachment and adaptation of the gingival tissues to the tooth
probenecid a benzoic acid derivative, uricosuric and delays excretion of penicillin and its derivatives
procaine a local anesthetic used in infiltration anesthesia, nerve block, and spinal anesthesia
prochlorperazine a phenothiazine derivative for treating nausea and vomiting
procidentia complete prolapse of uterus where it completely protrudes outside the introitus
174 procreate to give birth
proctalgia pain in and around anus and rectum
proctitis inflammation of anus and rectum
proctoscopy instrument for examination of rectum
prodrome a symptom heralding an approaching ailment
prodrug chemicals which exhibit their pharmacologic property after biotransformation in the body
progesterone hormone secreted by placenta, corpus luteum and adrenal cortex; essential for secretory phase of endometrium, mammary growth and development and growth of placenta
progestin group of synthetic drugs having progesterone-like effect on uterus
prognathism abnormally forward projecting lower jaw
prolactin hormone of anterior pituitary that helps in milk production
prolapse falling down of a body part or organ p. of cord the umbilical cord lies in front of presenting part and prolapses after rupture of membrance causing fetal anoxi. p. rectum. protrurion of rectal mucosa and often the muscle coat through anus p of arm the fetal arm prolapses in shoulder presentation p of uterus the uterus protrudes into lower part of vagina due to weakness of its support
proliferate to increase by reproduction of similar forms as to the parent source
prolonged labor labor lasting more than 24 hours due to poor uterine contraction, cephalopelvic disproportion, malpresentation or malposition
prolonged pregnancy pregnancy beyond 42 week (294 days)
promethazine an antihistaminic agent
promontory a projecting surface or part. p. of sacrum the anterior projecting surface of sacrum
pronation the position of face downwards or palm facing downwards
175 pronucleus the laploid nucleus of a sex cell
prophylaxis prevention of disease
propofol general anesthetic; action: produces dose-dependent central nervous system depression; mechanism of action is unknown; used in induction or maintenance of anesthesia as part of a balanced anesthetic technique
propranolol betaadrenergic blocking agent used for hypertension, arrhythmias, angina pectoris, portal hypertension, etc.
proprioceptor receptors responsible for body position and equilibrium, e.g. muscle spindles, pacinian corpuscles and labyrinthine receptors
proptosis protrusion of eyeball as in exophthalmic goiter, retro-orbital mass or cavernous sinus thrombosis
propylthiouracil antithyroid drug for hyperthyroidism
prostacyclin the precursor intermediate of prostaglandins; vasodilator
prostaglandin a large group of biologically active 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids produced by the metabolism of arachidonic acid, e.g. PGA1, PGD2, PGE2, PGI2
prostate the musculoglandular organ of the size of 2 × 4 × 3 cm that surrounds neck of urinary bladder and urethra in male
prosthesis an artificial part or organ. p. periodontal any restorative and replacement device that, by its intent and nature, is used as a therapeutic aid in the treatment of periodontal disease; it is an adjunct to other forms of periodontal therapy and does not cure periodontal disease by itself
protamin a simple strongly basic protein used to neutralize excess heparin or to slow down absorption of insulin
protean variable
176 proteinuria loss of protein usually albumin in urine. p. orthostatic proteinuria occurring on assuming erect posture but not during recumbency. Hence morning urine is protein-free but urine of daytime contains albumin
proteous an intermediate product of proteolysis
proteus a genus of enteric bacillus, P. vulgaris causes urinary infection while P. morgagni in addition causes enteritis, P. mirabilis is usually saprophytic
prothrombin a blood coagulation factor synthesized in liver which is converted to thrombin
prothrombin time the time taken for decalcified plasma to clot on addition of thromboplastin and calcium. Usually employed to evaluate effects of anticoagulants
protocol description of steps to be taken in an experiment
proton a positively charged particle in the atom
protoplasm a thick viscous colloid, the physical basis of all living organisms
proximal nearest to center of a system
pruritus itching. p. senilis pruritus in aged due to degeneration of skin. p. vulvae itching around vulva, a feature of diabetes
pseudo prefix meaning false
pseudocyesis symptoms of pregnancy like amenorrhea, abdominal enlargement, morning sickness, etc. in absence of uterine enlargement as occurring in women who are too keen to have pregnancy
pseudodementia social withdrawal but without mental deterioration
pseudohermaphrodite individual with sex chromatin and sex organs of one sex but with some of the physical appearance of opposite sex. p. male genetically male with a small rudimentary penis and a scrotum without testes resembling labia; usually occurs due to disease of adrenals or feminizing tumors of undescended testis. p. female a genetically female with large clitoris resembling penis and hypertrophied labia mimicking scrotum
pseudohypertrophy increase in size of tissue but with diminished function
pseudomenstruation vaginal spotting in newborn girls on third day of birth due to organ withdrawal
pseudomonas a genus of motile gramnegative bacilli some of which produce yellow and blue pigments. p. aeruginosa causes urinary tract infection and wound infection. p. pseudomallei causes melioidosis
psoas a muscle in the loin, inserted to lesser trochanter of femur. It flexes the thigh, adducts and rotates it medially
psoriasis a chronic itchy disorder of skin marked by lesions on extensor surfaces with silvery yellow white scales. A psoriatic skin produces nearly 2700 cells/cm2 in comparison to 1250/cm2 per day in normal person and cell cycle is reduced to 36 hours 177in comparison to the normal of 311 hours
psyche mind
psychiatry the branch of medicine dealing with diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illness
psychologist person trained in methods of psychological analysis, therapy and research
psychometry the measurement of psychological variables like intelligence, aptitude, behavior and emotion
psychomotor epilepsy temporal lobe epilepsy
psychomotor retardation generalized slowing of physical and mental reactions
psychoneurosis emotional mal-adaptation due to unresolved emotional conflicts
psychopath antisocial personality
psychosexual pertains to mental and emotional aspects of sexuality
psychosis an impairment of mental function to the extent of interfering with individual’s adaptation to family, society, self-care and ordinary demands of life. There is personality disintegration and loss of contact with reality; hallucinations and delusions
psychosomatic pertains to body and mind, i.e. a disease producing physical symptoms due to some disturbance in emotional state
psychotherapy a method of treating disease by mental means like suggestion, hypnotism rather than physical means
ptosis drooping of an organ or eyelid
ptyalin a salivary enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen to maltose and glucose
puberty the period of sexual maturity between 13 to 15 years in boys and 9 to 16 years in girls, probably related to decrease in secretion of pineal gland. p. precocious onset of puberty earlier than normal
pubescence puberty
pudenda external genitalia especially of female
puerperal sepsis infection of genital tract in the puerperium
puerperium period of six weeks following childbirth
pulmonary arterial webs web-like deformities in pulmonary angiogram at the site of previous thromboembolism
pulmonary embolism see embolism pulmonary
pulmonary infarction consequence of blockage of a branch of pulmonary artery by embolus from calf or pelvic veins common on puerperium
pulse the waveform of blood passing through an artery as a consequence to cardiac contraction. p. alternating pulse with weak and strong beats. p. anacrotic pulse with a secondary wave on ascending limb. p. bigeminal pulse where every third beat is irregular. p. collapsing pulse striking the finger with force but then abruptly subsiding. p. corrigans bounding and forceful pulse of aortic regurgitation. p. deficit pulse rate counted from wrist and cardiac rate auscultated over chest differ as in atrial fibrillation. p. paradoxical pulse disappearing at the end of inspiration as in pericardial tamponade. p. thready barely perceptible pulse. p. waterhammer sudden jerky pulse with immediate collapse.
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pulseless disease aorto-arteritis causing absence of brachial and radial pulse
pulse pressure difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Pulse pressure above 50 and below 30 are considered abnormal
puncture to make a hole, or wound by a sharp pointed instrument. p. cisternal puncture of cerebromedullary cisterns through suboccipital space to obtain CSF. p. lumbar puncture of subarachnoid space between L3–L4 vertebrae to obtain CSF for analysis, or to do myelogram. p. sternal aspiration of bone marrow from sternum
pupil the opening at the center of iris. p. Argyl Robertson pupil that reacts to accommodation but with loss of light reflex. p. Hutchinson’s one side dilatation of pupil with contraction on other side due to intracranial space occupying lesion. p. pinpoint excessively constricted pupil in opium poisoning, myopias and in pontine hemorrhage
purgative drug stimulating bowel movement
purine end products of nucleoprotein digestion consisting of adenine, guanine and uric acid
purulent containing pus, suppurative
pus liquid product of inflammation containing albuminous substances, leukocytes and organisms. Blue or green pus is due to infection by pseudomonas group and fetid pus is due to growth of anaerobes
pustule small elevated skin lesion containing pus, may be flat, round or umbilicated
putative supposed. p father the man believed to be father of the illegitimate child
pyelites inflammation of renal pelvis
pyelogram X-ray of ureter and renal pelvis
179 pyelonephritis inflammation of kidney substance and pelvis, in 85% caused by E. coli
pyemia presence of pus forming organisms in blood, a form of septicemia, causing metastatic abscess
pyloric stenosis narrowing of pyloric orifice due to peptic ulcer or postpyloric duodenal ulcer or congenital hyperplasia of pyloric circular muscles
pylorus the lower orifice of stomach which opens intermittently to allow partly digested food to enter into duodenum
pyogenic pus-producing
pyometra pus in the uterus
pyosalpinx pus in Fallopian tube
pyoureter pus in the ureter
pyrantel pamoate drug used in helminthiasis, specially ascariasis and enterobiasis
pyrazinamide bactericidal anti-tubercular drug, very effective in killing intracellular slowly growing bacilli
pyrexia fever
pyridoxine vitamin B6 that includes pyridoxal and pyridoxamine
pyrimethamine antimalarial agent (Daraprim)
pyrogen agent that produces fever
pyruvic acid an intermediate product in metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Its blood level increases in thiamine deficiency
pyuria pus in the urine

Q

Q fever acute infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a rickettsial organism, characterized by fever, sweating, myalgia
QRS complex a group of waves depicted on an electrocardiogram; called also the QRS wave. It actually consists of three distinct waves created by the passage of the cardiac electrical impulse through the ventricles and occurs at the beginning of each contraction of the ventricles. In a normal electrocardiogram, the R wave is the most prominent of the three; the Q and S waves may be extremely weak and are sometimes absent
quack person who pretends to have knowledge and skill of medicine
quadrangular lobe a region on superior surface of each cerebellar hemisphere
quadrant one fourth of circumference of a circle
quadruplet four fetuses born in same labor
quarantine the period of isolation when one is exposed to infectious disease which is the longest incubation period of disease
quartan occurring every fourth day
quickening feeling of first movements of fetus in utero usually between 18 to 20 weeks of pregnancy
quinine an antimalarial alkaloid from cinchona bark used orally as sulfate, bisulfate and hydrochloride and parenterally as dihydrochloride. Quinine tannate is tasteless, best for giving to young children, used for falciparum malaria
quinolone a class of compounds whose well known derivatives are norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, pfloxacin and ofloxacin
quintuplet birth of 5 children at same time to a mother
quotidian occurring daily
quotient number of times a number is contained in another. q. intelligence division of one’s mental age by actual age. q. respiratory division of amount of CO2 in expired air by the oxygen. Normal value is 0.9
Q wave the downward deflection before R wave in ECG. Prominent Q waves indicate myocardial necrosis

