Mahajan's Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers Arun Bhadra Khanal
Chapter Notes

Save Clear

fm1Mahajan's Methods in: Biostatistics: for Medical Students and Research Workers fm2
fm3Mahajan's Methods in: Biostatistics: for Medical Students and Research Workers
Eighth Edition
Revised and Edited by Arun BhadraKhanal(Kish Fellow, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) Lecturer of Biostatistics/Business Statistics/Quantitative Analysis for Management Golden Gate International College (TU), Nobel College (PU), Kathmandu, Nepal and Nova International College, Kathmandu (Affiliated to International American University, CA, USA) + Senior Statistical Consultant, Project financed by ADB, GIZ, ICIMOD, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, UNDP
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
Phone: +91-11-43574357
Fax: +91-11-43574314
Overseas Offices
J.P. Medical Ltd
83 Victoria Street, London
Phone: +44-2031708910
Fax: +44 (0)20 3008 6180
Jaypee Medical Inc
The Bourse
111 South Independence Mall East
Suite 835, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA
Phone: +1 267-519-9789
Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc
City of Knowledge, Bld. 237, Clayton
Panama City, Panama
Phone: +1 507-301-0496
Fax: +1 507-301-0499
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
17/1-B Babar Road, Block-B, Shaymali
Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207
Mobile: +08801912003485
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal
Phone: +977-9741283608
© 2016, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
The views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) of the book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at:
Mahajan's Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers
First Edition: 1967
Eighth Edition: 2016
Printed at
fm5“Those whom the gods love die young”
(Born on Tuesday, September 12, 1944)
This work is dedicated to the loving memory of Author's only son, LALIT who lost his life on way to USA for higher studies in mechanical engineering, in the Air India Boeing accident near Mont Blanc on January 24, 1966, along with 116 others including the world-renowned Atomic Energy Scientist, Dr Homi Bhabha.fm6
This eighth edition of Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers was prepared with the goal of attracting a varied audience. For beginners to advanced level students and virtually all research workers, this edition should provide an introduction to statistical concepts in the biosciences and health sciences and desired coverage to applied statistical concepts. This edition is designed to meet the needs of beginners in diverse fields such as nursing, public health and biomedical sciences; and microbiologists, who are looking for a strong foundation in biostatistics with the aid of computer technology. For advanced level professionals working in the health field, this enlarged edition can serve as a useful reference.
In the current edition, many new formulas and real world problems have been included. This book does not require much complex mathematics.
For most of the practical problems included in the text, we discuss the use of computer software for smart and efficient calculations. Although there are varieties of statistical softwares in the market, this edition includes the use of Microsoft Excel and SPSS. We felt it was a deemed necessity for today's world.
Changes and Updates to this Edition
Virtually all chapters have been corrected. However, chapter-wise the following significant changes have been made:
  • Chapter 2: A new Map Diagram (Figure 2.17) for the Infant Mortality Rate of 1989 data are replaced by the recent 2011 data.
  • Chapters 3 and 4: An Appendix on Chapters 3 and 4 has been tailored at the end of Chapter 4. This appendix includes a thorough concepts and formulae for Arithmetic Mean, Median, Quartiles, and Graphical Approaches to Median and Quartiles and Ogive curves. Many solved and answer supplied problems have been added.
  • fm8Chapter 5: Further Notes on Normal Probability Distribution has been added that provides a sound and clear concept of Normal Distribution in theory and practical.
  • Chapter 7: Further Notes on Probability has been included that supplies concepts of Basic Probability, Conditional Probability, Special Terminologies like False Positive, False Negative, True Positive, True Negative, Sensitivity, Specificity, Accuracy, Predictive Value Positive and Predictive Value Negative. Similarly, Binomial Probability Distribution Function is given as per modern day's need. Microsoft Excel's inbuilt formula for calculating Binomial Probability has been explicitly explained. A PhD Case Problem from Allahabad Agricultural Institute (AAI-Deemed University) has been brought to maintain the standard of this text to that level.
  • Chapter 19: The chapter, "Biostatistical Analysis: An SPSS Manual" was new and most important since the seventh edition (a sole input of the editor) has been further revised as it has become a backbone for massive data analysis in any research works. This chapter has become a powerful dose to SPSS training course.
Arun Bhadra Khanal
Many people have contributed in a variety of ways in the preparation of this text.
It would not have been possible to initiate and complete the project without the high quality cooperation, support and guidance provided to me, at all levels and stages, by the personnel of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India. I am indebted to all, directly and indirectly to the concerned individuals. Among the folks who have helped are, Mr Tarun Duneja (Director–Publishing), Ms Samina Khan (Executive Assistant to Director–Publishing), and Ms Kajal Bhattacharya (Executive Assistant to CEO) who provided invaluable inputs.
A very special thanks goes to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman) of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, who had brought the vision of publishing such work at the early stage. I am indebted to him.
I should also like to acknowledge my debt to M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, Kolkata and Kathmandu Office staff for their constant support to communicate matters between Kathmandu and Kolkata in order to bring this text in such a nice form. Some of them are Mr Suman Samanta, Ms Shilpi Dutta, Mr Amit Khadka and Mr Dipesh Shrestha.
Thanks are credited to my colleagues, Dr Ram Chandra Sinha and Mrs Surya Devi Bajracharya, for their valuable suggestions and comments in due course. My warmest thanks go to James M Lepkowski, Professor of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, USA, whose technical supports played a significant role in bringing this text.
I wish to acknowledge the cooperation of my son Nirvik Bhadra Khanal, Computer Engineer, VTU, Karnataka, for easy facilitation of IT-related work from Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Last but not least, thanks are due to my daughter Miss Nistha Khanal and my wife Mrs Bimala Khanal, for managing a stimulating working environment during the entire period and preparation of this text.fm10