Review of Preventive and Social Medicine(Including Biostatistics)(Thoroughly revised and updated edition including latest exam pattern questions)
Seventh EditionVivek Jain MBBS (Maulana Azad Medical College), Delhi MD Community Medicine (PSM) (Lady Hardinge Medical College), Delhi Ex Senior Resident UCMS & GTBH, VMMC & SJH, Delhi Ex Faculty GFIMSR, Faridabad, Haryana Ex Consultant UN Office on Drugs & Crime, South Asia
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Review of Preventive and Social Medicine (Including Biostatistics)
Third Edition: 2011
Fourth Edition: 2012
Fifth Edition: 2013
Sixth Edition: 2014
Seventh Edition: 2015
Let me first thank you for your overwhelming support to the 6th edition of the book, making it the best-seller book on the subject in India. It again reiterates my belief that good content by a subject-speciality author is always appreciated by students. It now gives me immense pleasure to share with you the NEW (Seventh) edition of the book.
‘Understanding PSM is difficult, owing to the vastness of the subject, but enjoyable, if you come across a good teacher and a useful book!’
While preparing for PG entrance examination, I myself realised that most of the PSM MCQs, related text and even the referenced answers given in books were invariably unable to satisfy me as a student. Most of the times, there were questions from ‘topics not given in standard textbooks’ (for example, nested case control study, case series report, statistical errors, probability, odds and likelihood ratios, health legislations, water washed diseases, golden rice, COPRA, Punnett square, Dixon’s Q-test, Evidence based medicine, etc.—all together are just the tip of an iceberg of such MCQs). Every year there were ‘new unheard questions from unexplored fields’, overlapping choices of MCQs from other fields of medicine accompanied with futile search for ‘recent most data of Public Health Statistics’, etc. This all made me realise that PSM is a vast and varied subject to conceptualise and memorise. Elaborate books also confused me regarding the relative importance of each topic in the subject. I also realised that students face maximum difficulty in understanding the concepts of ‘Biostatistics’ and in obtaining precise, concise and useful data from ‘National Health Programmes of India’.
Also, PG entrance examinations have a sizeable chunk of direct MCQs from PSM subject (Just 1 subject out of 19 total subjects), ranging from 10 to 14% of total (20–25% in CMS-UPSC). Moreover, PSM helps in solving several allied questions (partly or totally) of Paediatrics, Obstetrics, Pharmacology, Medicine, Microbiology, Ophthalmology, etc.
So, there is no denying the fact that ‘PSM is of paramount importance’ to successfully tackle any PG Entrance Examination. Thus, I have written this book keeping a student’s, a teacher’s and an examiner’s perspective in mind.
Each chapter has been divided into topics and sub-topics, Theory and MCQs have been arranged section-wise for more comprehensive understanding of topics. In Theory, Important previous years MCQs have been highlighted (asQ) and MUST-KNOW facts have been given separately. Book includes PG Entrance Examination MCQs of AIIMS (1991–2014) and AIPGME (1991–2012 + ‘Recent MCQs’) with referenced, authenticated, full explanatory answers. Solved explanatory MCQs from DPG, PGI, JIPMER PG Entrance Examinations (2000–2011) have been added to help students grasp subject better. Over 2500 solved MCQs from UPSC CMS and Several State Medical PG Entrance Examinations (Rajasthan, MP, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Bihar, DNB, JIPMER, Kolkata, Karnataka PGMEE) have been added for wider coverage. Recent most changes in National Health Programmes with updates in Communicable and Noncommunicable diseases provided for competitive edge.
Many answers have been followed by a section on ‘Also Remember’—A compilation of various important noteworthy points based on previous questions from several fields. Golden Points (Five sets) have been included for a quick revision just before the examination. Several Annexures (Incubation period and modes of transmission of diseases, important days of public health, instruments of importance in public health, important health legislations and programmes in India, Vectors, NHP 2002 and NPP 2000, proposed BMW guidelines and public health related statistics of India) have been included towards the end of the book to give the student an edge over others.
Please remember there is no substitute to theory books, but hopefully you will find all relevant theory in this user-friendly book.
Despite every possible effort been undertaken to ensure no technical or typographical errors in the book, such are bound to be present in any book. If you come across another such error or if you have any comment, suggestions, queries or views, you are most welcome to e-mail to me for a prompt response. All contributions will be duly acknowledged. Do share your experiences while reading this book and the subject.
Hope you have a successful career ahead.
Wish you Success, not just in PSM but in Life!
Dr Vivek Jain
MBBS MD (Community Medicine)
Visit website: www.docvivekjain.hpage.com
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New Delhi 2015–16Acknowledgements
I am sincerely thankful to Late Mr RD Jain, my maternal grandfather and my wife Dr Rashmi Naudiyal for being a constant source of inspiration for completion of this book. Without support of Dr Rashmi and Baby Mischka, this book would not have seen light of the day. Without the blessing of my Parents, Parents-in-law and God, this endeavour would not have been successful.
Firstly I thank Padmashree Dr Jagdish Prasad, DGHS for organising a grand launch of first edition of the book at New Delhi.
I am grateful to Dr Saudan Singh, former DG (Medical Education), Government of Uttar Pradesh, Director Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College (VMMC), New Delhi for being a source of support, guidance and motivation for myself.
