Basics in Epidemiology & Biostatistics Waqar H Kazmi, Farida Habib Khan
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table
Alternate hypothesis, types of 60
Analytical observational studies 14
Antibody test 106
Bar charts 46
Basic statistical tests 110
Bias 89
control of selection 92
interviewer 91
misclassification 91
types of 89
Biostatistics 51
Blinding 24
Calculating odds ratio 87
Case control study 15
design 15
Categorical data 43
Causes of CRI 11
Central tendency, measures of 51
Chronic kidney disease 11t, 62, 95, 134, 144f
Citing book reference 159
Citing internet and electronic sources 161
Citing journal article 157
Closed ended questions 116
Cluster random sampling technique 37
Cluster sampling 32, 36
Cohort studies 17
Comorbidity index 11
Comparative studies 14
Conduct research 4t
Consecutive manner 37
Consecutive sampling 37
Consent form 25
Convenience sampling 37
Coronary artery disease 22f
Coronary heart disease 94
Cross-sectional studies 12
design of 13
Cumulative incidence rate 73
Data analysis 123, 143
plan 120
Data collection techniques, overview of 115
Data processing 122
Data types, classification of 42
Descriptive analysis 143
Descriptive observational studies 10
Diabetes 6
Different data collection techniques 115
Disease frequency, measures of 69
Disease prevalence, effect of 108
Dissertation reference 161
Dissertation writing 151
Dissertation, format of 151
Dyspepsia 45
End-stage renal disease 131
Epidemiological study designs, types of 8, 9
Estimation and hypothesis testing 57
Ethical review board 25
Experimental study design, sketch of 21
Fever 45
Focus group discussion 118
Formulate analysis plan 60
Gender distribution of respondents 47f
General ethical principles 164
Generating hypothesis, observational designs for 8
Graphs 45
types of 45
Headache 45
Histograms 47
Hypertension 6
Hypothesis 57, 134, 135, 153
alternative 59
test of 59
Incidence 72
density rate 74
rates, special types of 73
Information bias 91
Interpretation 66, 86, 88
Journal article, title of 158
Journal title 158
Judgmental sampling 38
Laboratory values 11
Line graphs 48
Literature search, resources of 5
Lottery sampling technique 32f
Mapping and scaling 119
Mean, median and mode, example of 51
Methodology 129
Morbidity rate 75
Mortality rate 76
Multivariate analysis 146t
Multivariate regression analysis 149
Myocardial infarction, relation of 93t
Nausea 45
Negative predictive value 107
Nephropathy 7
Nonparametric tests 112
Nonprobability sampling techniques 31, 37
Null hypothesis 59
Numerical data 43
Observation bias 91
Odds ratio 86
Open-ended questions 116
Operational definition 134
Optional components 154
Oral contraceptive and breast cancer 87
Oral contraceptive use 93t
Page numbers 159
Participation and withdrawal 172
Pie charts 46
Population 30
Positive predictive value 107-109
clinical trials 27
surveillance 26
Probability sampling techniques 31, 32
Processing and analysis of qualitative data 126
Projective techniques 118
Prospective cohort study 17, 18
Qualitative data 43
Qualitative research 1
Quantitative data 43, 122, 123
Quantitative research 3
Quasi-experimental studies 25
Questions, types of 116
Quota sampling 39
Recall bias 91
References 155
study 140
writing 157
Research questions and study types 27
Research subjects, rights of 173
Research topic, selection of 3
classification of 2
types of 1
Retrospective cohort study 19
Sample data 60
Sample of title page 155
Sample size 95
calculation 139
calculation result 100t
estimation 95
for single group mean 96
for single proportion 95
method 138
procedure 30
techniques 31, 32f
Scatter plots 49
Selection bias 90
Significance level, selection of 60
Simple linear regression 81, 82f
Simple random sampling 32
Snowball sampling 38
technique 39
Solving hypothesis testing problems 65
Sorting data 121
Special package for social sciences 83
Standard error of mean 54
State appropriate conclusion 66
Steps in
hypothesis testing 60
writing dissertation 151
Stratified random sampling 32, 35
technique 36f
Study designs 8
Study duration 139
Study objective 153
Study purpose 169
Synopsis writing 129
Systematic random sampling 32, 33, 34f, 35f
Systolic blood pressure 45
Table of content 152
Title 152
page 152
Tuberculosis 16
morbidity rate of 75
Variables, types of 41
Variation, measures of 52
Volume number 159
Vomiting 45
Chapter Notes

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Waqar H Kazmi MD MS (Tufts, Boston) Principal, Professor of Nephrology and Director Research Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital Karachi, Pakistan Farida Habib Khan DCH MPH MCPS FCPS Professor of Community Medicine Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Foreword Waris Qidwai
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Basics in Epidemiology and Biostatistics
First Edition: 2015
Printed at
5Dedicated to
Medical and Dental Students and Young Researchers6
It gives me immense pleasure in writing a foreword for Basics in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, written by highly eminent and respected scholars Professor Waqar H Kazmi and Professor Farida Habib Khan. Prof Kazmi is considered an authority on this subject and has skills to present challenging concepts in the area of epidemiology and biostatistics, in an easy-to-understand language. He obtained his Masters in Epidemiology from Tufts University, Boston, USA and has a strong clinical background being a Professor of Nephrology, as well. Farida Habib Khan is the Professor of Community Medicine and served College of Physicians and Surgeons as a regular facilitator of the Workshops on Research Methodology and dissertation writing and served two medical journals as an Associate Editor.
