Electrotherapy Simplified Basanta Kumar Nanda
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table.
Absolute reaction of degeneration (ARD) 198
Absorption 91, 371
Acne vulgaris 453
Acoustic streaming 381
Allergic rhinitis 161
Alpine sun lamp 442f
Ammeter 73
Ampere's theorem 35
Amplitude modulated current 241f
Amplitude modulated frequency 243
Amplitude modulated TENS 178f
Anesthetic skin 153, 186
chronic indurated edema of 413
sprain lateral ligaments of 388
Antibiotics, application of 159
preparation of 4, 133, 150, 161, 264, 269, 329, 433, 360462
testing of 4
Application of anti-inflammatory drugs, application of 159
Arndt-Schultz law 344f, 423
Arterial insufficiency 273
Articular cartilage, repair of 390
Artificial magnets 32, 32f
types of 32
Asymmetrical biphasic TENS pulses 110f
Atom 12
structure of 12f
Atomic mass 13
Autoimmune disease 6
Automatic timer 395
Autonomic nervous system 249
Autotransformer 48, 49f
Bacterial infection 309
Basal ganglia 103
Beam nonuniformity ratio 378
Bell's palsy 133
Biot Savart's law 35
Blood flow 259
Blood pressure 307
Bone 467
healing 347
Brainstem structure 170
Breast implants 404
Burn 163, 253, 268, 334, 363, 402, 416, 456
Burst TENS 180f
Cable electrode 300
Cable method 325
Calibration 395
Cancer 451
Capacitance 17
Capacitor 18, 19f, 314
charging and discharging of 22
construction of 19
electrical field of 22
types of 19
uses of 24
Carcinogenesis 456
Cardiac disease 152, 290
Cardiac failure 364
Cardiac, kidney and liver disease 455
Cardiovascular disease 467
Carotid sinus 186
Carpal tunnel syndrome 390, 430
Cartridge 80f
Cathode ray
oscilloscope 216
tube 219f
Cauda equina compression 467
Cell metabolism 248
Central intervertebral disc herniation 467
Central nervous system 403
Cerebellar contribution 102
Cerebral cortex 171
Cervical spine traction 467
Cervical traction 467, 470f
Charging current 23f
Chest 253
Choke coil 48, 50f
uses of 50
Chronaxie 206
Circuit 120
working of 120
Circulation, control of 248
CNS, electrophysiology of 102
Cold compression units 287
Cold pack 285
Cold urticaria 289
Collagen tissues 260
Collimation 421
Combination therapy 251, 252f
Complete denervation 201
Compressive syndrome 390
Condenser field method 314
Conductor 17
length of 27
material of 27
Constant current stimulation 202f
Constant direct current 111
Constant voltage stimulation 202f
Continuous mode 376
Continuous traction 465
Contraplanar method 322
Contrast bath 271, 273
Conventional porcelain fuse 80f
Conventional TENS 178f
Coplanar method 320
Cord sign 467
Correct electrode spacing 320f
Cross fire method 323
Cryoglobulinemia 289
Cryotherapy 277
application of 285
Current electricity 15
Current intensity 246
measurement of 66
Cutaneous vasodilatation 411
Damped oscillations 24f, 294f
Deep vein thrombosis 253
Defective arterial circulation 364
Defective skin sensation 268, 290
complete reaction of 198
detection of reaction of 213t
partial reaction of 198
Delayed Colle's fracture union 390
Denervated muscles, stimulation of 124, 148
Dermal ulcer 388, 413
Descending pain suppression 174, 175f, 248
Diabetes mellitus 273
Dielectric constant 18
Diminished thermal sensation 364
Diode lasers 426
Diode valve 52, 53f
functions of 53
symbol of 53f
Dipoles, rotation of 303, 304f
Direct contact method 398
Direct current 25, 107
Direct irradiation over pregnant uterus 431
Disc electrodes 300
Discharging current 24f
Discitis 467
Dissociation 157
Dorsal horn 169
Dosage of SWD, classification of 333t
Earth free circuit 48f
Earth shock 83
Eczema 453
Eddy current 44, 44f
Edema 204, 206, 207
control of 282, 346
reduction 189
relief 160, 249, 413, 430
Electric current, nature of 25
Electric field, concentration of 334
Electric shock 78, 82, 84, 163, 416, 432
causes of 83
prevention of 86
treatment of 85
types of 82
Electrical energy 14
Electrical excitability 96
Electrical fundamentals 11
Electrical measurement systems 66, 68
Electrical neuromuscular stimulator, testing of 136f
Electrical safety 78
Electricity, distribution of 66
Electrode 300
correct size of 315f