R

rabies an acute infectious CNS disease with fatal outcome; transmitted to humans by bite of rabid animals like dogs, foxes and cats. Bats, foxes and raccoons serve as reservoir of infection
racemose grape-like r. glands compound and lobulated in structure
rachitic pelvis flat pelvic brim similar to that of platypeloid pelvis
radial relating to radius r. palsy paralysis of radial nerve with wrist drop. r. keratotomy a form of surgery with radial incisions on cornea for correction of myopia
radical dealing with root or cause of a disease. r. cure cure that completely removes the cause. r. free a molecule containing odd number of electrons and an open bond causing cell membrane damage
radiculitis inflammation of spinal nerve roots
radioactive capable of emitting radiant energy
radioactivity the ability of a substance to emit rays of particles (alpha, beta or gamma) from its nucleus
radiograph(s) an image or picture produced on a radiation sensitive film emulsion by exposure to ionizing radiation directed through an area, region, or substance of interest, followed by chemical processing of the film. It is basically dependent on the differential absorption of radiation directed through heterogeneous media. r. bite-wing a form of dental radiograph that reveals approximately the coronal halves of the maxillary and mandibular teeth and portions of the interdental alveolar septa on the same film
radioimmunoassay a method for determining concentration of substances particularly protein bound hormones to the range of picograms
radioisotope a radioactive form of an element
radiopaque impermeable to X-ray or other form of radiation
radiopelvimetry measurement of pelvis by use of X-rays
radiopharmaceuticals radioactive chemicals or their combination with carriers. Used for determining size and function of body organs
radioresistant tumors that cannot be destroyed by radiation, and hence are radioresistant
radiotelemetry transmission of data via radio from a patient to a remote monitor for analysis
radiotherapy the treatment of disease by application of X-rays, radium, ultraviolet or other forms of radiations
radium a radioactive and fluorescent metallic element with half-life of 1622 years
ramipril ACE inhibitor
Ramstedt’s operation division of hypertrophic pyloric sphincter to relieve obstruction
ramus a branch or division of a forked structure
182 random controlled trial a study plan for a proposed new treatment in which subjects are assigned on a random basis to participate in either an experimental group receiving the new treatment or a control group that does not
random sample the selection of samples from population where each individual in the group has same opportunity of being selected
ranitidine H2 receptor blocker, used in peptic ulcer
rape intercourse, homosexual or heterosexual, against consent or with consent which is obtained by force. The age of victim for consent varies from countries to countries. In India, it is 16 years
raphe a ridge, crease or point of joining of two halves of a part
rash any eruption of skin usually associated with communicable disease. r. butterfly skin rash on cheeks and over the bridge of nose as seen in systemic lupus erythematosus. r. diaperdiaper skin inflammation in diaper areas in infants. r.drug rash due to drugs like ampicillin, sulphas, iodides and bromides. r. macular flat rash not protruding above the skin surface. r. mulbery dusky rash in typhus fever. r. nettle smooth, elevated itchy rash SYN: urticaria
rate the frequency of occurrence of an event expressed with respect to time or some other standard. r. birth the number of live births per 1000 in a given population per year. r. case fatality the ratio of the number of deaths caused by a disease to the total number of people who contracted the disease. r. death the number of deaths in a year per a specified population. r. glomerular filtration rate of filtrate formation in glomeruli of the kidneys; normal 120 mL/min. r. heart the number of heartbeats per minute
ratio relationship between two substances. r. albumin globulin ratio of albumin to globulin in blood; usually 1.3:1 or 1.4:1. r. arm in chromosome the ratio of long arm to short arm. r. lecithin-sphingomyelin the ratio of lecithin to sphingomyelin in amniotic fluid, an indicator of fetal maturity, usually at term. r. Odd’s in epidemiological and case control studies a relative measure of disease occurrence. r. therapeutic a ratio of effective therapeutic dose to minimum lethal dose
Raynaud’s disease intermittent pallor and cyanosis of digits on exposure to cold in females due to abnormal vascular response
reaction response of an organism to a stimulus
reagent a substance that reacts in a chemical reaction to detect presence of another substance
receptor in pharmacology, a cell component that combines with a drug or hormone to alter the function of the cell
183 recessive gene gene that does not express itself in presence of its dominant allele
recidivity tendency to relapse or to return to a former position/condition
recipient one who receives, e.g. blood, kidney, heart, lungs, etc.
recombination in genetics, the joining together of gene combinations in the offspring that were not present in the parents
recovery room the room where patients are kept to recover from effects of anesthesia after the surgery
rectal crisis rectal pain and tenesmus in CNS disorders
rectal reflex desire to defecate when rectum is filled with stool
rectocele prolapse of posterior vaginal wall along with anterior wall of rectum
rectourethral concerning rectum and urethra
rectouterine concerning rectum and uterus
rectovaginal concerning rectum and vagina
rectovesical concerning rectum and bladder
rectum the lower 5” of large intestine, responsible for initiation of defecation reflex through S1S2S3 sacral segments of spinal cord
red cross internationally recognized sign of medical installation or a medical personnel bearing immunity against attack in war
referred pain pain felt at a point remote from point of origin due to similar segmental inervation
reflection 1. the condition of being turned back on itself, e.g. peritoneum. 2. in psychology, mental consideration of something already considered
reflex involuntary instantaneous response to a stimulus; usually purposeful and adaptive. In a simple reflex, the reflex circuit consists of a sensory receptor, afferent neuron, reflex center in brain or spinal cord, efferent neuron supplying the organ (muscle or gland) r. Babinski flexion of great toe and fanning out of other toes on stroking the lateral aspect of sole of foot in healthy persons.r. Bainbridge acceleration of heart rate with ventricular distention.r. grasp grasping reaction of finger on stimulation of hollow of palm, its presence in adults is evidence of diffuse cerebral disease, e.g. GPI., dementia, etc. r. hung up abnormal slowness of relaxation phase of 184deep tendon reflex e.g. hung up ankle jerk in hypothyroidism. r. light contraction of pupil on focussing a bright light on it. r. mass a condition following complete transection of cord where a weak stimulus brings about widespread responses (muscle contraction, defecation, urination etc.), due to release from inhibition of higher cortical centers. r. neck righting turning of the body in the direction of head rotation in supine infants elicited between 4 months to 2 years of age. r. parachute extension of arms, hands and fingers when the infant is suspended in prone position and dropped a short distance to a soft surface. Asymmetrical response indicates motor abnormality in children above 9 months of age. r. rooting stroking the cheek of the infant causes turning of mouth towards the stimulus. It is present upto 7th month of age. r. stepping leg movements simulating walking when the infant is held erect, inclined forward with sole of feet touching a flat surface. The reflex is present at birth and is gone by 6 weeks of age. r. tonic neck in the infant forcibly turning the head causes extension of extremities on the side to which head is turned with flexion of extremities on the other side
reflexology a system of complementary therapy where feet represent the whole body and massage to different parts of feet can relieve hypertension constipation
regional anesthesia a nerve block with an anesthetic agent which ranges from local infiltration to spinal block anesthesia, the most commonly used regional anesthesia in childbirth is the epidural
regurgitation backward flow. r. aortic backflow of blood from aorta to left ventricle during diastole due to incompetent aortic valve. r. duodenal reflux of duodenal secretions and bile into stomach. r. mitral backflow of blood from left ventricle into left atrium during ventricular systole due to incompetent mitral valve.r. pulmonary backflow of blood from pulmonary artery into right ventricle. r. tricuspid regurgitation of blood from right ventricle into right atrium
rehabilitation the processes of treatment and education for a disabled patient to achieve maximum function and independent living. r. cardiac a combination of psychological support, progressive exercise and patient education to achieve maximum functional ability after one has had myocardial infarction
relapse reappearance of symptoms after apparent cure
relapsing fever infectious disease caused by B. recurrentis
relaxant an agent decreasing tension, tone of a muscle
relax to diminish anxiety, tension, nervousness
renal failure failure of kidneys to perform excretory and metabolic 185functions resulting in anuria/metabolic changes
renal threshold the level of substances in blood beyond which they are excreted in urine
renal transplant surgical implantation of donor kidney to replace a diseased host kidney
reproduction the process by which plants and animals give rise to offsprings. r. asexual reproduction by fission or budding without involvement of sex cells
research scientific and diligent study, investigation and experimentation to establish facts and intelligently analyze them to derive conclusion
resection partial excision. r. wedge resection of a piece of tissue in form of a wedge as in polycystic ovary
residual relates to that left as a residue
residual urine urine left in bladder after urination; commonly it is less than 50 mL
resistance 1. power of resisting. 2. in psychology, the force which prevents repressed thoughts from entering conscious mind from the unconscious. 3. the power of body to withstand infection
respiration the act of breathing for interchange of gases, i.e. O2 and CO2 r. abdominal use of diaphragm and abdominal muscles for respiration as in rib fracture, pleurisy.r. paradoxical a condition seen in paralysis of diaphragm whereby the affected side diaphragm moves up during inspiration and moves down during expiration. r. Cheyne-stokes abnormal bizarre breathing with periods of apnea followed by gradually increasing depth of respiration followed by a slow decline to end in apnea; seen in diencephalic dysfunction. r. Kussmaul’s deep gasping respiration of diabetic ketoacidosis. r. thoracic respiration performed entirely by expansion of chest as in peritonitis, diaphragmatic inflammation
respiratory distress syndrome dyspnea in newborn due to deficient pulmonary surfactant, causing atelectasis, commonly seen in prematures. SYN: hyaline membrane disease
respiratory failure inability of lungs to perform ventilatory function with PaO2 of <60 mm Hg and PCO2 >50 mm Hg
respiratory quotient the relationship between CO2 produced and oxygen consumed
restitution restoration putting right a corrective movement of fetal head
resuscitation revival after apparent death
retained placenta placenta fails to be delivered after childbirth due to lack of uterine contraction or morbid adhesious of placenta
retardation slowing down, delayed mental or physical response
retch to make an involuntary attempt to vomit
retention 1. keeping within body of substances like urine, stool. 2. holding back
186 retention of urine inability to pass urine due to obstruction in urinary passage, during labor it is due to stretching of urethra and trigone by presenting part
reticuloendothelial system the phagocytic cell system of body capable of ingesting particulate matter like bacteria, colloid particles. It includes macrophages (both fixed and wandering), reticular cells, Kuffer cells of liver and spleen, microglia of CNS, adventitial cells of blood vessels and dust cells of lungs
retina the innermost light sensitive layer of eye extending from optic disk to margin of pupil. The various layers of retina from without inward are: pigment epithelium, rods and cones, external limiting membrane, external nuclear layer, external plexiform layer, internal nuclear layer, internal plexiform layer, layer of ganglion cells, layer of nerve fibers, internal limiting membrane
retinopathy any disorder of retina; may be arteriosclerotic, diabetic, hypertensive, syphilitic, etc.
retraction shortening, state of being drawn back
retraction ring a ridge of uterus separating upper contractile segment from lower dilating segment
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retractor instrument for holding back a tissue
retro situated behind or backward in position e.g., retroocular, retrobulbar, retrocecal, etc.
retroflexed bent backwards, a retroflexed uterus is the state where uterine body is bent backwards on cervix
retrograde amnesia memory loss for events just preceding the time of patient’s illness
retrograde ejaculation semen discharge into bladder rather than through urethral meatus as in diabetic neuropathy
retrograde moving backward
retrolental fibroplasia bilateral retinal vessel occlusion followed by fibrous proliferation often involving the vitreous in premature newborns exposed to high concentration of oxygen
retroperitoneal fibrosis fibrotic tissue growth in retroperitoneal space often compressing ureters, venacava and aorta, a sequel to mathysergide treatment of migraine. SYN: Ormond’s syndrome
retroposition backward displacement of an organ
retrospective study a study where patient’s records are analyzed after they have experienced the disease
retroversion of uterus backward tilting of entire uterus including cervix so that the latter points towards symphysis pubis
retroviruses a group of viruses containing reverse transcriptase, e.g. RNA-containing tumor viruses causing leukemia, lymphoma, in lower animals and AIDS infection in human
Rey syndrome a syndrome characterized by encephalopathy, and hepatic failure in children in consequence to viral infection, aspirin use
Rh-blood group a blood group antigen on human RBCs, in common with rhesus monkeys. A Rh-ve mother if bears a Rh+ve fetus, Rh antibodies produced in mother may cross the placenta to destroy the fetal RBCs
rheumatic fever a systemic illness that follows streptococcal sore throat manifesting with carditis, fleeting 188polyarthritis, chorea, erythema marginatum, subcutaneous nodules, etc. believed to be an autoimmune phenomenon
rheumatism a generic term to denote inflammation of muscle, joint pain. r. palindromic a disease of unknown etiology manifesting with joint pain, joint swelling lasting from few hours to days with periods of complete normalcy. r. soft tissue pain around a joint not related to any joint pathology, e.g. bursitis, tendinitis, perichondritis, Tietz syndrome, etc.
rheumatoid arthritis bilaterally symmetrical polyarthritis involving the fingers and toes with bony erosion, joint deformity and involvement of great vessels, vertebra, etc.
rheumatoid factor an IgM autoantibody present in up to 75% of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatoid resembling rheumatism
rhinitis inflammation of nasal mucosa, can be allergic, atrophic (rusting and bad odor), hyperplastic, etc.
rhythm regularity of occurrence of an action or movement or impulse. r. alpha in EEG a rhythm of 8 to 12 per second. r. beta. Rhythm frequency of 15 to 30 per second in EEG, predominantly in frontomotor leads. r. cicardian the recurrence of biological activities every 24 hours not being influenced by environment. r. delta A slow EEG rhythm of 4 or less per second with relatively high voltage, usually recorded over tumor or hematoma. r. ectopic impulse originating outside SA node. r. escape an impulse originating from a site other than SA node when the latter fails to initiate the impulse. r. gallop three heart sounds heard (S1S2S3) in sequence in each cardiac contraction resembling gallop of horse. r. gamma in EEG, 50/second rhythm. r. idioventricular impulse originating from bundle of His or myocardium in consequence to complete A-V block. r. theta an EEG rhythm of 4 to 7 cycles/sec. r. tic-tac A rhythm where S1, and S2 are of same quality usually in cardiac distress or in fetus
rib one of the 12 pairs of narrow curved bones of chest wall connecting sternum to vertebra. r. cervical a super numerary rib arising from 7th cervical vertebra and often causing thoracic inlet syndrome by compression of lower cord of brachial plexus
riboflavin yellow-orange crystalline powder of B complex group functioning as coenzyme in cellular oxidation; Richly found in milk and milk products, green leafy vegetables, fish and meat; deficiency causes glossitis, seborrhea, cheilosis and corneal vascularization
ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA differs from DNA in that its sugar is ribose and the pyrimidine compound it contains is uracil rather than thymine. RNA is principal constituent of cytoplasm and of certain viruses. Messenger RNA carries the transcription code 189for specific amino acid sequences from DNA to cytoplasmic reticulum for protein synthesis. Transfer RNA carries the amino acid groups to the ribosomes for incorporation into proteins
ribosome a constituent of cell cytoplasm that receives genetic information and translates them into synthesis of proteins
rickets a vitamin D deficiency disease in children where mineralization of newly formed osteoid tissue is defective. The child is restless with aches and pains, hepatosplenomegaly, delayed dentition, soft skull bones with proneness to skeletal deformities like kyphoscoliosis, bow leg, pigeon chest. r. renal rickets in chronic renal failure primarily due to inadequate formation of active vitamin D3 and accompanying acidosis causing bone dissolution. r. vitamin D resistant defects of renal tubular function causing excessive renal calcium and phosphorus loss so that the accompanying ricket responds poorly to vitamin D
rifampin an antibiotic from Streptomyces, used in treatment of mycobacterial diseases (leprosy, tuberculosis) and meningitis prophylaxis. Other congeners are rifabutin and rifapentia
rigor mortis the stiffening of body occurring soon after death
rigor paroxysmal chill
ripening 1. softening and dilatation of cervix during labor. 2. maturation of cataract
risk-benefit analysis in medicare, the analysis of risk and benefit from a procedure discussed between patient, doctor and relations
Ritgen’s maneuver an obstetric procedure aimed to assist the delivery of the head of the fetus and protect the structure of perineum of the mother by applying an upward pressure from the coccygeal region to extend the head of the fetus
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ritodrine Beta2 agonist for use in bronchial asthma
Roentgen German physicist who discovered Roentgen rays, (X-rays) and won noble prize in 1901
rongeur An instrument which is used to cut bone
rooming-in the baby remains by mothers bedside when she is in hospital, thus strengthening the bond between baby and mother
rooting-reflex a reflex in new born where stroking the cheek or side of mouth allows baby to turn towards side stimulated and open the month
Rose’s position a position in which head and neck of the patient is extended and allowed to hang over the end of operating table so as to prevent aspiration of blood in the mouth and lips during surgery.
rotation the turning of the body along its long axis
rotavirus virus causing epidemic and sporadic enteritis
roth spots small white spot on retina close to optic disk in acute infective endocarditis
roughage fibers in cereals, fruits and vegetable, essential for patients of diabetes and those with constipation but inadvisable for patients of colitis
round ligament round cord-like structures passing from uterus in the broad ligament and then through the inguinal canal to end in soft tissues of labia majora
rubefacient agents causing redness of skin by vasodilatation, e.g. liniments of turpentine
rubella acute infectious disease of viral origin causing rash, cervical and postauricular lymphadenopathy, in first trimester can cause fetal anomalies and in pubertal girls can cause oophoritis
Rubin test a test for potency of uterine tubes, also called tubal insufflation test
rugose, rugous having many wrinkles or creases
rule of nine formula for estimating percentage of body surface area, where head represents 9%, front and back of trunk 18% each, each lower extremity 18%, each upper extremity 9% and perineum 1%
rumination 1. regurgitation of previously swallowed food. 2. obsessional preoccupation with thoughts
rupture breaking apart of any organ or tissue e.g. of amniotic membrane, uterus, intestines, Fallopian tubes
Ryle’s tube thin rubber tube with a weighted end introduced via nose to stomach for aspiration of gastric contents or administration of drugs and fluids

