Basics in Epidemiology & Biostatistics Waqar H Kazmi, Farida Habib Khan
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table
A
Alternate hypothesis, types of 60
Analytical observational studies 14
Antibody test 106
B
Bar charts 46
Basic statistical tests 110
Bias 89
control of selection 92
interviewer 91
misclassification 91
types of 89
Biostatistics 51
Blinding 24
C
Calculating odds ratio 87
Case control study 15
design 15
Categorical data 43
Causes of CRI 11
Central tendency, measures of 51
Chronic kidney disease 11t, 62, 95, 134, 144f
Citing book reference 159
Citing internet and electronic sources 161
Citing journal article 157
Closed ended questions 116
Cluster random sampling technique 37
Cluster sampling 32, 36
Cohort studies 17
Comorbidity index 11
Comparative studies 14
Conduct research 4t
Consecutive manner 37
Consecutive sampling 37
Consent form 25
Convenience sampling 37
Coronary artery disease 22f
Coronary heart disease 94
Cross-sectional studies 12
design of 13
Cumulative incidence rate 73
D
Data analysis 123, 143
plan 120
Data collection techniques, overview of 115
Data processing 122
Data types, classification of 42
Descriptive analysis 143
Descriptive observational studies 10
Diabetes 6
Different data collection techniques 115
Disease frequency, measures of 69
Disease prevalence, effect of 108
Dissertation reference 161
Dissertation writing 151
Dissertation, format of 151
Dyspepsia 45
E
End-stage renal disease 131
Epidemiological study designs, types of 8, 9
Estimation and hypothesis testing 57
Ethical review board 25
Experimental study design, sketch of 21
F
Fever 45
Focus group discussion 118
Formulate analysis plan 60
G
Gender distribution of respondents 47f
General ethical principles 164
Generating hypothesis, observational designs for 8
Graphs 45
types of 45
H
Headache 45
Histograms 47
Hypertension 6
Hypothesis 57, 134, 135, 153
alternative 59
test of 59
I
Incidence 72
density rate 74
rates, special types of 73
Information bias 91
Interpretation 66, 86, 88
J
Journal article, title of 158
Journal title 158
Judgmental sampling 38
L
Laboratory values 11
Line graphs 48
Literature search, resources of 5
Lottery sampling technique 32f
M
Mapping and scaling 119
Mean, median and mode, example of 51
Methodology 129
Morbidity rate 75
Mortality rate 76
Multivariate analysis 146t
Multivariate regression analysis 149
Myocardial infarction, relation of 93t
N
Nausea 45
Negative predictive value 107
Nephropathy 7
Nonparametric tests 112
Nonprobability sampling techniques 31, 37
Null hypothesis 59
Numerical data 43
O
Observation bias 91
Odds ratio 86
Open-ended questions 116
Operational definition 134
Optional components 154
Oral contraceptive and breast cancer 87
Oral contraceptive use 93t
P
Page numbers 159
Participation and withdrawal 172
Pie charts 46
Population 30
Positive predictive value 107-109
Post-marketing
clinical trials 27
surveillance 26
Probability sampling techniques 31, 32
Processing and analysis of qualitative data 126
Projective techniques 118
Prospective cohort study 17, 18
Q
Qualitative data 43
Qualitative research 1
Quantitative data 43, 122, 123
Quantitative research 3
Quasi-experimental studies 25
Questions, types of 116
Quota sampling 39
R
Recall bias 91
References 155
study 140
writing 157
Research questions and study types 27
Research subjects, rights of 173
Research topic, selection of 3
Research
classification of 2
types of 1
Retrospective cohort study 19
S
Sample data 60
Sample of title page 155
Sample size 95
calculation 139
calculation result 100t
estimation 95
for single group mean 96
for single proportion 95
Sampling
method 138
procedure 30
techniques 31, 32f
Scatter plots 49
Selection bias 90
Significance level, selection of 60
Simple linear regression 81, 82f
Simple random sampling 32
Snowball sampling 38
technique 39
Solving hypothesis testing problems 65
Sorting data 121
Special package for social sciences 83
Standard error of mean 54
State appropriate conclusion 66
Steps in
hypothesis testing 60
writing dissertation 151
Stratified random sampling 32, 35
technique 36f
Study designs 8
Study duration 139
Study objective 153
Study purpose 169
Synopsis writing 129
Systematic random sampling 32, 33, 34f, 35f
Systolic blood pressure 45
T
Table of content 152
Title 152
page 152
Tuberculosis 16
morbidity rate of 75
V
Variables, types of 41
Variation, measures of 52
Volume number 159
Vomiting 45
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