Manual of Electrophysiology Kanu Chatterjee
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table
A
Airway management 463, 467
Aldosterone antagonist 496
Ambulatory electrocardiography 444, 445
Amiodarone 53, 228, 470, 495
Angiotensin receptor blockers, use of 187
Anomalous coronary arteries 505
Antiarrhythmic drug 28, 29, 34, 35t, 39, 43, 46, 48, 66, 184186
device interactions 74
emerging 70
in pregnancy and lactation 72, 72t
selection 71
selection in atrial fibrillation 70
therapy 30, 71
Antiarrhythmic trial with dronedarone 63
Aortic and right atrial pressures 507f
Arrhythmia 297
hereditary 322
mechanisms 1, 29
triggering oscillations in cell membrane potential 15f
Arrhythmic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) 251f
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, left dominant 286
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular
cardiomyopathy 281, 370, 492
dysplasia 281, 505
Atherosclerotic disease 453
Atrial fibrillation 30, 93, 61t, 169, 397, 412, 477
ablation 188f
classification of 169
etiology of 172
factors predisposing to 173t
genetic causes of 178t
incidence of 170
investigators 191
maintenance of 181
pathogenesis of 172
prevalence of 170
Atrial flutter 207, 209, 342
nomenclature of 347
Atrial inflammation, causes of 189
Atrial tachyarrhythmias 174
Atrial tachycardia 175, 211, 212
focal 211, 339
monomorphic 207
Atrioventricular block 30, 418
Atrioventricular conduction disease, evaluation of 113
Atrioventricular nodal dependent SVT 214
Atrioventricular nodal independent SVT 230
Atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia 207, 214, 215, 333
Atrioventricular node disease 272
Atropine 470
Automated external defibrillator (AED) 458
use of 464
Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator 465
Autosomal dominant disease 286
AV block
first-degree 272
second-degree 273
third-degree 274
AVNRT
electrophysiology of 333
surgical ablation of 334
Azimilide 65
post-infarct survival evaluation 65
B
Beta-adrenoceptor blockers 46
Bidirectional tachycardia 254
Biventricular pacing 399
causes of loss of 410t
Blood tests 138
Bradycardia and heart block 266
causes of 268t
treatment of 277
Bradycardia
syndromes/diseases 267
asymptomatic 269
Brain natriuretic peptide levels 138
Brugada syndrome 257, 258, 310, 322, 323, 443, 490, 505
signs of 324
Bundle branch block 276
Bundle branch re-entry 120, 248
ablation of 251f
Bystander
CPR for OHCA in arizona (2005–2010) 515f, 517f
role of 461
C
Calcium channel antagonists 66
Cardiac access and catheterization 91
Cardiac arrest 517
and resuscitation 450
etiology of 505
guidelines for primary 512
pathophysiology of 505
reversible causes of 468t
Cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial 44
Cardiac catheterization 149
Cardiac conduction system, development of 268
Cardiac defibrillator 148
implantable 151
internal 390
Cardiac electrophysiology for evaluation of drug therapy 123
Cardiac electrophysiology study 85
fundamentals of 93
Cardiac interventions 480
Cardiac life support, advanced 467, 504
Cardiac nervous system dysfunction 175
Cardiac pump model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 452f
Cardiac refractory, determination of 104f
Cardiac resuscitation
drug therapy in 525
evolution of 450
Cardiac resynchronization
heart failure (CARE-HF) trial 398
therapy 390, 395t, 404f, 407f
Cardiac ryanodine receptor 288
Cardiac sympathetic denervation, left 319
Cardiac transplantation 269
Cardiac-surgical ablation 332
Cardiac-surgical contribution 336
Cardioactive agents 121
Cardiocerebral resuscitation 504, 504f, 521, 521f, 524f, 527f
for OHCA 505f
for primary cardiac arrest 503
Cardiomyocytes 284
Cardiomyopathy, dilated 290
Cardiopulmonary arrest 453
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 450, 464
chain of survival 504f
complications of 466
compression only 462
dispatcher assisted 462
thoracic pump model of 452f
Cardiopulmonary support 479
Cardioversion 471
Cardioverter defibrillator
automatic implantable 465
implantable 120
therapy, implantable 318
trial, alternans before 497