S

saber sin convex prominent anterior border of tibia in congenital syphilis
sabin vaccine oral polio vaccine containing inactivated poliovirus
saccharide a group of carbohydrates including mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides
sacculation group of sacs or formed into group of sacs
sacculation of uterus a rare complication of incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus in which the fundus remains under the sacral promontory and the anterior wall grows to accommodate the fetus
sacrococcygeus one of the two muscles, anterior and posterior extending from sacrum to coccyx
sacrovertebral angle angle formed between base of sacrum and fifth lumbar vertebra
sacrum the triangular bone of buttock lying in between the two iliac bones forming sacroiliac joints. Male sacrum is narrower and more curved
saddle nose a depressed nasal bridge, due to congenital absence of bony or cartilaginous support or destructive disease like leprosy and syphilis
sadism sexual pleasure from inflicting physical or mental torture on others
sagittal anteroposterior direction
sagittal plane the plane that divides body into left and right halves
sagittal suture suture between two parietal bones
salbutamol a beta sympathomimetic used to suppress premature labor; contraindicated in preeclampsia and antepartum hemorrhage
salicylate salt of salicylic acid. Methyl salicylate is a counter irritant whereas sodium salicylate is analgesic and antipyretic
saline enema 1 teaspoon of salt dissolved in a pint of water to which is added magnesium sulfate (epsum salt) to induce catharsis
saline solution of salt or salty; can be hypertonic >0.9% or hypotonic <0.85% concentration
saliva colorless, odorless, weakly alkaline secretion of salivary glands. Contains ptyalin, maltase and lysozymes. Daily secretion is up to 1500 mL
salk vaccine formalin inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine for intramuscular use
salmeterol beta2-adrenergic stimulant
salmonellosis infection with Salmonella group of organism producing typhoid fever, gastroenteritis and septicemia
salpingectomy surgical removal of fallopian tubes
192 salpingitis inflammation of Fallopian tubes usually due to gonococci, tuberculosis, strepto and staphylococci
salpingo-oophorectomy excision of ovary and Fallopian tube
salpingo-oophoritis inflammation of Fallopian tube and ovary
salpingography imaging of Fallopian tubes by injection of radiopaque dye in investigation of infertility
salpingolysis surgical procedure to free the Fallopian tubes of adhesions
salpingopexy surgical fixation of Fallopian tube
salpingoplasty SYN: tuboplasty; plastic surgery of Fallopian tube to promote fertility
salpingorrhaphy ligation of Fallopian tube
salpingostomy surgical opening up of a Fallopian tube
salpingotomy incision on a Fallopian tube
salpinx the Fallopian or Eustachian tube
salt 1. sodium chloride. 2. a chemical compound formed from action of an acid with a base. s. bile salt of glycocolic and taurocolic acids present in bile, help in absorption of fat. s. iodized salt containing 1 part of sodium or potassium iodide per 10,000 parts of sodium chloride for iodine deficiency. s. smelling aromatized ammonium carbonate
sanguinous bloody
saphenous nerve a deep branch of femoral nerve supplying innerside of foot and leg
saphenous veins the long saphenous vein extends from foot to saphenous opening in upper thigh where as short saphenous vein runs up behind lateral malleolus to join popliteal vein
sarcoid 1. resembling flesh 2. small tubercle-like lesion characteristic of sarcoidosis
sarcoma cancer of connective tissue like muscle and bone. s. Ewing’s a fusiform swelling of long bones containing round endothelial cells. s. Kaposi’s a skin sarcoma in AIDS victims. s. osteogenic sarcoma in metaphysis of long bones containing variously shaped cells. s. reticulum cells a form of malignant lymphoma
satiety feeling satisfied with food
scab crust formed on a wound, pustule or ulcer
scald burn caused by moist heat or hot vapors
scalpel a straight surgical knife with a convex edge
scalp the hairy portion of head, consisting from out to inwards: skin, dense subcutaneous tissue, occipitofrontalis muscle with the galea aponeurotica, and periosteum
scan an image produced by moving detector or sweeping beam of radiation
scapula the flat triangular bone at the back of shoulder articulating with clavicle and humerus. s. winged paralysis of serratus anterior or trapezius causing prominence of medial border of scapula
193 Schilling test a test using radioactive B12 for assessment of vitamin B12 absorption and diagnosis of intrinsic factor deficiency as in pernicious anemia
schizoid personality disorder a personality cult with difficult interpersonal relationship, and a limited range of emotional experience and expression; the cold, lonely, aloof personality
schizophrenia a form of psychosis with disorder of thinking, affect and behavior. Patients have delusions and hallucinations with loss of self identity. s. catatonic patients have catatonic stupor or mutism, catatonic rigidity, catatonic posturing, etc. s. paranoid patient has delusions of persecution, jealousy
schultze expulsion of placenta at the end of third stage of labor; the placenta is expelled inverted, the fetal surface appearing first near vulva
sciatic pertains to hip or ischium
sciatica pain along the course of sciatic nerve from back of thigh along lateral border of leg to little toe usually due to disk prolapse at L5-S1
scissor gait crossing of the legs while walking as in cerebral diplegia
scissors a cutting instrument with two opposing blades with handles held together by a pin
sclera the outer tough white fibrous tissue of eyeball extending from optic nerve to corneal margin. s.blue abnormally thin sclera with visible choroid as in osteogenesis imperfecta
sclerema hardening of the skin
scleritis inflammation of sclera, can be anterior (adjacent to cornea), posterior or annular (in ring fashion around cornea)
sclerosis hardening or induration of a tissue due to excessive growth of fibrous tissue, a feature of degeneration. s. amyotrophic lateral a form of motor neurone disease which results in atrophy of anterior horn cells and the pyramidal tracts. s. multiple a slowly progressive disease of central nervous system marked by widespread demyelination producing visual disturbances, sensory motor deficit, and cerebellar symptoms
scoliosis lateral curvature of spine; the abnormal curve and the compensatory curve in opposite direction; can be congenital, myopathic, ocular, paralytic, etc.
194 score a rating or grade as compared to standard. s. Apgar a scoring system for evaluation of neurological maturity of newborn from pulse, respiration, reflexes, skin color, grimace, etc.
Scriver test a biological test for diagnosing whole range of inborn errors of metabolism
scrotum the double cavity male pouch containing testicles and epididymis, composed of layers of skin, nonstriated dartos muscle, cremasteric, infundibular and spermatic fascia, cremasteric muscle and tunica vaginalis
scurvy vitamin C or ascorbic acid deficiency manifest with bleeding spongy gums, subperiosteal hemorrhage, muscle pain and induration, loosening of teeth and poor wound healing
sebaceous cyst sebum filled cyst of sebaceous gland with a black head, may need complete extirpation rather than drainage
sebaceous gland holocrine glands (secretion arising from complete disintegration of cells) in the skin that open into hair follicle and secrete oily substance, the sebum
sebum a fatty secretion from sebaceous gland, that from the ear is called cerumen and from pepuce is called smegma
secondary hemorrhage hemorrhage occurring after 48 hours of injury or operation commonly due to sepsis
secretin a hormone secreted from duodenum that stimulates secretion of pepsinogen and inhibits secretion of acid by stomach
secretion substances produced or the process of glandular secretion. s. apocrine a process by which the secreting cell breaks off to extrude the secretion, e.g. milk production. s. holocrine the process where the entire cell and its contents are extruded, e.g. sebum. s. merocrine the process where the cell remains intact and discharges its secretion through cell membrane
sedative agent that soothes, quietens or brings tranquility
sedimentation rate a test to determine the speed at which RBCs settle down when suspended in a test tube. The speed depends upon the size of RBC aggregate which is further dependent upon fibrinogen content of blood. Fibrinogen is an acute phase reactant and is increased in infection, inflammation of any etiology. ESR is reduced in polycythemia, congenital cyanotic heart disease and microcytic hypochromic anemia. Normal ESR is 10 to 15 mm/hr in male and slightly higher in female
segment a section or part s. upper uterine the upper three quarter of uterus that contracts and retracts during labor s. lower uterine the 195lowermost quarter of uterus that dilates during first stage of labor
segmentation division into similar parts; division of fertilized egg into many smaller cells
seizure a sudden attack of pain, disease or certain symptoms like convulsion, epilepsy
selenium sulfide drug used in treatment of tinea versiolor and dandruff
Sellick’s maneuver the application of backward pressure on the cricoid cartilage in order to occlude esophagus to prevent aspiration of stomach content
semen thick viscid fishy odor discharge per male urethra during sexual climax. It contains the sperms 60 to 150 million/mL. The 80% are motile and normal in morphology. Semen is alkaline without any leukocytes, volume per ejaculation is 2 to 5 mL
seminal vesicle two sac-like structures close to prostate in the male giving rise to ductus deferens. Act to store semen and secrete a thick viscous fluid that forms part of semen
senna leaves of a plant, used as cathartic
sense 1. the general faculty responsible for perceiving the outside world. 2. to perceive. 3. normal power of understanding
sensitive 1. able to feel a sensation. 2. abnormal response to substances like drugs and foreign proteins
sensitivity 1. the term is employed in relation to accuracy of diagnostic tests/observations. It is the proportion of people who truely have a specific disease as identified by the test. 2. susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobials
sensitization making a person susceptible to a substance by its repeated injection
sensorium the sensory apparatus of body or consciousness
sepsis a pathological state due to bacterial multiplication and toxin production. s. puerperal infection of genital passage resulting from childbirth. Common infecting agents are strepto, staphylo and Escherichia coli
septicemia multiplication of pathogenic bacteria in peripheral blood producing toxemia, disseminated cellulitis, lymphangitis, etc.
septum a partition wall dividing two cavities, e.g. interatrial, interventricular, atrioventricular, nasal septum, rectovaginal. s. pellucidum a thin triangular sheet of nervous tissue forming the medial wall of the lateral ventricles. s. primum The embryonic septum dividing the two atria in a developing heart
septuplet seven offsprings produced at one birth
sequela the final outcome of a disease with or without treatment
serology the scientific study of serum
seroma a localized collection of serum resembling a tumor, commonly after stitching of operational wounds
196 serosa a serous membrane like pleura, pericardium and peritoneum
serotonin 5 hydroxytryptamine present in platelets, mast cells, argentaffin cells of carcinoid tumors. A potent vasoconstrictor incriminated in migraine
serrate tooth-like, notched
serum the straw-colored fluid after blood coagulates
sex chromatin SYN: Barr body. It represents the inactivated ‘X’ chromosome in female somatic cells (Lyon hypothesis)
sex chromosome the X and Y chromosomes which determine the sex of an individual
sex the distinctive characteristics that separate living beings and plants into males and females
sextuplet six children in one pregnancy
sexual dysfunction sexual dissatisfaction due to defective arousal, orgasm, pain or penetration
sexually transmitted diseases (STD) diseases acquired during sexual intercourse with partner. They include syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, chancroid, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, genial herpes and warts, viral hepatitis B, chlamydia urethritis, etc.
shaken baby syndrome presence of unexplained fractures in the long bones with subdural hematoma in child abuse
shake test Also called bubble test. A bedside test for amniotic fluid, formerly used for rapid estimation of fetal lung maturity and now largely replaced by more refined tests
sheath a connective tissue covering. s. carotid enclosure of carotid artery, vagus nerve and internal jugular vein by cervical fascia. s. myelin layers of lipid and protein forming a semifluid covering of nerves, an extension of plasma membrane of Schwann cells. s. synovial double walled tube like bursa enclosing the tendon of hands and feet
Sheehan’s syndrome hypopituitarism secondary to pituitary infarction following postpartum hemorrhage and shock
shiatsu a form of alternate medicine based on principles similar to acupuncture
shingles SYN: Herpes zoster producing painful vesicles along course of a nerve
Shirodkar operation placement of purse-string suture around cervix to prevent premature delivery in incompetent cervix
shock a state of poor tissue perfusion due to deficient circulating blood volume, pump failure or sudden fear, anaphylaxis, overwhelming infection, drugs, toxins. s. anaphylactic shock following injection of foreign substances to a sensitized patient. s. cardiogenic shock due to pump failure following myocardial infarction or electrical disturbances. 197s. endotoxic shock from endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria. s. spinal acute flaccid paralysis with loss of all sensations and reflexes following complete transection of spinal cord
shoulder the junction of upper arm with collar bone and scapula.s. dislocation slipping of humeral head from glenoid cavity of scapula
shoulder dystocia after delivery of head, the shoulder fails to rotate and descend due to large baby or contracted pelvis
shoulder presentation a state which develops when labor begins with the fetus lying obliquely and the position is not corrected so that on vaginal examination the presenting part feels high with palpable fetal ribs
show blood mixed thick mucoid discharge from vagina during first stage of labor
shunt diversion of flow. s. arteriovenous congenital abnormal arteriovenous communication or the one done for hemodialysis. s. left to right passage of blood from left side of heart to right side chambers as in VSD, ASD, PDA. s. right to left reverse of the above occurring in Fallot tetralogy, transposition of great vessels, single ventricle, DORV and Eisenmenger syndrome
Siamese twins (named after Chang and Eng joined Chinese twins born in Siam), cogenitally joined twins
sibling children of same parent
sickle cell anemia a form of congenital hemolytic anemia where there is abnormal hemoglobin (Hbs) resulting in sickling during splenic hypoxic conditioning
sickle cell crisis capillary plugging by sickle cells causing joint pain, abdominal pain, renal pain, etc. due to infarction
sickness illness. s. motion nausea and vomiting experienced during motion by road, air or water. s. morning nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy. s. mountain nausea, anorexia, insomnia and dyspnea of high altitude due to oxygen lack. s. sleeping 1. trypanosomiasis involving CNS (Chaga’s disease), transmitted by tsetse fly. 2. encephalitis lethargica. s. serum joint pain, fever, lymphadenopathy following injection of serum
sigmoidoscopy examination of rectosigmoid by sigmoidoscope
sign any objective evidence or manifestation of disease
sildenafil citrate specific inhibitor of cGMP, used in male erectile dysfunction
Silverman-Anderson score a system for evaluation of breathing performance of preterm infants based on chest retraction, retraction of lower intercostals muscles, xiphoid retraction, flaring of nares with inspiration, and expiratory grunt. Each of the five is graded as 0,1,2, with severe respiratory distress score can reach 10
198 silver nitrate a germicide and local astringent used for throat cauterization; causes grayish discoloration of mucous membranes
simian crease a single transverse crease on palm as in monkeys. Its presence may signify Down’s syndrome, rubella syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome
Simmond’s disease hypopituitarism due to pituitary atrophy
Simon’s position an exaggerated lithotomy position with elevation of buttock and abduction of thighs, employed for operation of vagina
Sims position similar to left lateral position, right thigh and knee down up
Sims speculum a form of vaginal speculum
sinciput front and upper part of head
singer’s test a test to distinguish fetal from maternal blood
sinoatrial node node at entry of superior vena cava into right atrium, the pacemaker of heart
sinus a cavity within bone, dilated venous channel, a cavity with small opening. s. cavernous the intracranial sinus extending from sphenoidal fissure to the apex of the petrous portion of temporal bone. s. circular a venous sinus around pituitary body communicating on each side with the cavernous sinus. s. coronary the vein in the atrio ventricular groove of heart draining into right atrium. s. inferior petrosal a large venous sinus along lower margin of petrous part of temporal bone draining into cavernous sinus. s. maxillary cavity in the maxilla communicating with middle meatus of nose. Both maxillary sinuses are usually symmetrical.s. sigmoid continuation of transverse sinus along posterior border of petrous part of temporal bone to the jugular foramen to continue as jugular vein. s. superior sagittal a straight sinus along upper border of falx cerebri from the crista galli to the internal occipital protuberance where it joins transverse sinus, the left or right
Sjögren syndrome an autoimmune disorder marked by combination of rheumatoid arthritis with xerostomia
skeleton the bony framework supporting and protecting the viscera. It consists of 206 bones, 80 axial and 126 appendicular
Skene’s glands paraurethral glands opening to the floor of terminal urethra. Constantly involved in gonococcal infection
skull the bony structure of head enclosing and protecting the brain divided into vault, base and face
slough a mass of necrotic tissue, to cast off a mass of necrotic tissue
small for gestational age a baby weighing less than expected for age of gestation, are vulnerable for birth asphyxia
199 smallpox a highly contagious and fatal disease caused by a poxvirus, variola
smear specimen of superficial cells from vagina or cervix, for histological and bacteriological examination
smegma the thick odorous secretion from Tyson’s glands under prepuce and under labia minora
Smith-Hemli-Optiz syndrome Small stature, mental retardation, crypto-orchidism and failure to thrive
smoking in pregnancy can impair fetal growth and development from vasoconstriction
sneeze a sudden spasmodic expiration through nose
sniffing position proper position of the baby’s head during bag and mask ventilation or endotracheal intubation. The baby’s head and back are in straight alignment and the baby’s chin is pulled as if sniffing. The neck is not hyperextended
snore the noise produced while breathing through mouth during sleep
snuffles noisy breathing and nasal catarrh of infants with syphilis
