Nursing MSc Solved Question Papers for 1st Year (2010-2014) Elakkuvana Bhaskara Raj D
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Nursing Education

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3Nursing Education: Paper 2014 May
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1.  
    1. Enumerate various methods of teaching-learning process.
    2. Discuss on self-directed learning methods in nursing education.
  2.  
    1. Mention principles of curriculum development.
    2. Explain factors influencing curriculum change in nursing.
  3.  
    1. Write a brief note on the program for preparation of nurse educator.
    2. Discuss importance of self and peer group evaluation.
  4.  
    1. Explain process of evaluation.
    2. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of internal and external assessment in education.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Agencies of education.
  2. Role of teacher in procuring and managing projected and non-projected instructional aids.
  3. Question bank.
  4. Role of principal of a college of nursing in budgeting.
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1.  
    1. Enumerate various methods of teaching-learning process.
    2. Discuss on self-directed learning methods in nursing education.
a. Enumerate various methods of teaching-learning process.
 
Teaching-learning Process
Teaching is an essential part of education. Its special function is impart knowledge, develop understanding and skills.
“Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning.”
—Burton, 1963
Learning, in psychology, the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs because of practice or experience. Learning is also a process of acquiring modifications in existing knowledge, skills, habits, or tendencies through experience, practice or exercise.
“Learning is the modification of behavior through experience.”
—Gates and others
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Various Method of Teaching-learning Process
  • Lecture method
  • Discussion method
  • Simulation
  • Laboratory
  • Seminar
  • Panel method
  • Symposium
  • Problem-solving method
  • Workshop
  • Problem-based learning (PBL)
  • Role play
  • Programmed instruction
  • Self-directed learning (SDL)
  • Microteaching
  • Computer-assisted instruction
  • Innovative teaching strategy.
 
Methods of Clinical Teaching
  • Client and family-centered approach
  • Conference: ‘Group conference’, ‘staff conference’, ‘nursing care conference’, ‘individual conference’ and ‘team conference’
  • Bedside clinic
  • Nursing rounds
  • Assignments
  • Field visit
  • Process recording
  • Ward teaching
  • Ward class
  • Ward clinics
  • Case method
  • Brainstorming method
  • Group discussion
  • Demonstration method
  • Laboratory method
  • Health talks.
b. Discuss on self-directed learning methods in nursing education.
 
Self-directed Learning Methods in Nursing Education
Self-directed learning is any increase in knowledge, skill or performance pursued by any individual for personal reasons employing any means, in any place at any time at any age (Maurice Gibbons, 2008):
  1. Teacher-directed learning: Teachers or other authorities choose what is learned, why it is to be learned, how it is to be learned, when, where and at what age.
  2. 5 Self-directed learning is much more than students doing what they want, when they want. It is a shift in learning where the learner takes on responsibility for his/her learning.
  3. For learning to occur, there must be a change in performance or a potential for change as a result of instruction (Driscoll, 2004).
  4. Through self-direction, the student learns by discovery in a constructivist approach, a method used in nursing education.
  5. Self-directed learning is essential in assisting nurses to meet the challenges presented in today’s healthcare environment. Nurse educators have an important role to play in assisting nurses to acquire the skills for SDL, and to do this they need to understand the concept of SDL.
    —O’Shea E
 
Definition of Self-directed Learning
“In its broadest meaning, the SDL describes a process by which individuals take the initiative, with our without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identify human and material resources for learning, choosing and implement appropriate learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes.”
—Knowles, 1975, p. 18
 
Importance of Self-directed Learning
  • To plan and participate in one’s own learning activities
  • It identifies the requirement for a problem solving and reaching the learning objectives
  • Important to develop self-discipline and time management skills
  • Important in seeking critical evaluation of performance
  • Important to communicate with peers for information exchange
  • There is a growing evidence that the people who take initiative in learning, learn more and learn better than those who do not
  • The evidence is also that they learn more deeply and permanently.
 
Benefits of Self-directed Learning
  • Taking responsibility for one’s own learning tends to increase self-esteem
  • Improves the knowledge and learning skills
  • It enhance the thinking ability of the learner
  • There will be minimal aptitude or competence
  • Promotes a self-awareness
  • Helps in decision-making.
 
Skills Needed to an Effective Self-directed Learning
Some of the fundamental skills for SDL are as follows. There are six kinds of cognitive skills appear to be particularly important in successful SDL:
  • Goal setting skills
  • Processing skills
  • Decision-making skills
  • Self-awareness
  • 6 Some competence or aptitude in the topic or a closely related area
  • Other cognitive skills.
Goal setting skills
Here the individual identifies the problem rather than developing a cognitive ability to engage in problem identification and solving. They have a good observation skill and ability to determine what is important in their learning environment.
Processing skills
Even though good strong reading ability is often identified with successful SDLs, there are other information processing learner is able to attend and process information by the at least one of the following skills:
  1. Observing: The ability to see and understand.
  2. Seeing and translating: The ability to translate visual information to notes and records.
  3. Reading: The ability to read, translate and compared written material.
  4. Listening: The ability to receive and process aural information and related it to existing information schemes.
Decision-making skills
Decision-making skill denotes the learners thinking ability. Some might refer to it as being logical in thought. Others might prefer analytical. Hence, the SDL must develop the ability to identify, prioritize, select, validate, evaluate and interpret information obtained through processing.
Self-awareness
The successful SDL has the ability to be aware self. It enables the individuals to be aware of their learning processes their weakness and strengths to know of their ability to use different approach, to know how and what is distracting in their environment, to know when they need assistance, and to have a realistic perception of their ability to achieve learning goal.
Content competence
Here some personal observation indicates that people skilled in certain areas tend to emphasize those while avoiding topics and activities in areas in which they are less competent. For example, one who knows their own language may learn another language based on knowledge of the first language.
Other cognitive skills
In addition to the above information there are other cognitive skills appear to be associated with SDL success. They are:
  1. Sensory: Including ability to select, identify and classify information.
  2. Memory: Working memory is important in the processing of information before it is assimilated into existing long-term memory.
  3. Elaboration: Includes the ability to take an item from working memory and process it by imaging, deducing, discriminating, generalizing, etc.
 
Key Principles of Self-directed Learning
Educator as a facilitator: Although, SDL may imply the lack of the need for an educator, learners often need an expert to introduce them to the basics of SDL including the appraisal of educational needs, adoption of a theoretical construct and development of learning 7 goals. Therefore, teachers in SDL programs are seen as a source for skills rather than a source of content and they assume the role of facilitators or consultants to the learner. There are several examples of this in the nursing education literature.
Identification of learning needs: Educational needs are the discrepancy between the present level of competency and the required level of competency (or the difference between aspiration and reality). Identification of learning needs is an integral component of SDL. Beckert et al demonstrated that learning activities based on student’s needs and self-drive are more likely to be successful than activities dictated by extrinsic sources. Knowles also suggested that the more explicitly learners identify learning needs and the more harmonious their needs are with societal, organizational or academic aspirations, the more likely effective learning will take place.
Development of learning objectives: Learning objectives are the desired outcomes of learning and are derived from the pool of needs generated by learners. Learners translate needs into objectives and ideally, would choose the ones that are higher on their priority list and are measurable to facilitate learning evaluation.
Commitment to a learning contract: A learning contract is a formal document prepared by learners in consultation with a subject expert to demonstrate what is to be learned; how it is to be learned; and how learning will be verified. Thus, learning contracts acknowledge learners’ self-directedness and specify learning objectives, resources, strategies and evidence of accomplishment. Similarly, Pereles et al reported that in undergraduate medical education, first- and second-year medical students who used learning contracts were able to accomplish more SDL tasks, demonstrated more positive attitudes regarding SDL and scored higher on the SDL readiness scale (SDLRS).
Resource identification: Knowles advocated direct involvement of learners in the allocation of learning resources. Learners in consultation with a subject expert, choose the appropriate resources based on their preferred method of learning and the type of learning objectives. He suggested that cognitive objectives are best learned by lectures, written resources, interviews, colloquy and panel discussions; behavioral objectives are best learned by experience sharing, role-playing, sensitivity training and case-based learning and psychomotor objectives are best learned by skill practice exercises, role-playing, simulation and drills.
The SDL interventions designed for health professions education describe the use of written materials (e.g. articles, workbooks), computerized modules, websites, audiovisual (AV) aids (e.g. videos) and mannequins for teaching procedural skills.
Implementation process: To build rapport and set the climate for SDL, facilitators should conduct introductory meetings with learners. These meetings emphasize the partnership between learners and educators, rather than dependency of students on teachers. Subsequent meetings can be utilized to identify learning needs, goals, learning plan and evaluation means. Learners may experience initial negative feelings such as confusion and dissatisfaction; however, transformation to positive feelings as SDL progresses is expected.
Learning evaluation: Learning portfolios that demonstrate the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes and achievements have been recommended for health professionals undertaking SDL. Learning portfolios enable learners to control the educational process, maintain autonomy, promote reflective thinking, increase SDL skills and evaluate learning outcomes. Portfolio computerization can further enhance their role by providing better accessibility, ease of use and security features for confidential information.
8 In addition to portfolios, SDL can be evaluated by multiple choice questions, objective structural clinical examination (OSCE), and qualitative and quantitative self-reported measures of competency.
Methods of SDL
  • Relaxed environment
  • Collaboration
  • Involvement in decision-making and setting goals
  • Involvement in planning
  • Evaluation by teachers, self and peers.
SDL in nursing
The SDL method is very useful method in nursing. It provides very effective teaching-learning process in nursing care.
Examples of SDL in nursing:
  • Medication: Injection or oral medication
  • Basic nursing care: Bed making, personal care, sponge bath, etc.
  • Seminar preparation of a topic, case presentation, nursing rounds, etc.
Limitations of SDL
  1. The SDL has been advocated within conventional educational settings in rigid institutions as well as when access to academic settings is limited and despite scarcity of evidence, we believe it is compatible with several educational frameworks, particularly, PBL and experiential learning. Moreover, there is a debate regarding whether SDL can be taught or is it an inherent personal trait. We found ample evidence to show that SDL can be taught. There is no high-quality evidence to determine learner’s characteristics most suitable for SDL. Knowles and others implied that it is more suitable for adult learners who already have a reservoir of knowledge and can apply their learning immediately to their practices, and recommended it for heterogeneous groups of learners with different past experiences. Similarly, it was found that the more learners advanced in training, the more they utilized SDL resources. Yet, SDL is described as effective in children and in preliminary and secondary education. Therefore, the issue of learner characteristics most suitable for SDL is in need for further studies.
  2. Time constraint of the adult learner is also one of the major limitation to self-directed learning as he/she may has to face situation obstacle, family reaction, etc.
  3. High self-confidence and special individual obstacles can also serve as a major limitation of SDL.
  1.  
    1. Mention principles of curriculum development.
    2. Explain factors influencing curriculum change in nursing.
a. Mention principles of curriculum development.
 
Definition
Curriculum is the base in education on which the teaching learning process and implemented. The term ‘curriculum’ is a Latin word ‘currere’, which means ‘race course’ or a ‘runway’, which are taken to reach a goal.
9 “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of an artist to mould his material, according to his ideals in his studio.”
—Cunningham
 
Principles Related to Nursing Curriculum
  1. Should equip the students with the essential knowledge, skills and attitude.
  2. Expected results of curriculum should be made clear to students.
  3. Teacher considered as facilitator.
  4. Should consider the community needs with emphasis on health needs, lifestyle and cultural background.
  5. Influence of media, modern lifestyles special measures formed to inculcate right attitude.
  6. Adequate teaching-learning activities in classroom, clinical and community settings.
  7. Should follow guidelines laid down by statutory bodies.
  8. Nursing curriculum should give importance to high-tech-high-touch approach in nursing care.
  9. Should maintain human component of nursing in the midst of technological advancements in patient care.
  10. Learning environment should closely resemble life situation.
  11. Should involve participatory approach in teaching-learning process.
 
Stages of Curriculum Development
 
Given by Torres and Stanton
  1. The directive stage:
    • It lays foundation of all the other stages
    • Identify beliefs, knowledge and concepts
    • Formulation of theoretical framework in the selection and sequencing of content.
  2. The formative stage:
    • Philosophy of educational institution
    • Objectives
    • Nature/Content of nursing.
  3. Functional stage:
    • Practical form of curriculum
    • Planned teaching and learning experiences.
  4. Evaluative stage:
    • Input evaluation
    • Throughput evaluation
    • Output evaluation
    • Evaluation for curriculum revision.
b. Explain factors influencing curriculum change in nursing.
Curriculum changes/revision means making the curriculum different in some way, to give it a new position or direction. This often means attraction to its philosophy by way of its aims and objectives, reviewing the content included, revising its methods and re-thinking its evaluator procedure.
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Definition
Acceptance overtime of some specific item, ideas or practice by individual, groups or other adopting units, linked by specific channels of communication to a social structure and to a given system of values or structure.
 
Need for Curriculum Change
  • To restructure the curriculum according to the needs of learners society
  • To eliminate unnecessary units, teaching methods and contents
  • To introduce latest and update methods of teaching and content, new knowledge and practices
  • To add or delete number of clinical hours of instruction.
 
Factors Influencing the Change Curriculum
 
General Societal Changes
  • Population growth
  • Population pattern
  • Move toward urbanization
  • Consumption of natural resources.
 
Healthcare Changes
  • Increasing government control in health care
  • Increasing need for health professional to work with other professionals as well as the client system
  • Increasing the professionalization of health workers
  • Increasing socialization in health field
  • Increasing in the supply of health workers perhaps resulting in over supply
  • Rapid obsolescence of practice, skills and knowledge level.
 
Approaches to Curriculum Revision
The three main approaches to curriculum revision are:
  • Addition
  • Deletion
  • Recognition.
 
Guidelines for Changing Curriculum
  • When a change occurs, there are forces, which support and those oppose change
  • Try to work with those supportive forces especially in the initial phase of change
  • Try to produce a self-motivated team of workers who get power from within themselves
  • Ensure that the people who are working for the change have freedom authority to implement the proposed change
  • Get the key personnel in the institution and get them involved in change
  • 11 Protect the team members from under stress and strain; support and encourage them in their work
  • The person or group working on change should maintain good interpersonal relationship and skills to manage the staff.
  1.  
    1. Write a brief note on the program for preparation of nurse educator.
    2. Discuss importance of self and peer group evaluation.
a. Write a brief note on the program for preparation of nurse educator.
 
Program for Preparation of Nurse Educator
“Teaching is an interaction process. Interaction means participation of both teacher and student and both are benefited by this. The interaction takes place for achieving desired objectives.”
—Flanders
 
Definition of a Teacher
A teacher is a person who selects and organizes teaching-learning methods, consciously planning and controlling a situation directed to the achievement of optimum student learning.
Professional education includes any programs that improve the knowledge, skills, attitudes or behaviors of healthcare providers. Nursing Council Act came to existence in 1948 to constitute a council of nurses to safeguard the quality of nursing education in the country. The mandate was to establish and maintain uniform standards of nursing education.
Indian Nursing Council (INC) is a statutory body that regulates nursing education in the country through prescription, inspection, examination, certification and maintaining its stands for a uniform syllabus at each level of nursing education.
There are six levels of nursing education in India today. They are:
  1. Multipurpose Health Worker Female training (ANM or MPHW-F).
  2. Female Health Supervisor training (HV or MPHS-F).
  3. General nursing and midwifery (GNM).
  4. BSc Nursing.
  5. MSc Nursing.
  6. MPhil and PhD.
The ANM, HV and GNM are conducted in schools of nursing. The last three are university level courses and the respective universities conduct examinations. Beside there are several certificate and diploma courses in specialties.
 
Method of Preparation of Nurse Educator
Induction program
  1. It is a brief, standardized introduction to an agency’s philosophy purposes, policies and regulations is given to each worker, during his/her first 2 or 3 days of employment, in order to ensure his/her identification with agency.
  2. It is first aspect of orientation. It starts with explanation of history, purpose philosophy and then information related job. Give organizational manual for proper self-understanding.
12 Purposes
  • Provide information and development of familiar environment
  • Start the work knowingly and with positive attitude
  • Get the work done efficiently and effectively.
 
 
Important points
  • Keep duration of 2–3 days
  • Information must be short and adequate.
Job orientation
After induction program the employee should be oriented to specific job for he/she is hired. It is needed because, each organization has lot of variations. Duration of this depends upon the unit, i.e. 3–4 weeks for general wards, whereas 3–4 months for super specialized units such as operation theater (OT) and intensive care unit (ICU).
 
Forms of orientation
  • Centralized
  • Decentralized
  • Standardized orientation program
  • Individual program.
 
Objectives of orientation program
  • Help the nurse/nurses to adjust more easily with his/her new environment (for those opportunities that are provided)
  • Acquainted with hospital, philosophies and policies
  • Gain information about expected behavior
  • Provide assistance to get adjust with patient care
  • Help to understand his/her role in hospital and community
  • Cultivate positive attitude and harmonious relationship.
Continuing education
Philosophy: It is believed that the system of higher education which provides the opportunities to keep update knowledge and skill.
Definition: Any extension of opportunities for reading, study and training to any person/adult following their completion of or withdrawal from full time school/college program.”
Need for continuing education: As follows:
  • Meet demands of new role
  • Desire of promotion/higher salary
  • Keep update knowledge and skills
  • Provide quality care.
Nurse internship
Nurse internship is traditional orientation program. Nowadays internship is part of program, e.g. medical internship and nursing internship [general nursing and midwifery (GNM)]. It is short and well-planned program. Duration of each differ from one to another.
 
Purposes
  • To improve recruitment
  • To facilitate role transition from young graduates
  • To decrease demands upon the head nurse to provide basic skill training.
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Career mobility program purposes
  • To improve workers morale and motivation by eliminating dead ends jobs
  • To decrease of costly labor turnover
  • To prepare right person for right job
  • Redesigning of each program is needed for better preparation of higher education
  • Vast career opportunities are available in nursing
  • It needs short-term or long-term specialties and super specialties.
b. Discuss importance of self and peer group evaluation.
 
Definition
“Self-assessment means the process of having the learners critically reflect upon, record the progress of and perhaps suggest grades for, their own learning.”
“The term peer assessment refers to the process of having the learners critically reflect upon and perhaps suggest grades for the learning of their peers” (Roberts, T Self, peer, and group assessment in e-learning, Information Science, 2006).
 
Aims of Self- and Peer-assessment
The main aims self- and peer-assessment are to:
  • Increase student responsibility and autonomy
  • Strive for a more advanced and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and processes
  • Lift the role and status of the student from passive learner to active leaner and assessor (this also encourages a deeper approach to learning)
  • Involve students in critical reflection
  • Develop in students a better understanding of their own subjectivity and judgment.
 
Self-evaluation
Self-evaluation is similar to peer evaluation, but students assess their own contribution as well as their peers using an established set of criteria. It plays an important role in the overall development of an individual. It believes on the classic case of judging oneself before being judged by the world.
 
Importance of Self-evaluation
In order to progress, an institution needs to carry out periodic evaluations. It gives an institution an idea about how much its constituents have grasped and what more needs to be done in order to achieve the best possible results.
Self-evaluation on the other hand, offers students a realistic chance of looking at their own self, without any claims of prejudice or bias. It may provide them with some new information about themselves, and acquaint them with some facts that they were unaware of earlier.
Self-evaluation also helps in changing the role of students from a passive observer to an active participant. For example, after assigning a test to a student, you can encourage the participation of student by engaging in writing a self-evaluation. Some questions that you can put forward to your students to get them involved in evaluating themselves are:
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  • What steps did you take to complete this assignment?
  • What difficulties did you face while completing the assignment?
  • Do you feel that this assignment helped you in understanding the concept in a better way?
  • Do you think that the performance could have been better?
These were some questions that you can put forward to your students in order to know how they perceive a particular problem.
Organizations have been practicing self-evaluation for a long time now, most notably at the time of employee appraisals. However, employee self-evaluation has met with limited success as the managers have the final say on deciding the performance of an employee. When employees are given an opportunity to evaluate themselves, they become more accountable for themselves and take responsibility for their actions.
 