Carotid sinus massage (CSM) 137
Carvajal syndrome 299
Catecholamine
polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 491
stimulation 220
Catecholaminergic PVT 259, 286
Catheter ablation 188, 233, 332, 370, 373, 375
complications of 339
development of 336
efficacy of 341
for SVT, complications of 235t
of AVNRT 334
techniques of 340
Cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) 347
Cerebral perfusion 506
Chest compressions 463
Commotio cordis 505
COMPANION study 394
Conduction system disease 175
Congenital heart disease 155, 252, 494
Congenital long QT interval syndrome 254
Congestive heart failure 54, 63, 397
Consciousness and syncope, classification of 131fc
CONTAK-cardiac defibrillator (CONTAK-CD) 397
Continuous pacing 101
Coronary artery disease (CAD) 245, 352, 495, 496
Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) 506, 507
Coronary sinus 91, 175
branch of 391
ostium of 335
CRT
and ventricular arrhythmias 411
benefit 398
complications 409
device, optimization of 401
for acute decompensated heart failure 416
in practice 391
indications, emerging 411
CTI dependent AFLs, ablation of 343
Cusp VT 367
D
Defibrillation 471
Defibrillator in
acute myocardial infarction trial (DINAMIT) 496
nonischemic cardiomyopathy treatment evaluation (DEFINITE) trial 154
Desmoplakin gene (DSP) 282
Desmosomal dysfunction 284
Desmosome function 283
Desmosome structure 283
Digoxin 228
Diltiazem 227
Disease severity, different phases of 290t
Disopyramide 40
Dofetilide 50
renal dosing algorithm 51t
Dronedarone 57
Drug therapy, electrophysiology study 90t
Dual atrioventricular node 112f
Dysplasia 281
triangle of 291
Dyssynchrony imaging, role of 402
Dyssynchrony index 408
summary 409
techniques 406
E
Ectopy, atrial 30
Electroanatomic three-dimensional mapping 357
Electrocardiogram 84
Electrocardiographic monitoring 49
Electrophysiological abnormalities 175
Emergency medical services 455
activation 461
Emergency medical technician-basic (EMT-B) 458
Emergency medical technician-intermediate (EMT-I) 458
EMS provider levels 460t
Endomyocardial biopsy 295
Epicardial VT 362, 368
Epinephrine 469
Equilibrium radionuclide angiogram (ERNA) 407, 407f
Esmolol 228
Excessive ventilation, consequence of 524f
F
Fallot, tetralogy of 494
Fascicular VT 371
Flecainide 43
G
Genetic arrhythmia syndromes 19t
Genotype-specific therapy 319
H
Heart failure 61t, 174
candesartan in 172
Heart transplant 400
Hematocrit 138
Hemiblock 274, 275
Hemoglobin 138
His bundle electrogram 335
in atrioventricular block 115f
His-Purkinje disease 113f
His-Purkinje system 99, 107f, 266, 275
Holter monitoring 432
Hypersensitive carotid sinus syndrome 419
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 135, 140f, 153, 174, 492, 493
Hypotension, symptomatic 190
Hypothermia
after cardiac arrest (HACA) 528
therapeutic 480, 528
Hypoxia 130
I
Iatrogenic VT 254
ICD shock and defibrillation 247f
Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia 253, 253f, 364, 364t
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator study 495
Intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia 212
Intracardiac channels 104f
Intraventricular conduction defect 248
Intraventricular dyssynchrony 393
Ion channel and cellular properties, consequence of 10
Ion channel proteins, mutation in 19t
Ischemia, active 258
Ischemic heart disease 174, 495
Ischemic-related PVT-VF 258
J
Junctional ectopic tachycardia 207, 220
J-wave syndromes 260
K
Kaplan-Meier curves 172f
L
Lange-Nielsen syndrome 310
Laryngeal mask airway 458
Lethal arrhythmia syndrome 326
Lidocaine 41, 470
Long QT syndrome 256, 310
Lower pulmonary vein, left 348
Lung disease 453
LV systolic dysfunction 173
M
Mahaim fiber 219
Marfan syndrome 493
Metoprolol 227
Mexiletine 42, 319
Minimally symptomatic heart failure 415
Miracle study 394
Mitral annular VT 374
Mitral cusp VT 254
Mitral regurgitation 400
Mitral valve prolapse 493
Mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry 432, 440
Molecular genetic 311, 320
analysis 301
Multielectrode catheters, diagnostic 92f
Multifocal atrial tachycardia 207, 212