sodium chromoglycate mast cell stabilizer used in asthma as acrosol
sodium light, silvery white alkali metal which violently decomposes water forming sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. s. acetate systemic and urinary alkalizer. s. alginate a food additive. s. benzoate a food preservative.s. bicarbonate used IV to treat acidosis. s. carbonate washing soda. s. chloride table salt; 0.9% solution is osmotically compatible with blood. s. lactate In one-sixth or one-fourth molar solution used IV to correct acidosis. s. monofluorophosphate for topical application on teeth to prevent caries. s. morrhuate a sclerosing agent used to obliterate varices. s. nitrite antidote for cyanide poisoning. s. nitroprusside a powerful vasodilator. s. polystyrene sulonate cation exchange resin used to lower body potassium. s. propionate possesses antifungal action.s. salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. s. thiosulate antidote for cyanide poisoning
soft chancre/sore benereal ulcer of vulve due to Ducrey’s bacillus
soft palate the posterior portion of roof of mouth
solute the substance that is dissolved in a solution
solution a homogeneous mixture of solid, liquid or gaseous substance in a liquid from which the dissolved substance can be recovered by crystallization or other physical process
solvent a liquid that has power to dissolve
soma the body as distinct from mind
somatic pertains to body, the nonreproductive cells, skeletal muscles
somatization expression of emotional conflicts as bodily ailment
200 somatoform disorder a group of disorders in which there are symptoms of a disease but no objective evidence to explain the symptoms
somatome an appliance for cutting body of the fetus
somatomedin insulin-like growth factors derived from liver (somatomedin C and A) that stimulate growth under influence of growth hormone
somatostatin a hypothalamic hormone that inhibits release of somatotropin, insulin, and gastrin
somatotrophin growth hormone
somnambulism sleep walking, the performance of any fairly complex act while in a sleep-like state or trance
sonar refers to ultrasound in medical diagnosis
sonogram ultrasonography record
sonolucent condition of not reflecting the ultrasound wave back to the source
soporific a drug producing sleep, narcotic
sorbitol a crystalline alcohol used as sweetening agent
sordes brown crusts that form on lips in unconscious
sore painful lesion of skin or mucous membrane
souffle a bruit, soft blowing sound. s. uterine blood flow within uterine arteries producing the sound
sound auditory sensation produced by vibrations, noise, measured in decibels. s. Korotkoff’s sounds heard over an artery during blood pressure measurement. s.succussion splashing sound heard over a cavity filled with fluid. s. tubular breath sound heard over trachea and large bronchi
soyamilk a substitute for milk in lactose intolerance
spalding sign gross overlapping of fetal cranial bones in intrauterine fetal death
spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction, can be clonic (alternate contraction and relaxation) or tonic (sustained contraction)
spasticity increased muscle tone with muscular stiffness as in upper motor neuron lesions
spatula flat instrument for mixing or spreading semisolids
specific gravity weight of a substance compared with equal volume of water. Specific gravity of water is taken as 1000
speculum instrument for examination of canals e.g. ear speculum, vaginal speculum
spermatic cord the cord suspending the testis and is composed of vas deferens, spermatic arteries, veins and lymphatics
spermatid a precursor cell of spermatozoon derived from secondary spermatocyte
spermatogenesis the process of formation of mature spermatozoa, i.e. spermatogonium–primary spermatocyte–secondary spermatocyte–spermatid–motile functional spermatozoa
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spermatozoon the mature male germ cell formed within the seminiferous tubules of testis, freely mobile resembling a tadpole
spermicide agent that kills spermatozoa
sperm the male reproductive cell the spermatozoa
sphenoid bone large bone placed at base of skull between the parietal and temporal bones laterally, occipital bone behind and ethmoid in front
spherocyte erythrocyte assuming globular shape
spherocytosis a form of congenital hemolytic anemia characterized by hemolysis, anemia, splenomegaly and jaundice with increased red cell fragility
202 sphincter circular muscle fibers that close an orifice when contracted, e.g. anal sphincter, lower esophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and sphincter of Oddi
sphingomyelins phosphorus containing sphingolipids principally found in nervous tissue. They are derived from choline phosphate and a ceramide
sphygmomanometer instrument for indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure, can be aneroid or mercurial
spinal anesthesia anesthesia produced by injection of anesthetic agents into spinal canal
spinal column the vertebral column consisting of 33 vertebra: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 in the coccyx
spinal cord the nervous tissue contained in spinal canal extending from medulla to lower border of first lumbar vertebra. The gray matter within spinal cord is in the form of H
spinal curvature curvature of spine which is often physiological like cervical and lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis
spinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid lying in the central canal and around the spinal cord within the subarachnoid space
spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from spinal cord; 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and coccygeal. Each nerve has a ventral efferent motor root and an afferent dorsal sensory root. Each nerve has white and gray rami communicant which pass to the ganglia of sympathetic trunk
spina the spine. s. bifida congenital nonunion between the laminae of vertebra
spin barkeit mucus on cervix, used to determine time of ovulation when the mucus can be drawn on a glass slide to maximum length
spirogram a record made by a spirograph depicting respiratory movements
spirometer an apparatus for measuring the air capacity of the lungs
spleen a lymphoid vascular organ in left hypocondrium at the tail of pancreas, consisting of red and white pulp, functions as erythropoietic organ in embryo, and filtrates bacteria, snescent red blood cells, inclusion bodies from the blood
splenic flexure junction of transverse colon with descending colon
splenomegaly enlargement of spleen
splint an appliance used for protection, fixation or union of injured part, can be movable or immovable. s. abutment adjacent tooth restorations that have been rigidly united at their proximal contact areas to form a single abutment with multiple roots. s. buccal a material such as plaster that can be placed on the buccal surfaces of assembled fixed partial denture units and onto which these components can be assembled and held in accurate 203relation after hardening. s. crib An appliance used for temporary tooth stabilization; constructed of gold, acrylic resin, chrome-cobalt alloys, or combinations thereof. It consists of a continuous crib clasp covering the facial and lingual surfaces of the teeth to be splinted. s. interdental an appliance made of plastic or metallic materials that is applied to the labial and lingual aspects of the teeth to provide points for applying mandibular and maxillofacial traction and fixation. s. labial an appliance of plastic, metal, or combinations of plastic and metal made to conform to the labial aspect of the dental arch. Used in the management of mandibular and maxillofacial injuries. s. Thomas a long wire splint with a proximal ring that fits into upper thigh, used for fracture femur
spondylitis inflammation of vertebra
spondylolisthesis forward subluxation of lower lumbar vertebra on sacral vertebra
spondylosis degenerative disease of vertebra and the intervertebral disk with new bone formation at vertebral margins and facet joint arthropathy
spondylos vertebra
sponge an absorbent pad made up of cotton and gauze to absorb fluids and blood, used in wound dressing. s. gelatin spongy substance of gelatin used to stop internal bleeding
spore an asexual reproductive unit of plants, some protozoa and bacteria
spotting appearance of blood-tinged discharge from vagina in between periods or at onset of labor
sprain trauma to the ligamentous capsular support of a joint with tearing of fibers and hemorrhage
spurious false, adulterated
204 sputum material expelled by coughing containing bronchial secretions, alveolar collections. s. nummular round coin-shaped flat forms of sputum sinking in water as seen in bronchiectasis
squatting sitting on ones haunches and heels
standard deviation in statistics, it is the square root of variance
standard error a measure of variability; the difference beween means of two samples
stanozolol anabolic steroid, used for muscle building
Staphylococcus gram-positive cocci appearing as bunch of grapes. Cause boils, carbuncles, internal abscess, food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome and scalded skin syndrome
stasis stagnation or stoppage
station the location of presenting part of fetus in the birth canal, designated as –5 to –1 according to number of centimeters, the part is above the imaginary plane passing through ilial spine. O when at the level of spine 1 to 5 according of number of centimeters the part is below the plane
statistics the systematic collection, organization and analysis of data and their interpretation
status a state or condition. s. asthmaticus persistent and intractable asthma. SYN: acute severe asthma. s. epilepticus recurrent convulsive episodes without regain of consciousness in between
Stein-Leventhal syndrome polycystic ovary syndrome with amenorrhea and infertility
stem cell the cell which is initial precursor of specific differentiated red blood cells
stenosis constriction or narrowing
stercobilin a brown pigment derived from bile that imparts the color to feces
sterile free from living microorganism; unable to procreate
sterility the state of being free from living microorganisms; state of being sterile
sterilization the process of destroying all microorganisms either by heat, chemical or ionizing radiation
sternum the narrow fat bone in the midline of thorax in front
steroid any organic compound containing cyclopentanoperhyd-rinophenanthrene ring
stethoscope instrument used to appreciate internal body sounds, i.e. respiratory, cardiovascular and intestinal
205 stillbirth birth of dead fetus
stillette a wire for keeping clear the lumen of hollow structures like needles
stoma a mouth or opening
stomach the most dilated sac-like portion of alimentary tract in between esophagus and duodenum, secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, destroys the microorganisms and subserves as a reservoir
stomatitis inflammation of mouth. s. aphthous development of minute tiny painful ulcers on mucosa of mouth and tongue
stool the discharge from bowel through anus. The stool of newborn is first meconium then gradually changes to brown, and then to yellow
strabismus an abnormality of the eyes in which optic axes do not meet at the desired point due to incoordinate action of extraocular muscles
straight sinus the venous sinus at the junction of falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli, prone to rupture with cerebral hemorrhage if there is excess molding of head during labor
strangury painful and interrupted urination
Streptococcus gram-positive cocci occurring in chains differentiated into alpha, beta and gamma types based on their reaction on agar plates. Those of alpha type (S. viridans) produce a greenish coloration about colonies and partially hemolyze the blood; those of beta type (S. pyogenes) form a clear zone about colonies and completely hemolyze the blood, gamma type (S. faecalis) are nonhemolytic and produce grayish discoloration about the colonies. S. pneumoniae gram-positive spherical capsulated cocci causing lobar pneumonia, otitis media.S. pyogenes hemolytic streptococci producing rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, puerperal sepsis. S. viridans organism producing endocarditis
streptokinase catalytic enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It activates blood fibrinolytic system, used for dissolution of coronary thrombus
stress any stimulus that tends to disrupt body homeostasis to cause disease/disability
stress fracture hairline fracture often only visible 3 to 4 weeks after undue muscle stress as in runners
stress test method of evaluating cardiovascular fitness by exercise on treadmill or bicycle ergometer or after drugs (dipyridamole, dobutamine)
stress ulcer peptic ulcer caused by excessive stress as in burn, head trauma
stria a line or band differing in color and texture from surrounding tissue
striae gravidarum the bluish or pink streaks occurring on the abdomen, thighs and breasts during pregnancy due to the stretching of the abdomen 206as the uterus grows; the streaks turn silvertone in time
stroke 1. a sharp blow. 2. sudden neurological deficit with or without unconsciousness due to cerebral thrombosis, hemorrhage or embolism
stroma supporting framework of an organ including its connective tissue, vessels and nerves
stromatosis presence of mesenchyma like tissue throughout the endometrium of uterus
stupor a state of lessened responsiveness
stye inflammation of glands of Zeis and Moll at the edge of the lid. Internal stye involve Meiobomian or tarsal glands
stylet a thin probe
sub under, beneath, less in quantity
subarachnoid hemorrhage hemorrhage into subarachnoid space
subarachnoid space the space between arachnoid and pia containing CSF
subclavian below the clavicle
subcutaneous beneath the skin
subdural space space between dura and arachnoid
subinvolution incomplete or delayed return of uterus to nonpregnant size after childbirth
subluxation a partial or incomplete dislocation
submucosa connective tissue layer below the mucosa containing vessels and nerves
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) sudden death of apparently healthy infants between 3 weeks and 5 months
sugar sweet tasting carbohydrate either monosaccharose or disaccharose
sulbactam beta lactamase inhibitor
sulcus a furrow, groove, depression
sulfonamides a group of chemotherapeutic agents like sulfadiazine, sulfadoxine, sulfameraxine, sulfasalazine given orally for bacterial infections
sunscreen agents like PABA used for protection against solar dermatitis
superfecundation the fertilization of two or more ova ovulated more or less simultaneously by two or more coital acts, not necessarily involving the same male
superfetation fertilization of two ova in the same uterus at different menstrual periods within a short interval
superinfection a new infection caused by a different organism from the which caused initial infection
superovulation production of more than normal number of ova, which usually results from administration of gonadotropins
superoxide a highly reactive form of oxygen (oxygen with single electron) produced during phagocytosis and bacterial digestion by neutrophils, lipid metabolism
superscription the beginning of prescription marked by letter Rx meaning “you take”
207 supination turning the palm or foot upward; lying on the back
supine hypotension syndrome pressure of gravid uterus on inferior vena cava causing diminished venous return and hypotension
suppository a substance in the form of semisolid introduced into the vagina or rectum serving as vehicle for medicine
suppression of lactation prevention of lactation when breastfeeding is not desired or is contraindicated by giving bromocriptine that suppresses prolactin or by ethynil stilbestrol
suprarenal gland lying superior and medial to kidney secreting adrenaline and noradrenaline
surfactant an agent that lowers surface tension
surrogate mother mother who bears a child for another couple. She is impregnated with the fertilized ovum from that couple
suture 1. the line of bony union as in skull bones. 2. to unite by stitching. 3. the thread, wire or other material used to stitch body parts together. s. absorbable sterile strand from mammalian collagen. s. catgut suture made from sheep’s small intestine.s. coronal suture between the frontal and parietal bones. s. lamboid suture between parietal bones and superior border of occipital bones. s. nonabsorbable suture materials like silk, silkworm gut, horse hair, synthetic material and wire. s. purse string suture around the periphery of a circular opening which when drawn taught closes the opening.s. sagittal suture between the parietal bones. s. mattress an interrupted suture where the needle pierces both flaps of wound and then reenters to emerge at the same side of insertion and then tied. Particularly useful in holding together thick fragile tissues
swab a small piece of cotton or gauze wrapped around a slender stick for cleansing a wound, for applying medication, etc.
swelling an abnormal temporary enlargement on the surface of the body
208 symmetrical cortical necrosis a complication of abruptio placentae where cortical necrosis of both kidneys occurs due to renal vasospasm
sympathectomy surgical excision of part of sympathetic system; either nerve, ganglia or plexus
sympathomimetic producing effect similar to stimulation of sympathetic nerves
symphysiotomy section of symphysis pubis to increase capacity of contracted pelvis to facilitate child birth
symphysis fibrocartilaginous union of bones
symptom subjective description or manifestation of disease
synapse the point of junction between two adjacent neurons
synciotrophoblast outer layer of chorionic villi
synclitism a state of fetal hand when it enters pelvis with both parietal eminences at some level
syncope transient loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood supply to brain. s. cardiac syncope of cardiac origin as in Stokes-Adam’s attack, tachycardia, tight aortic stenosis, HOCM. s. carotid sinus hypersensitive carotid sinus being stimulated by neck movement or tight collar producing bradycardia and syncope. s. vasovagal syncope occurring due to abrupt fall in blood pressure due to fall in peripheral resistance and hence reduced venous return
syncytium a mass of cytoplasm with numerous nuclei but no division into separate cells
syndactyly an abnormal fusion of the digits either partially or complete
syndrome a symptom complex indicating a particular disease
synthesis union of elements to produce new compounds
syphilis chronic venereal disease involving all tissues in body caused by Treponema pallidum, the spirochete
syphilitic macule small red nonitchy eruptions all over the body in secondary syphilis
syringe an instrument used for injecting or taking out fluids
syringomyelia a chronic progressive disorder with formation of cavities with surrounding gliosis in the spinal cord
syrinx Eustachian tube; pathological cavity within spinal cord, a fistula
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systemic circulation blood flow from left ventricle to aorta and to arteries and return to heart via the superior and inferior vena cava
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) an autoimmune disease that can be life-threatening. Patients may have a distinctive pattern of facial redness and oral lesions. Endothelial damage to heart valves similar to those caused by rheumatic fever may occur
systole the period of myocardial contraction, usually of 0.3 seconds in a heart beat