positioning, methods of 320
size of 315
spacing 317
Electrolytic capacitor 21, 21f
Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's law of 42
Electromagnetic spectrum 2f
Electromagnetic wave 295
Electromotive force 16
Electromyography 214, 232
recording system 216f
Electron 13
Electrotherapy, application of 3
EMG biofeedback, techniques of application of 234
Endocrine glands 431
Epidermis, thickening of 450
Epilepsy 187
Epiphyseal plate 404
Evoked muscle action potential 209f
Excess current 336
Eyes, radiation of 455
Facial muscles, stimulation of 145
Facial nerve in face, course of 146f
Faraday's experiments 40
Faradic current 108
Faradic foot bath 144, 145f
Faradic interrupted direct current (IDC) test 213
Faradic type currents 119, 123
production of 119
type currents, techniques of application of 133
Faradism under pressure 131, 132f
Fatigue 207
Faulty electrical components 84
Faulty switch and fuse connection 84
Fever 340, 455
Fixed capacity capacitor 19
Fleming's right hand rule 42
Fluidotherapy 273, 274
Fluorescent lamps 444
Fluorescent tubes 441
Foreign bodies 6
Fracture 6, 404
healing 185, 390
Frequency sweep 243
Functional electrical stimulation 133, 192
Fungal infection 160
F-wave 212, 212f
Galvanic current 111
Galvanic tetanus ratio 213
Galvanic type currents 148
techniques of application of 150
Galvanometer 68
Gangrene 364
Gate control theory 173, 174f
Goeckerman regimen 452
Grid leak resistance 300
Grid system 74
Growing epiphysis 340
Half value distance 372
Half wave rectification 60, 60f, 61f
Half wave rectified sinusoidal current 113, 190
Headache 417
application of 171
loss 314
production 294
therapy 258
types of 263
Heliotherapy 463
Hemorrhage 152, 252, 339, 364, 431
Herpes zoster 390, 391
Heterogeneous matter 12
High frequency choke coil 50
High frequency currents 106, 116, 291
properties of 293
transmission of 302
High voltage pulse galvanic stimulation 110, 187
Hip joint 329f
Homogeneous matter 11
Hot pack, application of 269
H-reflex 211, 212f
Humidity 204
HVPC, twin pulses of 111f
Hydrocollator packs 268
Hyperemia 156
Hypermobility 467
Hypertension 454, 467
Hypoesthetic skin 153
Hysterical paralysis 128
Ice massage 287
Ice towels 287
IDC, application of 150
Idiopathic hyperhidrosis, relief of 157
Impaired blood flow 336
Impaired thermal sensation 338
Implanted cardiac pacemakers 364
Improper earth connection 84
Induction theory 8
Inflammation 6, 206
acute 282, 404
aggravation of 268
causes of 6
chronic 267, 273
irradiation, dangers of 416
lasers 426
production of 408
radiation 407, 408, 411
dosage of 413
Insulators, molecular distortion of 304f
Intensity 392, 420
Interferential current 114, 240
physical principles of 242
Interferential therapy 252
machine 250f
Interferential treatment, dangers of 253
Intermittent traction 465, 466
Interrupted direct current 111
Intrauterine contraceptive devices 341
Ionic polarity 155
Ions 13
motion of 304f
penetration 156
vibration of 303
Iontophoresis 153, 405f
dangers of 163
dosage of 162
mechanism of 154
physics of 155
principles of application of 161
Ischemia 204, 206, 207
Ischemic tissues 339
Ischemic ulcers 160
Joint cement 403
Joint stiffness 412
Joule's law of heating 29
Knee joint, edema in 430
Kromayer lamp 443, 443f, 462
Lamp, positioning of 415
Laplace's law 35
classification of 424
physics of 420
production of 421
types of 425
Laws governing radiation 87
Leakage currents 84
Lenz's law 42
Lewis hunting response 279f
Limbic system 103
Local circulation 191
Long duration pulses 111
Long wave diathermy 350
application of 352f
machine 351f
Low back pain 184, 412
Low frequency
choke coil 48
currents 106, 117
Low intensity laser 428
principles of application of 432
therapy 418
Low level amperage 155
Lower limb, motor points on back of 141f
Lumbar spine
dysfunction of 413
traction 469
Lumbar traction 467, 472t
Lumbricals, stimulation of 145f
Macroshock 82
properties of 33
types of 32
Magnetic and electrostatic disturbance 295
Magnetic energy 31
Magnetic induction 34
Magnetic lines of force 33, 34f
Magnetic poles 33