The book fills a great need that exists for availability of such books on this important yet neglected subject. Epidemiology and biostatistics has been neglected in medical education curriculum and, therefore, healthcare providers are lacking expertise in this important area. The book will go a long way, in addressing important need to provide an easy-to-understand guide for healthcare providers and others, to understand and apply concepts of epidemiology and biostatistics in their work. Its simple language and practical approach, makes it indispensable for those involved in research work as well as those associated with teaching epidemiology and biostatistics. It will be useful for undergraduate and postgraduate students in various disciplines of healthcare as well as those practicing medicine.
Besides, the book would be highly useful to healthcare providers, teachers and researchers.
Waris Qidwai
Chair, Working Party on Research World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA)
Former Chair International Federation of Primary Care Research Networks (IFPCRN) Professor and Chairman
Department of Family Medicine
Aga Khan University
Karachi, Pakistan8
Basics in Epidemiology and Biostatistics introduces the medical/dental students, postgraduates, researchers, or clinicians, to the study of statistics applied to medicine. We have incorporated our experiences in medicine and statistics to develop a comprehensive text covering the traditional topics of biostatistics and epidemiology. Particular emphasis is given to study design and the interpretation of results of medical research.
It has been more than a decade that we have been giving lectures at various undergraduate and postgraduate institutes. The students find these lectures worthwhile for the understanding of basic concepts in biostatistics and epidemiology. We realized that by writing a book, we could reach a large number of students and faculty members in remote areas, which were not accessible to us otherwise. Thus, we hope that anyone interested in research will find the book extremely helpful.
We have tried to explain all statistical concepts in simple terms. No special background knowledge will require to understand the text. An effort has been made to cover all the fundamental concepts and important terms in the book.
The book contains the following features:
Simple Text
The book is written in a very simple and easy-to-understand manner. The information given in the book is relevant to the need of any junior and early stage researcher. The information is presented in a schematic pattern. This is necessary because a learner must understand the pre-requisite information before understanding the more advanced concepts in basic epidemiology and biostatistics. Thus, all the information have been presented in a schematic and synchronized way so that the reader could grasp them very easily.
Pictorial and Tabular Display of Information
Different learners have different learning styles. Some find textual information easy to understand, while others are more at ease of understanding the pictorial and tabular display of information. Thus, all relevant texts have also been presented in a pictorial and tabular form. We hope that a large number of readers could grasp the important and useful information by having a good look at the pictures and tables.
Relevant Examples
We have used multiple clinical and nonclinical examples so that the reader will understand the basic concepts of epidemiology and biostatistics. Simple interesting examples have also been used for the purpose.
10 Software Relevant to Use in Research
There are a number of softwares relevant to be used for research purpose. In this book, multiple softwares have been used to compute sample size. The reader will surely find the book useful to have the understanding of how to use the relevant software for sample size calculation.
Waqar H Kazmi
Farida Habib Khan
We are extremely grateful to Muhammad Abdul Samad, Lecturer, Research Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan, for his invaluable support and efforts in every stage of writing the book.
We express our gratitude to Mrs Huma Khan, Research Co-ordinator, Universal Research Group, Pakistan, for her support regarding proofreading of the book.
We are thankful to Asma Kazmi, Assistant Professor, California Institute of Fine Arts, Los Angeles, USA, for designing the Cover Page.
Our special thanks to M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for their active co-operation in publishing this book.12