T

tabes chronic progressive wasting disease. t. dorsalis. Degeneration of posterior column of spinal cord in syphilis
taboo setting apart of thing as sacred, thus forbidden for general use
tachycardia rapid heart rate; can be atrial, nodal, ectopic, ventricular or sinus depending upon the site of origin of the impulse
tachypnea abnormally rapid respiration
tactile perceptible to touch
Taenia a genus of parasitic, elongated ribbon like worms, the body being segmented. T. saginata tapeworm whose larvae live in flesh of cattle and adult worms (15 to 20 feet long) in human intestine. Men acquire the infestation by eating undercooked beef. T. solium tapeworm whose larval stage is in pigs and adult worms in human intestine. The disease is acquired by eating undercooked pork containing Cysticercus cellulosae
talipes congenital nontraumatic abnormal deviation of foot. t. calcaneus the heel alone touches the ground. t. equinus the person walks on the toes; can be varus or valgus depending on whether the heel is turned inward or outward
talus the ankle bone articulating with tibia fibula above and calcaneus and navicular bone below
tamoxifen antiestrogen drug used in adjuvant therapy of breast cancer
tampon a roll or pack made of various absorbent substances used to absorb body secretions or arrest hemorrhage, e.g. menstrual tampon
tapeworm parasitic worms belonging to class cestoda having a scolex with hooks and suckers and a series of proglottids. t. beef Taenia saginata. t. broad Diphylobothrium latum.t. dog Dipylidium caninum. t. dwarf Hymenolepis nana. t. pork Taenia solium
tarsus the ankle with its seven constituent bones, i.e. talus, calcans, cuboid, navicular and the three cuneiform bones
taurine an amino acid with high concentration in breast milk necessary for conjugation of bile acids in first week of life until glycine takes over the function
taxonomy laws and principles of classification of animals and plants
Tay-Sachs disease autosomal recessive form of gangliosidosis (lipid storage disease) manifesting with mental retardation, blindness, cherry red spot in macula, etc. due to deficiency of hexosaminidase. A leading to accumulation of sphingolipid in CNS
T cell a subset of lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity
tea tree oil essential oil having antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral property
teething eruption of teeth through the guns, the primary teeth 10 in number erupting between 6 to 30 months
211 telangiectasia dilatation of group of capillaries to form elevated dark red wart-like spots
telemetry transmission of data to a distant place by electronic means
temazepam benzodiazepine, sedative hypnotic produces central nervous system (CNS) depression at limbic, thalamic, hypothalamic levels of the CNS; used as sedative and hypnotic for insomnia
temperature the degree of intensity of heat. t. ambient temperature of surrounding. t. inverse a state where morning body temperature is higher than evening body temperature. t. normal oral temperature of 98.6°F (37°C). t. rectal more accurate than oral or axillary temperature. It is about 1°F higher than oral temperature, whereas axillary temperature is 1°F lower than oral temperature
temporal related to or limited in time
tenaculum a slender, sharp-pointed surgical instrument used mainly in surgery for seizing and holding parts
tendon fibrous connective tissue attaching a muscle to bone. t. Achilles the thickest and strongest tendon of gastrocnemius muscle attached to calcaneus
tension expansive force that stretches; a state of mental strain. t. premenstrual nervous instability, irritability, headache and depression occurring few days before menstruation
tentorium cerebelli the process of dura mater between cerebrum and cerebellum supporting the occipital lobes
tepid lukewarm
teratogen any substance capable of disrupting fetal growth and producing fetal malformation
teratogenic agent virus, irradiation or drugs, the exposure to which can damage the fetus in a pregnant woman
teratoma congenital tumor containing one or more of three embryonic germ layers
termination of pregnancy an abortion
term the end of pregnancy, 280 days or 40 weeks from LMP
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term infant a live born infant of between 38 and 42 weeks’ completed gestation
tertiary care a level of medicare
tertiary third in order
testis the male reproductive gland located in scrotum about 4 cm long and 2 cm wide
testosterone an androgenic hormone secreted by Leydig cells of testes
tetanus an acute infectious disease caused by anaerobe Clostridium tetani manifesting with painful tonic clonic spasm of voluntary muscles
tetany a state of increased neuromuscular excitability caused by decreased serum ionized calcium or phosphorus and in alkalosis
tetracycline a broad-spectrum antibiotic
tetralogy a combination of four symptoms or elements. t. of Fallot Congenital heart disease with infundibular pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, overriding aorta, and high ventricular septal defect
thalamus large ovoid masses of gray matter on either side of third ventricle, 213serving as gateway for all sensory projections to brain
thalassemia a group of congenital hemolytic anemia due to impaired synthesis of hemoglobin polypeptide chains, alpha or beta. t.major the homozygous form of deficient beta chain synthesis manifesting with severe microcytic anemia, splenomegaly, jaundice, gallstones, leg ulcers and thickened cranial bones. t. minor heterozygous state for alpha or beta chain production with mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and raised HbA2
thalidomide alfa glutarimide previously used as sedative but now only used in lepra reaction; causes severe birth defects if given to pregnant mothers
theophylline a plant product and bronchodilator. t. ethylenediamine aminophylline
therapeutic a curative. t. abortion termination of pregnancy that disrupts mother’s physical or mental health (as a sequence of rape) or is likely to produce a physically or mentally handicapped child. t. index the ratio of toxic dose of a substance to its therapeutic dose; an index of safety of the drug
therapy the means employed to effect a cure or manage a disease. t. collapse production of pneumothorax to effect pulmonary collapse as a method of treatment of nonhealing cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis.t. electroconvulsive passing of electric current in the convulsive dose to treat psychosis or suicidal depression. t. photodynamic method of treating cancer by using light absorbing chemicals that are selectively retained by malignant cells. t. physical use of physical agents such as massage, heat, hydration, electricity, exercise in the treatment of disease. t. replacement therapeutic use of medicine as a substitute for natural body substances, e.g. thyroid hormone, insulin
thermometer instrument for recording temperature
thiamine vitamin B1 present in wheat germ, rice water, animal and plant foods. Acts as a coenzyme in carboxylation of pyruvic acid. Deficiency produces beriberi
thiopental sodium an ultrashort acting barbiturate used for inducing surgical anesthesia
third degree perineal tear the tear extending into rectum with damage to perineal body and anal sphincter
third stage of labor the time period from birth of baby to complete expulsion of placenta and membranes; it is on average 20 to 30 minutes but ranges from 5 minutes to 2 hours
thoracic duct the main lymphatic duct of body arising at cisterna chyli, ascending up to join left subclavian vein near its junction with left internal jugular vein
214 thorax the part of the body between diaphragm below and base of the neck above. t. barrel-shaped Rounded chest as in emphysema
threatened abortion vaginal spotting with abdominal pain but dilatation of cervix
threshold 1. point at which physiological response is produced. 2. a measure of sensitivity of an organ or function
thrill a palpable murmur
thrombin an enzyme derived from prothrombin by action of thromboplastin
thromboangiitis inflammation of blood vessel with thrombus formation. t. obliterans chronic occlusive vascular disease common to cigarette smokers commonly affecting the feet with propensity for gangrene formation. SYN: Buerger’s disease
thrombocytopenia decrease below normal in number of platelets (>50,000 cmm)
thrombocytopenic purpura a hematological disorder in the newborn in which the bleeding time is prolonged, platelets are greatly decreased and there is cell fragility
thrombocytosis increase in number of platelets (>400,000 cmm)
thromboembolism a detached thrombus causing occlusion of a vessel
thromboembolus a blood clot in a vein
thrombokinase factor ‘X’ or Stuart factor
thrombophlebitis inflammation of vein with thrombus formation
thromboplastin the coagulation factor III present in most tissues which accelerates clot formation by converting prothrombin to thrombin
thrombosis the formation or existence of thrombus or clot within the vessel
thrombus a blood clot
thrus infection caused by Candida albicans in mouth and throat with formation of white patches and ulcers
thymus the capsulated bilobed organ in anterior mediastinum which is essential for immune function of body
thyroid gland the bilobed gland joined by isthmus located at the base of the neck, secreting T3 and T4
thyromegaly abnormally enlarged thyroid gland
thyrotoxicosis hyperfunctioning of thyroid gland with tachycardia, fine tremor, anxiety, nervousness, diarrhea, etc.
thyroxine tetraiodothyronine, the principal hormone of thyroid gland
tidal periodically rising and falling
tinea fungus infection. t. capitis fungal infection of head. t. corporis fungal infections of body with scaly eruptions and clearing center.t. cruris fungal infection of genital area. t. nigra superficial fungal infection of palm with pigmented nonitchy nonscaly macules.t. pedis fungal infection of foot (SYN: 215athlete’s foot). t. versicolor yellow or fawn colored skin patches due to Malassezia furfur
tissue a group or collection of similar cells performing a particular function
tissue fluid interstitial fluid or extracellular fluid whose excess causes edema
tissue macrophage a large wandering branched cell with single nucleus capable of ingesting particulate matter
tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) a thrombolytic agent that is dot specific, acting on plasminogen causing breakdown of fibrin
titer the amount or concentration
toco childbirth or labor
tocograph device for recording force of uterine contraction
tocology science of parturition
tocolysis suppression of uterine contraction
tocopherol compounds with vitamin E activity
tomography a method of X-ray that shows details of image of structures at a particular plane of tissue by blurring images of structures in all other planes
tone 1. a state of partial contraction of muscle. 2. normal tension in arterial wall
tongue a fleshy leafy organ lying in the floor of mouth. Helps in mastication, deglutition, speech production and taste. t. smooth a tongue with atrophy of papillae as in anemia and malnutrition. t. strawberry a bright red tongue with prominent papillae as in scarlet fever
tongue tie congenital shortness of frenum linguae with poor protrusion, difficulty in articulation and sucking
tonic uterine contraction powerful continuous contractile state of uterus leading to anaxia of fetus due to reduced placenta fetal blood flow
TORCH syndrome an acronym for a group of infections, which are particularly damaging to the fetus or newborn; includes toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes virus type 2
torsion twisting as occurs in pedicle of ovarian cyst or myoma with gangrene
torticollis spasmodic contraction of neck muscles causing head to tilt to one side and chin pointing to other side
tourniquet any item used to exert pressure over an artery to stop bleeding. t. rotating a technique of applying tourniquets to three extremities in rotation to reduce venous return to heart as in pulmonary edema
tourniquet test test for determining capillary fragility from their ability to withstand pressure
toxemia circulation of toxins throughout the body producing symptoms like fever, diarrhea, vomiting, hypotension, flushing tachycardia, etc.t. of pregnancy a series of changes occurring in pregnancy leading to hypertension, proteinuria, convulsion and intrauterine growth retardation
toxin a poisonous substance of animal or plant origin
216 toxoid a toxin without toxicity but with intact antigenicity so that when injected can produce antibodies
Toxoplasma a form of protozoa, e.g. T. gondii causing toxoplasmosis
toxoplasmosis a disease due to infection with Toxoplasma gondii manifest with pneumonitis, hepatitis, encephalitis (in the severe form) or mild fever and malaise in mild form. In congenital form, the newborn may have encephalopathy, jaundice, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and generalized lymphadenopathy
trachea the round cartilaginous air tube extending from larynx to bronchi (6th cervical to 5th dorsal vertebra)
tracheoesophageal fistula a congenital anomaly in which there is an abnormal tube like passage between the trachea and the esophagus
tracheomalacia softening of cartilaginous framework of trachea
tracheostomy surgical opening up of trachea to put an airway to facilitate respiration in laryngeal obstruction or a condition requiring prolonged respiratory assistance
trait a characteristic or property of an individual
tranquilizer a drug reducing mental tension and anxiety without interfering with normal mental activity
transcutaneous nerve stimulation a method of pain relief by application of mild electrical current over painful area by electrodes, can be applied pain relief of labor by placing 4 electrodes at T10, T11 and S2, S4 on the spine
transducer device that converts one form of energy into another e.g., ultrasonic transducers that convert sound energy to electrical energy
transferrin iron-transporting globulin in plasma
transfusion injection of blood, blood products or IV solutions into vein. t. exchange transfusion of blood and withdrawal of blood at same time until blood volume is entirely replaced as in hemolytic disease of newborn
transient ischemic attack (TIA) symptoms of neurological deficit lasting for few hours without residual damage due to transient interference with blood supply to brain
transillumination inspection of a cavity or organ by passing a light through its wall, e.g. examination of paranasal sinus by means of a light placed across mouth; examination of hydrocele contents in scrotum and examination of brain in hydrocephalus in infants
translocation the displacement of part or whole of chromosome to another
transplantation the operation of transplanting an organ or tissue from one person to another, e.g. heart, lung, kidney, liver and bone marrow. t. heteroplastic transplantation of a part from one individual to another of the same or closely related species.t. heterotopic transplantation in which 217transplant is placed in a different location in host than it had in donor
transport movement of materials in biological systems particularly across cell membrane
transposition a change in position of an organ or viscera usually to opposite side
transsexual an individual who has overwhelming desire or feels psychically to be of opposite sex or has got his external sex changed by surgery
transudate a fluid that passes through the capillary wall
transverse arrest in obstetrics, arrest of transverse axis of descending fetal head in maternal pelvis
transverse lie a state where longitudinal axis of fetus lies across the uterus can cause shoulder presentation with obstructed labor if not corrected before labor
transverse sinus a sinus of dura mater running from internal occipital protuberance along attached margin of tentorium cerebelli to reach jugular foramen
transvestism dressing or masquerading in the clothing of opposite sex to be accepted as a member of opposite sex
trauma a physical injury or wound caused by external force or violence. t. psychic a painful emotional experience
travel in pregnancy travel in first and last trimester be restricted
treatment any specific procedure employed for amelioration of a disease or pathological condition. t. empiric treatment based on observation and experience rather than having a scientific basis. t. expectant relief of symptoms that arise during an illness but treatment not directed at specific cause of illness. t. palliative symptomatic treatment rather than a cure
Trendelenburg position position in which patient’s head is low and the legs are on an elevated and inclined position
trial labor it is attempted when cephalopelvic disproportion is very mild and head is not engaged. If head fails to descend and cervix fails to dilate, it should be quickly terminated
Trichinella a genus of nematode. Trichinella spiralis of this genus causes trichinosis from ingestion of undercooked pork containing the cyst
Trichomonas genus of flagellated protozoa. T. hominis intestinal flagellate causing diarrhea and bacillary dysentery-like disease. T. vaginalis flagellate inhabiting vagina causing profuse white watery often blood-stained discharge and intense itching
triglyceride combination of glycerol with three different fatty acids
trigone a triangular area at the base of bladder, i.e. between the two openings of ureter and internal urinary meatus
trimester a block of 3 months
218trimethoprim antibacterial agent used for urinary tract infection; when combined with sulfamethoxazole causes sequential block in enzyme synthesis within a wide range of bacteria
tripartite placenta a placenta divided into three lobes, each lobe with a cord that join to form one cord
triple test blood test alfa-fetoprotein unconjugated estriol and LCG at 16 to 18 week gestation to exclude Down syndrome
triplet three children in one pregnancy
triple vaccine combination of tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough vaccines
trisomy having three homologous chromosomes instead of two
trocar the instrument which is contained within the cannula for removal of fluid from body cavity
trochanter bony processes. t. greater outward projection at upper end of femur below its neck. t. lesser conical tuberosity at the inner and posterior surface of upper end of femur at the junction of shaft and neck
trophoblast the outermost layer of developing embryo consisting of inner cytotrophoblast and outer syntrophoblast that comes in contact with uterine endometrium
trypsin proteolytic enzyme formed by action of enterokinase on pancreatic trypsinogen
tubal insufflation assessment of tubal patency by insufflation with carbon dioxide
tubal ligation ligation of Fallopian tubes for sterilization
tubal mole a mass of blood clot retained in Fallopian tube after tubal pregnancy
tube a long hollow cylindrical structure. t. endotracheal a tube usually with an inflatable cuff put into trachea for airway during anesthesia. t. nasogastric rubber tube passed into stomach for aspiration/decompression of stomach. t. stomach a wide bore tube for stomach wash in poisoning
tubectomy surgical removal of a part or whole of fallopian tube
tuberculosis an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis having propensity to infect lungs, bone, GU tract, meninges and the GI tract
tuberosity an elevated bony process, e.g. ischial tuberosity
tubular necrosis (acute) death of renal tubules, usually a consequence of prolonged renal ischemia or following incompatible blood transfusion or sepsis
tubule a small tube. t. collecting tubules having transport function in renal medulla. t. convoluted the constituent parts of a nephron of kidney. t. seminiferous very small tubules in testis in which the spermatozoa develop and leave the testis to enter the epididymis
219
tumescence swelling
tunica a covering. t. adventia the outer fibrous coat of blood vessels. t. intima the innermost layer of endothelial cells and the basement membrane including the internal elastic lamina of blood vessels.t. media the middle layer in the wall of a blood vessel containing circular smooth muscle and elastic fibers. t. serosa the mesothelial lining of the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium. t. vaginalis the serous membrane surrounding the testes
tunnel a narrow channel. t. carpal the fibro-osseous canal in the wrist through which pass the flexor tendons and the median nerve. t. tarsal the osteofibrous canal bounded by flexor retinaculum and tarsal bones giving way to posterior tibial vessels, tibial nerve and flexor tendons
Turner’s syndrome 45(XO) chromosomal pattern in girls manifested with amenorrhea, infertility, short stature and poor sexual maturation
twin two fetuses developing within uterus in one pregnancy. t. dizygotic twins developed from two separate ova. t. monozygotic twins developing 220from a single fertilized ovum; hence have identical genetic makeup, are of same sex, have common placenta and one chorion sac. t. siamese symmetrically united twins
twin-to-twin transfusion transfer of blood from one fetus to other leading to former being anemic and latter plethoric
tympanic membrane membrane at the junction middle ear and external ear
typing identification of types, e.g. 1. Bacteriophage typing, i.e. determination of bacterial species by bacteriophages. 2. tissue typing, i.e. testing for histocompatibility of tissues to be used in transplant or graft
tyramine an intermediate product during conversion of tyrosine to epinephrine, found in cheese, beer, yeast, beans, wine and chicken liver
tyrosine an amino acid serving as precursor for epinephrine, thyroxine and melanin