Benefits of Self-assessment
  • Encourage reflection
  • Help lecturers to focus their feedback (e.g. not telling students what they are already aware of)
  • An important skill in itself helping students to become more autonomous learners.
 
Advantages
  • Encourages student involvement and responsibility
  • Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work
  • Allows students to see and reflect on their peers’ assessment of their contribution
  • Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills.
 
Disadvantages
  • Potentially increases lecturer workload by needing to brief students on the process as well as on-going guidance on performing self-evaluation
  • Self-evaluation has a risk of being perceived as a process of presenting inflated grades and being unreliable
  • Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment.
 
Peer Group Evaluation
Peer review is a process of self-regulation by a profession or a process of evaluation involving qualified individuals within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards, improve performance and provide credibility. In academia peer review is often used to determine an academic paper’s suitability for publication.
Peer evaluations are assessments, ratings or evaluations of a person’s product or performance, which are carried out by peers, as opposed to by a teacher, supervisor, parent or expert. The precise form and nature of the peer evaluation varies according to the context.
Peer evaluations are used within professional and creative fields as a means to establish and maintain uniform quality of performance within the field.
Students individually assess each other’s contribution using a predetermined list of criteria. Grading is based on a predetermined process, but most commonly it is an average of the marks awarded by members of the group.
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Importance of Peer Evaluation
  • Students practice softer skills, e.g. constructive criticism
  • Help students learn from each other and place their own work
  • Students naturally compare themselves with their peers
  • Encourage engagement with marking criteria
  • Promote deep learning, e.g. evaluation
  • More efficient and timely feedback for large groups.
 
Advantages
  • Agreed marking criteria means there can be little confusion about assignment outcomes and expectations
  • Encourages student involvement and responsibility
  • Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work
  • Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills
  • Students are involved in the process and are encouraged to take part ownership of this process
  • Provides more relevant feedback to students as it is generated by their peers
  • It is considered fair by some students, because each student is judged on their own contribution
  • When operating successfully can reduce a lecturer’s marking load
  • Can help to reduce the ‘free rider’ problem, as students are aware that their contribution will be graded by their peers.
 
Disadvantages
  • Additional briefing time can increase a lecturer’s workload
  • The process has a degree of risk with respect to reliability of grades, as peer pressure to apply elevated grades or friendships may influence the assessment, though this can be reduced if students can submit their assessments independent of the group
  • Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark
  • Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment
  • Students may be reluctant to make judgments regarding their peers
  • At the other extreme students may be discriminated against if students ‘gang up’ against one group member.
  1.  
    1. Explain process of evaluation.
    2. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of internal and external assessment in education.
a. Explain process of evaluation.
 
Definition
Evaluation is essential and never ending process, vicious cycle of formulating goals, measuring the progress towards them and determining the new goals, which emerge as a result of new warning.
—Chara M
16 According to Tuckman (1975), evaluation is a process wherein the parts, processes or outcomes of a program are examined to see whether they are satisfactory, particularly with reference to the stated objectives of the program, our own expectations or our own standards of excellence.
 
Characteristic of Evaluation
  • Evaluation is a continuous process
  • It includes academic and non academic subjects
  • Evaluation is a procedure for improving the product
  • Discovering the needs of an individual and designing learning experience
  • Evaluation is purpose oriented.
 
Process of Evaluation
  • Identifying and defining general objectives
  • Identifying and defining specific objectives
  • Selecting teaching points through teaching points objectives can be realized
  • Planning suitable learning objectives; the teacher has to coordinate the objectives, teaching points and learning activities
  • Evaluating: The teacher observes and measures the challenges in the behavior of pupils through testing
  • Using the results as feedback: The results will act as a feedback the teacher observes the results and plan appropriate learning activity for achieving the objectives.
b. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of internal and external assessment in education.
 
Internal Assessment
 
Definition
Credit obtained by the student for a term work in a subject in his/her school. It is a continuous periodic and internal.
 
Advantages
  1. No undue weightage is given to annual or external examinations.
  2. Proper study will be engaged in study throughout the year.
  3. Students will be engaged in study throughout the year.
  4. They will be more regular, alert.
  5. 11 hours preparation in examinations will be reduced to minimum.
  6. Internal assessment helps to reduce anxiety and prevent nervous breakdown in students.
 
Disadvantages
  1. A teacher may misuse it.
  2. It can cause a great harm in the hands of an inexperienced insincere teacher.
  3. It will lose its validity if favorism, personal prejudice and subjectively.
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External Examination
An examination is an official test of knowledge. We have examinations everywhere around the world. Youngs and adults can have examinations; there is not a particular age of it. However, some do not agree that it is important.
 
Advantages
  1. With examinations, a person will be able to know his/her performance and knowledge. For most people, examinations may encourage them to work and learn.
  2. Sometimes with examinations, it can create competition, which pushes the competitioners to do their best.
Hence, it helps in developing one’s own personality and confidence. If a person pass the examinations and got a good result, it helps to get a scholarship, which will bring to have a good job.
 
Disadvantages
  1. For some people, examinations make them stress. This is because there is too much pressure of their parents and teachers. What will happen if a person is sick or a dear one of his/her die? The answer is that the person will be penalized.
  2. During the examination, a person may also have problems with questions, i.e. bad choice of questions and irrelevant answers. For most failure, who has got bad result, it will affect their future. For some, it can change their character or lead to suicide. But most lose confidence in themselves.
 
SHORT NOTES
  1. 5. Agencies of education.
Education usually performs three kinds of functions in the society. Firstly, it transmits special or cultural heritage from one generation to another. It consists of various experiences, customs, values and traditions of the people.
Secondly, education conserves this cultural heritage through its courses of studies, textbooks, instructional materials and different parties.
Thirdly, education creates new social organizations and patterns in order to develop and improve the society in view of the changing needs and conditions.
In course of time society has been developing a number of organizations and institutions to discharge various special responsibilities in connection with the functions mentioned above. These institutions and organizations are called the agencies of education. They shape their individuals in many ways. They shape their personalities, their knowledge, understanding, attitude, interests, values and aspirations. They range from primary institution such as family to school, playground, clubs and so on.
 
Types of Agencies
There are five types of agencies:
  • Formal
  • Informal
  • 18 Nonformal
  • Passive
  • Active.
 
Formal Institutions
Formal institutions are purposely set up by the society for various functions of education. They are special organizations to impart education and instruction in some way or other. Important of them are schools, libraries, religious and cultural organizations.
 
Informal Agencies
Informal agencies include organizations that come into being without any systematic planning to hand over the social traditions, customs, knowledge and cultural practices.
For example, the family, play group and the community organization are set up for child rearing, recreational activities and professional growth. The formal agencies have direct educational objectives in view, whereas informal agencies contribute towards educational development through other activities. Both these formal and informal agencies are inter-connected as well as overlapping and there are no watertight compartments between them.
 
Non-formal Agencies
Besides, these two kinds of agencies, nowadays another class of institutions has been developed known as non-formal agencies. It is found that the formal system of education cannot meet all social and individual needs for instruction, knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Non-formal education can be provided through correspondence courses, radio and television programs, language laboratory, seminars, workshops, discussion groups, study circles, popular literature and public libraries.
The Indian Education Commission, 1964–1966 recommended the growth of a parallel system of non-formal education in the country. So, it was intended to develop a non-formal system of education, which should be comprehensive and flexible. It should be as efficient as the schools usually do. But unlike the non-meeting parallel lines, both formal and non-formal system of education should meet so that the students can take the advantages of both according to their convenience and circumstances.
 
Active and Passive Agencies
Agencies of education are also described as active or passive. Active agencies are those, which provide education through personal interaction and mutual participation. In this case, education becomes a two-way process, the educator and educand influencing each other.
For instance, the family, the school, the play group and the youth organizations are active agencies, as they provide interaction among the participants. These agencies also inculcate good qualities such as cooperations, fellow-feeling, competitive spirit, adaptability and emulation. They are, therefore useful for citizenship training and growth of leadership qualities.
The passive agency of education is a one-way process where there is no interaction and mutual give and take. The films, radio, television and press influence the behavior of people without being influenced themselves. The listener listens to the radio programs and gets knowledge, information or happiness or sorrow.
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Table 1   Difference between formal and non-formal education
Formal education
Non-formal education
It is limited to period of being taught as against a period of life and work; it is imparted in educational institutions
It is lifelong with learning integrated with life and work; life it’s upgraded and enriched by learning
It has fixed points of entry and exit; age admission and entry qualification are prescribed
It has a flexible point of entry and exit, re-entry and re-exit and so on throughout the life span of the individual
It is geared to impersonal goals of knowledge acquisition; it is examination oriented
It is a process of enabling the individual to understand his/her own needs, the environmental situations, societal goals and mutual relationships
It is employment oriented
It is motivated by individual growth, self-renewal and maximizing human potential
It has fixed concepts and contents in its curriculum
It has a diversified content in a fixed curriculum, which is responsive to learner and environmental needs
It is imposed by ‘give’ on the ‘receiver’ with little interaction between the two
It is a process of sharing, exploring, analyzing and judging together with maximum participation of the learner
It fosters uncritical command obedience
It develops an open-end critical and self-reliant awareness
It works on the principle of weeding out principles
It works on the principle of universal success through universal learning satisfaction
It nurtures status quo and discourages deviation
Encourages healthy points of departure towards progress
It works within a fixed social frame and hence gets quickly out of step with social change
It anticipates and prepares for change for the future
  1. Role of teacher in procuring and managing projected and non-projected instructional aids.
The teacher has to play a key role in storage, borrowing, retrieval and monitoring of the use of AV aids. At the college level, a nursing faculty can manage these aids in AV aids room, which is an essential part of a college of nursing as per Indian Nursing Council norms.
Models and charts can be permanently installed on the walls in the particular classroom in which they are supposed to be used. For example, anatomical models charts can be placed in first-year classroom. Similarly, models of pelvis and fetus can be placed in final-year BSc classroom.
 
Teachers’ Role in Effective Use
 
Planning
  • Know clearly the objective of presentation
  • Plan well in presentation advance
  • 20 Anticipate the size of the audience
  • Plan for variety of colorful and vivid AV aids
  • Plan in advance about the time of presentation.
 
Preparation
  • Place and seating arrangements
  • Anticipate the need for special effects
  • Make sure that all the equipments are in working condition
  • Rehearsing or previewing
  • Sequence the aids in the order of their use
  • Keep them within the reach.
 
Presentation
  • Motivate and stress the key points
  • Present in the right time and proper sequence
  • Display only one aid at a time
  • Remove all unrelated items
  • Stand beside and not in front
  • Speak facing the audience and not by side.
 
Evaluation
  • Evaluation using discussion and dispel misunderstanding if any
  • Undertake a follow-up study.
zoom view
Figure 1: Features of good audiovisual (AV) aid
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  1. Question bank
The question bank makes available statistically sound questions of known technical worth and model question papers and thus facilitates selection of proper questions for a well-designed to question paper.
 
Definition
“A relatively large collection of easily accessible test questions.” The question bank may be defined as a kind of reservoir of a number of sets of questions on each subject in which examination is to be held and from which a set for any particular examination could be picked out at random and at short notice, and sent to the press.
It is a planned library of test items designed to fulfill certain predetermined purposes. It should cover the entire prescribed text.
The questions may be arranged is as follows:
  • Objective/Behavior aspect/Abilities in cognitive and affective domains
  • Content/Subject aspect
  • Form of the question aspect such as essay type, short answer
  • Weightages aspect.
 
Purposes of Question Bank
  • To improve the teaching learning process, through instructional efforts the pupil’s growth will be obtained
  • To improve evaluate process
  • A pool of test can be used for formative and summative evaluation of the pupils
  • It is a pool of readymade quality questions made available to teachers and examiners, so that they may select appropriate questions to assess predetermined objectives.
 
Dimensions of Question Bank
 
Student Learning
  • Student outcomes
  • Collaborative/Cooperative learning
  • Student effort and involvement.
 
Teaching Practice
  • Organization and preparation
  • Communication
  • Faculty/Student interaction.
 
Course Elements
  • Grading
  • Examinations
  • Textbook
  • Assignments
  • 22 Audiovisual aids
  • Technology usage
  • Course difficulty, pace and workload.
 
Principles
  1. Bank planning: Analysis of subject matter and content.
  2. Collection of test items: Teachers and item writers specially trained for purposes, past examination papers:
    • Try out and item analysis
    • Using item analysis data
    • Banking selected items
    • Administering sample test.
 
Preparation of Question Bank
  1. Spent adequate amount of time for developing the question.
  2. Match the questions to the content taught.
  3. Try to make the question valid, reliable and balanced.
  4. Use a variety of testing methods.
  5. Write questions that tests skills other than recall:
    • To measure knowledge
    • To measure comprehension
    • To measure application
    • To measure analysis
    • To measure synthesis
    • To measure evaluation.
 
Levels of Question Bank
  1. Zero level: The question bank is just a library of questions; and questions are classified according to the areas of the syllabus.
  2. Level one: Certain details arrived in the form of ‘guess estimates’ by consensus of experienced teachers and subject-matter experts.
  3. Level two: The questions are classified according to the content of learning objectives that they test and each question is pretested and item analysis carried out to give more accurate information such as the facility index and discrimination index.
  4. Level three: It is a mere extension of level two. At this level the questions with their technical details are stored in a computer facilitating their retrieval and manipulation within a very short time.
 
Advantages
  • Test development
  • Question bank makes available readymade test items for use by every teacher
  • The cooperative efforts result in the improvement of item quality
  • Most of the examination weaknesses are minimized by using question banks.
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Disadvantages
  • Question bank is not cure all for measurement problems
  • It requires a great deal of work in terms of preparation and planning.
  1. Role of principal of a college of nursing in budgeting.
In the allocation of resources in academic settings, hierarchies of tradition and status often supersede documented need. Nursing programs sometimes have difficulty in getting what they need to maintain quality programs and to grow. The budget is the crucial tool in documenting nursing program needs and its contributions to the entire academic enterprise. Most nursing programs administrators see only an operating expense budget that may grow or shrink by a rubric that may not fit the reality of the situation. A budget is a quantitative expression of how well a unit is managed. Educational administrators should be paying as much attention to analyzing financial outcomes as they do curricular outcomes.
How to make a budget for the nursing institution:
  • Find out the actual budget for the previous year
  • Estimate the financial budget for the next year.
 
Income
  • Invested fund
  • Tuition fees based on number of student admission
  • Textbook
  • Uniform, etc.
Table 2   Budget for 2012–2013
2011–2012 actual budget
2012–2013 estimated budget
Income
Expenditure
Income
Expenditure
 
Expenditure
 
Indirect
  • Provision for general administration
  • Duty expense
  • Laundry expense
  • Telephone expense, etc.
 
Direct
  • Instructional
  • Noninstructional
  • Resident for the staff
  • Recreational
  • Clerical expense
  • Salaries
  • Maintenance and repair
  • Purchase of uniform
  • Health programs supplies
  • 24 Library (book acquisition, periodical subscription, textbook purchase and other library equipment
  • Recreational equipments
  • School equipments (class room and laboratory repairs)
  • Supplies and equipments for library, laboratory and classroom
  • Scholarship for the students, professional development of the faculty
  • Contingency fund for educational tours, professional activities.
Normally, controlling body takes the full responsibility for administering some of the item mentioned above, such as salary, stipend, equipment, linen, household supplies and transport. But there are others for which it is essential that the staff should be directly responsible if the objective is to be achieved. This need not necessarily involve them in the actual payment of the bills, but it does mean that they must advise the amount of budget required, should know the amount sanctioned, and should have full control over how the money provided will spent:
  1. The library for the purchase of books, journals and daily newspapers, for binding of journals, for stationary such as index card, label, etc.
  2. Incidental teaching equipment for teaching aids such as charts, films or slides, posters, paints, etc.
  3. Office supplies for stationary, including stencils, registers, typewriter ribbons, files, etc.
  4. External lecturers for the payment of fees in accordance with the policy of the controlling body.
  5. Contingencies as mentioned in the above list.
 
25Nursing Education: Paper 2013 November
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1. Discuss in brief taxonomy of objectives. Enumerate the importance of lesson plan.
  2. Enumerate the principles of evaluation. Critically examine the evaluation system existing in nursing education today and suggest measures for important.
  3. Discuss in brief, the teacher’s responsibilities in selection and organization of learning experiences in classroom and clinical area in nursing education.
  4. List the models of curriculum development. Write in detail about any one model.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Importance of accreditation in nursing.
  2. Field visits as an instructional method.
  3. Importance of guidance and counseling for nursing studies.
  4. Preparation of a professional teacher.
1. Discuss in brief taxonomy of objectives. Enumerate the importance of lesson plan.
 
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
One of the most widely used ways of organizing levels of expertise is according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom et al 1994; Gronlund, 1991; Krathwohl et al,1956) Bloom’s taxonomy uses a multi-tiered scale to express the level of expertise required to achieve each measurable student outcome. Organizing measurable student outcomes in this way will allow us to select appropriate classroom assessment techniques for the course.
There are three taxonomies. Out of the three to use for a given measurable student outcome depends upon the original goal, to which the measurable student outcome is connected. There are knowledge-based goals, skills-based goals and affective goals (affective: values, attitudes and interests); accordingly, there is a taxonomy for each. Within each taxonomy level of expertise are listed in order of increasing complexity. Measurable student outcomes that require the higher levels of expertise will require more sophisticated classroom assessment techniques.
 
Importance of Lesson Plan
 
Definition
‘A plan prepare by a teacher to teach a lesson in an organization manner’ according to Lester, “a lesson plan is actually a plan of action.
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Table 1   Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives for knowledge-based goals
Level of expertise
Description of level
Example of measurable student outcome
Knowledge
Recall or recognition of terms, ideas, procedure, theories, etc.
When is the first day of spring?
Comprehension
Translate, interpret, extrapolate, but not see full implications or transfer to other situations, closer to literal translation
What does the summer solstice represent?
Application
Apply abstractions, general principles, or methods to specific concrete situations
What would earth's seasons be like, if its orbit was perfectly circular?
Analysis
Separation of a complex idea into its constituent parts and an understanding of organization and relationship between the parts
Includes realizing the distinction between hypothesis and fact as well as between relevant and extraneous variables
Why are seasons reversed in the southern hemisphere?
Synthesis
Creative, mental construction of ideas and concepts from multiple sources to form complex ideas into a new, integrated and meaningful pattern subject to given constraints
If the longest day of the year is in June, why is the northern hemisphere hottest in August?
Evaluation
To make a judgment of ideas or methods using external evidence or self-selected criteria substantiated by observations or informed rationalizations
What would be the important variables for predicting seasons on a newly discovered planet?
Table 2   Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives for skills-based goals
Level of expertise
Description of level
Example of measurable student outcome
Perception
Uses sensory cues to guide actions
Some of the colored samples you see will need dilution before you take their spectra; using only observation, how will you decide which solutions might need to be diluted?
Set
Demonstrates a readiness to take action to perform the task or objective
Describe how you would go about taking the absorbance spectra of a sample of pigments?
Guided response
Knows steps required to complete the task or objective
Determine the density of a group of sample metals with regular and irregular shapes
Mechanism
Performs task or objective in a somewhat confident, proficient, and habitual manner
Using the procedure described below, determine the quantity of copper in your unknown ore; report its mean value and standard deviation
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Complex overt response
Performs task or objective in a confident, proficient, and habitual manner
Use titration to determine the Ka for an unknown weak acid
Adaptation
Performs task or objective as above, but can also modify actions to account for new or problematic situations
You are performing titrations on a series of unknown acids and find a variety of problems with the resulting curves, e.g. only 3.0 mL of base is required for one acid, while 75.0 mL is required in another
What can you do to get valid data for all the unknown acids?
Organization
Creates new tasks or objectives incorporating learned ones
Recall your plating and etching experiences with an aluminum substrate; choose a different metal substrate and design a process to plate, mask and etch so that a pattern of four different metals is created.
Table 3   Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives for affective goals
Level of expertise
Description of level
Example of measurable student outcome
Receiving
Demonstrates a willingness to participate in the activity
When am in class, I am attentive to the instructor, take notes, etc. I do not read the newspaper instead
Responding
Shows interest in the objects, phenomena, or activity by seeking it out or pursuing it for pleasure
I complete my homework and participate in class discussions
Valuing
Internalizes an appreciation for (values) the objectives, phenomena or activity
I seek out information in popular media related to my class
Organization
Begins to compare different values and resolves conflicts between them to form an internally consistent system of values
Some of the ideas have learned in my class differ from my previous beliefs; how do I resolve this?
Characterization by a value or value complex
Adopts a long-term value system, i.e. "pervasive, consistent, and predictable"
Have decided to take my family on a vacation to visit some of the places, I learned about in my class
It, therefore, includes the working philosophy of the teacher, her knowledge of philosophy, her information about and understanding of her pupils, her comprehension of the objectives of education, her knowledge of the material to be taught and her ability to utilize effective method.”
 