Multiple gated acquisition scan 409
Myocardial adenosine triphosphate 519
Myocardial cells 7f
Myocardial hypertrophy 259
Myocardial infarction 89, 211, 419
Myocardial ischemia 529
detection of 436
Myocardial tissue 12f
N
Naxos disease 299
Neurocardiogenic syncope 419
asystole in 119f
New task force criteria 292t
New-onset atrial fibrillation 181
Noncardiac causes 176, 267
Nonischemic cardiomyopathy 154, 495
Normal cardiac electrophysiology 95
North American Azimilide Cardioversion Maintenance Trial 66
O
Obstructive sleep apnea 176
Outflow tract-ventricular tachycardia 365
P
Pace mapping 358
Paroxysmal AV block 274
Paroxysmal SVT 332
cause of 333
Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia 219, 221f
Phrenic nerve simulation 410
Pill-in-the-pocket approach 185
Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 254, 259f
Posterior fascicular block, left 374
Post-resuscitation care 479
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 145f, 209
Pre-excitation syndromes 217, 219
Primary cardiac arrest 505
assisted ventilation in 509
pathophysiology of 506
Proarrhythmia 30
Procainamide 40, 470
Propafenone 45
Psychogenic reaction, response of 146
Pulmonary artery 366
Pulmonary disease or hypertension 169
Pulmonary veins 211
Pulmonary venous activity 175
Q
QRS complex tachycardias, electrophysiology study 87t
QRS tachycardia, differential diagnosis of wide 224t
QT intervals, electrophysiology study 88t
QT syndrome 436, 491
Quinidine 39
R
RAAS system, modulators of 187
Ranolazine 70
Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography 408
Re-entrant tachycardia 354
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system 176
Repolarization, early 491
Rescue breathing 509
Resuscitation, cessation of 478
Rhythm disorders 422
Right atrial disease 490
Right bundle branch
block 248, 276
pattern 399
Right lower pulmonary vein 348
Right ventricular outflow tract 252f, 365
S
Saw tooth 210f
Selective serotonin receptor inhibitors 152
Shockable rhythm 513
Sicilian gambit for classifying antiarrhythmic drugs 33f
Sick sinus syndrome 271
Sinoatrial conduction time 110
Sinoatrial node 3, 14
Sinoatrial re-entry tachycardia 212
Sinus bradycardia 30
Sinus node disease 271
Sinus node function 86t
evaluation of 109
Sinus node recovery time 109
abnormal of 147f
measurement of 109
Sinus rhythm 360f
maintenance of 60, 184, 187
restoration of 183
Sinus tachycardia 208
Situational syncope 134
Sodium calcium exchanger 311
Sodium channel blockers 34
Sodium channel gene 319
Sotalol renal dosing algorithm 48t
Spontaneous circulation, return of 450
Spontaneous ventricular tachycardia 246f
SQT syndrome 320
Strain rate imaging 404
Structural heart disease 173, 498
Sudden cardiac arrest, survivors of 119
Sudden cardiac death 488
heart failure trial 155
Sudden unexplained death in sleep 322
Sudden unexplained nocturnal deaths 322
Superior vena cava 175
Supraventricular tachycardia 105, 175, 206, 208, 226, 227t, 235, 331
diagnosis 222
of classification 207, 207t
of treatments 226
induction of 107f
Syncope 130, 157
causes of 120f, 133
classification of 133
diagnostic evaluation of 150fc
economic burden of 132
evaluation of 135, 149
incidence of 131
prevalence of 131
trial, prevention of 152
unexplained 89t
Systolic blood pressure 145f
Systolic heart failure, treatment of 390
T
Tachycardia
antidromic 217
classification of 478t
focal 353
supraventricular 477
wide complex 104f
Three-dimensional mapping systems, role of 123
Thromboembolism, prevention of 191
Tissue synchronization imaging 403, 404f
Trauma systems 456
Tricuspid annular VT 375
U
Upper pulmonary vein, left 348
V
Vagal tone 268
Valsalva, aortic sinus of 254
Valvular heart disease 174, 421
Vasopressin 469
Vasovagal reactions 269
Vasovagal syncope 133, 134, 149, 151
international study 153
Vaughan-Williams classification 31
of antiarrhythmic drugs 32t
Ventricular assist device 400
Ventricular dysfunction 172
Ventricular ejection fractions 248
Ventricular end-diastolic volumes 415
Ventricular end-systolic volumes 415
Ventricular fibrillation 364, 505