U

ulcer discontinuity in the skin or mucous membrane with sloughing. u. curling stress-induced peptic ulcer as in postburn or cerebrovascular accident patient. u. decubitus ischemic necrosis and tissue ulceration over bony prominence in bedridden patients. u. Hunner’s painful slowly healing ulcer in urinary bladder. u. rodent deeply infiltrating ulcer with undermined edges as in basal cell carcinoma
ulna the inner and larger bone of forearm
ultrasonic sound frequency above 20,000 cycles per second, not audible to human ear
ultrasonography use of ultrasound to image body organs
ultrasound sound frequency in the range of 20,000 to 109 cycles per second, employed to image body organs and for therapeutic purposes (ultrasonic ablation/stone dissolution)
umbilical relating to the navel
umbilical catheterization insertion of catheter into umbilical vein or artery in neonates for giving fluids or drugs, monitoring of blood, gases, etc.
umbilical cord the cord consisting two arteries and one vein embedded in Wharton’s jelly attaching fetus to placenta
umbilical hernia hernia in which part of the intestine protrudes through the umbilical ring
umbilicus the navel or depression in the center of abdomen
unconscious lacking awareness of surrounding
unicellular consisting of single cell
unilateral affecting or occurring at one side
universal antidote two parts of activated charcoal, one part magnesium oxide and one part tannic acid used in poisoning by unknown agents by oral route
universal donor a person of blood group ‘O’, Rh-negative
universal recipient a person of blood group AB, Rh-positive
unstable lie a condition when fetus changes its lie from one examination to another after 36 weeks of gestation
urachus a fibrous cord extending from apex of bladder to umbilicus. Often urachus remains patent resulting in an umbilical urinary fistula
222
urea the diamide of carbonic acid derived from ammonia by deamination representing 80–90% of total urinary nitrogen
uremia a complex biochemical abnormality in kidney failure, characterized by azotemia, acidosis, anemia and many systemic symptoms. u. prerenal uremia occurring not primarily due to kidney disease but due to fluid loss
ureter 28–34 cm fibromuscular tubes conveying urine from kidney to urinary bladder
urethra the canal extending from bladder neck to exterior for discharge of urine
urethritis inflammation of urethra. u. anterior inflammation of anterior portion of urethra (portion anterior to triangular ligament)
urethrocele prolapse urethral wall in female consequent to birth trauma
uric acid an end product of purine metabolism responsible for clinical manifestations of gout
urine the fluid excreted by kidneys with a specific gravity of 1005 to 1030, acidic in reaction and amber colored; 24 hour urine contains nearly 75 grams of solids, i.e. 25% as urea, 25% as chloride 25% as sulfates
urinometer device for measuring specific gravity of urine
urodynamics study of bladder function both neural and muscular
223 urogenital diaphragm the sheet of tissue stretching across the pubic arch, formed by deep transverse perineal and sphincter urethrae muscles. SYN: triangular ligament
urography X-ray study of urinary tract after introduction of radiopaque dye. Can be ascending type: dye is injected into bladder or descending type: the dye is given IV and is excreted by the kidneys
urticaria eruption of itchy wheals on skin. u. pigmentosa brown itchy eruptions of mastocytosis. u. solaris urticaria on exposure to sunlight
uterine souffle the sound of blood flow in uterine vessels in gravid uterus
uterine subinvolution failure of uterus to return to its normal size after child birth
uterosacral ligament two ligaments extending from back of cervix to sacrum encircling the rectum, thus maintaining uterus in anteversion
uterus the womb, the seat of embryo’s imbedment and growth; a hollow muscular pelvic organ
uvulectomy removal of uvula by surgery
uvula a small fleshy structure hanging from soft palate

V

vaccination inoculation with a vaccine to achieve resistance against an infectious disease
vaccine a suspension of live attenuated/killed infectious agent or its products/parts for achieving immunity against that infectious agent. v. BCG bacille Calmette-Guérin, a preparation of dried live-culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis whose virulence has been reduced by repeated cultures on glycerinated ox bile. v. DPT a preparation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and killed pertussis organisms given intramuscularly. v. hepatitis B vaccine containing recombinant viral capsular antigen of hepatitis B virus. v. human diploid cell an inactivated rabies virus vaccine prepared in human diploid cell tissue culture. v. influenza a polyvalent vaccine containing inactivated antigenic variants of the virus for rendering immunity in chronically ill and aged. v. measles a live attenuated virus vaccine. v. mumps a live attenuated virus vaccine. v. pneumococcal a polyvalent vaccine effective against 23 strains of pneumococci, given to children under 2 years of age and to those who have undergone splenectomy. v. polio oral poliovaccine containing 3 types of live attenuated (v. Sabin) or inactivated viruses (v. Salk)
vacuum aspiration a method to perform abortion during first 3 months of pregnancy and remove hydatidiform mole
vacuum extractor a device with a suction cup which is placed on fetal head for applying traction during delivery
vagina the musculomembranous passage between the cervix and vulva
vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) permits patients the opportunity of a trial of labor and possibly a vaginal delivery after previously delivering by cesarean section
vaginal hysterectomy surgical removal of uterus through vagina
225 vaginal vibrator a vibrator placed in vagina for erotic stimulation
vaginismus painful spasm of vagina often preventing coitus; may be idiopathic, following trauma, vaginitis or psychological aversion to coitus
vaginitis inflammation of vagina causing purulent malodorous discharge, itching, pain in perineum, and during coitus and painful micturition. v. atrophic atrophy of vagina in postmeno-pausal women with reduced introitus and dryness. v. trichomonial vaginitis due to Trichomonas causing red frothy discharge with fishy odor
vagus the tenth cranial nerve, a parasympathetic nerve supplying heart, liver, lungs and part of alimentary tract
Valsalva maneuver forcible expiration against closed glottis, nose, and mouth; used to increase pressure within middle ear to correct retracted ear drum
valve membranous structures that allow flow of fluid in one direction
valvoplasty dilatation of valve
valvotomy incision into a valve to dilate it
vanilylmandelic acid (VMA) metabolite of epinephrine and norepinephrine in urine, amount increased in pheochromocytoma
variability the change in the baseline fetal heart rate caused by the interplay of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; may vary from 5 to 10 beats/minute with contractions and fetal or maternal movements
variable deceleration a periodic slowing of the fetal heart rate either with a contraction or between contractions, due to umbilical cord compression; variable in duration, intensity and timing of the deceleration
variance in statistics, the square of standard deviation
varicella chickenpox, the viral disease with polymorphic maculovesico-pustular eruptions
varicose means distended, tortuous and knotted
varicose veins dilated tortuous veins as developing in legs due to venous incompetence or the development of esophageal varices in portal hypertension
variola SYN: smallpox, the vesicopustular generalized eruptive viral disease that has disappeared from the globe for past two decades
varix dilatation of a vein, artery or lymphatic channel
varus turned inward
vas a duct. v. deferens the 18” long excretory duct of testis transporting sperm to urethra
vasa pleural of vas. v. recta 1. straight collecting tubules of kidney. 2. tubules that become straight prior to entering the mediastinum testis. v. vasorum226the tiny blood vessels supplying the fibromuscular coats of arteries and larger veins
vasa previa the presentation infront of the fetal head during labor of blood vessels of umbilical cord
vasectomy removal of a segment of vas deferens bilaterally to induce male sterility
vasoconstriction spasm or temporary narrowing of blood vessels
vasodepressor an agent that depresses circulation, i.e. lowers blood pressure by dilating blood vessels
vasodilator agent causing relaxation of blood vessels
vasomotor pertains to or regulating the contraction and relaxation of blood vessels
vasopressin a posterior pituitary hormone having antidiuretic, and vasopressor effect (causes coronary spasm, hence not used to raise blood pressure)
vasopressor agent bringing about contraction of blood vessels
vasovagal syncope sudden fainting due to hypotension caused by emotional stress, pain or trauma
vault the part of fetal skull excluding the base and face
v. cap a contraceptive device which attaches to vaginal vault by suction preventing sperm entry uterus
vegan a strict vegetarian who even abstains from milk and milk products
vegetation wart-like luxuriant growth from heart valves; consisting of fibrin mesh with enmeshed blood cells
vein vessel carrying unsaturated blood towards the heart except for pulmonary veins that carry saturated oxygenated blood to left atrium
velamentous expanding like a veil or sheet
vena cava one of the two main venous trunks, superior and inferior draining upper and lower portions of body and entering right atrium
veneral wart moist reddish elevations on genitals and anus
venereal disease disease acquired by sexual intercourse. It includes gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, viral hepatitis B, trichomoniasis, chlamydia infection, granuloma inguinale and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
venesection surgical incision into a vein for draining out blood or introducing blood/colloids
venipuncture puncture of a vein for drawing out blood or introducing any substance
ventilation circulation of fresh air in lung alveoli. v. continuous positive pressure Mechanical method of artificial ventilation where the respirator delivers air to the lungs under a continuous positive pressure. v. intermittent positive pressure the respirator delivers air under positive pressure to initiate inspiration but expiration is passive
227 ventilator an apparatus to give artificial ventilation
ventricle a small cavity or pouch, e.g. in the heart and in the brain. v. third the median cavity of brain bounded by thalamus and hypothalamus on either side, anteriorly by optic chiasm; communicating with lateral ventricles and fourth ventricle. v. fourth the CSF containing cavity at base of brain extending between upper end of spinal canal and cerebral aqueduct. Its roof is formed by cerebellum and floor by rhomboid fossa. v. lateral the ventricle in each cerebral hemisphere with triangular-shaped body, inferior and posterior horns; communicating with third ventricle by interventricular foramen
ventricular septal defect a congenital defect in the interventricular septum of heart leading to passage of blood from left ventricle into right ventricle
ventrosuspension fixation of displaced uterus to anterior abdominal wall
vernix caseosa a sebaceous deposit covering the fetus, abundant on creases and flexor surfaces, consisting of sebaceous secretion, lanugo and exfoliated skin
version change in position of fetus within uterus. v. bipolar a combination of both external and internal manipulation to bring a change in fetal position. v. cephalic turning of the fetus so that head becomes the presenting part.v. external version of fetus with both hands placed on abdomen. v. internal version of fetus with one hand placed inside vagina. v. podalic version by holding feet of the fetus to make the presenting part breech
vertebra one of the 33 bony segments making up the spinal column, consisting of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic (dorsal), 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 coccygeal
vertex presentation The fetal head or cranium is the presenting part with the head flexed on the chest and the chin in contact with the thorax; also called cephalic presentation
vertex the top portion of head
vertical perpendicular to the horizontal plane, upright
vertigo the sensation of moving around in space (subjective vertigo) or experiencing the surrounding objects moving around oneself (objective vertigo)
228
very low birth weight (VLBW) infant when an infant weighs less than 1,500 grams
vesica a bladder
vesical shaped like a bladder
vesicle elevated skin lesions containing serous fluid. v. seminal membranous sacculated tubes at the base of bladder acting as reservoir of semen
vesicovaginal concerning urinary bladder and vagina
vesiculitis inflammation of seminal vesicle
vestibule an entrance, the part of the vulva lying between labia minora
vestige a small incompletely developed structure
viability ability to live or capable of living, e.g. a fetus reaching 24 weeks gestation or 500 grams of weight can live outside uterus
viagra sildenafil citrate, used in treatment of erectile dysfunction in male
vial a small glass bottle for storing medicines, chemicals, perfumes, etc.
Vibrio a genus of comma-shaped motile gram-negative bacilli, e.g. 229V.cholerae, the organism causing cholera
vicarious acting as alternative or substitute
villus short slender filamentous processes found on some membranous surfaces. v. arachnoid protrusion of arachnoid into dural venous sinus.v. chorionic tiny branching processes on surface of chorion that become vascular and form placenta. v. intestinal the projecting structures into lumen of small intestine that help to absorb fluid and nutrients
virgin woman who has had no sexual intercourse; uncontaminated, fresh
virilism appearance of male secondary sexual characteristics in female
virion a complete virus particle
virulence degree of pathogenicity
virus minute submicroscopic organisms with a central core of DNA or RNA and a capsid but no cell wall. They utilize the cell metabolic processes for their nutrition and replication. v. cytomegalic (CMV) a member of the herpes virus group transmitted transplacentally from mother to fetus with mental retarddation and hepatosplenomegaly in the newborn. v. enterocytopathogenic human orphan (ECHO) virus responsible for epidemic pleurodynia, menin-goencephalitis, myocarditis, etc. v. immunodeficiency the RNA virus containing reverse transcriptase that confers it capacity to change the antigenicity indefinitely and hence the difficulty in producing a successful vaccine. It causes the dreaded disease AIDS for which there is no cure. v. respiratory syncytial the virus causing lower respiratory infection in infancy and childhood and that produces large syncytial masses in cell cultures
viscera internal body organs
visceroptosis downward displacement of a viscus
viscid sticky, adhering, gummy
viscosity 1. the state of being sticky or gummy. 2. resistance of a fluid medium to changeability due to existing intermolecular force
vision act of seeing external objects; sense by which light and color are perceived
visual acuity a measure of the resolving power of eye. A normal person is able to read letters at a distance of 20 feet that subtend angle of 5°
vital capacity the quantity of air that can be expelled following deep inspiration
vital signs the traditional signs of life: like pulse, blood pressure, respiration, urination
vital statistics statistics relating to birth, death, marriage, sickness, etc.
vitamin micronutrients essential for metabolism, growth and development
vitamin A fat-soluble vitamin derived from carotenes (alpha, beta and gamma) in food, responsible for growth, development and integrity of epithelial 230tissues, and functioning of Rods, the visual sensory cells that contain visual purple for dim vision
vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin, essential for cytoplasmic maturation of red cells and intactness of neurons
vitamin B1 thiamine, an essential coenzyme for decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme
vitamin B2 riboflavin; constituent of flavoproteins responsible for tissue oxidation
vitamin B6 pyridoxine, a coenzyme for over 60 different enzyme systems, required for heme synthesis and neuroexcitability
vitamin C ascorbic acid, a factor essential for integrity of intercellular cement in many tissues, especially capillaries
vitamin D one of several vitamins (D2, D3, D4 and D5) that have antirachitic property. Vitamin D2 (calciferol) D3 (irradiated 7 dihydrocholesterol), D4 (irradiated 22 dihydro ergosterol), D5 (irradiated dehydrositosterol), all are essential for calcium and phosphorus metabolism
vitamin E tachysterol (alpha tocopherol), which prevents oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes
vitamin K naphthoquinone derivative that helps in synthesis of prothrombin in liver
viviparous giving birth to young alive offspring rather than larvae or embryo
v liability a situation in which the employer is vicariously liable for torts of employee during course of his/her employment
vocal cord two thin mucous folds in larynx enclosing vocal ligaments responsible for production of sound
v of newborn bile-stained vomit without passage of meconium indicates intestinal obstruction, V in pregnancy normal feature in first 3 months of pregnancy but can be disabling with electrolyte disturbance in hyperemesis gravidarum
volvulus twisting of bowel upon itself causing obstruction to lumen and even blood supply of the segment leading to necrosis
vomiting the act of ejection of gastric contents through mouth
vomitus material ejected by vomiting
vulsellum a forcep with hook on each blade
vulva the external genital organ in female consisting of labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule and vaginal opening
vulvectomy excision of vulva
vulvitis inflammation of vulva
vulvovaginitis inflammation of vulva and vagina; most commonly in diabetes
vulvovaginoplasty surgical reconstruction of vulva and vagina
v vaginal the roof of vagina to which cervix protrudes

W

warfarin a synthetic coumarin anticoagulant
wart a small, hard outgrowth on the skin caused by a virus
water birth a form of parturition in water to achieve pain relief and relaxation
wean to discontinue breastfeeding and substitute with other food
web a tissue or membrane, w laryngeal the most common congenital malformation of larynx causing obstruction of airways
wedge a piece of material thick at one end and thin at other end
Weil’s disease spirochetal disease with jaundice and hemolysis
Wernicke’s encephalopathy hemorrhagic encephalitis occurring due to vit B deficiency in alcoholics and in hyperemesis gravidarum
wet nurse a woman who breastfeeds infants other than her own
Wharton’s jelly connective tissue of umbilical cord
wheal localized area of edema, often with itching
wheeze a whistling sound of small bronchiole spasm as in asthma
whipworm the nematode Trichuris trichiura
white matter the protion of cerebrum containing myelinated nerve fibers
whit low herpetic infection of terminal finger
whoop the sonorous and loud inhalation of whooping cough
widal test blood test for diagnosis of typhoid and paratyphoid
Wilson-Mikity syndrome bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a condition occurring in babies ventilated for long with oxygen
Wolffian bodies the primitive kidneys in developing embryo
world health organization (WHO) public health arm of United Nations
wound discontinuity in any structure or organ by injury causing tissue loss, can be penetrating lacerated perforating
Wrigley’s forceps obstetric forceps used for low forcep delivery

X

xanthelasma deposition of a yellow lipid-rich plaque on the eyelids
xanthoma a tumor of skin tendon composed of lipid-laden foam cells. x. eruptive associated with raised triglycerides, usually in diabetics
xanthopsia yellow vision
xenograft a graft received from animal
xenon the chemical element whose radioactive isotope 133 Xe is used in assessment of pulmonary function, lung imaging and cerebral blood flow studies
xenophobia irrational fear of animals/strangers
xeroderma a dry rough discolored state of skin
xerophthalmia dryness and thickening of conjunctiva in vit A deficiency
xeroradiography a photoelectric process of making radiographs using semiconductor-coated metal plates, specially useful for breasts
xerostomia dryness of mouth due to salivary gland dysfunction
X-linked transmitted by gene present on x-chromosome
XO a symbol for turner syndrome where females contain only one X-chromosome
X-ray Powerful electromagnetic radiations of extremely short wavelength.
x tuberous yellowish orange nodules on skin over joints in hyperlipop-roteinemia, biliary cirrhosis and myxedema
XXY syndrome Klinefelter’s syndrome where a male has two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome
xylitol a sweetener used as sugar substitute in diabetics
xylocaine lignocaine, a local anesthetic
xylometazoline adrenergic agent used as topical nasal decongestant
xylose a pentose sugar used in diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption
XYY syndrome a supermale with 2Y chromosomes tend to be all and may exhibit aggressive and antisocial behavior