Importance of Lesson Planning
  1. It ensure a define objective for the day work and a clear visualization of that objective.
  2. It forced consideration of goals/objective, the selection of subject matter, procedure planning of the activities and preparation to tests of progress.
  3. 28 It keep the teacher on the track to sure steady progress and a defined, outcome of teaching and learning procedure.
  4. Enable to choose and adopt effective method of teaching.
  5. Enable to evaluate the teaching.
  6. It helps to clarify the ideas.
  7. It helps the teacher to delimit the teaching field keeps boundaries in which the teacher has to work and they saves the time and labors.
  8. It bid the teacher to be systematic and orderly encourage good organization of subject matter, and activates by preventive haphazard in teaching.
  9. It encourages proper consideration of learning process and learning procedures.
  10. When it is well-planned, interest of student can be maintained.
2. Enumerate the principles of evaluation. Critically examine the evaluation system existing in nursing education today and suggest measures for important.
 
Definition
Evaluation is essential and never ending process, vicious cycle of formulating goals, measuring the progress towards them and determining the new goals, which emerge as a result of new warning.
—Chara M
 
Principles of Evaluation
  • Determining and clarifying what to be evaluated always has priority in evaluation process
  • Evaluation technique should be selected according to purpose to be served
  • Comprehensive evaluation requires a variety of evaluation technique
  • Proper use of evaluation technique requires an awareness of both limitation and strength
  • Evaluation is means to an end, and not an end in itself.
Five general guiding principles provide a framework to assist teachers in planning for student evaluation:
  1. Evaluation is an essential part of the teaching and learning process. It should be a planned, continuous activity, which is closely linked to both curriculum and instruction.
  2. Evaluation should be guided by the intended learning outcomes of the curriculum, and a variety of assessment strategies should be used.
  3. Evaluation plans should be communicated in advanced. Students should have opportunities for input to the evaluation process.
  4. Evaluation should be fair and equitable. It should be sensitive to family, classroom, school, and community situations; it should be free of bias. Students should be given opportunities to demonstrate the extent of their knowledge, understandings, skills and attitudes.
  5. Evaluation should help students. It should provide positive feedback and encourage students to participate actively in their own learning.
Critically examine the evaluation system existing in nursing education today and suggest measures for important.
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Evaluation System in Nursing Program Today
  1. Minimum pass marks shall be 50% in each of the theory and practical papers separately.
  2. A candidate must have minimum of 80% attendance (irrespective of the kind of absence) in theory and practical in each subject for appearing the examination.
  3. A candidate must have 100% attendance in each of the practical areas before award of degree.
  4. A candidate has to pass in theory and practical exam separately in each of the paper.
  5. If a candidate fails in either theory or practical paper he/she has to reappear for both the papers (theory and practical).
  6. All practical examinations must be held in the respective clinical areas.
  7. One internal and one external examiner should jointly conduct practical examination for each student.
 
Internal Assessment
  1. There shall be 25% internal assessment for all theory paper and 50% internal assessment for all the practical.
  2. A regular and periodic assessment for each subject and clinical/field experience is to be carried out.
  3. For the purpose of interned assessment, there shall be written test in each subject taken by the respective teacher in each month.
    The student shall be required to maintain the practical record book and report of observation visits and diary for assessment by the teacher concerned, various other techniques for assessment must also be used marks shall be allotted for each of the following:
    • Case study
    • Case presentation
    • Nursing care plan
    • Maintenance of record books (procedure book and midwifery record book)
    • Daily diary
    • Area wise clinical assessment is to be carried out, minimum two assessments are required in each clinical area.
  4. Regular record of theory and practical is be maintained. Task oriented assessment is to be undertaken. Assessment shall be maintained by teacher for each student in each month. This can be checked by the council/board. Principal shall sign all the records of examination. It should be displayed on the notice board for the information of the students.
  5. A candidate must secure 50% marks in internal assessment separately, in each theory and practical. To be successful, a student must get 50% marks in the internal as well as council or board examination of each year.
  6. For a student, who appears for any supplementary examination, her/his fresh internal assessment in the failed subject (S)/practical (S) is to be sent to the council/board.
  7. State nursing council/board should prepare a model perform for performance evaluation for each of the clinical area and circulate to all; schools of nursing for maintaining uniformity.
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Grading of Examination
Examination shall be graded on aggregate marks of the entire 3½ years of the training program, as follows:
  • Distinction: 80% and above
  • First division: 70–79%
  • Second division: 60–69%
  • Pass: 50–59%.
 
Theory Examination
  1. Nursing teacher with minimum 5 years of teaching experience (recent) in a particular subject may be appointed as paper setters and examiners for that particular subject only.
  2. Question paper should have a combination of essay, short answer and objective type question (situation-based questions).
  3. All units of a subject and sub-subject should be given due weight age in accordance with the instructional hours prescribed.
 
Practical Examination
  1. Practical examination is to be conducted in the respective clinical area.
  2. Nursing teacher with minimum of 5 years of teaching/clinical teaching experience (recent) in a particular examiner.
  3. Not more than 10–15 students are to be examined in a day.
  4. Internal and external examiner shall jointly evaluate each candidate for the practical examination.
 
Suggestions
  • Theory examination will conduct at common examination hall
  • Paper correction center should create and center valuation will follow
  • Practical examination will conduct with respective clinical areas
  • Theory and practical examination will finish with in time
  • Well experience teacher correct the papers and conduct practical
  • Marking system should be grade system like A, B, C and D
  • Common examination pattern or periods in all over India
  • Well-qualified teachers/tutors will conduct practical and theory paper correction
  • Examination results should publish as soon as possible.
3. Discuss in brief, the teacher’s responsibilities in selection and organization of learning experiences in classroom and clinical area in nursing education.
 
Selection of Learning
Learning experience is defined as deliberately planned experience in selected situations, where students actively participate, interact and which result in desirable changes 31 of behavior in the students. In nursing education, selection of learning experience is concerned with the decision about the content of subject matter and clinical, community, and laboratory practice. Thus, selection of learning situation together with corresponding learning activities will comprise the learning experiences. When these are in relation to the selection of subject matter, i.e. different theoretical are selected in terms of community and clinical nursing practice and laboratory work these will constitute practical learning experience. In short, learning experience are those experiences, which make appropriate responses among students as indicated in the objectives.
Principles to be followed in the selection of learning experiences:
  1. All learning needs should be in relation to the selected objectives.
  2. Learning activities should be in relation to those real life situations, where the students are expected to practice after being qualified.
  3. Selection should be in a manner that there is an effective integration between theory and practice.
  4. Reaction sought must be within the range of possibility for the students concerned.
  5. The same learning experience will result in several outcomes and several learning experiences may bring out the same outcome.
  6. Learning experiences should be selected in such a way that learners are constantly motivated.
  7. Learning experiences should be planned and organized in such a way that the student gets meaning out of each experiences and focus on the future needs.
  8. Learning is enhanced by utilizing a wide variety of teaching and learning methods.
  9. Students will learn effectively, if the experiences are satisfactory to them.
  10. Learning experiences should consider the students ability to undergo the desired changes in behavior.
  11. Learning experiences selected should be according to the needs of the students and every student should be given similar learning experiences.
  12. Learning experiences selected should provide same or equal chances for all students.
 
Organization of Learning Experience
Once learning experiences are selected, teacher has to organize the learning experiences.
 
Elements of Organizing the Learning Experiences in Nursing Education
Elements to be considered, while organizing the learning experiences are:
  • Grouping learning experiences under subject heading
  • Preparation of master plan for curriculum
  • Placement of learning experiences in the total curriculum
  • Preparation of the correlation chart
  • Organization of clinical experience in the total curriculum
  • Types of teaching system have to be followed.
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Classifications of Learning Experiences
Learning experiences can be classified into two categories, i.e. direct learning experiences and indirect learning experiences. Direct learning experiences: There are first hand experiences with various objects or symbols. Some of the direct experiences are as follow:
  • Observing samples or specimen
  • Experimenting with physical and chemicals materials
  • Setting up apparatus for experiment
  • Operating machines
  • Constructing models, charts, plans and diagrams
  • Drawing figures and painting models
  • Summarizing a lengthy description
  • Collecting analyzing and interpreting the data, and generalizing
  • Listing important facts and points
  • Presenting ideas orally or in writing
  • Conducting physical examination of clients
  • Performing nursing procedures
  • Handling different types of medical equipment.
 
Indirect Learning Experience
These are those experiences, which are not firsthand experiences. In education program like nursing education, most of the time every student cannot get direct experiences in all matters relating to nursing. Organization of learning experiences in classroom and clinical area in nursing education.
 
In Class Room
 
Preparation of Master Plan for Curriculum
Preparation of master plan will guide teachers in the placement of subject matter and clinical experience. This will give a clear picture as to how, in which year and in what stage are the subject matter going to be taught and the relevant clinical experience to be offered.
Master plan should be prepared in accordance with the requirement prescribed by the statutory bodies such as Indian Nursing Council and Universities. The master plan also spells out the hours of planned instructions an required hours of clinical experience per week or per month of the year; invariably the master plan explains the following:
  • Total duration of program
  • Explanation of different course of study with special reference to theory and practical
  • Total allotted hours in terms of theory and practical.
 
In Clinical Area
 
Organization of Clinical Experience
Organization of clinical experience in the curriculum is done on the basis of the syllabus and regulations laid down by the statutory bodies such as Indian Nursing Council and 33 Universities. Organization of clinical experience is the responsibility of the faculty. Clinical experience related to each course should be planned according to the objectives, so that students will get enough opportunities for developing the desired nursing skills and attitude.
 
Factors Influencing the Clinical Rotation Plan
Multiple factors influence the planning of clinical rotation plan. They are:
  • Requirement stated by the statutory bodies such as Indian Nursing Council and universities
  • The objectives of the course
  • Only a limited number of student, can be posted in a particular clinical area
  • Infrastructure of various clinical areas
  • Duration of experience in each area
  • Nurse educators available for supervision.
Principles of developing clinical rotation plan
Principles related to the development of clinical rotation plan will help to accomplish the objective of the clinical posting in a more effective manner:
  • A clinical rotation plan must be in developed accordance with the master plan of the curriculum
  • The master plan must be made in advance with the cooperation of all the faculty members involved in the clinical teaching
  • Maxims of teaching should be followed while selecting areas of experience
  • Principle of continuing sequence and integration should be followed to maximum extent
  • Enough teaching staff should be made available in the clinical areas for giving proper instructions to the students
  • Seeks suggestions of the nursing staff working to the suggestion of nursing staff will help to post the students in such a way that they will get enough exposure
  • First year students should receive maximum supervision and attention
  • All students should get enough experience as per the clinical rotation plan
  • All assignments related to the clinical area should be finished before the completion of the postings. Overcrowding in clinical areas with different groups of students is not advisable.
4. List the models of curriculum development. Write in detail about any one model.
 
Definitions
Beane, Toepfer and Alessi (1986) defined curriculum development in their book, ‘curriculum planning and development’; ‘curriculum development is mainly concerned with the design of plans for actual teaching learning situations. It is based upon the broad goals and identified ways to translate those goals into a coordinated and coherent program of learning experience’.
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Steps in Curriculum Development
According to Ralph Tyler, there are four main steps or tasks in curriculum development. They are:
  • Formulation of educational objectives
  • Selection of learning experiences
  • Effective and efficient organization of learning experience
  • Evaluation of the curriculum.
 
Models of Curriculum Development
The term ‘model’ as discussed by Oliva (1982) rates with scenario as one of the most abused words in current English usage. While a scenario may turn out to be any plan or series of events, a model may be a tried or untried scheme. It may be a programed solution to specific problems or it may be a microscopic pattern proposed for replication or a grander scale.
Some of the models are simple, others are very complex. Within a given area of specialization (administration, instruction, supervision or curriculum development), models may differ, but bear great similarities. The individual models are often refinements or revisions, frequently major, often minor, or already existing models.
The educational consumers, i.e. the practitioners to whom the model is directed has the heavy responsibility of selecting one model in their particular field. If the practitioners are not disposed to apply models they discovered, they may as well design their own or, as the case may be, to put all together and come out with a working model as guide in curriculum planning.
By examining models for curriculum development, we can analyze the phases, the originators or authors conceived as essential to the process of curriculum development. A model must show phases or components, not people. The specification of curriculum goals must chart a progression of steps from departmental committee to school faculty curriculum committee or extended school committee, to principal, to district curriculum committee, to superintendent and to school board.
Oliva, 1982
 
TYLER MODEL
One of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to the planning phases.
It proposed a comprehensive model for curriculum development. The first part of this model; the selection of objectives receives the greatest attention from other educators. Tyler recommended that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from the sources such as the learners, contemporary life outside the school and the subject matter. The numerous general objectives are refined by filtering them through two screens:
  1. Educational and social philosophy of the school.
  2. Psychology of learning and become specific instructional objectives.
In describing general objectives, Tyler referred them as ‘goals’, ‘educational objectives’, and ‘educational purposes’. He further stated that the curriculum worker must begin 35 analyzing data relevant to student needs and interest. These are educational, social, occupational, physical, psychological and recreational. He recommended observations by teachers, interviews with students, interviews with parents, questionnaires and tests as techniques for collecting data about students. By examining these needs, the curriculum developer identifies a set of potential objectives.
The next step in the process of general objectives is the analysis of contemporary life in both the local community and the society. From the needs of society flow many potential educational objectives. For the source the curriculum planner turns to the subject matter, the disciplines themselves. From the three aforementioned sources, curriculum planners derived a multiplicity of general or broad objectives. Once this array of possible objectives is determined, a screening process is necessary to eliminate unnecessary and unimportant and contradictory objectives. Tyler advises the use of the schools educational and social philosophy as the first screen of these goals. In philosophical screen, Tyler advise teachers of a particular schools to formulate educational and social philosophy and to outline values by emphasizing four democratic goals:
  • The recognition of every individual as a human being regardless of his race, national, social and economic status
  • Opportunity for wide participation in all phases of activities in the social groups in the society
  • Encouragement of variability rather than demanding a single type of personality
  • Faith and intelligence as a method of dealing with important problems rather than depending upon the authority of an autocratic or aristocratic group.
In the psychological screen, the teachers must clarify the principles of learning that they believed to be sound. ‘A psychology of learning as emphasized by Tyler not only includes specific and definite findings but also it unified formulation of theory of learning, which helps to outline the nature of the learning process, how it takes place, under what conditions, what sort of mechanism operate and the like’. Tyler explains the significance of the psychological screen in the following statements:
  1. Knowledge in the psychology of learning enables us to distinguish changes in human beings that can be expected to result from a learning process from those that can not.
    zoom view
    Figure 1: Tyler’s Model
  2. 36 A knowledge in the psychology of learning enables us to distinguish goals that are feasible from those that likely to take a very long time or are almost impossible of attainment at the age level contemplated.
  3. Psychology of learning gives us some idea of the length of time required to attain an objective and the age levels at which the effort is most efficiently employed.
Tyler’s model describes three more steps in curriculum planning selection, organization and evaluation of learning experiences. He defined learning experiences as ‘the interaction between the learner and the external conditions in the environment to which he can react’. And teachers must give attention to learning experiences in order to:
  • Develop skill in thinking
  • Helpful in acquiring information
  • Helpful in developing social attitude
  • Helpful in developing interest.
 
Leyton Soto Model
Leyton Soto observed the linear nature of the Tyler model and the separation of the three sources of objectives. He eliminated some of the objectives to the Tyler model and added some of his refinements and clarifications. He charted three basic elements such as philosophy, psychology and sources; three basic processes such as selection, organization and evaluation; and three fundamental concepts such as objectives, activities, and experiences. Significantly he showed clearly the interrelationship among the various components of the model. He distinguished between learning experiences and learning activities. He defined objectives as the combination of experiences that the learner tries to achieve. Furthermore these experiences are the behaviors that are written into the objectives and activities are selected and organized, but only experiences, i.e. the terminal behaviors, are evaluated. Thus, the Leyton model presented an integrated or comprehensive model for curriculum development from the point of selecting objectives to the point of evaluating experiences.
 
Taba Model
Taba took what it is known as grass roots approach to curriculum development. She believed that the curriculum must be designed by teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. She felt that teachers should begin the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students rather than creating a curriculum design. She advocated an inductive approach to curriculum development, starting with specifics and building up to general design and working down to specifics. Taba’s five steps sequence for accomplishing curriculum change.
  1. Production by teachers of pilot teaching-learning units representative of the grade level or subject area:
    • Diagnosis of needs
    • Formulation of objectives
    • Selection of content
    • Organization of content
    • Selection of learning experiences
    • Organization of learning experiences
    • 37 Determination of what to evaluate and the ways, and means of doing it
    • Checking for balance and sequence.
  2. Testing experimental units.
  3. Revising and consolidating.
  4. Developing a framework.
  5. Installing and disseminating new units.
 
Saylor and Alexander Model
Their definition of curriculum is ‘a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities to achieve broad educational goals and related specific objectives for an identifiable population served by a single school center’. Yet it is not to be conceived as a single document, but rather as many smaller plans for particular portions of the curriculum.
 
Oliva Model
Another Oliva’s model is a comprehensive, step by step process that takes the curriculum planner from the sources of curriculum to evaluation. A model for curriculum development.
—Oliva 1976
zoom view
Figure 2: Oliva model
 
SHORT ESSAYS
5. Importance of accreditation in nursing.
All professionals have one thing in common, i.e. concern for the quality of their service, which is ensured by developing and enforcing the standards. Two important ways of setting standards are accreditation of the education program and the professional licensure.
 
Definition
‘Accreditation is the process whereby an organization or agency recognizes a college or university, or program of study as having met certain predetermined qualifications or standards’.
—Selden 1962
Accrediting is carried on mainly by voluntary organizations. Although these organizations are advisory in nature and do not have legal power to control institutions of higher education they do exert pressure.
 
Purposes of Accreditation
  • For the maintenance of adequate administration requirement
  • Maintaining a uniform standard for nursing education and nursing service
  • 38 Stimulation of institutional self-improvement by evaluation and inspection
  • It safeguards the institution from social education and political pressures
  • It helps in the registration of nurses
  • It prescribes the syllabus
  • It grants recognition to school and colleges
  • It guides the school/college of nursing, according to recommendation and criteria
  • It also services to prepare the competent to serve the public.
 
Functions of Accreditation
  • It aims to protect the autonomy of various health service programs, e.g. nursing education and medical education
  • It preserves the quality of nursing education
  • It protects the public from ill prepared nurses
  • It protects the institutions unsound and unsafe political pressure
  • It helps the practitioner for the broad scope of nursing practice.
 
Importance of Accreditation
  1. To ensure safe practice of nursing by setting standards for schools and colleges preparing the professionals.
  2. To encourage study and self-evaluation within the educational units for the development and improvement of the educational program.
  3. To ensure maximum benefit for the students and to protect the students interests.
  4. To ensure the graduates of the accredited schools the eligibility for admission to the licensing examinations.
  5. It acts as a monitoring and controlling agency.
  6. To provide a list of accredited schools of nursing and this assist students and counselors in selection of schools, which offer accredited programs in nursing. Accreditation in nursing education programs.
 