Magnetron valve 353f
Main electricity supply system 75f
Malignant tumors 339
Maxwell's corkscrew rule 38, 38f
Mean power, derivation of 343
Medium frequency currents 106, 114, 239
Medium pressure mercury arc lamp 441
Mercury vapor lamp 440, 441
Metal rectifier 59, 59f
symbol of 59f
Mica capacitor 20, 20f
Micro massage 383
Microshock 82
Microwave diathermy 352, 358, 359
dosage of 359
production of 353
Microwave radiations, laws of 355
Mild shock 83
Modern electrical stimulator 109f
Modified direct current 146
Moist heat packs 268
Molecular distortion 303
Monophasic TENS current 110f
Monoplanar method 324
Motor conduction velocity 209
Motor nerves, stimulation of 124
Motor neuron pool activity 126f
Motor point 138f
stimulation of 137
Moving coil galvanometer 68
Multiple sclerosis 283
Multisynaptic ascending system 169
Multivibrator circuit 119, 119f
action, re-education of 127
contraction 124
facilitation of 125, 281, 283
depolarization 101
neuromuscular transmission and activation of 99
stimulation of 197
location of 204
performance 262
re-education and strengthening 191
relaxation, induction of 310
spasm, reduction of 189, 412
stimulation 189, 247
strength, alteration of 280
tissue 307
tone 261
Musculoskeletal disorders 429
Musculoskeletal injuries 236
application of 363
principles of application of 361
Myoelectric signal 217
Myofascial pain 430
Myofascial trigger points 430
accommodation 100
action potential 99f
and muscle, electrophysiology of 96
tests 208
velocity 209, 280
conductivity 208
depolarization and repolarization of 97f
electrical stimulation of 100, 101f
stimulation of 196
types of 95
healing 347
injury 128
root lesion 208
transmission 96
and muscle contraction, electrophysiology of 92
Neurogenic pain 160
Neuromuscular electrical stimulator and accessories 135f
Neuron 94, 95f
Neutron 13
Noninsulated floorings 84
Nonluminous infrared lamp, parabolic reflector of 410f
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug 160
NPN transistor 57f
N-type semiconductor 55, 56f
Ohm's law 25, 26, 26f
limitations of 26
Oscillator 300
circuit 24f, 298
Osteoarthritis 429
Osteomyelitis 467
Pacemaker 253, 403
Pad electrodes 300
Pain 164, 206, 267, 430
acute 165
arthritic 184
chronic 9, 165, 166
control 235, 282, 388
gate theory 247
modulation 172f, 173, 188
levels of 171
role of electrical stimulation in 175
musculoskeletal 184
neurophysiology of 164
obstetric 185
pathway 166
general outline of 166f
relief 191, 249, 261, 359, 412
Painful arc syndrome 388
Paper capacitor 20, 20f
Parabolic reflector 89f
Paraffin wax bath 263
Peripheral vascular disease 273, 289
Permanent magnet 32
Phonophoresis 153, 404406
Pigmentation 410
Plantar warts 390, 391
Positive sharp waves 224, 224f
Potentiometer 68, 69
application of 70
Power plug 78
Pregnancy 152, 253, 186, 338, 403, 467
Premature skin aging 456
Pressure ulcers 389, 413, 429
Proton 12
Pruritus 454
Psoriasis 413, 452
Psoriatic arthritis 413
PSWD, dosage of 349
P-type semiconductor 55, 56f
Pulmonary tuberculosis 455
Pulse ratio 208
Pulsed mode 376
Pulsed short wave
application of 349
diathermy 341, 345
parameters of 342
production of 341
closer separation of 111f
wider separation of 111f
PUVA 452
apparatus 445
treatment 461
Quadriceps, group stimulation of 143f
Quadripolar application of IFT 244f
Radiation, wavelength of 410
Raynaud's disease 430, 431
Rectifiers 58
Reflection 88, 374
Refraction 90, 375
Refractory period 100, 197
Repetitive discharge 226f
Resistance, combination of 28
Resonator circuit 300
Resonator coil 300
Reticular formation 170
Rheumatoid arthritis 6, 133, 429, 467
Right hand thumb rule 38, 39f
Ruby laser 425
production of 425f
Russian current 115, 115f, 254, 254f
for quadriceps strengthening, application of 255f
Sacroiliac joint dysfunction 388
Scar mobilization 160
S-D curve plotting, method of 200
Semiconductor diode 56
construction of 57
Sensory motor cortical contribution 102
Sensory nerves, stimulation of 124
Severe osteoporosis 467
Shock, severity of 83
Short duration currents 108
Short wave diathermy 296, 298