I am thankful to Dr SK Pradhan, former Director Professor, Department of Community Medicine, VMMC, New Delhi for providing me with academic opportunities to help me understand the finer nuances of the subject throughout my PGship and SRship.
I also appreciate the support and encouragement by Dr DK Raut, former Director Professor, VMMC & SJH, Dr AT Kannan, Director Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, UCMS, Dr GK Ingle, Director Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, MAMC, Dr Vibha, former Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, LHMC and respected Faculty of Department of Community Medicine of these colleges respectively. Dr Rajesh Kumar, Faculty, MAMC has always inspired me to excel academically.
I am sincerely thankful to Dr P Sai Kumar, MPH (UK), for motivating me to write this book, and for his unparallel support as my mentor. I am ever thankful to Dr Surabhi, Dr Shagun, Dr Isha and Dr Nidhi, former undergraduates and other students of LHMC and VMMC, for helping me develop my teaching capabilities.
Mr Rajesh Sharma, Director, PG-DIAMS and Dr Deepak Marwah, MD (Medicine) have been quite instrumental in helping me realise my potential as an academician, and I am immensely pleased to share this book with them and thank them for their wholehearted support. Words of thanks to Dr Sethi and Dr Bhatia for helping me gain entry into the competitive world of academics.
I am highly grateful to Shri Jitendar P Vij, Group Chairman, M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India for his wholehearted support in publication of this book. I thank Ms Chetna Malhotra Vohra (Associate Director), Ms Saima Rashid (Project Manager) and their Team at Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India for work on the current edition.
Acknowledgement is also due to Mr Anurag, M/s Medical Book Store, MAMC and LHMC for his suggestions.
I also take this opportunity to thank the following students/doctors for sharing their invaluable constructive criticisms for the improvement of the book:
- Dr Aarav Kumar
- Dr Abhishek Prasad Dash, Bhubaneshwar, Odisha
- Dr Afeefa Hanif, MES Medical College, Kerala
- Dr Ajeet Singh, Patna Medical College
- Dr Akanksha Jain, MVPs Dr Vasantrao Pawar Medical College
- Dr Amit Kumar Gupta, DNB Family Medicine, Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Delhi
- Dr Amit Kumar Yadav, PTJNM Medical College, Raipur
- Dr Amit Polara, Civil Hospital, Surat
- Dr Ananta Narayan Panda
- Dr Animesh Agrawal
- Dr Ankit Madan
- Dr Ankit Thukral, SGRRIHMS, Dehradun
- Dr Anubhav Srivastava, SNMC, Agra
- Dr Ankush Koul, Darbhanga Medical College, Bihar
- Dr Anupriya Thadani, Era’s Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow
- Dr Arpan Ray, Birbhum, West Bengal
- Dr Ashutosh Sahu
- Dr Ashwini Gupta, Darbhanga Medical College and Hospital
- Dr Bharat Vantekunta, Kaktiya Medical College, Warangal
- Dr Deepa Grover, GMC, Miraj, Maharashtra
- Dr Eftekhar Mohd.
- Dr Gopal Singh Bhati, SMS Jaipur
- Dr Indraneel Sharma, Guwahati
- Dr Jeyakumar Meyyappan
- Dr Jujhar Singh Mann, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh
- Dr Kumar Rohit, SKMCH, Muzaffarpur
- Dr Kunal Tatte
- Dr Lucky Singh, Kanpur
- Dr Mahanthesh Gidaveer
- Dr Mahendra, SIMS, Karnataka
- Dr Mahender Kumar
- Dr Manish Sahu, JNMC, Raipur
- Dr Manosij Maity
- Dr Mareddy Mahesh, Dali University
- Dr (Md) Matin Khan, MGM Medical College, Jamshedpur
- Dr Narendra HR
- Dr Neel Choksi, BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad
- Dr Nilesh Sonawane, Civil hospital, Sangli
- Dr Nissy Motupalli
- Dr Om Shrivastava, CIMS, Bilaspur
- Dr Opalina Roy, Burdwan Medical College
- Dr Piyush Gadegone
- Dr Preeti Chopra
- Dr Prerna Upadhyay
- Dr Rachit Kapoor, Regional Advisor The Lancet Student
- Dr Rajesh Kumar, Faculty, Department of Community Medicine, MAMC, New Delhi
- Dr Ravi Kumar Gupta, RUHS and RNT Medical College, Udaipur
- Dr Sagar Gandhi, NKP Institute of Medical Sciences
- Dr Saikat Mitra, Kolkata
- Dr Sakil Ahmed
- Dr Samcy Arora
- Dr Sanket Agrawal
- Dr Saraswata Mitra, Grodno State Medical University, Belarus
- Dr Sarweshwar Sripada
- Dr Sharaff Dileep, Dalian University, China
- Dr Shashank Saurabh
- Dr Sherinsha Sharafudeen
- Dr Siva Vicky
- Dr Surendra Chaudhary, China Medical University
- Dr Tapaprakash Behera, VSS Medical College, Burla
- Dr Vishnu M Satheesan, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
- Dr Vismay Deshani, Smolensk State Medical Academy, Russia
- Dr Vitrag N Shah, New Civil Hospital, Surat
A special vote of thanks to Dr Praveen K, Calicut Medical College, who took out his valuable time to mark out spelling errors in such a voluminous book.
Last but definitely not the least, no words can describe the role of all medical students, with whom I ever have had interacted, in helping me give this book, its final shape.