Policies for Accreditation
 
Board Approval of the Initial Development of the Nursing Program
  1. Letter of intention should be submitted to the board describing the reasons for establishing the school and the predicted timetable of development.
  2. Qualification forms to be submitted to the board, by the full time person responsible for the program, who is qualified with the master degree in nursing accredited by the National League for Nursing and with appropriate preparation for administration in nursing education. Faculty qualification is to be on file in the board office on all nurse faculty members.
  3. The nurse director or chairman of the department nursing should be employed on a full time basis for one academic year before the admission of students to the nursing program. This period is known as the ‘planning year’. There should be funds available for the departure chairman to have nurse faculty members participate in developing the philosophy, objectives and course content in the nursing subjects prior to their full appointment of the faculty.
39
 
Board Approval for the Admission of Students
  1. A statement describing the philosophy, objectives nature of organization and administration should be submitted to the board, at least 3 weeks prior to the board meeting, at which time the program will be reviewed. This must occur at least 6 months to the admission of the first batch.
  2. The statement should contain descriptions of the following as well:
    • Student body (number to be admitted to the first batch maximum number to be admitted with projected time table containing source of qualified students desiring this type program)
    • Faculty: Number to be employed, dates of appointment, for faculty recruitment, qualification or appointed members
(Note: Not more than 10 students should be the responsibility one faculty member in a clinical area at any one time)
  • Curriculum, educational and clinical facilities
  • Projected budget for a 5 year period
  • Plans for evaluation.
6. Field visits as an instructional method.
A field trip is defined as any teaching and learning excursion outside of the classroom.
 
Definition
Field visits is defined as an educational procedure by which the students obtain first hand information by observing laces, objects, phenomena or activities and process in their natural setting to further learning.
 
Purposes
The purposes of field visits are:
  1. To provide real life situations for the firsthand information.
  2. To supplement classroom instruction, to secure definite information for specific lesson.
  3. To serve as a preview of a lesson and for gathering instructional materials.
  4. To verify previous information, class discussion and conclusion of individual experiments.
  5. To serve as a means of arousing specific interest in materials, objects, places or processes.
  6. To create teaching situations for cultivating observation, keenness and discovery.
  7. To serve as a means to develop positive attitudes values and special skills.
 
Organization and Procedure
Organization and procedure of field trips:
  • Preplanning:
    • By teacher
    • By students.
  • Actual conduct of the trips
  • Evaluation.
40
 
Preplanning by Teacher
  1. Decide on the trip
  2. Know the resources
  3. Obtain administrative sanction of school/college
  4. Dealings with the organization two obtain permission, data and time, visit and know the resources and inform the objectives
  5. Arrange transport, time and date
  6. Prepare the students with theoretical base, teacher plans with the student:
    • Formulate the objectives
    • List down specific information to be obtained
    • Formulate questions to be asked to the guide and prepare guide sheet
    • If a large group, divide and allot specific jobs
    • Brief them, equipment or accessories needed, data and time of transport, actual locations, set up, conduct and behavior during the trip and safety to be observed.
 
Actual Conduct of the Trip
  • Follow the schedule
  • Strictly follow safety precautions
  • Observe and collect information needed
  • Collect source/study materials, if provided
  • Teacher supervisors and call attention to the pertinent points
  • Observe formalities and extend courtesies
Points to remember: Trip should follow in an orderly manner. Do not cause disturbance to the organization.
 
Evaluation Phase
  • Should be done as early as possible
  • Students write a report with the observations effectiveness of the trip and difficulties faced
  • Teacher evaluates the reports by the student
  • Teacher prepares an evaluation and along with specific observation from the students maintains a record, which can be referred later.
 
Features of Field Trip
  1. Facilitate the learning of abstract concepts. Taking students on a field trip makes learning more effective as they will be able to gain vast ideas on the topic.
  2. Motivate students through increased interest and curiosity. Field trips can add variety to the regular classroom instructional program and they tend to be special, and enjoyable learning experiences. As a result, students will develop positive attitudes in students toward related classroom activities.
  3. Increases student-student and student-teacher social interaction. Field trips provide an opportunity to involve students, parents, and the teachers in the instructional program. Students can select the place to be visited, developing questions to ask, 41 writing reports or thank you letters after the trip, or evaluating the experiences. Since parents must give their permission, a letter sent home with the permission form explaining purpose of the trip is a good way to arouse their curiosity and encourage them to ask the student or teacher about the trip. The parent guides their child in order to make sure that they do not come to any harm. This role allows the parent and teacher to establish a much closer relationship. The interaction between students within themselves will also be increased when they work in groups. Moreover, the interaction between the students and teacher will enhance as the students will have to discuss to the teachers when they have doubts.
  4. Develops social awareness. Field trips make students aware of learning activities in everyday life. For instance, visits to supermarkets or shopping malls are typical field experiences, which teachers may fail to notice. A well-organized trip to a ‘normal’ place is an excellent method of teaching students to observe, ask questions and learn in the large classroom.
 
Types of Field Trip Strategy
 
Instructional Trips
An instructional trip is a visit, by a class or group of classes to a location outside the regular classroom, which is designed to allow the students to achieve specific course objectives, which cannot be achieved as efficiently by other means. An example of an instructional field trip is a visit to botanical garden to study about different kind of flower.
 
School Contests or Festivals
A school contest is an extra campus activity, which provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate knowledge and skills developed through subject area instruction. Contests, competitions, festivals or evaluations may involve teams of students from more than one class or subject. An example of a school contest, festival or evaluation is the school level essay competition.
 
Motivational Trips
A motivational trip is an extra-campus activity, which is not a part of a scheduled class. It provides a motivational incentive for the school, club, group or class and is related to improving the school climate. The procedures in this guide are for instructional field trips. If planning a motivational trip, please note that this requires approval from the general area director.
An example of a motivational trip is an end of year visit to Buddha point by a student body. First a teacher must choose the kind of trip to take and then decide on a general location for the trip. Organization and procedure for field trips:
  1. Knowledge: The teacher has to survey the area to know whether the field trips planned will contribute to the attainment of desired objectives.
  2. Rapport: The teacher should establish and maintain cordial relations with those in charge of the situations to be visited.
  3. 42 Objectives: It should be stated carefully and completely. The learning activities have to be selected and it should contribute for the attainment of objectives.
  4. Time and transportation: Necessary arrangements have to be made with the administrative personnel of the place to be visited regarding the time, place of meeting and the length of visit.
  5. Preparation of the students: Students should be given an opportunity to list cooperatively, the objectives for which the trip is planned. Directions to be given, on the procedure to be followed in the observation and the special points to note.
  6. Supervision: Trip should be supervised carefully. The teacher can assist the student by calling attention to pertinent point.
  7. Follow–up and evaluation: An hour should be allotted for an open discussion. It can be done by means of student’s reports.
 
Values of the Field Trip
  • It breaks monotony of the classroom and provides real life experiences
  • It furnishes firsthand information to supplement and to enrich classroom instruction
  • It provides opportunity in learning attitudes and positive values, i.e. cooperation and discipline
  • They correlate and blend school life with the outside world, providing direct touch with persons, and with community situations
  • It provides opportunities in learning and acquiring skills, i.e. observation communication, critical thinking and social skills
  • Students develop better understanding of the etiologic factors of disease
  • It arouse interest and vitalize instruction, thereby providing motivation, i.e. it provides opportunity to have above participations and gears motivation
  • It helps to create situations, which in turn help to develop observation and keenness
  • Offers an opportunity to apply that which has been taught to verify what has been learned
  • They serve as an effective means of correlating the subjects of the curriculum
  • They provide opportunity to consider and to solve problems arising from individual and group participation in a natural social situation.
 
Advantages
Real-world experience: It allows students to have a real-world experience. For example, a textbook lesson on the domestic animals can be enhanced by a trip to a local farm where the students can clearly see the domestic animals.
Increase in quality of education: For example, a biology field trip could take kids on a hunt for bugs or certain types of flowers. In this case, students can learn more. Hence, it improves the quality of education.
Improvement of the social relations: It is a way to bring the students closer together. Many field trips combine educational content with team-building activities, such as working together to clean a stream that has been polluted. In fact, it is often a good idea to go on a field trip to help create a bond between the students.
43
 
Disadvantages
  • Field trip is time consuming
  • Careful planning is required
  • Many parties to be involved, cooperation, coordination of various agencies are required
  • Transportation may be a problem
  • Since the students are going out of school/college premises it is risky, safety precautions essential
  • If the group is too large, effective observation becomes difficult
  • Inability to schedule the trip in time, when the unit is taught
  • It involves cost, i.e. sometimes cost involvements is more.
7. Importance of guidance and counseling for nursing studies.
 
Meaning of Guidance
Literally guidance means ‘to direct‘, ‘to point out‘, to show the path‘. It is the assistance or help rendered by a more experienced person to a less experiences person, to solve certain major problems of the individual (less experienced), i.e. educational, vocational, personal, etc.
According to Jones, ‘guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments, and in solving problems’.
While Skinner says ‘guidance is a process of helping young persons learns to adjust to self, to others, and to circumstances’.
 
Importance of Guidance
Guidance is needed wherever there are problems. The need and importance of guidance are as follows:
  1. Self-understanding and self-direction: Guidance helps in understanding one‘s strength, limitations and other resources. Guidance helps individual to develop ability to solve problems and take decisions.
  2. Optimum development of individual.
  3. Solving different problem of the individual.
  4. Academic growth and development.
  5. Vocational maturity, vocational choices and vocational adjustments.
  6. Social personal adjustment.
  7. Better family life.
  8. Good citizenship.
  9. For conservation and proper utilization of human resources.
  10. For national development.
Guidance is helpful not only for student and teacher in an educational institution but also to the parents, administrators, planners and community members.
44
 
Counseling
Counseling is the relationship between two persons in which, one of them attempts to assist the other in organizing himself to attain a form of happiness, adjustment to a life situation, i.e. self-actualization.
According to Shostorm and Brammer (1952), ‘counseling is a purposeful reciprocal relationship between two people in which one a trained person helps the other to change himself or his environment’.
 
Need of Counseling
Counseling is an integral part of an overall program of guidance. ‘Counseling is a specific process of assistance extended by an expert in an individual situation to a needy person’. This means the counseling situation arises when a needy person is face to face with and expert who makes available his assistance to the needy individual to fulfill his needs.
Importances of counseling are:
  1. To help in the total development of the student. Along with the intellectual development proper motivation and clarification of goals and ideas to pupils in conformity with their basic potentialities and social tendencies are important, total development of the student nauseates that individual differences among them are expected, accepted, understood and planned for all types of experiences in an institution are to be so organized as to contribute to the total development of the student.
  2. To help in the proper choices of courses.
  3. To help in the proper choices of carvers.
  4. To help in the students in vocational development.
  5. To develop readiness for choices and changes to face new challenges.
  6. To minimize the mismatching between education and employment and help in the efficient use of manpower.
  7. To motivate the youth for self-employment.
  8. To help fresher’s establish proper identity guidance and counseling service is needed to help students deal effectively with the normal developmental tasks of adolescence and face life situations boldly.
  9. To identify and motivate the students form weaker sections of society.
  10. To help the students in their period of turmoil and confusion.
  11. To help in checking wastage and stagnation.
  12. To identity and help students in need of special help.
  13. There are such students as the gifted, the backward the handicapped who need special opportunities. They need special attention and opportunities.
  14. To ensure the proper utilization of time spent outside the classrooms.
8. Preparation of a professional teacher.
 
Teacher Education
 
Definition
  1. According to the Dictionary of education CV Good (1973), teacher education is defined as “all formal and informal activities and experiences that help to qualify a 45 person to assume the responsibility as a member of the educational profession or to discharge his responsibility most effectively.’’
  2. According to the Encyclopedia of Educational Research (1941), Walter S Monroe, defines teacher education as “the total education experiences which contribute to the preparation of a person, but the term is completely employed to designate the program for the courses and other experiences offered by an educational institute for the announced purposes of preparing persons for teaching and other educational service and for contributing to their growth in competency for such service. Such teacher education programs are offered in teacher colleges, normal schools and colleges, and universities.’’
  3. The Educational Commission (1964–1966) said, “a sound program of professional education of teachers is essential for the qualitative improvement of education. Investment in teacher education can yield very rich dividends because the financial resources required are small when measured against the resulting improvement in the education of millions.”
 
Objectives
  • To develop in prospective teacher educators necessary skills and competencies needful for the preparation of the teacher
  • To impart the latest knowledge of the relevant disciplines
  • To upgrade their knowledge and develop a critical awareness
  • To develop the capacity of elaboration, examination, interpretation and communication of ideas
  • To enable them to undertake meaningful educational research for improving the condition of education and society
  • To develop among them the desire for lifelong learning for removing anachronism from them.
 
Types of Teacher Education
  1. Continuous education.
  2. Inservice education.
Continuous education
According to the commission on teacher education in USA “continued teacher education means much more than making up defects in preparation. It means continuous growth in the capacity to teach. It means a broadened understanding of human development and human living, i.e. growth in one’s capacity to work with others, with classroom teachers and principals in a variety of activities, with the administration, with parents and community leaders and with children age group.’’
Inservice education
This is self-explanatory, it refers to the education a teacher receives when he has entered the teaching profession after he has had his education or training in a teaching institute or college. It includes all the fields, i.e. the refresher courses, etc. that he receives at different institutions.
Functions
  • Better understanding of the students
  • Building confidence
  • 46 Methodology of teaching
  • Building a favorable attitude
  • Familiarizing with school organization
  • Creating social insight
  • Improving standards
  • Training for democracy.
Preservice teacher education
  • Training school for elementary teachers
  • Pre-primary schools or nursing institutions
  • Secondary training schools
  • Training colleges or colleges of education
  • Institutes of advanced studies in education
  • Training colleges for special education. For example, handicaps, deaf and dumb, etc.
  • Training colleges for special subjects. For example, preparing teachers in certain subjects like physical education, home science, craft, etc.
 
Selection of Teacher Educators
  • Good physique
  • Linguistic ability and communication skills
  • A fair degree of general mental ability
  • General awareness of the world
  • A positive outlook on life
  • The capacity for good human relations
  • Recruitment first and training afterwards
  • Internship in place of practice teaching
  • Right tools for evaluation of pupil teacher performance. For example, self-assessment, and pre- and post-lesson discussion.
 
Method of Preparation of Nurse Educator
Induction program
  1. It is a brief, standardized introduction to an agency’s philosophy purposes, policies and regulations is given to each worker, during his/her first two or three days of employment, in order to ensure his/her identification with agency.
  2. It is first aspect of orientation. It starts with explanation of history, purpose philosophy and then information related job. Give organizational manual for proper self- understanding.
Purposes
  • Provide information and development of familiar environment
  • Start the work knowingly and with positive attitude
  • Get the work done efficiently and effectively.
Important points
Keep duration of 2–3 days. Information must be short and adequate.
47 Job orientation
After induction program, the employee should be oriented to specific job for she is hired. It is needed because, each organization has lot of variations. Duration of this depends upon the unit. About 3–4 weeks for general wards whereas 3–4 months for super specialized units like OT and ICCU’s. Forms of orientation:
  • Centralized
  • Decentralized
  • Standardized orientation program
  • Individual program.
Objectives of orientation program are:
  • Help the nurse/nurses to adjust more easily with her new environment (for that opportunities are provided)
  • Acquainted with hospital, philosophies and policies
  • Gain information about expected behavior
  • Provide assistance to get adjust with patient care
  • Help to understand her role in hospital and community
  • Cultivate positive attitude and harmonious relationship.
 
Continuing Education
Philosophy: It is believed that the system of higher education, which provides the opportunities to keep update knowledge and skill.
Definition: Any extension of opportunities for reading, study and training to any person/adult following their completion of or withdrawal from full time school/college program.
Need for continuing education is to.
  • Meet demands of new role
  • Desire of promotion/higher salary
  • Keep update knowledge and skills
  • Provide quality care.
 
Nurse Internship
Nursing internship is traditional orientation program. Nowadays internship is part of program, e.g. medical internship and nursing internship (GNM):
 
Purposes
  • To improve recruitment
  • To facilitate role transition from young graduates
  • To decrease demands upon the head nurse to provide basic skill training.
It is short and well-planned program. Duration of each differ from one to another.
 
Career Mobility Program Purposes
  • To improve workers morale and motivation by eliminating dead ends jobs
  • To decrease of costly labor turnover
  • To prepare right person for right job
  • Redesigning of each program is needed for better preparation of higher education
  • Vast career opportunities are available in nursing. It needs shot term or long term specialties and super specialties.
 
48Nursing Education: Paper 2013 May
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1.  
    1. Discuss the characteristics of learning.
    2. Explain how you will develop critical thinking in nursing students.
  2. What are the major factors to be considered in the development of the nursing curriculum?
  3. Discuss the principles for preparing rating scale. What are the uses, qualities, advantages and disadvantages of a rating scale?
  4. What are the characteristics of a good audiovisual (AV) aid? Discuss the various types of projected visual aids.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Steps in curriculum construction.
  2. Role of professional nursing associations in maintaining standard and nursing education.
  3. In-service education.
  4. Current issues in nursing education.
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1.  
    1. Discuss the characteristics of learning.
    2. Explain how you will develop critical thinking in nursing students.
a. Discuss the characteristics of learning.
Yoakman and Simpson have described the following nine important characteristics of learning.
 
Learning is Growth
The individuals grow as they live. This growth implies both physical as well as mental development of the learner. The individual gains experiences through various activities. These are all sources of learning. The individual grows through living and learning. Thus growth and learning are interrelated and even synonymous.
 
Learning is Adjustment
Learning enables the individuals to adjust themselves properly with the new situations. The individual faces new problems and new situations throughout the life and learning helps them to solve the problems encountered by him. That is why many psychologists describe learning as “a process of progressive adjustment to the ever changing conditions which one encounters.” The society in which we live is so complex and dynamic that any one type 49 f aadjustment will not be suitable for all or many situations and problems. It is through learning that one could achieve the ability to adjust adequately to all situations of life.
 
Learning is Purposeful
All kinds of learning is goal-oriented. The individuals act with some purpose. They learn through activities and get themself interested when they are aware of their objectives to be realized through these activities. Therefore, all learning is purposive in nature.
 
Learning is Experience
The individual learns through experiences. Human life is full of experiences. All these experiences provide new knowledge in understanding skills and attitudes. Learning is not mere acquisition of the knowledge, skills and attitudes, it is also the reorganization of experiences or the synthesis of the old experiences with the new.
 
Learning is Intelligent
Mere cramming without proper understanding does not make learning. Thus meaningless efforts do not produce permanent results. Any work done mechanically cannot yield satisfactory learning outcomes. Learning, therefore, must be intelligent.
 
Learning is Active
Learning is given more importance than teaching. It implies self-activity of the learning. Without adequate motivation they cannot work wholeheartedly and motivation is therefore, at the root of self-activity. Learning by doing is thus an important principle of education and the basis of all progressive methods of education like project, the Dalton, the Montessori and basic system.
 
Learning is Both Individual and Social
Although, learning is an individual activity, it is social also. Individual mind is consciously or unconsciously affected by the group activities. Individual is influenced by his/her peers, friends, relatives, parents and classmates, and learns their ideas, feelings and attitudes in some way or the other. The social agencies like family, church, markets and clubs exert immense influence on the individual minds. As such, learning becomes both individual as well as social.
 
Learning is the Product of the Environment
The individual lives in interaction of the society. Particularly, environment plays an important part in the growth and development of the individual. The physical, social, intellectual and emotional development of the child is molded and remolded by the objects, and individuals in its environment. Therefore, emphasized that child’s environment should be made free from unhealthy and vicious matters to make it more effective for learning.
 
Learning Affects the Conduct of the Learner
Learning is called the modification of behavior. It affects the learner’s behavior and conduct. Every learning experience brings about changes in the mental structure of the learner. 50 Therefore, attempts are made to provide such learning experiences, which can mold the desired conduct and habits in the learners.
According to workplace relations management conference (WRM), law learning has the following characteristics:
  1. Learning is a continuous modification of behavior and continues throughout the life.
  2. Learning is pervasive. It reaches into all aspects of human life.
  3. Learning involves the whole person socially, emotionally and intellectually.
  4. Learning is often a change in the organization of behavior.
  5. Learning is developmental. Time is one of its dimensions.
  6. Learning is responsive to incentives. In most cases, positive incentives such as rewards are most effective than negative incentives such as punishments.
  7. Learning is always concerned with goals. These goals can be expressed in terms of observable behavior.
  8. Interest and learning are positively related. The individuals learn better those things, which they are interested in learning. Most boys find learning to play football easier than learning to add fractions.
  9. Learning depends on maturation and motivation.
b. Explain how you will develop critical thinking in nursing students.
 