apparatus 299f
production of 298
adhesive capsulitis of 388
calcific tendinitis of 389
joint, treatment of 322f
Sinusoidal current 112, 112f, 189
allergy 268
cancer 455
hypersensitivity 290
infection 253, 268
irritation 163
lesion 413
resistance 206
sensation for thermal
sensitivity, testing of 331f
structure of 410
temperature 203
texture of 207
Smoothing circuit 64f
Snow rule 38
Soft tissue
extensibility of 348
injury, acute 346
trauma 6
Spasm reduction 256
Spasticity 235
decrease of 281
reduction 132, 283
Spatial average intensity 377379
Spatial peak intensity 377
Spherical emitter 355f
Spinal cord injury 235
Spinal cord tumor 467
Spinal tract 169
Spontaneous emission 421f
Stable cavitation 381
Static electricity 14
Static transformer 44, 45f
functions of 45
working of 45
Step-down transformer 46, 46f, 298
Step-up transformer 45, 46f, 299
Stiff joints 267
Stimulating electrode, positioning of 207
Strength duration curves 199
Strengthening weak muscles 129
Stress incontinence 250
Stroke 235
Subcutaneous fat 206
Superficial fat 204
Surgical skin incision 389
application of 314
dosage of 332
machine, components of 298
techniques of application of 329
Sweat glands 307
Swelling, post-traumatic 273
Symmetrical biphasic TENS pulses 110f
Systemic lupus erythematosus 455
Tarsal tunnel syndrome 390
Tear medial meniscus 390
modes 177
parameters of 176
techniques of application of 181
uses of 184
Tension theory 8
Thalamus 170
Therapeutic currents 104
Thrombophlebitis 403
differential heating of 312
fluids, viscosity of 259
healing 262
facilitation of 191
Traction, types of 465
Traditional UV lamp 443f
Training new muscle action 127
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation 109, 171
Transcutaneous neural stimulators 338
Transformer 44, 298
types of 44
Transistor, uses of 58
Triode valve 53, 54f, 299
symbol of 54f
uses of 54
Trophic stimulation 132
Two-pin connections 84
application of 376
dosimetry of 391
for tennis elbow, application of 386f
intensity of 377
machine, choice of 394
over bone, reflection of 375f
principles of application of 394
production of 367
therapy unit, testing of 398f
therapy, dangers of 402
transducer over tissue, movement of 400f
Ultraviolet dosage, progression of 459
Ultraviolet radiation 438, 446, 451
classification of 439
dangers of 456
dosimetry of 457
principles of application of 460
production of 440
Unstable cavitation 381
Unstable fracture 467
Upper limb, motor points on back of 140f
UVR, measurement of 446
Vapocoolant sprays 288
Varicose ulcers 389
Vasospastic disorders 289
Velocity 88
Venous and arterial thrombosis and thrombophlebitis 152
Venous thrombosis 340
Vertebral artery disease 467
Vitamin D
deficiency, treatment of 454
production of 450
Vitiligo 454
Voltage halving circuit 61
Voltmeter 68, 71, 72
Water bag method 401
Water bath application 400
Water cooled medium pressure mercury vapor lamp 443
Wavelength 87
Wax bath, purification of 266
Wax treatment, application of 264
Wheatstone bridge 68, 69f
Whirlpool bath 274, 275f, 276, 277
uses of 276
Wound healing 188, 347, 388, 428
Chapter Notes

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Electrotherapy Simplified
Electrotherapy Simplified
Second Edition Basanta Kumar Nanda BPT (Hons) MPT Lecturer in Physiotherapy Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research Cuttack, Odisha, India Forewords SS Rau PP Mohanty
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Electrotherapy Simplified
First Edition : 2008
Reprint : 2011
Second Edition : 2015
Printed at
Foreword to the Second Edition
This gives me immense pleasure that after achieving success in the first edition of the book Electrotherapy Simplified, Mr Basanta Kumar Nanda, Lecturer (PT), Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research (SVNIRTAR), Olatpur, Bairoi, Cuttack (Odisha), has taken attempt to bring the second edition of the book. The contents given in the book are very simple and the diagrams are very much explanatory which will definitely help the students of physiotherapy.