Y

yaws nonvenereal treponemal disease of skin often involving bone and joint
Y chromosome the complimentary male sex chromosome
yeast unicellular fungi fermenting carbohydrate, e.g. Baker’s yeast also a source of B complex vitamins and protein
Yersinia a genus of gram-negative nonencapsulated bacteria causing gastroenteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis (Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis) and plague (Y. pestis)
yin-yang the feminine and masculine energies in human being whose balance is crucial to good health as believed by Chinese
yoga a set of exercises of disciplined body and mind
yogurt a semisolid fermented food made by adding bacterial strains of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus to raw milk
yolk sac the cavity in the developing embryo surrounded by entodermal cells
yttrium beta-emitting isotope used in radiotherapy
yale brace a device used for the stabilization of cervical spine

Z

zafirlukast a leukotriene receptor antagonist used in bronchial asthma
zalcitabine a reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in treatment of HIV patients
Ziehl-Neelsen method a method of staining acid-fast organisms like tubercle bacillus with boiled carbol fuschin followed by rinsing alcohol
zileuton a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor used in bronchial asthma
zinc an essential micronutrient vital for enzyme function. z. acetate an astringent and hemostyptic, z. chloride used as nutritional supplement in total parenteral nutrition and applied topically as an astringent and a desensitizer for dentin. z. oxide a topical astringent. z. sulfate a topical astringent for eyes. z. undecylenate a topical antifungal
zolmitriptan a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used in migraine
zolpidem a nonbenzodiazepine used for insomnia
zona pellucida the cellular transparent membrane surrounding ovum which is to be penetrated by sperm for fertilization
zoology the biology of animals
zoonosis disease of animals transmissible to man
zoophilia abnormal fondness for animals
zoophobia irrational fear for animals
zydovudine a reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in treatment of HIV patients
zygoma zygomatic process of temporal bone
zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) a method of infertility treatment where the zygote is placed into midampullary portion of Fallopian tube
zygote the fertilized ovum prior to segmentation
zymoprotein any protein which also possesses enzymatic activity

Appendices

 
Appendix 1
Abbreviations used in prescriptions
Abbreviation
Latin
English
a.c.
ante cibum
before food
ad lib.
ad libitum
to the desired amount
b.d. or b.i.d.
bis in die
twice a day
c.
cum
with
o.m.
omni mane
every morning
o.n.
omni nocte
every night
p.c.
post cibum
after food
p.r.n.
pro re nata
whenever necessary
q.d.
quaque die
everyday
q.d.s.
quaque die sumendum
four times daily
q.i.d.
quater in die
four times a day
q.q.h.
quater quaque hora
every four hours
R
recipe
take
s.o.s.
si opus sit
if necessary
stat.
statim
at once
t.d.s
ter die sumendum
three times a day
t.i.d.
ter in die
three times a day
236
 
Appendix 2
Abbreviations for diseases, investigations and procedures
AC
Air conduction
AFB
Acid-fast Bacillus
ALT
Alanine aminotransferase
ANA
Antinuclear antibodies
ANF
Antinuclear factor
APB
Atrial premature beat
AR
Aortic regurgitation
ARF
Acute rheumatic fever
AS
Aortic stenosis
ASD
Atrial septal defect
ASO
Antistreptococcal ‘O’ titer
AST
Antistreptozyme titer
Aspartate transaminase
ATT
Antitubercular treatment
AVM
Arteriovenous malformation
BC
Bone conduction
BPH
Benign hypertrophy of prostate
CABG
Coronary artery bypass grafting
CAD
Coronary artery disease
CHF
Congestive heart failure
CMV
Closed mitral valvotomy, cytomegalovirus
CNS
Central nervous system
COPD
Chronic obstructive lung disease
CP
Creative protein
CPK
Creatine phosphokinase
CT
Computerized tomography
Cx
Circumflex
DAT
Differential agglutination test
DCM
Dilated cardiomyopathy
DIC
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
DLC
Differential leukocyte count
ECE
Extracapsular cataract extraction
EF
Ejection fraction
ELISA
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
237
ERCP
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
FEV
Forced expiratory volume
FVC
Forced vital capacity
G6PD
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
HAV
Hepatitis A virus
HBcAg
Hepatitis B core antigen
HBsAg
Hepatitis B surface antigen
HBV
Hepatitis B virus
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus
HOCM
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
HSV
Herpes simplex virus
ICCE
Intracapsular cataract extraction
ICCU
Intensive coronary care unit
ICT
Intracranial tension
ICU
Intensive care unit
IHD
Ischemic heart disease
INO
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
ITP
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
JVP
Jugular venous pressure
LA
Left atrium
LAD
Left anterior descending artery
LDH
Lactate dehydrogenase
LIMA
Left internal mammary artery
LMN
Lower motor neuron
LP
Lumbar puncture
LV
Left ventricle
LVEDP
Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure
LVEDV
Left ventricular end-diastolic volume
LVH
Left ventricular hypertrophy
MCP
Metacarpophallangeal joint
MDM
Mid-diastolic murmur
MND
Motor neuron disease
MR
Mitral regurgitation, mental retardation
MRCP
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
MS
Mitral stenosis
MTP
Metatarsophallangeal joint, medical termination of pregnancy
238
MVI
Multivitamin infusion
MVP
Mitral valvoplasty, mitral valve prolapse
NMR
Nuclear magnetic resonance
NSAID
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
OS
Opening snap
PaO2
Partial pressure of oxygen
PCWP
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
PDA
Patent ductus arteriosus
PIP
Proximal interphallangeal joint
PKP
Penetrating keratoplasty
PNH
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
PS
Pulmonary stenosis
RA
Right atrium
RIND
Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit
RK
Radial keratotomy
RV
Right ventricle
SAH
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
SBE
Subacute bacterial endocarditis
SCAT
Sheep cell agglutination test
SGOT
Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
SGPT
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase
TB
Tuberculosis
TCA
Transient ischemic attack
TGV
Transposition great vessels
TIPS
Transjugular intrahepatic portohepatic shunting
TLC
Total leukocyte count
TOF
Tetralogy of Fallot
TR
Tricuspid regurgitation
TS
Tricuspid stenosis
TTP
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
UMN
Upper motor neuron
VPB
Ventricular premature beat
VSD
Ventricular septal defect
239
 
Appendix 3
Child and infant resuscitation
Infant younger than 1 year
Child older than 1 year
Shake, pinch gently
Shout for help
Check conscious level
Open airway
Check breathing
Breathe
Check pulse
Chest compressions
Shake, pinch gently
Shout for help
Head tilt. Chin tilt (jaw thrust)
Head tilt. Chin tilt (jaw thrust)
Look, listen, feel
Look, listen, feel
Five breaths (mouth to mouth and nose)
Five breaths (mouth to mouth)
Feel brachial pulse. Start compression if <60/min
Feel carotid pulse. If no pulse start chest compressions
Two fingers, over sternum
Rate 100/min, depth 2 cm. Five compressions: One
Heel of one hand, over sternum
Rate 100/min, depth 3 cm. breath.
Five compressions: One breath
240
 
Appendix 4
A. Food sources of water-soluble vitamins
Vitamin
Food sources
C (ascorbic acid)
Fruit—especially citrus fruit, blackcurrants
Green vegetabls—especially frozen peas, tomoatoes, capsicums
New potatoes
B1 (thiamin)
Meat—especially pork, duck
Cereal products—especially brown and wholemeal bread, breakfast cereals, wheatgerm
Yeast, yeast extract
Pulses, nuts
B2 (riboflavin)
Dairy products, eggs
Bread, fortified breakfast cereals
Wheatgerm, wheatbran
Mushrooms, yeast extract
Liver, kidney
Pulses
B6 (pyridoxine)
Meat, fish, milk, eggs, liver
Wholegrain cereals
Peanuts, walnuts
Bananas, avocados
B12 (cobalamin)
Meat—especially liver, kidney, rabbit
Sardines, oysters
Dairy produce, eggs
Niacin (nicotinic acid)
Meat—especially offal
Fish
Brewer’s yeast, yeast extract
Wholemeal wheat, bran
Peanuts, pulses, coffee
Folate (folic acid)
Liver, kidney
Dark green leafy vegetables (easily destroyed by cooking)
Beetroot, bran, peanuts
Avocados, bananas, oranges
Wholemeal bread
Eggs, chocolate
Some fish
241B. Food sources of fat-soluble vitamins
Vitamin
Food sources
A
β-carotene—orange and green vegetables, apricots, melon, egg yolk
Preformed vitamin A—offal, dairy produce, fortified margarine, oily fish, fish liver oils
D
Fish liver oils, oily fish
Fortified margarine
Liver, egg yolk
Full cream milk, cheese, butter
E
Vegetable oils—especially wheatgerm oil
Margarine
Eggs, butter
Wholemeal cereals
Broccoli
K
Green vegetables
Liver oils
Potatoes
C. Food sources of minerals
Mineral
Food sources
Calcium
Dairy products
Green leafy vegetables
Cereal products, especially wheat flour products
Pulses
Iron*
Red meat, egg yolk
Green vegetables
Wholemeal, cereal products
Pulses
Sodium
Milk, table salt and in all food products except oil and sugar. Tends to be high in readymade and tinned foods
Potassium
Oranges, bananas, dried fruit
Vegetables and most other foods
High in instant coffee, chocolate
Iodine
Drinking water, iodized salt
Seafish and shellfish
Bread, spinach
Fluoride
Tea, seafish, drinking water (depending on the area)
*Absorption enhanced in the presence of vitamin C.
242
 
Appendix 5
Psychomotor development
Birth through
Ability to suck, swallow, gag, cry, and maintain eye contact with a person
1st Month
The head needs to be supported. Loud noises may cause a startle reflex
2nd Month
May turn to either side when on their backs; will follow moving objects, able to lift head but not for a sustained period; begin to smile, frown, and turn away
3rd Month
Greater movement and vocal response to stimuli; notice own hands and suck on them; head will be steady while in a supported position
4th and 5th Months
Able to lift head higher when lying on stomach; will reach for objects and may be able to encircle a bottle with both hands; may drool a lot; attempt to put all kinds of objects in mouth
6th–9th Months
Develop ability to grasp and pick up food; are able to pull themselves up to a sitting position and eventually will crawl; they begin to make noises that sound like words and to recognize certain words; will play peek-a-boo
9th–11th Months
Develop ability to handle food and to drink from a cup; may imitate sounds and say certain words; crawl by pulling body along with arms, and pull themselves to a standing position; they will point at objects and throw things; they want to feed themselves and to help with dressing and undressing; they will walk while holding a person’s hand
12th Month
Can eat food alone and drink from a cup with assistance; able to move around easily, and crawl upstairs, and out of crib
243
 