Definition
Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing and/or evaluating information gathered from or generated by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions like clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth and fairness. It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning including purpose, problem or question-at-issue, assumptions, concepts, empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions, implications and consequences, objections from alternative viewpoints and frame of reference.
Critical thinking in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues and purposes, is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, such as scientificlly thinking, mathematically, historically, anthropologically, economically, morally and philosophically thinking.
According to Michael Scriven and Richard Paul critical thinking can be seen as having two components:
  1. A set of skills to process and generate information, and beliefs.
  2. The habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behavior.
 
Critical Thinking Procedure
Critical thinking requires the ability to:
  • Recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problems
  • Gather and marshal pertinent (relevant) information
  • 51 Recognize unstated assumptions and values
  • Comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discrimination
  • Interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments
  • Recognize the existence (or nonexistence) of logical relationships between propositions
  • Draw warranted conclusions and generalizations
  • Put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives
  • Reconstruct one’s patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience
  • Render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life.
In sum, “A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends.”
 
Ways to Develop Skills in Critical Thinking
There are a number of ways in which groups can work to develop their individual and collective skills in critical thinking. These include:
  1. Strengthening capacities to question and challenge assumptions in a constructive way: Asking ourselves questions about our work and assumptions, challenging each other respectfully, and seeking out others who have developed and fine-tuned such skills to assist us.
  2. Carrying out action research efforts where the group consciously sets out to learn and draw lessons from its work by reflecting on its actions.
  3. Participating in program reviews and reflections.
  4. Engaging in exchanges, activities and debates where people share and discuss lessons, questions, and challenges they face.
  5. Encouraging an atmosphere of debate, learning and support in the organization.
 
Constraints to Critical Thinking
There are various constraints to critical thinking that we can try to overcome or minimize:
  • Lack of motivation
  • Lack of experience and support to deal with ideas critically
  • Lack of available information
  • Power and trust dynamics within the group
  • Lack of time or culture of reflection.
  1. What are the major factors to be considered in the development of the nursing curriculum?
There are six major factors identified by Loretta E Heidgerken (1965), which influence curriculum development in nursing education:
  1. Philosophy of nursing education.
  2. Educational psychology.
  3. Society.
    zoom view
    Figure 1: Critical thinking procedure
  4. 52 Student.
  5. Life activities.
  6. Knowledge.
 
Philosophy of Nursing Education
Philosophy, i.e. educational philosophy in relation to curriculum construction refers to the value pattern, which determines the objectives, content and teaching methods of the educational program. Philosophy of nursing education is the vital factor in the curriculum, for it forms the basis for the final selection of the aims and objectives of the curriculum. Since, the major purpose of education is to bring about changes in the behavior of the student, the type of changes to be brought about is one of the most important problem of education.
Educational philosophy also provides the knowledge and guiding principles, which unify and serves criteria for the evaluation of the process of the curriculum.
 
Educational Psychology
Educational psychology is the science, which provides information on problems of learning through experimentations. It provides knowledge of individual differences, evaluation, learning, serves as background for principles of teaching and curriculum. Educational psychology applied to nursing education through research and experience, helps in selecting, the organization and the evaluating of learning experiences in the curriculum.
 
Society (Social Changes)
A society may be defined as a group of individuals who think themselves as a distinct group; they have a common in set of loyalties, values, etc. which induce the individuals to subordinate and even sacrifice themselves for common good for their group. Social change has been brought about largely by the advance of science and technology resulting in urbanization, industrialization. The urban, industrial culture, has brought many problems of cultural adjustment. Many of these adjustment lead to health problems and therefore, have implications for nursing education. The type of society, health and social needs of patients, families and community must be taken to consideration in curriculum development.
 
Student
Students are the learners in the basic nursing education programs, majority of them were young women candidates in their late adolescence whose needs corresponds to the needs of that group. The nursing students will meet many problems and will have to make many adjustments in the course of their experience in the study of nursing.
 
Life Activities
The term activities here includes the nursing and the personal activities in which the student will engage as a nurse and as a person. Since, the effective preparation for the life activities involves the growth of the students in individual capacities and in social participation, the curriculum for the nursing should provide opportunities for the major dynamic factors and should make changes in the health of the nation, in nursing functions 53 educations, socioeconomic and political forces and technologic resources, which affect the type of life activities in which student will engage, while she/he is learning nursing and when she/he gets into professional practice.
 
Knowledge
Descriptive knowledge consists of statement about things that can be perceived directly or in principle. It includes facts, laws, rules, theories, principles, etc. which describes and state that things are this way or that they act in this way. Normative knowledge consists of rules. The norms, the standards and the like of which individual make moral or aesthetic choices.
  1. Discuss the principles for preparing rating scale. What are the uses, qualities, advantages and disadvantages of a rating scale?
Rating means judgment of a person from the other. There are so many clinical aspect in the professional that do not lend themselves to get evaluated by the checklist. Rating is a term applied to express the opinion or judgment regarding some situation, object or character. Opinions are usually expressed on a scale of values according to Barr and others.
Rating scale records how much or how well it happened. Quantitative and qualitative terms will be used.
 
Principles for Preparing Rating Scale
  1. It directly relates to learning objectives.
  2. Needs to be confined to performance areas that can be observed.
  3. Clearly define the specific trait or mode of behavior.
  4. The trait or behavior should be readily observable in a number of situation.
  5. Allow some space in the rating scale card for the rater to give supplementary remarks.
  6. Rating position may need to be provided.
  7. There should be provision to omit items. The teacher feels unqualified to judge.
  8. Pooled ratings from more than one observer’s participation in the instrument development will make this more objective, clear, valid and reliable.
  9. All raters should be oriented to the specific scale as well as the process of rating in general.
  10. Consider evaluation setting, feedback and student participation.
  11. The rater should be unbiased and trained.
  12. All raters should be aware that rating scales are open to errors resulting in subjective judgments required of the observers. Error may be due to leniency, contrast error and halo effect, etc.
  13. Have expert and well-informed raters.
  14. Change the ends of the scale, so that the ‘good’ is not always at the top nor at bottom.
  15. Assure the rater that their anonymity will be maintained.
Table 1   Item analysis
Items
Excellent
Very good
Good
Average
Poor
How good was the performance?
How was that seminar?
54
 
Uses of Rating Scale
To evaluate skills, product outcome, activities, interests, attitudes and personnel characteristics.
 
Qualities of Rating Scale
  • Clarity
  • Variety
  • Simple
  • Relevance
  • Objectivity
  • Useful
  • Precision
  • Uniqueness.
 
Advantages of Rating Scale
  • Easy to administer and to score
  • Can be used for a large group of students
  • Clarity of feedback to students.
 
Disadvantages of Rating Scale
  • Misuse can result in consequent decrease in objectivity
  • It is difficult fix up rating
  • Halo effect in the judgment may take place
  • It is unscientific or unreliable.
  1. What are the characteristics of a good AV aid? Discuss the various types of projected visual aids.
 
Definition
Audiovisual aids are anything by means of which learning process may be encouraged or carried on through the sense of hearing or sense of sight.
—Good’s Dictionary of education
Audiovisual aids are any device, which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.
—Kinder S James
 
Characteristics of a Good Instructional Aid
JG Agarwal has outlined the qualities of a good instructional aid:
  1. It must be adapted to the intellectual maturity of the students.
  2. It should be meaningful and purposeful.
  3. It should be improvised, i.e. locally available materials should be used for preparation.
  4. It should be simple.
  5. It should be cost effective and cheap.
  6. It should be up-to-date.
  7. It should be large enough to be seen by the whole class.
  8. It should be easily portable.
55
 
Various Types of Projected Visual Aids
 
Slide Projector
Slide projector is a small piece of transparent material on which a single pictorial image or graphic image has been photographed or reproduced otherwise. A slide having a still transparency of 70 mm, 35 mm or 6 mm size is optically enlarged and projected on a screen as a real image.
Molded slides range in size 2 × 2 or 4.5 × 4 inch. Slides can be made from photographs and pictures taken by the teachers and pupils when they go on field trips for historical review, geographical, literary or scientific excursions.
The arrangement of slides in a proper sequence according to the topic discussed is an important aspect of teaching with them. A teacher needs to use the slides creatively in order to make the best use of them.
 
Microfilm Projector
Microfilm and microfiche are used widely for storage and retrieval of information. Microfilm contains photographed reading material on 35 mm film, each frame being the reduced photo of a printed page. Thus, printed matter of a book can be stored in a small loop of 35 mm film.
When the microfilm is passed through a microfilm reader, an enlarged image approximately of the size of the printed page is formed on a ground-glass screen and the observer can read the matter by moving the film through the film pages.
 
Overhead Projector
Overhead projector (OHP) is a device for projecting matter, which is written or drawn on transparent sheet of acetate onto a screen.
The overhead projector is a very vital feeling and it has made projections so simple and easy that it has replaced a chalkboard completely in many classrooms.
Concept of overhead projector
It produces images on a screen behind and over the head of a teacher. An OHP can be used in soft light conditions which enable the students to take down notes, while viewing the projections on the screen.
In an overhead projector, the large size transparency is kept horizontal, which is intensely illuminated by a condenser lens. The final image is produced on a vertical screen with a highly polished tilted mirror and object lens capable of sliding on a vertical mast.
An OHP consists of a metal box with a 10,000 watt bulb and a concave reflector; a condenser lens illuminates the transparency placed on the glass sheet on the top of the box. There is a vertical rod by the slide of the box, which carries an objective convex lens parallel to the transparency and a plane mirror to reflect the image on the screen. The objective lens and the mirror combination can slide up and down the rod with rock and pinion arrangement operated by a knob. The movement of the objective lens and mirror focuses the image properly on the screen. There is also a small cooling fan on the OHP to blow out the excess heat produced by the bulb.
The transparency size can be as big as 25 × 25 cm, where the teacher can write with the marker pen that will be projected on the screen simultaneously. Thus an OHP can straight 56 away be used as a chalkboard with the teacher facing the class all the time. It is advisable to switch off the bulb of the OHP for 5 minutes after every 10 minutes use of it.
Advantages
  1. An OHP project a large number of instructional materials such as diagrams, charts, maps, worksheet, graphs which are on the transparencies.
  2. The use of OHP can be quite cheap, as transparencies can be used repeatedly.
  3. On the OHP sheet, the teacher can write directly with a glass marking pencil and the writing is directly projected on the screen. After use, the writing can be wiped with cloth piece.
  4. With an OHP, the teacher can always face the students keeping an eye contact, which is not possible with other projection equipments.
  5. An OHP can be used in a normally lighted room; the students can take down notes and the teacher facing the class can observe the students reaction and strengthen his/her presentation.
  6. An OHP can be easily used with other visual aids also without the fuss of switching on and off the room lights as is the case with other projection aids.
  7. The verbal discourse of the teacher can be supported with illustrations as he/she can directly stretch the diagrams; write key points and main concepts on the transparency with his/her students in front.
  8. Transparencies are less pollutant and less strenuous than using a chalkboard.
  9. The use of OHP saves a lot of class time for utilizing the time for individual guidance and corrective feedback.
  10. With the OHP, an enlarged image can be obtained with quite a little distance; therefore, students can sit close with the teacher and this produces better rapport.
 
Filmstrip
Filmstrip is a continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames or pictures arranged in sequence, usually with explanatory titles.
Each strip contains 12–18 or more pictures. It is a fixed sequence of related stills on a roll of 35 mm film or 8 mm film.
Advantages
  1. It is an economical visual material.
  2. It is easy to make; convenient to handle and carry.
  3. Takes up little space and can be easily stored.
  4. Provides a logical sequence to the teaching procedure.
  5. It can be projected on the screen or wall or paper screen as the convenience and the teaching situation demands.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Steps in curriculum construction.
According to Florence Nightingale, “Curriculum is a systematic arrangements of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a school for a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational program.”
57
 
Steps
Curriculum should be prepared from school point of view, society is not static and so curriculum development is ongoing activity. Development of nursing curriculum is school’s responsibility. It is based on philosophy, resources, need and other conditions.
The core content will be common to all the curricular in the state or country prescribed by a statutory body, e.g. Indian Nursing Council. The steps are:
  • Planning
  • Development
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation.
 
Planning
  1. To determine the needs and purposes, identification and analysis of existing situation has to be done.
  2. Formulate the philosophy of nursing educational program.
  3. Objectives should be formulated based on community needs, resources availability, nursing roles, demands placed on nursing profession, philosophy and purposes of the educational program.
  4. To involve the influential personalities in preparing curriculum construction, e.g. nurse educators, administrators and nurse leaders.
  5. Constitute a committee for curriculum preparation.
  6. Decide the philosophy and policy of the organization, e.g. student recruitment, type of educational program, method of teaching, duration of the period, staff requirement, etc.
 
Development Phase
  1. Organization and sequencing of:
    • Theory
    • Practical
    • Supervised clinical practice
    • Individual student rotation plan
    • Preparation of teaching learning materials, AV aids.
  1. Curriculum committee, reviews the progress, identifies constraints, assess needs for modification and formation of other standing committees for management of the curriculum.
 
Implementation Phase
  1. Actual conduction of teaching learning activities through learner centered and socialized methods.
  2. Conducting practical sessions in laboratory and instructional settings.
  3. Refinement of teaching learning methods.
  4. Assessment of student performance.
  5. Student guidance and counseling services.
  6. Curriculum committee meeting.
  7. Necessary action.
58
 
Evaluation Phase
  1. Assess the student learning, which is manifested through knowledge, skills, attitudes.
  2. Teaching and learning process.
  3. Effective use of AV aids.
  4. Students activities are undertaken in the community and institution settings.
  5. How effective educational experiences?
  1. Role of professional nursing associations in maintaining standard and nursing education.
 
Indian Nursing Council
 
Introduction
Indian Nursing Council (INC) is considered to be the statutory body that influences nursing education at the national level. The INC was constituted to establish a uniform standard of education for nurses, midwives, health visitors and auxiliary nurses. The Indian Nursing Council Act was ordained in 1947.
 
Composition and Constitution
The Indian Nursing Council consists of the following members:
  1. Elected members: 25.
  2. Nominated members: 4.
  3. Ex-officio members: 33.
 
Philosophy
INC states that the unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery, that he/she would perform unaided, if he/she had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.
Keeping this in mind, the nursing is a formal educational preparation, which is based on sound educational principles. It recognizes the programs as the foundation on which the practice of nursing is built and further professional education depends. It recognizes its responsibility to the society for the continued development of students as individuals, nurses and citizens. The INC recognizes the necessity of developing a deep pride in the nursing profession among the students to enable further professional growth.
 
Aims of INC
  1. To establish uniform standard of training throughout the state.
  2. Prohibit training center, which are inadequate.
  3. Prohibit practice of nursing by non-qualified nurses.
 
Functions and Role of INC
The INC provides a framework for nursing in India. It has many roles as follows.
59 Prescribing the syllabi: INC prescribes syllabi and curriculum for various courses of nursing and conducts qualifying examination based on the development in science and technology. Syllabi have also been prescribed for all postcertificate, degree, diploma and health visitor courses.
Inspection: It done is granting for recognition based on the requirements, their set up and the strength of the institutions. They also have full freedom to withdraw recognitions. A right of appeal against any disciplinary action taken by the council is provided in the acts.
 
Nature of Inspections by INC
There are three types of inspections by INC since 1996.
First inspections: Institutions are inspected by the INC when they apply for starting a course in nursing. This is the first step toward INC recognition.
The schools that seek recognition are required to submit:
  1. Permission letter to state government.
  2. Permission letter to state nursing councils.
  3. A copy of the inspection report of the state nursing council.
Reinspections: These are done for those institutions, which are found unsuitable on first or subsequent inspection by INC. Once the institution takes necessary steps to rectify the deficiencies and informs the INC, reinspection is done within 1 year or earlier.
Periodic inspections: Once an institution is given recognition by INC, the institute is required to pay an annual inspection fee regularly. The INC inspects the institute generally after 3 years.
 
State Nurses Registration Councils
The condition of mutual recognition by the State Nurses Registration Councils, which is called reciprocity, was possible only if uniform standards of nursing education were maintained.
 
Functions
  1. Regulation of training programs.
  2. Supervision of practice and profession.
  3. Accrediting the training institutions.
  4. Implementing and prescribing syllabus and curriculum.
  5. Registration and granting certificates.
  6. Take action against malpractices.
  7. Accrediting the nursing institutions by an inspection committee constituted with several members reports of adequacy of training programs.
  8. To conduct qualifying examinations for various courses.
 
Development of Nursing Education and Practice
  1. Recruitment of additional students and the necessary staff for supervision and teaching in the training centers for the betterment of nursing care and also the proper development of the students.
  2. 60 Creation of posts for nursing staff in institutions and in the public health field to observe the additional number of nurses who will be trained, so that the proper man power will be maintained and the available resources will be used at its optimum level.
  3. The appointment of auxiliary nurses and midwives to supplement nursing service in hospitals, so that nurses will not be overburdened with the work.
  4. Training conditions of nurses are improved by:
    • Raising of educational standard wherever possible
    • Facilitating practical work
    • Shortening working hours
    • Adequate living conditions
    • Proper care of students health.
  5. Counseling system for students by experienced sister, so that student nurses will be able to solve their problems, which of not solved can hinder their development.
  6. Better publicity to the potentialities of nursing as a career, so that the standards of nursing will improve. People will understand what nursing is and this will create a positive feelings in the minds of the people, making them realize the importance of nursing:
    • Recruitment of men as student nurses, so that nursing care can be given in a better way; also it will help in the employment of men
    • 4 years BSc nursing degree program to gain knowledge in the patient care
    • MSc Nursing postgraduate program to improve the quality of patient care
    • Research.
  1. In-service education
 
Definition
In-service education is program of instruction or training provided by an agency or institution for its employees. The program is held in the institution or agency and is intended to increase the skills and competence of the employees in a specific area.
In-service education is a planned learning experience provided by the employing agency for employees.
 
Scope of In-service Education
  1. Maintenance of familiarity with new knowledge and subject matter. “One of the marks of a profession is that its members seek constantly to keep abreast of the new knowledge germane to its activities” an article written by the president of the American Academy of General (Medical) Practice described one of the requirements of that group for its members as to include 150 hours of postgraduate training every 3 years.
  2. Increased skill in providing the individual differences among pupils.
  3. Improved attitudes and skills involved in cooperative action research. One of the frequently recurring emphases in educational literature has been the idea that curriculum improvement is primarily a consequence of improvement of people. To the degree that this is true, one of the very important bodies of skills needed by all educators is that required by cooperative group work. The mastery of principles of cooperative group work is not easy. Any newly formed group would do well to give attention to these principles.
  4. 61 Greater skill in utilizing community resources and in working with adults. One of the important tasks of modern education is the development of intelligent civic loyalties and understandings. To an ever increasing degree, it is felt that institution must be related to the life of the community, if this is to happen.
  5. The development and refinement of common values and goals. One of the major purposes of in-service education is the development of common values and goals in the staff of an institution, in a group of administrator or supervisors or in any other professional group that must work cooperatively over a period of time.
 
Principles of In-service Education
  1. That includes a scientific approach there should be there should be humanism, democracy, unity, inclusiveness, differentiation, integration, continuity, modularity and personalization which ends through nature.
  2. There should be compliance with state regulation of educational standards.
 
Goals of In-service Education
  1. To provide an opportunity to acquire new skills, another specialization on the basis of degree program; professional training or vocational experience acquired earlier, develop professional knowledge and skills.
  2. To fulfill the demands of national economy with qualified personnel, provide continuous development of each specialists, professional abilities, develop his/her intellectual and cultural level.
  3. Provide necessary professional knowledge and skills.
  4. To introduce a flexible system of self-education and adult continuous education.
 