I wish the second edition a grand success.
SS Rau
Assistant Professor and Head
Department of Physiotherapy
National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH)
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Foreword to the Second Edition
It gives me immense pleasure that Electrotherapy Simplified written by Mr Basanta Kumar Nanda, Lecturer (PT), has fulfilled the need of the students of physiotherapy during the last three years and is being edited. I have gone through the contents, which has covered the entire syllabus of BPT curriculum from basic electricity to multiple choice questions with answers in electrotherapy and actinotherapy. The photographs and diagrams given in this edition are very much explanatory. I wish this new edition a grand success.
PP Mohanty
Assistant Professor and Head
Department of Physiotherapy
Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research
Cuttack, Odisha, India
Foreword to the First Edition
Electrotherapy Simplified written by Mr Basanta Kumar Nanda can be taken as a textbook for the undergraduates and the diploma students of physiotherapy. Mr Nanda has tried to make the chapters very comprehensive focusing on existing theory and practice. The current evidences have taken a good place in this book.
The basic electricity and electromagnetism, on which the electrical modalities are based, have been well explained. The mechanism of action of the different electrotherapeutic modalities is well explained in the chapters. The author has also given simple examples under therapeutic uses of the different modalities which even a fresher can understand. The book is a much-needed response to the absence of a textbook that takes care of the students needs from top to bottom.
In my opinion, Electrotherapy Simplified has kept its name in right way as the author has devoted enough time to make the contents as easy as possible with suitable diagrams. This book will help the teachers as well as the pupils for their study and reference.
SS Rau
Assistant Professor and Head Department of Physiotherapy
National Institute for the Orthopedically Handicapped (NIOH),
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Foreword to the First Edition
Electrotherapy Simplified written by Mr Basanta Kumar Nanda can be taken as a textbook for the bachelor students and also for those appearing for postgraduate examinations. Mr Nanda has tried to make the chapters very comprehensive focusing on existing theory and practice with adequate current evidences at the right place.
The explanation of basic electricity and electromagnetism are praise-worthy. The mechanism of action of the different electrotherapeutic modalities is well explained in the chapters. The author has also taken painstaking efforts in giving simple diagrams wherever necessary along with suitable examples under therapeutic uses of the different modalities.
Let the book be a stepping stone of success for the readers.
PP Mohanty
Assistant Professor and Head
Department of Physiotherapy
Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research
Cuttack, Odisha, India
Preface to the Second Edition
Electrotherapy Simplified, which contains the chapters on basic electricity and magnetism to low/medium/high frequency current treatments, heat and cold therapy, various action therapeutic treatments, traction and objective type questions and answers have been strengthened in this edition.
More information about functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been provided and long-wave diathermy has been added. About 50 multiple choice questions with answers have also been added. Adequate information has also been provided with practical demonstrations.
I hope this new edition will help students in a better way.
Basanta Kumar Nanda
Preface to the First Edition
Electrotherapy is one of the important aspects among the various approaches of patient management available to a physiotherapist. The use of electrical modalities in patient management has a very old history. In the industrialized world, the number of people with physical problems is increasing day-by-day, necessitating more and more advanced knowledge in the management of the physical ailments.
Electrotherapy Simplified has tried to give a comprehensive knowledge on electrotherapy and actinotherapy, starting from basic electricity and magnetism to the theoretical and clinical aspects of the different modalities applied by physiotherapists. About 200 objective question answers have been included which will enable the student to get a gist on the subject and prepare for the university degree/diploma examinations as well as PG entrance tests.
The syllabi of different universities, such as Utkal University, Bhubaneswar; Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore; Calcutta University, Kolkata; Dr MGR University, Chennai, etc. conducting BPT courses have been taken into consideration while preparing the text.
I hope my efforts will give significant benefit to the students.
Basanta Kumar Nanda
I sincerely acknowledge Dr BM Pradhan, Director, and Dr SK Das, Deputy Director (Technical), who have been giving me continuous inspirations to work more and more. My sincere thank goes to my Head of the Department, Mr PP Mohanty and Mr KN Kittur, Information and Documentation Officer, for providing me all the help, as and when needed. My sincere thanks also goes to Mr SS Rau, who has taken pain to review the book. I sincerely thank to all my friends who have provided me support in preparing the text.