induction of 475f
Ventricular outflow tract 365
Ventricular pre-excitation and AVNRT, evolution of 336
Ventricular tachycardia 93, 104f, 364, 453, 488
clinical spectrum of 243, 244t
monomorphic 245
with structural cardiac disease, ablation of 348
Voltage map of
left ventricle 359f
posterior aspect of left ventricle 362f
Voltage-gated calcium channel 314
W
Wide QRS tachycardia 223
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome 88t, 107f, 139f, 179, 336, 337, 491
×
Chapter Notes

Save Clear


1Manual of Electrophysiology2
3Manual of Electrophysiology
Editor Kanu Chatterjee MBBS Clinical Professor of Medicine The Carver College of Medicine University of Iowa United States of America Emeritus Professor of Medicine University of California, San Francisco United States of America
4
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Headquarters
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
Phone: +91-11-43574357
Fax: +91-11-43574314
Overseas Offices
J.P. Medical Ltd
83 Victoria Street, London
SW1H 0HW (UK)
Phone: +44 20 3170 8910
Fax: +44 (0)20 3008 6180
Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc
City of Knowledge, Bld. 237, Clayton
Panama City, Panama
Phone: +1 507-301-0496
Fax: +1 507-301-0499
Jaypee Medical Inc
The Bourse
111 South Independence Mall East
Suite 835, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA
Phone: +1 267-519-9789
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
17/1-B Babar Road, Block-B, Shaymali
Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207
Bangladesh
Mobile: +08801912003485
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal
Phone: +977-9741283608
© 2015, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
The views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) of the book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com
Manual of Electrophysiology
First Edition: 2015
9789351526643
Printed at
5Contributors 7Preface
There have been revolutionary changes in the field of pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnostic modalities, and management of heart diseases. Electrophysiology has a very important role in ensuring accurate clinical diagnoses of heart diseases. Many neurological diseases cause symptoms that manifest far from the injured or deceased tissues. Locating and treating all the affected areas of the body is essential for proper patient care. Cardiac electrophysiology allows for the investigation of abnormal electrical signals in the heart tissues. It provides quantitative data to clinicians, supporting diagnostic processes, and evaluating treatment success. Manual of Electrophysiology has been designed for the readers seeking a comprehensive overview of all the aspects of electrophysiological studies of the heart. Written by star-studded authors of international repute, the book focuses on the current understanding and the recent advances that are taking place at a fast pace in the field.
The book covers detail discussion on electrophysiological studies, arrhythmia mechanisms, syncope, atrial fibrillation, antiarrhythmic drugs, ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia, bradycardia and heart block, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy, long QT (LQT) syndrome, short QT (SQT) syndrome, and Brugada syndrome, cardiac resynchronization therapy, cardiac arrest and resuscitation, ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, risk stratification of sudden cardiac death, and cardiocerebral resuscitation. The book provides an easy-to-follow format containing practical advice to correctly diagnose the disease with a focus on hands-on therapeutic guidance to the clinicians.
I sincerely thank Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Group President), Mr Tarun Duneja (Director-Publishing), Ms Samina Khan (PA to Director-Publishing), Dr Richa Saxena, and the expert team of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, India for their hard work and professional expertise, without which the book could not have been published.
Kanu Chatterjee