Purpose of In-service Education
  1. The major reason for in-service education is to promote the continuous improvement of the total professional staff of the school system.
  2. All in-service educator, administrators and supervisors must constantly study in order to keep up with advances in subject matter and in the theory, and practice of teaching.
  3. Continuous in-service education is needed to keep the profession abreast of new knowledge and to release creative abilities.
  4. In-service education must be able to eliminate deficiencies in the background preparation of nurses and of other professional workers in education.
 
Organization of In-service Education
Defining in-service education as getting people to follow directions require a type of organization that will assure the clarity of these directions as well as continuous supervision to see that they are followed. It must provide maximum opportunity for individuals and particularly groups to:
  1. Identify the particular problems on which they want to work.
  2. Get together to work on these problems in ways that seem most productive to the group.
  3. Have access to a variety of needed resources.
  4. 62 Try out in reality situations those modifications in practice that give a prior promise.
  5. e. Appraise and generalize from the consequences.
 
Methods Used for In-service Education
  • Ward teaching
  • Conference
  • Discussion
  • Laboratory
  • Workshop
  • Seminars
  • Field trips
  • Forum
  • Simulation.
 
Evaluation of Staff Education Program
Evaluation is usually defined as that process by which one determines how well he/she has have achieved his objectives. Essential parts of this process have to do with the identification of the important objectives to be achieved.
These four areas of change have to do with:
  1. Knowledge and skills.
  2. Attitudes and values.
  3. The relation of the individual and the group.
  4. The internalized feelings, motives and aspirations of the individual.
 
Immediate Evaluation Methods
Several devices seems to be useful for getting immediate data on the success of training:
Oral evaluation: Assuming a relatively permissive atmosphere in oral evaluation, while training is in process and at the end of sessions can usually be quite helpful. It is not, of course, helpful in assessing long-term results of training, but in the absence of better instruments that are now available, it is probably better than anything except direct observation of members in operation ‘on the job’. Oral evaluation also has the advantage of being interactive and so evaluative comments often go deeper and stimulate latent ideas.
Oral evaluation suffers the disadvantage that the action of the moment sometimes leads to such aftereffects as the ‘golden glow’ and the ‘black cloud’. However, the value of oral evaluation as evidence may be enhanced considerably by having a series of guidelines or aspects of the training experience on which there is agreement to have careful discussion. Given permissiveness, the accuracy and completeness of data, which can be gathered through oral evaluation on an immediate situation are substantial.
Postmeeting reaction (PMR) sheets: These much used PMR sheets have both values and disadvantages. If inhibition of feeling or incomplete participation patterns exist in the group, opportunity for each group member to have his/her say on paper, unimpeded by fast-talking members or problems of deviance from group standards, may be essential for getting good evidence. PMRs also probably permit of more thoughtfulness and thoroughness, minute by minute and group member by group member, than oral evaluation.
63 Observation: This method includes of behavior in the training session. A third source of immediate data, assuming that training sessions are working on concrete skills in training settings roughly analogous to the work setting, is observation of what members are doing right here and now. This approach has serious limitations.
 
Follow-up Evaluation Methods
Some other general methods appear to have value for gathering data on the effects of training; some time after the end of the sessions.
Questionnaires and inventories: The advantages of some sort of pencil-and-paper response procured sometime after training are roughly parallel to those of written PMRs immediately after training. Questionnaires and inventories have the added advantage of the relatively systematic planning and coverage that a good instrument involves. Hypotheses of an ‘explanatory,’ as contrasted with a purely descriptive summary, nature can be tested as for example, “did people with the strongest initial interest tend to feel they learned the most?” resulting data can be used to get answers to questions formulated before any training sessions are held.
Interviews: Talking with group members or coworkers sometime after training, helpful and thorough data gives again the more valuable because a systematic preplanned set of questions can be answered by careful inquiry. Interviews share the advantages and disadvantages of oral evaluation suggested above. They take practicing if they are to get evidence that can be counted on; and careful recording is important. The processing and analysis of interview data is extremely time-consuming. An added advantage, however is that most people are not ordinarily listened to very much in our culture and interviews are not only ego involving, but fun (and even flattering) for the interviewee so data are easier to get.
Observation: This last evaluation method that most people find most effective for judging the consequences of training for in-service program skills. The basic question is, are members doing any better what they originally were worried or concerned about? From this point of view, members, the trainers and coworkers not involved in the training are all looking at in-service performance with a keenly pragmatic eye to see whether the program is going smoothly.
  1. Current issues in nursing education.
Modern nursing involves many activities, concepts and skills related to basic sciences, social sciences, growth and development. There are so many issues which occur in the nursing profession.
 
Government Institutions
The schools and colleges face so many problems as mentioned below:
  1. No independent building and principal for school.
  2. Inadequate hostel and library facilities for students.
  3. Acute shortage of qualified teachers in nursing.
  4. Underutilization of clinical facilities.
  5. No transport facilities.
  6. No UGC status for college teachers in nursing.
  7. Less supply of AV aids.
  8. 64 Less stipend for nursing students.
  9. Less promotional opportunity for teachers of both schools and colleges.
  10. No separate budget for school.
 
Recommendations for Solving Problem
For smooth running of school and college, proper measures should be taken to solve these problem, which includes:
  1. Separate budget should be sanctioned and it should be operated by the principals of school of nursing.
  2. It is genuine to start PhD course in government steps as early as possible.
  3. Provision of sufficient teaching staff.
  4. Provision of adequate facilities such as a void facility, stipends, transport and library in schools and colleges.
 
Private Institutions
The nursing education is also in the hands of private bodies. Number of private schools and colleges sanctioned irrespective of their facilities are needed to train nurses. The private schools and colleges face so many problems as mentioned below:
  1. Lack of sufficient and qualified teachers.
  2. Most of the private institutions of nursing are running bin bird buildings, hostels where there are no qualified hands to teach nursing.
  3. Most of the institutions have no hospital for their clinical facilities and they depend on government hospitals.
  4. Lack of library and transportation facilities.
 
Recommendations
  1. The State Nursing Council and government should take certain steps to study the facilities according to norms/aid by the INC.
  2. The institutions not meeting the INC standards should be recognized and closed.
  3. Periodical inspection should be organized by INC as well as by State Nursing Council to see the facilities in the institutions.
 
Issues in Nursing Administration and in Independent Nursing Practices
Health survey and development committee (1946) recommended giving gazette ranks for Nurse Manger and WHO guidelines are therefore, giving decision making powerful nurse.
Both union and state governments have decided to give some gazette post, but there is no independent power or authority. The problems prevailing in the nursing administration are given below:
  1. Noninvolvement of nursing administrators in planning and decision making in the government hospital administration.
  2. Nursing superintendent will have no authorities to sanction leave to their subordinates.
  3. Unnecessary interference of non-nursing personnel (clerical/medical).
  4. No proper authority to do independent nursing practice.
  5. No proper job description for various a cadres.
  6. 65 No organized staff development programs, which include orientation-in-service education, continuing education, etc.
  7. No special incentive like Rajyotasava award, Republic day award, Teacher’s award, as government itself honors other government servants like teachers, police, etc. with these awards.
  8. Inefficiency of nursing councils of state and union to maintain standards in nursing.
 
Issues in Higher Education in Nursing
  1. Lack of recognized institutions.
  2. Institutions are not well-equipped.
  3. Subject or content is very vast.
  4. Higher education is very expensive.
  5. Lack of qualified teaching facilities for higher education.
  6. Lack of awareness regarding higher education and its benefits, and scope.
  7. Some higher education is not available through correspondence.
  8. Inadequate government support for maintaining higher education in India regarding nursing.
 
Recommendations for Higher Education
  1. Establishment of fully equipped institutions for higher education by government as well as by private authority.
  2. Interest and awareness should be created among the nursing staff as well as for all people by council and Trained Nurses Association of India (TNAI).
  3. Guidelines and criteria should be somewhat flexible for getting higher education.
 
Issues Regarding Nursing Job for Males
  1. Males are not allowed to do practice in maternity departments in some areas.
  2. Some institutes are not allowing to study for males.
  3. Some clinics (or hospital, e.g. Escort hospital) does not recruit the males.
  4. In some clinics area, males are restricted to do physical assessment of females.
  5. According to ancient, nursing means women-oriented course. Therefore is no proper equality in some areas.
 
Recruiting Males for Nursing Jobs
  1. Recruitment of staff should be based on skill and knowledge.
  2. All skilled people should be allowed to join clinical practice, whether it may be male or female in every department.
 
Issues in Nursing Research
Doctoral preparation is required to be a scientist in nursing. It is designed to prepare a nurse to be able to conceptualize advance practice within the nursing research.
Community seems to provide lack of support for nurse researcher whose subtractive contracts down.
  1. 66 There are battles between qualitative vs quantitative methods and hence, researcher vs clinical studies.
  2. Currently, no employed clinical nurse specialist.
  3. Nonavailability of full/part time researcher.
  4. Only few nurses are involved in the nursing research.
  5. No separate nursing research department or division.
 
Recommendations
  1. Establishment of research committees.
  2. Using consultant services for the development of implementation of clinical research.
  3. Using a currently employed clinical nurse specialist to develop and carryout research.
  4. Appointment of full time or part time researcher.
  5. Creating a nursing research department or division.
 
67Nursing Education: Paper 2012 November
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1.  
    1. Define education.
    2. Explain trends in the development of nursing education in India.
  2.  
    1. Classify instructional aids.
    2. Explain selection, preparation and use of any one of the aids.
  3.  
    1. Enumerate curriculum determinants.
    2. Discuss principles of selecting and organizing learning experiences.
  4.  
    1. Explain techniques of counseling.
    2. Discuss problems related to guidance and counseling in nursing.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Theories to teaching and learning.
  2. Problems related to measurement and evaluation in education.
  3. Standardized and non-standardized tests.
  4. Role of nurse administrator in student and staff welfare services.
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1.  
    1. Define education.
    2. Explain trends in the development of nursing education in India.
a. Define education.
 
Define Education
The word education is derived from the Latin word ‘educare’, which means to ‘lead out’. This derivation denotes ‘growth from the within’. Thus, the root meaning of education can be given as making manifest the inherent potentials in a child.
The word ‘educare’ also means ‘bring up’, ‘to train’ or ‘to mould’. Some educationalists explains that the word education has been derived from the two words ‘e’ and ‘duco’, ‘e’ means ‘out off’ and ‘duco’ means ‘to lead’.
 
Other Definitions
Human education means the training, which one gets from the nature.
Panini
Education means development of self-contentment.
Kannada
Education is self-realization and service of the people.
Guru Nanak
68 Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection, which he is capable of.
Plato
Education is a process of development from infancy to maturity, the process by which he or she adopts himself/herself gradually in various ways of his/her physical social and spiritual development.
T Raymont
Education is the all-round drawing out of the best in child and man—body, mind and spirit.
Mahatma Gandhi
“Education is the development of all those capacities in the individual, which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his responsibilities.”
John Dewey
b. Explain trends in the development of nursing education in India.
 
Trends in Nursing Education
A profession is a dynamic integration of various faculties of knowledge. Since, nursing education is a professional education, it is dynamic by its own nature and thereby giving rise to trends. Let us see some of the current trends in nursing education.
 
Curriculum Changes
Flexible curriculum designs are evolving to facilitate diversity of educational opportunity and overcome barriers of distance and time. These curricula are often competency based, focused on outcome and emphasis student participation, and responsibility for learning.
 
Innovation in Teaching and Learning
In nursing education, lots of innovations are taking place in the areas of teaching and learning. Invariably, these innovations lead to intellectual development, personal development and career development.
 
Educational Quality Assurance
Educational quality assurance is a process for monitoring and evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of educational provision, and to institute remedial measures as and when needed. In India, nursing education is flourishing in an unprecedented manner; naturally this will lead to dilution in the quality of nursing education in the absence of proper quality control measures. Motivated by this situation, accrediting bodies and nurse educators are expressing deep concern regarding the quality of nursing education. It is high time to prepare a quality index of nursing institutions all over the country by categorizing them into different grades based on the infrastructure and faculty profile.
 
More Reliance on Technology
Technology exerts greater influences on nursing education as a tool for teaching and learning. Judicious use of educational psychology in the development and practice of educational technology, has increased its user friendly nature considerably.
69
 
Emphasis on High-tech-high-touch Approach
High-tech-high-touch approach in nursing care was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of technological advancements in the field of patient care. Present day nursing education is preparing the students to maintain the human elements of nursing, while caring the patients with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
 
Preparation of Global Nurses
Nursing education is all set to reap benefits created by globalization and liberalization by way of preparing global nurses. Many institutions are preparing students with a global perspective through providing learning experience to each student’s knowledge in English along with the attainment of other objectives.
 
Transnational Acceptance
Nursing educational programs in one nation is widely accepted by other nations. In fact, this transnational acceptance is the main reason for the development of nursing education in the country like India.
 
Ensuring a Promising Career
Unlike many professional educational programs, nursing education ensures a promising career either in India or abroad. A study conducted by Johnson & Johnson reveals that nursing education will maintain this status at least for the coming 20 years.
 
Emergence of New Specialties
In par with the development in the medical and new specialties to education is also offering new specialties to meet the needs of community.
 
Increased Opportunities for Higher Education/Studies
From past many institutions are offering programs, such as post certificate BSc nursing, MSc nursing, MPhil and PhD. An eligible candidate can easily pursue higher education without much time lag.
 
Preference of Short-term Clinical Programs than Postgraduate Programs
Many graduate nurses prefer short-term clinical programs of 6 months to 1 year duration like trauma nursing, critical care nursing, etc. than postgraduate programs, while deciding to go for higher studies. This mainly due to better career opportunities prevailing in the service sector when compared to the education side. One year mandatory experience after completing BSc nursing for getting MSc nursing admission also contributed to this trend.
 
Potential Shortage of Nurse Educators
As a result of the existing career opportunities in the service sector when compared to the educational side, talented nurses are now opting a career in the service side for better 70 prospectus. This may lead to a shortage of nurse educators in the near future. Since the presence of talented nurses in the service sector will do a lot in uplifting the public image of our profession; it is not wise to prevent this flow. Allowing the qualified nurses from the service side to work in teaching institutions on a part-time basis will help to solve this problem to a certain extent.
 
Diminishing Government Role
Shortage of funds coupled with certain policy decisions has prevented the government from investing further in the field of nursing education. Now, the private sector is playing a dominant role for development of nursing education.
 
Uniformity and Standardization
Various universities and nursing boards are conducting nursing programs in a different manner. Even though efforts are on the way bringing about the much needed uniformity and standardization, nothing significant has been achieved so far.
 
Nursing Programs
Nursing educators develop nursing curricula to ensure adequate number, and categories of nurses to meet current and future social needs. Nursing programs meets this need by preparing nurses as a technical nurses (practical nurses and associated degree programs) and professional nurses (baccalaureate degree, master’s degree and doctoral degree programs) the program differ in type of client role and practice settings. They also differ in educational basis, curriculum, educational setting, accrediting agencies and professional organizations that advocate their interests.
 
Practical Nurses Programs
Practical nurses programs prepare students to become licensed practical nurses (LPN) or licensed vocational nurses (LVN). The graduates give patient care under the guidance and direction of a registered nurse or other licensed health professional.
 
Diploma Programs
Diploma programs prepare students to become registered nurses. The programs are typically associated with a hospital, but more recently are affiliated with a college or university. The program prepares students for technical nursing practice.
 
Associate Degree Programs
Associate degree programs prepare students to become registered nurses. The curriculum is offered in a community college or a senior university and prepare the graduates for technical nursing practice.
 
Baccalaureate Nursing Programs
Baccalaureate nursing programs set in colleges and universities are designed to prepare graduates as generalists in profession nursing practice. Baccalaureate graduates are 71 caregivers, client advocates, change agents, consultants, case finders, teachers and leaders. Bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) graduates care for individuals, groups, families and communities, and are prepared to give nursing care in structured and unstructured settings.
 
Master’s Degree Program
Master’s degree programs in nursing prepare nurses for specialty roles in nursing practice. The programs also prepare nurses with a functional focus of educator manager/administrator clinical specialist or nurse practitioner. Master’s degree in nursing programs, originally developed to meet the need for teachers and advanced practitioners.
 
Doctoral Program
Doctoral program prepare nurses for role as academicians, administers, advanced clinical scientists, researchers, consultants and independent practitioners. Doctoral degree in nursing may be professional degrees [Doctor of Education degree (EdD), Doctor of Nursing Science (DNS), Nursing Doctorate (ND)] or research degree (PhD). The first doctoral degree in nursing was offered at Columbia University in 1924.
  1.  
    1. Classify instructional aids.
    2. Explain selection, preparation and use of any one of the aids.
a. Classify instructional aids.
Audiovisual (AV) aids are classified into audio, visual and audiovisual.
  1. Audio:
    • Radio
    • Tape recorder
    • Gramophone
    • Compact discs
    • Voicemail.
  2. Visual:
    • Projected:
      • Slides
      • Filmstrips
      • Overhead projectors
      • Computer
      • Internet.
    • Nonprojected:
      • Maps
      • Cartoons
      • Charts
      • Pictures
      • Posters
      • News clippings
      • Flash cards
      • 72 – Flip charts
      • Graphs, booklets
      • Puppets
      • Models
      • Real things (specimen)
      • Blackboard
      • Bulletin board.
  3. Audiovisual:
    • Television
    • Films
    • Computer floppies.
  4. Activity aids:
    • Museum, exhibition, field trip, role play, drama, mono acting and storytelling.
b. Selection preparation and use of any one of the aids.
 
Chalkboard
Meaning of chalkboards: It is slightly abrasive writing surface made of wood, ply, hardboard, cement, ground glass, asbestos, slate, plastic, etc. with black, green or bluish green paint on it.
Purpose of chalkboards: To illustrate an example; fact or idea, or to show relationship of purposes and functions by diagrams, sketches, graphs and drawings:
  1. As a substitution for dictation of outline, summaries and directions.
  2. As a substitute for the bulletin board, to make announcements and to give directions.
  3. As a substitute for still projections, pictures, symbols and fade outs.
  4. As a mean of group work, to provide opportunity for closely supervised student activity.
  5. To give examinations and tests.
  6. To illustrate form of charting and to provide opportunity for nursing students to practice charting.
Some hints for using chalkboard: As follows:
  1. Do not crowd the chalkboard with too much matter. A few important points make a vivid impression.
  2. Make the material simple and brief. Precise statements are more effective than long sentences.
  3. Play your work on the chalkboard in advance. Keep your layout on the presentation sheet for guidance.
  4. Gather everything you need for the chalkboard before the group meets.
  5. Check lighting conditions. Chalkboard glare should be avoided.
  6. Anything written on the board should be large enough to be visible at a distance and neat so as to be easily legible.
  7. Erase all unrelated materials. Keep the chalkboard clean.
  8. While writing or developing a picture, it is desirable and essential that we should talk or narrate what is being done.
  9. Prepare complicated chalkboard layouts before the group meets.
  10. Checklist for effective use of chalkboard.
73 Before the lesson
  1. Devise the chalkboard plan.
  2. Clean the board.
  3. Clean the eraser.
  4. Ensure the sufficient chalk is available in variety of colors.
  5. Check the glare spots by walking around the rooms.
  6. Check visibility using a sample heading and viewing from rear to room.
  7. Do pencil outlines of complex diagrams.
During the lesson
  1. Adhere the chalkboard plan—use margin for important explanations.
  2. Use appropriate lettering.
  3. Emphasize by upper case, underlining, coloring and casing.
  4. Write clearly enough to be legible.
  5. Stop talking when writing.
  6. Use template for diagrams, if rapid reproduction is required.
  7. Allow everyone to see by using pointer from a distance.
  8. Erase only when more space is required or when material will cause interference with subsequent points.
Check with learners before erasing.
After the lesson
  1. Use chalkboard material as a summary.
  2. Erase completely for next class.
Types of chalkboard: The chalk boards today varies in form, from the smooth flat surface of quarried slate used in many older schools to the pastel—colored dull surface chalk areas.
  1. Paint coated pressed wood: Hardboard or any plywood surface finished with dull paint. Special paint is available for coating any surface for the use as chalkboards.
  2. Dull finished plastic surface: Any suitable colored plastic sheet—PVC or laminated plastic sheet may find special use. This board may not be suitable for general use because of its high cost and further the surface wears out easily.
  3. Vitreous coated steel surface: Similar in construction to the tin slate available for school children, steel surface are available in small size 2 × 3 inches. Large size is not usually made, as it will also be necessary to back the surface by wood, to keep it flat.
  4. Ground glass board (mossy surface glass): It is an ideal board for the modern classroom. Ground glass boards of very large sizes can easily be prepared and fixed to wall; the writing surface is ground glass.
Advantages of chalkboards: As follows:
  • It is simple to use with little practice
  • Electricity is not a must for using the blackboard
  • It is economic and reusable
  • It can be put to wide and varied uses
  • Sequential development of the content can be done effectively
  • Pupil’s interest in classwork can be stimulated
  • Can be used indoor and outdoor
  • Provides a lot of space, a decorative and creative work
  • Allows note taking
  • 74 Teacher can make students to write on the board
  • Teacher can review the whole lesson for the benefit of students with the help of the chalkboard
  • Mistakes can be rubbed off and corrected instantly
  • Charts can be hung on the board.
Disadvantages of chalkboards: As follows:
  • It makes students heavily dependent on the teacher
  • It makes the lesson teacher paced
  • It does not care for the individual needs of students
  • It makes the lesson a dull routine
  • It makes chalk powder to spread and inhaled by the teacher and students
  • Constant use of the chalkboard makes it smooth and full of glare.
  1.  
    1. Enumerate curriculum determinants.
    2. Discuss principles of selecting and organizing learning experiences.
      Refer May 2010, Question No. 4.
a. Enumerate curriculum determinants.
 