Appendix 6
A. Nutrition ready reckoner for international foods
Calories (Kcal)
Proteins (g)
Fats (g)
Carbo-hydrates (g)
Fiber (g)
Calcium (mg)
Iron (mg)
Carotene (mcg)
Retinol (mcg)
Vit B1 (mg)
Vit B2 (mg)
Niacin (mg)
Vit C (mg)
Serving portion
BEVERAGES
Hot tea
34
0.6
1.0
5.7
0.0
31.0
0.0
0.0
7.00
0.01
0.01
0.0
0
1 Tea cup
Instant coffee
149
1.0
13.3
6.3
0.0
31.0
0.0
0.0
7.00
0.01
0.01
0.0
0
1 Tea cup
Cold coffee (with cream)
279
3.9
17.0
27.7
0.0
144.0
0.3
487.0
183.00
0.06
0.23
0.1
2
1 Tall glass
Banana milkshake
228
6.2
7.5
33.8
0.0
223.0
0.5
40.0
101.00
0.11
0.37
0.4
7
1 Tall glass
Mango milkshake
237
6.2
7.7
35.6
0.8
227.0
1.3
2067.0
608.00
0.15
0.41
9.0
16
1 Tall glass
Lemonade
107
0.3
0.3
25.7
0.5
21.0
0.1
0.0
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.0
12
1 Glass
BREAKFAST CEREALS
Cracked wheat porridge
292
10.0
10.4
39.7
2.5
296.0
1.5
152.0
39.00
1.29
0.49
1.3
5
1 Bowl
Oat meal porridge
217
6.6
6.6
32.8
2.0
154.0
1.0
70.0
18.00
0.80
0.26
0.3
2
1 Bowl
Cornflakes with milk
291
9.8
10.8
38.7
1.2
290.0
0.9
157.0
41.00
1.28
0.48
0.6
5
1 Bowl
EGGS
Boiled egg
87
6.7
6.7
0.0
0.0
25.0
0.7
300.0
180.00
0.05
0.20
0.1
0
1 Egg
Poached egg
87
6.7
6.7
0.0
0.0
25.0
0.7
300.0
180.00
0.05
0.20
0.1
0
1 Egg
Fried egg
160
6.7
14.8
0.0
0.0
25.0
0.7
620.0
260.00
0.05
0.20
0.1
0
1 Egg
Scrambled egg
172
6.7
15.8
0.8
0.0
57.0
0.7
620.0
267.00
0.06
0.22
0.1
0
1 Egg
Baked egg
124
6.7
10.8
0.0
0.0
25.0
0.7
460.0
220.0
0.05
0.20
0.1
0
1 Egg
Fluffy omelette
160
6.7
14.8
0.0
0.0
25.0
0.7
620.0
260.00
0.05
0.20
0.1
0
1 Egg
Cheese and mushroom omelette
308
12.9
27.1
3.0
0.0
182.0
1.3
780.0
373.00
0.09
0.42
1.5
1
1 Egg
244
SOUPS
Minestrone soup
90
1.4
5.2
9.4
1.2
43.0
0.7
491.0
123.00
0.07
0.03
0.5
17
1 Bowl
Chicken sweet corn soup
322
25.5
13.5
24.6
6.0
23.0
2.6
107.0
93.00
0.21
0.34
8.6
6
1 Bowl
French onion soup
208
4.8
11.6
21.1
2.4
102.0
0.8
321.0
110.00
0.08
0.05
0.6
8
1 Bowl
Tomato soup
82
2.1
4.5
8.3
2.3
101.0
1.3
862.0
216.00
0.25
0.21
0.8
55
1 Bowl
Green pea soup
186
9.0
6.4
23.1
2.2
70.0
1.9
375.0
109.00
0.28
0.08
1.1
11
1 Bowl
Spinach soup
561
3.9
8.9
116.2
5.9
81.0
1.5
5902.0
1475.00
0.06
0.27
0.08
29
1 Bowl
Mixed vegetable soup
146
3.3
9.2
12.5
1.4
124.0
0.9
779.0
225.0
0.11
0.16
0.6
23
1 Bowl
Cream with tomato soup
245
5.4
16.6
18.5
2.3
180.0
1.5
984.0
287.00
0.32
0.25
1.0
45
1 Bowl
Cream with spinach soup
307
8.5
23.2
16.0
5.1
200.0
2.2
6214.0
1644.0
0.20
0.52
0.9
32
1 Bowl
Cream with carrot soup
250
4.6
16.2
21.5
2.0
172.0
1.4
1935.0
531.00
0.17
0.17
0.9
6
1 Bowl
Cream with mixed vegetable soup
263
7.5
13.4
28.0
3.2
179.0
2.0
1160.0
331.00
0.33
0.24
1.5
45
1 Bowl
Cream with mushroom soup
308
6.6
22.4
19.9
0.7
136.0
1.5
554.0
189.00
0.13
0.41
2.9
6
1 Bowl
Hot and sour soup
181
11.2
9.3
13.2
1.6
65.0
2.8
86.0
22.00
0.22
0.25
23
6
1 Bowl
CEREALS
Boiled rice
277
6.0
0.8
61.4
3.6
8.00
2.6
2.0
0.40
0.17
0.13
3.1
0
1
Beans and macaroni
352
12.1
16.8
38.0
3.7
243.0
2.2
673.0
242.00
0.20
0.20
1.5
40
1 Plate
Spaghetti shallow dish bolognese
346
14.6
14.9
38.3
33.0
174.0
3.2
867.0
236.00
0.28
0.21
4.8
30
1
Chicken shallow dish chowmein
542
31.4
24.2
49.6
3.9
104.0
5.6
9.8
333.00
0.39
0.36
8.1
59
1
245
MEATS
Shepherd’s pie
486
23.8
34.5
20.0
2.2
206.0
3.5
339.0
98.00
0.31
0.18
9.2
15
1 Bowl
Roast chicken
297
25.3
21.8
0.0
0.0
18.0
2.0
334.0
166.0
0.13
0.20
10.0
0
1 Bowl
Chilli chicken
464
27.3
35.5
8.8
1.9
46.0
3.1
222.0
135.0
0.35
0.31
10.9
50
1 Bowl
Chicken sweet and sour
420
27.0
33.3
3.1
0.8
39.0
2.7
270.0
181.0
0.28
0.35
10.6
30
1 Bowl
Fried fish with chips
443
26.3
26.2
25.4
2.2
307.0
3.3
165.0
94.00
0.09
0.11
0.9
9
1 Bowl
Fish in coconut milk
371
27.0
17.1
27.2
3.2
150.0
3.2
4.0
1.00
0.06
0.03
0.5
7
1 Bowl
Prawn curry
342
30.1
19.9
10.5
2.7
509.0
9.3
3.0
0.80
0.05
0.18
7.5
4
1 Bowl
Crispy baked fish
390
32.3
15.1
31.2
4.1
461.0
4.1
496.0
153.00
0.13
0.13
1.3
16
1 Bowl
VEGETABLES
Egg curry
314
15.5
17.6
23.3
2.8
85.0
2.8
483.0
237.00
0.38
0.25
1.2
21
1 Bowl
Stuffed tomatoes
233
6.0
15.6
17.1
2.8
138.0
1.5
829.0
228.00
0.27
0.08
1.1
41
2 Tomatoes
Stuffed okra
132
2.3
10.2
7.7
5.9
79.0
0.5
62.0
16.00
0.08
0.12
0.7
16
1 Bowl
Roast potatoes
191
2.4
5.0
34.0
3.8
15.0
0.8
228.0
57.00
0.15
0.01
1.8
26
1–2 Potatoes
Stuffed baked potato
334
7.1
18.8
34.0
3.8
33.0
1.3
698.0
248.00
0.19
0.16
1.8
26
1–2 Potatoes
Creamed bowl
429
21.4
29.8
18.8
9.3
458.0
3.5
11812.0
3195.00
0.25
1.00
1.4
58
1 Small spinach
Creamed spinach and mushrooms
363
13.4
25.8
19.2
7.1
366.0
2.9
8692.0
2284.00
0.23
0.90
3.5
45
1 Bowl
246
SALADS
Russian salad
959
19.7
85.6
27.5
3.3
100.0
3.8
879.0
333.00
0.38
0.33
5.4
39
1 Small bowl
Beetroot and egg salad
366
8.9
30.8
13.4
3.6
62.0
2.1
300.0
180.00
0.12
0.29
0.6
15
1 Small bowl
Tossed green salad
153
1.5
12.2
9.2
2.0
50.0
0.9
225.0
57.00
0.18
0.04
0.5
43
1 Small bowl
Cucumber and yogurt salad
29
1.3
1.3
2.9
1.0
53.0
0.5
10.0
4.00
0.04
0.05
0.2
6
1 Small bowl
French dressing
722
0.0
80.0
0.4
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
1
3/4 Cup
Mayonnaise
1220
7.1
131.8
1.3
0.0
56.0
1.4
380.0
229.00
0.08
0.26
0.0
4
1 Cup
Mayonnaise without eggs
886
7.7
90.1
11.0
0.0
288.0
0.5
139.0
36.00
1.20
0.46
0.3
6
1 Cup
DESSERTS
Vanilla ice cream
288
2.3
22.9
18.2
0.0
90.0
0.2
415.0
139.00
0.03
0.14
0.1
0
1 Ice cream cup
Strawberry ice cream
288
2.3
22.9
18.2
0.0
90.0
0.2
415.0
139.00
0.03
0.14
0.1
0
1 Ice cream cup
Chocolate ice cream
288
2.3
22.9
18.2
0.0
90.0
0.2
415.0
139.00
0.03
0.14
0.1
0
1 Ice cream cup
Fruit ice cream
323
2.6
23.0
26.5
0.3
95.0
0.4
832.0
246.00
0.05
0.16
0.3
5
1 Sundae glass
Cold lemon
534
6.9
41.9
32.3
0.4
41.0
0.8
1000.0
355.00
0.05
0.20
0.1
8.8
1 Souffle dish
247
Souffle cold orange
594
7.8
42.0
46.2
1.5
64.0
1.2
2656.0
769.00
0.05
0.20
0.1
45
1 Souffle dish
Souffle cold pineappple
525
6.7
42.0
30.00
0.0
25.0
0.7
1000.0
355.00
0.00
0.20
0.1
0
1 Souffle dish
Souffle cold vanilla
536
7.3
42.7
30.6
0.0
57.0
0.7
1000.0
362.00
0.06
0.20
0.1
0.2
1 Souffle dish
Souffle cold chocolate
536
7.3
42.7
30.6
0.0
57.0
0.7
1000.0
362.00
0.06
0.20
0.1
0.2
1 Souffle dish
Souffle bread and butter pudding
222
7.4
11.3
22.7
1.0
124.0
0.7
316.0
177.00
0.08
0.27
0.2
2
1 Small plate
SANDWICHES
Tomato and cheese
268
7.2
11.8
33.3
4.6
88.0
0.9
460.0
145.00
0.09
0.06
0.6
11
2 Pcs
Tomato and cucumber
231
5.2
8.6
33.1
4.9
28.0
1.0
460.0
115.00
0.10
0.02
0.6
12
2 Pcs
Tomato grilled
313
9.6
15.0
34.8
5.0
160.0
1.2
530.0
192.00
0.12
0.12
0.6
16
4 Pcs
French toast
443
14.6
27.6
34.0
4.6
144.0
1.7
1088.0
407.00
0.15
0.20
0.6
11
2 Pcs
Cheese open
340
11.7
18.6
31.5
7.4
196.0
1.1
328.0
168.00
0.14
0.11
1.5
0
2 Pcs
Danish luncheon
350
16.2
17.5
31.9
4.6
42.0
2.1
620.0
260.00
0.24
0.22
1.2
3
2 Pcs
Chicken and corn open
340
15.6
15.0
35.6
5.5
18.0
1.8
362.0
124.0
0.12
0.11
4.6
3
2 Pcs
CAKES
Sponge cake
177
6.2
4.6
27.8
0.5
20.2
0.9
202.0
120.00
0.05
0.14
0.4
0
1 Pc
Sponge chocolate cake
156
5.5
4.5
23.3
0.3
18.8
0.7
201.0
120.00
0.05
0.14
0.3
0
1 Pc
Pineapple pastry
279
7.1
13.2
32.9
0.6
23.1
1.0
390.0
176.00
0.06
0.16
0.5
0
1 Pastry
Chocolate pastry
228
5.5
12.5
23.3
0.3
19.0
0.7
361.0
160.00
0.05
0.14
0.3
0
1 Pastry
Chocolate cream cake
223
3.1
13.1
23.2
0.4
9.0
0.5
526.0
158.00
0.03
0.06
0.3
0
1 Pc
248B. Fishes and sea food
Food
Protein (g)
Fat (g)
Carbohydrate
Calories
Calcium (mg)
Iron (mg)
Anchovy
19.4
9.5
0.2
165
142
1.5
Cat fish
21.2
88
550
0.4
Blue mussel
9.9
2.0
3.6
70
1130
8.0
Crab small
11.2
5.8
3.3
59
1370
20.4
Crab mussel
8.9
1.1
3.7
109
590
Lobster
20.5
0.9
90
16
Shrimp small dried
68.1
8.5
349
4380
Silver belly
19.2
1.6
91
715
2.2
C. Animal food
Food
Protein
Fat
Carbohydrate
Calories
Calcium (mg)
Iron (mg)
Beef meat
79.2
10.3
0.2
410
6
18.8
Beaf mussel
22.8
2.5
114
10
0.8
Duck
21.6
4.8
0.1
130
4
Buffalo meat
19.4
0.9
86
3
Fowl
21.8
0.6
109
24
Goat meat
21.4
3.6
118
12
Liver goat
2.0
3.0
107
17
Liver sheep
19.5
7.5
1.3
150
10
6.3
Mutton
18.5
13.3
195
148
2.3
Pigeon
23.3
4.9
114
3
2.2
Snail small
12.6
1.0
3.7
75
1320
Snail big
10.5
0.5
12.4
98
870
Turtles meat
16.5
1.5
1.5
88
7
Finch
26.6
3.0
133
90
249
 
Appendix 7
Normal hematological values
Test
Normal values
Total WBC count (TLC)
0–1 year: 10,000–25,000/cmm
1–3 years: 6,000–18,000/cmm
4–7 years: 6,000–15,000/cmm
8–12 years: 4,500–13,500/cmm
Adults: 4,000–11,000/cmm
Differential WBC count (DLC)
Polymorphonuclear cells: 50–70%
Lymphocytes: 20–40%
Monocytes: 4–8%
Eosinophils: 0–2%
Basophils: 0–1%
RBC count
4.5–5.5 million/cmm
Hemoglobin
At birth: 18 g%
Adults
Men: 13–16 g%
Women: 12–15 g%
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Men: 0–9 mm/hour
Women: 0–20 mm/hour
Bleeding time (BT)
1–6 minutes
Coagulation time (CT)
5–18 minutes
Blood urea
20–40 mg/dL
Blood glucose
Fasting: <110 mg/dL
Post-prandial: <140 mg/dL
Random: 80–120 mg/dL (after waking up)
100–140 mg/dL (at bedtime)
Total bilirubin
0.1–1.0 mg/dL
Thyroxine
4.5–11.5 μg/dL
Uric acid
2.5–8 mg/dL
Aspartate transaminase (AST) or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
5–40 IU/L
Alanine transaminase (ALT) or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
7–56 IU/L
Alkaline phosphatase
25–100 IU/L
Total cholesterol
<200 mg/dL
Triglycerides
<150 mg/dL
Serum creatinine
1–2 mg/dL
250
 
Appendix 8
Normal values in urinalysis
Test
Normal values
Color
Pale yellow to deep amber color
Specific gravity
1.015–1.025
pH
4.5–8
Protein (albumin)
Negative
Sugar
Negative
Bilirubin
Negative
RBCs
Nil
WBCs
Nil
Creatinine
0.8–8 g/24 hours
Urobilinogen
Random: <25 mg/dL
24-hour urine: 4 mg/24 hours
Uric acid
250–750 mg/24 hours
251
 
Appendix 9
Abbreviations used regarding the route of administration of medicine
Abbreviation
Meaning
AD
Right ear
AS
Left ear
AU
Each ear
H
Hypodermic
IM
Intramuscular
INJ
Injection
IV
Intravenous
IVP
Intravenous push
Rx
Take, prescription
OD
Right eye
Sc
Subcutaneously
SQ
Subcutaneous
OS
Left eye
OU
Both eyes
p or P
After, per
PO, per os
By mouth
EC
Enteric-coated
Elix
Elixir
Ext
External, extract
Os
Mouth
252
 
Appendix 10
Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain
Region
Possible causes
Generalized or diffuse abdominal pain
  • Perforation
  • Aortic aneurysm
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Bilateral pleurisy
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Peritonitis
  • Severe pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Gastroenteritis
Central abdominal pain
  • Early appendicitis
  • Acute gastritis
  • Ruptured aortic aneurysm
  • Small bowel obstruction
  • Mesenteric thrombosis
  • Acute pancreatitis
Epigastric pain
  • Aortic aneurysm
  • Esophagitis
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Gastric and duodenal ulcer
Right upper quadrant pain
  • Appendicitis
  • Hepatic and gallbladder diseases
  • Duodenal ulcers, myocardial infarction
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Duodenal ulcers
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Basal pneumonia
  • Subphrenic abscess
Left upper quadrant pain
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Diaphragmatic pleurisy
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Acute perinephritis
  • Spontaneous splenic rupture
  • Aortic dissection
  • Ischemic colitis
  • Subphrenic abscess
253
Right lower quadrant pain
  • Acute appendicitis
  • Mesenteric adenitis
  • Ruptured ectopic pregnancy
  • Perforated duodenal ulcer
  • Diverticulitis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Salpingitis
  • Ureteric and biliary colic
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Torsion of ovarian cyst or tumor
Left lower quadrant pain
  • Diverticulitis
  • Constipation
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Rectal carcinoma
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Ruptured ectopic pregnancy
  • Torsion of ovarian cyst or tumor
  • Salpingitis
Suprapubic pain
  • Acute urinary retention
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Cystitis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Diverticulitis
Loin pain
  • Muscle strain
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Renal stones
  • Pyelonephritis
254
 
Appendix 11
Conditions leading to systemic or localized edema
Systemic edema
  • Congestive cardiac failure
  • Cirrhosis
  • Nephrotic syndrome or other conditions leading to hypoalbuminemia
  • Drug-induced
  • Idiopathic
Localized edema
  • Inflammation
  • Venous or lymphatic obstruction
  • Chronic lymphangitis
  • Resection of regional lymph nodes
  • Filariasis
255
 
Appendix 12
Common forms of drug preparation
Drug preparation
Description
Capsule
Powder or gel form of drug encased in a relatively stable and soluble shell, usually made of gelatin, to make it easily palatable
Elixir
A solution containing varying amounts of alcohol, a sweetening agent or flavor, and water and may or may not contain active medicine
Emulsion
Drug which is a mixture of 2 or more immiscible liquids
Enteric-coated tablet
Tablet coated with a substance that does not allow the absorption of drug anywhere in gastrointestinal tract, but small intestine
Lotion
A medicated liquid for external application on skin
Lozenge
Sweetened medicated candy that is intended to dissolve slowly in mouth to soothe the irritated tissues of throat
Ointment
Semisolid preparation of a drug that has a base of fatty or greasy material
Plaster
Medicated solid dressing used as an adhesive or a counterirritant
Poultice
Soft, moist mass often heated and medicated and used to treat painful and inflamed part of the body
Suppository
Solid base of drug(s) inserted into the body cavities, other than mouth like rectum and vagina, that melts slowly at body temperature to release the drug
Syrup
Drug dissolved in a thick, sweet, and sticky liquid intended to soothe the irritated membranes
Tablet
Small, flat pellet of drug to be taken orally
Transdermal patch
Medicated adhesive patch, placed on skin, to release a specific dose of medicine
256
 
Appendix 13
Australia Vaccine Schedule: 2010
Vaccine
Birth
2 mo.
4 mo.
6 mo.
12 mo.
18 mo.
4 yrs
10–13 yrs
15–17 yrs
≥65 yrs
Hepatitis B
HepB
HepB
HepB
HepB
Rotavirus
RV
RV
RV
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus
DTPa
DTPa
DTPa
DTPa
dTpa
Hib
Hib
Hib
Hib
Pneumococcal
7vPCV
7vPCV
7vPCV
23vPPV
Poliovaccine (inactivated)
IPV
IPV
IPV
IPV
Measles, mumps, and rubella
MMR
MMR
Varicella
Varicella
Meningococcus
MenCCV
Human papillomavirus vaccine
HPV1
Influenza
Yearly
Range of recommended ages except certain high-risk groups. See references for more details including “catch-up” immunizations, and recommendations for high-risk groups
1. 12–13 years, females only
Source: “National Immunisation Program Schedule”. Australian Government. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
257United kingdom vaccine schedule: 2013
Vaccine
2 mo.
3 mo.
4 mo.
12 mo.
3–4 yrs
12–13 yrs
13–18 yrs
Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus
DTaP +
IPV +
Hib
DTaP +
IPV +
Hib
DTaP +
IPV +
Hib
DTaP +
IPV
Td +
IPV
Poliovaccine (inactivated)
Hib +
MenC
Meningococcus
MenC
MenC (13–15 yrs)
Rotavirus (from July 2013)
Rotavirus
Rotavirus
Pneumococcal
PCV
PCV
PCV
Measles, mumps, and rubella