Definitions
  1. “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of an artist to mould his material, according to his ideals in his studio.”
    Cunningham
  2. “The sum total of student activities, which the school sponsors for the purpose of achieving its objectives.”
    Alberty and Alberty
  3. “Curriculum is a systematic arrangements of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a school for a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational program.”
    Florence Nightingale
  4. “Curriculum is the means of attaining the aim of philosophy of education.“
    GJ Minor
zoom view
Figure 1: Development of curriculum
75
 
Determinants and Foundation of Curriculum
The development of curriculum depends largely on three fields:
  • Philosophy
  • Sociology
  • Psychology.
The knowledge of three fields will help them to satisfy their lives within the context of the society.
 
Philosophical Determinants of Curriculum
Philosophy is a powerful determinant factor of aims of education, but is also equally a strong deciding factor of contents and methods of education:
  • It aims at the all-round development of the individual
  • It is based on the philosophy of nation
  • It reflects the ideals and aspirations of the people
  • It inculcates the desired ideals of life in the youngsters
  • It helps in the development of proper philosophy of life
  • It is in accordance with the aspiration level of the individual
  • It enables the learners to learn the desirable cultural values, intellectual virtues, social norms and moral doctrine
  • It helps in development of personal and national character.
The philosophical foundation of education includes:
  • Child-centeredness philosophy (naturalistic)
  • Need-centeredness philosophy (pragmatic)
  • Activity-centeredness philosophy (projects and basic curriculum).
 
Sociological Determinants of Curriculum
Schools are the social institutions specially set up for the preservation and transmissions of culture by society seek to discharge this function through the curriculum.
Sociological considerations that guide the curriculum development are:
  • Core values and needs of Indian society
  • Changing values of the people
  • Demands of modernization
  • Good family life, ways of life
  • Democratic temper of the society
  • Faith, beliefs and attitudes of the people
  • Cooperation
  • Media explosion
  • Population explosion
  • Regional and national imbalance
  • Economic efficiency
  • Education for fellowship and leadership
  • Creative and purposeful activities
  • Cultural, political factors
  • Knowledge, attitude, beliefs.
76
 
Psychological Determinants
  • Knowledge of the nature of the learner and learning process, and the conditions facilitating optimum learning
  • Knowledge of growth and development
  • Intelligent, development capacities
  • Curriculum to be child centered, learning experiences should be provided in accordance with the mental development of learner, i.e. ability grouping
  • Interest of the learner.
 
Other Determinants
 
Scientific
To achieve complete development of an individual and to prepare for complete living, i.e. human activities in five categories—self-preservation, self-protection, promotes human pregnancy and its protection, social and political protection, and last proper utilization of leisure time.
 
Political
To develop democratic values of social justice, equity, socialism, rights and duties.
 
Stages of Curriculum Development
Given by Torres and Stanton:
  • The directive stage:
    • It lays foundation of all the other stages
    • Identify beliefs, knowledge and concepts
    • Formulation of theoretical framework in the selection and sequencing of content.
  • The formative stage:
    • Philosophy of educational institution
    • Objectives
    • Nature/Content of nursing.
  • Functional stage:
    • Practical form of curriculum
    • Planned teaching and learning experiences.
  • Evaluative stage:
    • Input evaluation
    • Throughput evaluation
    • Output evaluation
    • Evaluation for curriculum revision.
  1.  
    1. Explain techniques of counseling.
      Refer May 2012, Question No. 8.
    2. Discuss problems related to guidance and counseling in nursing.
      Refer May 2010, Question No. 3.
77
 
SHORT ESSAYS
5. Theories to teaching and learning.
 
Types of Teaching Theories
 
Formal Theory of Teaching
  1. Meutic theory.
  2. Communication theory of teaching.
  3. Moulding theory of teaching.
  4. The mutual inquiry theory.
 
Descriptive Theory of Teaching
  1. Theories of instruction.
  2. Prescriptive theory of teaching.
 
Normative Theory of Teaching
  1. Cognitive theory.
  2. Theory of teacher.
  3. Psychological theory of teaching.
  4. General theory of teaching.
Table 1   Gagne’s hierarchical theory of instruction
Learning event
Corresponding instructional events
Reception
Gaining attention
Expectancy
Information learners of the objective
Retrieval
Stimulation recall or prior learning
Selective perception
Presenting the stimulus
Semantic encoding
Providing learning guidance
Responding
Eliciting performance
Reinforcement
Providing feedback
Retrieval
Assessing performance
Generalization
Enhancing retention and transfer
 
Formal Theory of Teaching
The theory, which is based upon certain logic, certain metaphysical, epistemological assumptions and propositions is known as formal theory of teaching:
  1. Meutic theory of teaching: This theory conceives that teaching process helps to recollect or unfold that knowledge with questioning techniques. The socratic method is an essential for this theory. The heredity plays an important role in teaching process.
  2. The communication theory of teaching: This theory of teaching based upon assumptions that the teacher possesses all knowledge and information, which student does not possess the teacher presents, explains, demonstrates and performs in the classroom.
  3. The moulding theory of teaching: John Dewey is the advocate of this moulding theory of teaching. It has the focus on shape, form and mould of the students behavior, human personality is formed, shaped and moulded by their environment.
  4. The mutual inquiry theory: This theory assumes that each individual has the capacity to discover new knowledge with mutual inquiry. True knowledge is inquiry. This theory of teaching is clearly applicable to research and art.
 
Descriptive Theory of Teaching
Descriptive theory of teaching is based upon certain propositions and certain observations.
Theories of instructions: Gagne’s hierarchical theory of instruction. Atkinson’s decision theoretic analysis for optimizing learning. Brunner’s cognitive developmental theory of instruction.
78 Atkinson’s decision-theoretic analysis for optimizing learning
Atkinson proposed four characteristics:
  • Model of the learning process should be involved
  • It should involve specified instructional actions
  • The instructional objectives should be specified in behavioral terms
  • Each instructional objective can be measured by Burner advocates that a theory of instruction is designing measurement scale or questions.
Bruner’s cognitive developmental theory of instruction
Bruner has specified four features:
  1. Predisposition to learn: A theory of instruction must be concerned with the experiences and context that will tend to make the child willing, and able to learn when he enters the school.
  2. Structure of knowledge: A theory of instruction should specify the ways in which body of knowledge should be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner.
  3. Sequence of instruction: A theory of instruction should specify the most effective sequences to present the material.
  4. Reinforcement: A theory of instruction should specify the nature and pacing of rewards, moving from extrinsic rewards on intrinsic one.
Prescriptive theory of teaching: Stones E and Morries have attempted to explain the nature of teaching with the help of three types of related variables:
  1. The first phase includes the teacher in the analysis of the teaching problems and teaching tests before teaching takes place.
  2. In the second phase, decision are made about the interrelationship of the variables deemed appropriate to teaching objectives.
  3. The third phase concerns with evaluating the effectiveness and workability of phase two.
 
Normative Theory of Teaching
The learning theories have been formulated by designing experiment in controlled situations, therefore they have less generalizability. Teaching theory should have high generalisability because it concerns with human behavior. More rigorous control cannot be imposed by designing experiments on human subjects. Therefore we need normative theory of teaching.
Cognitive theory of teaching: Gage NL suggests that one theory of teaching cannot serve the purpose of education. There should be more than one theory of teaching because teaching may be analyzed in four ways:
  1. Types of teacher’s activity: A teacher has to lay several roles in teaching. Teaching consists of many kinds of activity such as philosopher adviser, counselor, motivator, demonstrator, curriculum, planner and evaluator.
  2. Types of education objectives: Bloom has classified three types of objectives; cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Tolman has given things to be learned, field cognition mode and drive discrimination field expectation and motor patterns.
  3. Types of learning theories: Teaching might proceed on the basis of different families of learning theory such as philosophical theories of learning (mental discipline, 79 unfoldment, approbation), psychological theories of learning, reinforcement theory and insight learning theory. Each family suggests different views of teaching process.
  4. Types of components of learning: Neal Miller suggests four components of learning, drive, cue, response and reward. The each component requires the different types of teaching activities.
Theory of teacher behavior: Ryan DG has tried to explain the concept of teacher behavior and formulated a theory of teacher behavior. Meux M and Smith BO have defined the term teacher behavior.
“Teacher behavior consists of those acts that the teacher performs typically in the classroom in order to induce learning.”
Theory of teacher behavior also explains the relationship of variables; it is based upon two postulates.
Teacher behavior is social in nature: Teacher performs his/her tasks in group. Teacher behavior is concerned with the classroom verbal and non-verbal interaction. In the process of interaction, teacher and students both participate. The initiation and response activities are to be performed by teacher or students. They both influence each other. Therefore it is considered as social behavior.
Teacher behavior is relative: Teacher’s classroom activities are based upon social situations. Teacher’s activities are the product of social conditions and are related to the cultural settings in which teacher performs the teaching task. Teacher behavior is good or bad, effective and ineffective, it can be judged with reference to a particular culture’s value system and set of objectives. Therefore teacher behavior is a relative concept.
Psychological theory of teaching: This theory considers teaching a sort contractual relationship between the teacher and the pupils. The relationship consists of certain activities to be performed by the teacher such as, analyzing teaching task, determining learning goals, identifying entering behavior and selecting teaching strategy. The teacher formulates teaching tasks by his/her own experiences and insight. He/She makes judgment about the pupil’s stage of development. The teacher locates his/her positioning in the cognitive map.
Teaching has very high values. The value helps others to grow and learn to give one best from which others benefit, but from which one does not benefit oneself to do good without expecting anything in return and so on.
General theory of teaching: Clarke SCT has formulated a general theory of teaching. It assumes that teaching is a process, which is designed and performed to produce change in behavior of students. Teaching activities can be very diverse, and also vary at different levels of teaching and objectives. All these combinations are possible in teaching process. This theory limits the teaching activities to those which are acceptable by a democratic society.
 
Maxims of Teaching
Maxims of teaching are accepted truth or general rule of conduct or the laws, which are essentially to be followed by the teacher, while teaching:
  • Proceed from known to unknown
  • Proceed from concrete to abstract
  • Proceed from simple to complex
  • 80 Proceed from easy to more difficult
  • Proceed inductively
  • Proceed from general to specific
  • Proceed from specific to general
  • Proceed from indefinite to definite
  • Proceed from empirical to rational
  • Proceed from whole parts
  • Proceed from part to whole
  • Proceed from analysis to synthesis
  • Proceed from overview to details
  • Proceed from observation to reasoning
  • Proceed from psychological to logical.
 
Learning Definition
  • Gates and others “Learning is the modification of behavior through experience”
  • Henry, Smith P “Learning is the acquisition of new behavior or strengthening, or weakening of old behavior as a result of experience.”
 
Theories of Learning
 
Behaviorist Learning Theory
Focusing mainly on what is directly observable, behaviorists view learning as the product of the stimulus conditions (S) and the responses (R) that follow—sometimes termed the S-R model of learning. Whether dealing with animals or people, the learning process is relatively simple. Generally ignoring what goes on inside the individual—whom, of course, is always difficult to ascertain—behaviorists closely observe responses and then manipulate the environment to bring about the intended change.
 
Cognitive Learning Theory
While behaviorists generally ignore the internal dynamics of learning, cognitive learning. Theorists stress the importance of what goes on ‘inside’ the learner (Brien and Eastmond, 1994; Lambert and McCombs, 1998; Palincsar, 1998). The key to learning and changing is the individual’s cognition (perception, thought, memory and ways of processing and structuring information). According to this perspective, to learn individuals must change their cognitions. A highly active process largely directed by the individual learning involves perceiving the information, interpreting it based on what is already known and then reorganizing the information into new insights or understanding. Cognitive theory is currently enjoying considerable popularity in psychology.
 
Social Learning Theory
Most learning theories assume that the individual must have direct experiences to learn. According to early social learning theory, much of learning occurs by observation—watching other people and discerning what happens to them. Learning is often a social process and other individuals, especially ‘significant others’, provide compelling examples or role models for how to think, feel and act.
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Psychodynamic Learning Theory
Although not usually treated as a learning theory, some of the constructs from the psychodynamic theory (based on the work of Sigmund Freud and his followers) have significant implications for learning and changing behavior (Bracher, 1999; Hilgard and Bower, 1966; Notterman and Drewry, 1993). Largely a theory of motivation stressing emotions rather than cognition and responses, the psychodynamic perspective emphasizes the importance of conscious and unconscious forces in guiding behavior personality conflicts, and the enduring effects of childhood experiences. A central principle of the theory is that behavior may be conscious or unconscious that is individuals may or may not be aware of their motivations and why they feel, think and act as they do. According to the psychodynamic view, the most primitive source of motivation comes from the identification and is based on libidinal energy (the basic instincts, impulses and desires we are born with), which includes eros (the desire for pleasure and sex, sometimes called the ‘life force’) and thanatos (aggressive and destructive impulses or ‘death wish’). Patients who survive or die, despite all predictions to the contrary, provide illustrations of such primitive motivations. The id, according to Freud, operates on the basis of the pleasure principle to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Dry, dull lectures given by health professionals, who go through the motions of the presentation without much enthusiasm or emotion inspire few patients to listen or heed the advice. This does not mean, however, that only pleasurable presentations will be acceptable.
 
Humanistic Learning Theory
Underlying the humanistic perspective on learning is the assumption that each individual is unique and that all individuals have a desire to grow in a positive way. Unfortunately, positive psychological growth may be damaged by some of society’s values and expectations (e.g. males are less emotional than females, some ethnic groups are ‘inferior’ to others, making money is more important than caring for people) and by adults’ mistreatment of their children and each other (e.g. inconsistent or harsh discipline, humiliation and belittling, abuse and neglect). Spontaneity, the importance of emotions and feelings, the right of individuals to make their own choices and human creativity are the cornerstones of a humanistic approach to learning.
Maslow (1954, 1987), a major contributor to humanistic theory, is perhaps best known for identifying the hierarchy of needs, which he says play an important role in human motivation. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs (food, warmth, sleep); then come safety needs; then the need for belonging and love; followed by self-esteem. At the top of the hierarchy are self-actualization needs (maximizing one’s potential). Additional considerations include cognitive needs (to know and understand) and for some individuals, aesthetic needs (the desire for beauty). An assumption is that basic-level needs must be met before individuals can be concerned with learning and self-actualizing. Thus, clients who are hungry, tired and in pain will be motivated to get these biological needs met before being interested in learning about their medications, rules for self-care and health education. While intuitively appealing, research has not been able to support Maslow’s hierarchy of needs with much consistency. For example, although some people’s basic needs may not be met, they may nonetheless engage in creative activities, extend themselves to other people and enjoy learning.
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  1. Problems related to measurement and evaluation in education.
 
Evaluation
An act or process that allows one to make a valuable judgment about the desirability or value of a measure. Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realized.
 
Measurement
Measurement is an act or process that involves the assignment of a numerical index to whatever is being assessed.
 
Problems Related to Measurement and Evaluation in Education
Various aspects of pupil behavior are evaluated in the school/college such as diagnosing of learning difficulties, achievement of desired behavior, etc. regardless of the area of behavior being evaluated or the use to be made of the results, all of the various tests and procedures used for evaluation of program should posses certain common characteristics. These characteristics may be stated as qualities of a desired evaluation.
There are two important characteristics:
  • Validity
  • Reliability.
 
Factors Affecting Validity (Problems)
  1. Unclear direction results to low validity.
  2. If reading vocabulary is poor, the students fail to reply to the test item, even if they know the answer.
  3. Difficult sentences are difficult to understand, unnecessarily confused, which will affect the validity of the test.
  4. Use of inappropriate items will lead to disorganizations of matter, leads to lower validity.
  5. Medium of expression also affects the validity of the test.
  6. Difficulty level of items: Too easy or too difficult test items would not discriminate among pupils. Thereby the validity of a test will be lowered.
  7. Influence of extraneous factors, e.g. styles of expression, legibility, handwriting, length of the answer, method of organizing the matter.
  8. Inappropriate time limits—if no time limit is given the results will be invalidated.
  9. Inadequate weightage to subtopics or objectives forms a question of validity of a test.
  10. In quiz items, sometimes students’ inability to understand a test item, guess and respond. This would lower the validity of the test item.
 
Factors Affecting Reliability
  1. Data collecting methods.
  2. Interval between testing occasions.
  3. Test length.
  4. 83 Speed of the method.
  5. Group homogeneity—more homogenous, more reliability.
  6. Difficulty of the items.
  7. Objectivity of scoring is more reliable than subjective scoring.
  8. Ambiguous wording of items is less reliable.
  9. Inconsistency in test administration.
  10. Presence of optional questions.
7. Standardized and non-standardized tests.
A test is the major and most commonly used instrument for the assessment of cognitive behaviors. Usually, the test is based on learned content of subject specific area (s) and is directed to measure the learner’s level of attainment of prespecified objectives. You know that to measure an attribute, a standard instrument is needed. Therefore, unlike physical attributes, measurements are done by describing the characteristics associated with such constructs in behavioral terms.
 
Standardized Test
 
Meaning
Standardization means uniformity of procedure in scoring, administering and interpreting the results. Standardized tests are instruments that measure and predict ability/aptitude and achievement. Such tests are:
  1. Normed on an appropriate reference group (e.g. a group of people similar to those that the test will be used with).
  2. Always administered, scored and interpreted in the same way.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent or ‘standard’, manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures and interpretations are consistent, and are administered and scored in a predetermined standard manner.
Assessment devices are instruments used to determine both, how well a student has learned covered materials and/or how well he will do in future endeavors. Assessment can be accomplished through tests, homework, seatwork, etc. Most formal assessments that are used to assign grades and/or for selection purposes or predictions involves tests. A test is a systematic method for measuring students’ behaviors and evaluating these behaviors against standards and norms. Tests can be standardized or teacher-made.
 
Characteristics
  • Constructed by test experts or specialists
  • Covers board or wide areas of objectives and content
  • Selection of items will be done very carefully and the validity, reliability, usefulness of the rest is ascertained in a systematic way
  • Procedure of administration is standardized
  • Test has clear directions and it will be motivating, encouraging students
  • Scoring key is provided
  • Test manual provides norms for the test
  • It should be fixed
  • 84 It is specific direction for administering and scoring the test
  • It consists of standard content and procedure
  • It provides standardized frame of reference determining individual performance.
 
Uses
These instruments are used in the following ways:
  1. Selection and placement of students (and others) into various programs (gifted, special education, admittance into college, etc.).
  2. To diagnose specific strengths and weaknesses associated with learning, performance in school, emotional problems, etc. When a test is used as an aid to identifying/diagnosing a problem, it will most likely also be useful in identifying necessary remediation for the deficit.
  3. These tests are most commonly used in education for evaluation purposes to determine how students are progressing compared to others (in the school, district, state, region, nationally) and to measure the effectiveness of the instruction, and curriculum of the school.
 
Advantages
  1. One of the main advantages of standardized testing is that the results can be empirically documented; therefore, the test scores can be shown to have a relative degree of validity and reliability as well as results which are generalizable and replicable.
  2. Another advantage is aggregation. A well designed standardized test provides an assessment of an individual’s mastery of a domain of knowledge or skill, which at some level of aggregation will provide useful information.
 
Disadvantages
Standardized tests cannot measure initiative, creativity, imagination, conceptual thinking, curiosity, effort, judgment, commitment, good will, ethical reflection or a host of other valuable dispositions and attributes. What they can measure and count are isolated skills, specific facts and function, content knowledge, the least interesting and least significant aspects of learning. —Bill Ayers
 
Teacher-made Test (Nonstandardized)
These are very useful in evaluating the students progress to report parents and administrations. A non-standardized test is one that is not given to a group of people initially to standardize it. The most common types of tests that are not standardized are the classroom tests given by teachers all the time.
 
Uses
  • To know the ability and achievement of students
  • Helps the teacher to assess the strengths, weakness of student
  • Motivates the students
  • 85 Provides continuous evaluation and feedback to the teacher
  • Helps to achieve particular objectives
  • Helps the teacher to adopt better instructed methods.
 
Limitations
  • Tests are often ambiguous and unclear
  • They are either too short or too lengthy
  • Tests do not cover the entire content
  • Supervision is not proper
  • Lot of scope for copying
  • Conducted as rituals only
  • Answer books not marked with care.
 
Construction and Administration of Achievement Tests
 
Planning an Achievement Test
  1. It is concerned with determining the maximum marks, time and nature of the test.
  2. To decide the unit or units involved in testing. For example, a test for a single unit may be 40–50 minutes duration, with maximum 20–25 marks.
  3. A test conducted at the end of a term, a semester or a session, duration may be 2–3 hours and maximum marks are 50, 80 or 100.
 
Developing Test Design
The objective, content, form of question and weight age of difficulty level are important factors to be considered, while designing the tests.
 
Preparation of Blueprint for the Test
The next important step in the construction of an achievement test is preparing a blue- print according to the design. Normally, a blueprint for a test is prepared as a three dimensional chart, indicating the distribution of questions. Objective wise contain to use and form wise.
 
Construction of Items
  • Blueprint gives very definite ideas regarding the number of questions to be set from each subunit, their forms and scope
  • While setting questions and making the final selection, care has to be taken to maintain weightage marks of difficulty level
  • It should also be checked whether there is sufficient answer.
 
Organization of the Test
  • After finalizing the items it has to be arranged according to scheme of questions
  • Preliminary details such as some of examination, maximum marks and time, instructions, etc. have to be written at appropriate places.
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Preparation of the Scheme of Evaluation
  • To maintain objectively, scoring should be done strictly
  • For objective type items, a scoring key showing the number of items and its connect answer is to be prepared
  • Point method or rating method is used to evaluate essay questions.
 
Test Administration
Steps:
  • Motivate students to do their best
  • Follow the directions closely
  • Record any significant events that might influence test scores
  • Collect test materials promptly.
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Figure 2: Standardized and non-standardized tests (based on procedure of evaluation)
8. Role of nurse administrator in student and staff welfare services.
 
Staff Welfare Services
  1. Hours of work, days off per month, number of hours to be worked per week. Procedure regarding public holiday.
  2. Teaching load: Policy regarding maximum teaching load to be carried by each tutor allowing preparation time, laboratory sessions, evaluation of student’s assignments, committee work, record keeping, etc.
  3. 87 Residence: Faculty may be permitted to choose from residential and non-residential persons, all may be residents or all nonresidents. Residence of some staff may be essential to implement curricular and cocurricular activities. Some classes may be held in the evening and availability of staff members gives students, the opportunity to seek guidance or counsel, when they need it.
  4. Leave: Amount and kind of leave due to staff—special leave school should have the policy as to the time of the year when annual leave may be taken. How much leave to be taken at a time, provision for maternity leave, etc.
  5. Sickness: Policy should state details of medical treatment, type of accommodation they are entitled to and financial responsibility, if any.
  6. Attendance at conferences and study courses: The school should have a written policy regarding selection, deputation of staff for further education, attendance at formal courses, workshops and conferences. These policies should be made known to the staff.
 
For Students
Polices should be laid down regarding students records. Records to be maintained are:
  • Attendance record
  • Sick leave record
  • Student’s leave record
  • Health record
  • Academic and cumulative record
  • Student’s evaluation
  • Clinical experience
  • Anecdotal records
  • Marks and grades, etc.
All these records should be maintained in a student’s personal life and kept safely, so that when the students need transcripts for higher study or service, it can be provided correctly and promptly.
Students welfare are:
  • Student nurses association
  • Students records including cumulative records
  • Leave benefits
  • Health assessment record
  • Counseling and guidance center provide adequate suggestion and solving problems.
 
88Nursing Education: Paper 2012 May
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1. Discuss problem-based learning in nursing with suitable examples.
  2.  
    1. Discuss the need of the process of curriculum revision.
    2. How is the curriculum implementation and evaluation at the institutional level?
  3. Illustrate the core competencies of nursing education.
  4. Discuss the characteristics of a good measurement test and how do you check the reliability of such a test?
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Simulation in nursing education.
  2. Accreditation of nursing institution.
  3. Continuing nursing education.
  4. Techniques of counseling.
 
LONG ESSAYS
1. Discuss problem-based learning in nursing with suitable examples.
 
Introduction of PBL
“Problem-based learning (PBL) is the basic human learning process that allowed primitive man to survive in his environment.” —Barrows and Tamblyn, 1980
Problem-based learning is a student-centered learning model characterized by the use of real world problems as a context to learn critical thinking and problem-solving skills, while actively learning the knowledge content of the course. The PBL is an increasingly popular educational strategy. It has now been applied to many areas like nursing, medicine, science, community health, etc.
It is an instructional design, quite different from ‘problem-solving’ and the goal is not to solve the problem, which has been presented. Rather, the problem is used to help students to identify their learning needs as they attempt to understand the problem, to put together, synthesize and apply information to the problem and begins to work effectively to learn from group members and tutors.
 
Definition of PBL
Problem-based learning can be explained as “the learning that results from the process of working toward the understanding or resolution of a problem.”
Barrows, 1980
The PBL is “a conception of knowledge, understanding and education that is profoundly different from the more usual concept underlying subject-based learning.”
—Margetson, 1991
89 The PBL can be best defined as the individualized learning that results from the processes involved in working toward the solution or resolution of a problem.
 
Characteristics of PBL
Problem-based learning was developed to bridge between classroom learning and professional practice in such professions such as nursing and medicine. In the traditional approach, the teacher starts by giving new information, describing relevant problems, then showing how the information can be used to solve the problems. However, with PBL, the teacher describes the problem; the scenario or situation that the students are asked to investigate and then the students work out what they need to learn and how to apply their new knowledge as solutions to the problem. The teacher’s role is as a facilitator of the student group, keeping them on track and helping them to identify resources. It is based on small group, self-directed learning strategies with well-written objectives.
 
Principles of PBL
  1. The student is the focus of the educational program, not the teacher, the curriculum or the curriculum contents.
  2. The development of his/her learning capacities is emphasized.
  3. The problems presented in the curriculum trigger the student’s abilities to analyze, to understand and to solve. The student will memorize knowledge obtained in this way much better than by content-based learning.
  4. Cooperation with others and the importance of communication is emphasized.
  5. Working on interdisciplinary problems or projects is part of any curriculum.
  6. Much attention is paid to the development of practical skills.
  7. The development of analytical and creative thinking skills.
  8. The development of self-directed learning ability.
  9. The integrated application of knowledge and skills within practice.
 
Aims of PBL
The aims of PBL are to develop the students’ competency in a number of skills, which will be important in their professional life:
  • Problem solving
  • Self-directed learning
  • Small group learning
  • Critical thinking skills
  • Integration of different parts of the curriculum.
 
Reasons for PBL
 
Savin-Baden (1996) Listed Three Key Reasons for PBL
  1. First reason was developing ‘skills’ and more specifically clinical reasoning skills.
  2. Second reason was that learning should take place in ‘context’ for students.
  3. Final reason was the promotion of self-directed learning.
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Objectives of PBL
  1. To develop an ability to identify relevant health problems.
  2. An appreciation for the individualized nature of the physical, biological and behavioral mechanism.
  3. To acquire the knowledge base necessary to define the health problems of the patients.
  4. Reinforce the development of effective clinical reasoning process.
  5. Recognize, develop and maintain the personal characteristics and attitude.
 
Student’s Role
The students are expected somehow to achieve the learning outcomes of the programs, but there is no mapped path for them to follow. So, they have to assume a high degree of responsibility for their own education through effective self-learning, working with others and setting relevant goals for themselves and the group as a whole. Also, the students must take the initiative in using appropriate assessments of their progress and be able to present demonstrations of their learning achievements. Group members’ roles include:
  • Active participation
  • Active listening
  • Asking questions
  • Answering questions
  • Giving information
  • Make decisions.
 
Tutor’s/Facilitator’s Role
The role of the tutor in PBL is different than that of a course instructor in a traditional or lecture-based course. They are rather facilitators. Tutors play a crucial role in helping the group to establish itself, setting norms for the group function, ensuring group trust, attending to the group dynamics and unique characteristics of the group. They need to be adept at listening, provoking activity when necessary, even playing devil’s advocate. They have to know when to intervene in the group discussion and when to sit back and let the students resolve their own difficulties. An effective facilitator must be proficient in the PBL process, have insight into group dynamics and understand the assessment of learning and curriculum issues.
 
Process of BPL
  1. Problem: Situation, scenario.
  2. Hypothesis: Identifying issues, clarifying learning needs.
  3. Resources: Planning what to use.
  4. Reporting back: Learning from study and modifying information.
  5. Action plan: Resolution via care/action plan.
 
Explanation with Examples
Problem: A PBL tutorial begins with a problematic situation that is relevant to the area of study, e.g. video, written scenario; a brief way of referring to a complex phenomenon. Patient problems may be presented in two formats, i.e. real patients (instead simulations) or written case summaries.
“Shaw”
91 Mary attends the day center 3 days a week. She is 75 years old and is a widow. Her 32-year-old son lives with her. A nurse reports bruising on Mary’s arms and legs.
Hypothesizing/Brainstorming: The first task for the students is identifying clearly what seems to be the problem. Once they are agreed, they can start to list possible explanations of the situation reported. This leads into clarifying what learning is needed to come up with a solution. Then they can divide the research work between the group.
Resources: Developing skills at locating information is one of the most important parts of PBL. Apart from using traditional academic resources such as textbooks and journal articles, students need to learn how to find and evaluate information from websites, broadcasts, newspapers and magazines. They might carry out laboratory work or identify academic staff or other contacts that can help them:
  • Resource guide people: Researcher in elder abuse
  • Library: Search terms, e.g. elder abuse, day hospitals
  • Books
  • Journals: Nursing the elderly
  • Media: Video, websites
  • Organizations: Age concern.
Reporting back: When the group next meets, each student has to report on their progress with their assigned task. The group compares the new information with the problem as initially understood. Reflecting on what they have learned, the students can decide if they are happy to move on to the final stage or if they need to do further research.
Action plan: The final stage of the PBL process is the formal conclusion reached by the group, hopefully a solution to the initial problem. This might take the form of an action plan or a nursing care plan, which could be part of the formal assessment of the PBL course. Note that the level of depth of learning on the subject of the PBL scenario will depend on the time available. There is no simple ‘right’ amount of time for a group to work through a scenario.
 
Assessment and Evaluation in PBL
Regular opportunities for feedback at the end of the each tutorial. Feedbacks should be:
  • Specific
  • Focused at what is changeable
  • Framed as positively as possible.
 
Advantages of PBL
  1. Increase self-direction: It increases self-direction in learning and assume increased responsibility for their own learning by using journals, online search and library resources.
  2. Higher comprehension and better skill development: Problem-based learning provides more meaning, applicability and relevancy to classroom materials. When problems are engaging, difficult and useful, higher level of comprehension and skill development occur than in traditional instructions.
  3. Interpersonal skill and teamwork: Social interaction is such an important aspect of work life, problem-based learning incorporate collaborative team in solving the relevant problem. This promotes the student interaction and teamwork.
  4. 92 Self-motivated attitude: Researchers have found that students generally favor problem-based learning classes and therefore, demonstrate increased attendance and attitude then traditional classes. Students think that problem-based learning is more interesting, stimulating and enjoyable learning method. This attitude helps the students to become more self-motivated and independent learners.
  5. Facilitator student relationship: The aspect faculty like most is the tutor-student relationship. Faculty also play role in motivating student, creating atmosphere of group and student-directed learning and student problem solving.
  6. Level of learning: Evaluation done in medical field, student learnt through problem-based learning mastered the content then those traditionally learnt. There are three conditions, which improve their comprehension. They are:
    1. Better at activating prior knowledge.
    2. Learn in a context resembling their future context.
    3. Elaborate more fully on the information presented.
  7. Other:
    1. Helps the student to adapt to rapid change in information occurring in the world.
    2. The student, while learning develops critical thinking and reasoning capabilities.
    3. It facilitates teamwork.
    4. Students will feel free to express ideas.
    5. Special benefit to students of health profession as they learn to interact in ways, which they may not have encountered previously in the course of clinical practice.
    6. Helps students to develop analytical thought and interpret knowledge.
    7. Increases student clinical skills.
    8. It bridges the gap between theory and practice.
    9. Helps to maintain up-to-date clinical knowledge.
    10. Problem-based learning is an effective means for developing and maintaining creative and clinical reasoning.
Problem-based learning will teach a skill that will continue to be useful to the student’s professional life where patient become the stimulus for further learning.
 
Disadvantages of PBL
  • Resource expensive
  • Staff and students may be initially uncomfortable with PBL because they are used to subject-based learning and they do not really understand how to proceed in PBL
  • On the surface it looks like learning less
  • Measurement of learning outcomes is difficult.
  1.  
    1. Discuss the need of the process of curriculum revision.
    2. How is the curriculum implementation and evaluation at the institutional level?
a. Discuss the need of the process of curriculum revision.
Curriculum changes/revision means making the curriculum different in some way, to give it a new position or direction. This often means attraction to its philosophy by the 93 way of its aims and objectives, reviewing the content included, revising its methods and rethinking its evaluator procedure.
 
Definition
Acceptance overtime of some specific item, ideas or practice by individual, groups or other adopting units, linked by specific channels of communication to a social structure and to a given system of values or structure.
 
Need for Curriculum Change
  • To restructure the curriculum according to the needs of learners society
  • To eliminate unnecessary units, teaching methods and contents
  • To introduce latest and update methods of teaching and content, new knowledge and practices
  • To add or delete number of clinical hours of instruction.
 
Factors Influencing Change Curriculum
  1. General societal changes:
    • Population growth
    • Population pattern
    • Move toward urbanization
    • Consumption of natural resources.
  2. Healthcare changes:
    • Increasing government control in health care
    • Increasing need for health professional to work with other professionals as well as the client system
    • Increasing the professionalization of health workers
    • Increasing socialization in health field
    • Increasing in the supply of health workers, perhaps, resulting in over supply
    • Rapid obsolescence of practice, skills and knowledge level.
 
Approaches to Curriculum Revision
The three main approaches to curriculum revision are:
  1. Addition: In addition, new elements are added to the existing curriculum.
  2. Deletion: In deletion, some elements are deleted to modify the curriculum.
  3. Recognition: In recognition, nothing added or deleted but only restructuring of the existing curriculum is done.
b. How is the curriculum implementation and evaluation at the institutional level?
 
Phases of Curriculum Changes
Changes in curriculum involves three phases namely planning, implementation and evaluation. Any innovation in curriculum needs planning and conscious effort to implement the change and evaluation to know how effective was the change, the problems involved in change and how to continue or stop the change process.
94 Innovation can be introduced in any component of curriculum, since a total change in curriculum is not often necessary. It may be only a change in concept organization of content, adding new content or deleting certain aspects; adding new courses according to the social needs, technological advancement or change due to change in student characteristics and needs.
 
Planning Phase
There is need for curriculum committee to study, report and make plans for the change in curriculum. There should be involvement of administration, faculty and students in the curriculum change. Reviewing of the curriculum is the first phase of the curriculum change. During the first phase the curriculum should be reviewed by a committee to identify areas that need to be changed. The objectives, learning experiences provided, and teaching and learning activities need to be studied. It is also necessary to get the views of students and experts in the field. Objectives have to be reviewed and changed as necessary.
The planning during which the report of the review committee is studied. When planning the change, where should the change be; throughout the curriculum or only in the selected areas and how should the change be introduced. The data collected during the first phase would help to make these decisions. The change takes place at various levels. The objectives and philosophy should be examined; keeping in mind the required changes. The change next will be at the course and in the broader departmental level. The teachers have to study the course content and methods of teaching and the learning experience provided. It may be necessary to arrange the orientation program for the staff to prepare them for change and to overcome resistance to change.
 
Implementation Phase
This is the second phase in curriculum change. Once the curriculum has been finalized, the course modification steps have to be taken. The change plan will be implemented by formulating objectives, course content, learning methods, teaching approaches and evaluation process. The behavioral changes expected in the students, with the implementation of the change have to be started clearly. Appropriate learning experiences have to be provided to the students. New teaching methods also may have to be accepted according to the change.
 
Evaluation Phase
Evaluation methods and procedures are made at the planning phase. Evaluation must be used to monitor the progress of the students learning to determine the extent to which the objectives have been achieved and to find the ways of improving teaching learning methods. This will give feedback planners and should be used for further improvement of curriculum.
Implementing the plan of change in curriculum required a system development of the content, learning experiences and evaluation. There certain principles to be made use of when changing a curriculum. Change occurs within the institution and in the participants of change. Most of the change in education, in India, comes as a result of national or state government’s recommendations or directions from university or boards of education. Change, in other words, is compulsorily brought down from the top.
95
 
Guidelines for Changing Curriculum
  1. When a change occurs, there are forces, support and those oppose change. Try to work with those supportive forces, especially in the initial phase of change.
  2. Try to produce a self-motivated team of workers who get power from within themselves.
  3. Ensure that the people who are working for the change have freedom authority to implement the proposed change.
  4. Get the key personnel in the institution and get them involved in change.
  5. Protect the team members from under stress and strain, and support and encourage them in their work.
  6. The person or group working on change should maintain good interpersonal relationship and skills to manage the staff.
3. Illustrate the core competencies of nursing education.
 
Nursing Education
Nursing education is a professional education, which is consciously and systematically planned and implemented through instruction and discipline; and aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, social, emotional and aesthetic powers or abilities of the student in order to render professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health and illness, in a veracity of settings and in the best or highest possible manner.
 
Core Competencies of Nursing Education
  1. To prepare nurses who will give expert bedside nursing care in the hospital and home.
  2. To provide opportunities through curricular and extracurricular activities for the full development of the personality of each individual student.
  3. To provide integration of health and social expects.
  4. The basic purpose of nursing education is to prepare the nurse and able to plan for and give comprehensive nursing care.
  5. Nurse must have the necessary knowledge, principles, skills and attitudes that are essential to professional nursing practices.
  6. The nurse educators should guide the learning activities of students by acting as facilitators.
  7. Nursing students must develop competent health team members with sound judgment, intellectual and moral enlighten, professional competence and expertise.
  8. Nurse should be competent in teaching, oriented to community health and research-minded.
  9. Well-qualified competent nurses are needed to meet the needs of people in the society. Nursing care is an important and integral aspect of health care.
  10. Nursing education should impart scientific and up-to-date knowledge in the areas of medical, social, behavioral and biological sciences.
  11. Nursing education should have sufficient theory content and practical experiences.
  12. Nursing education should prepare nurses as good leaders to provide qualitative care.
  13. The nurse leaders are responsible for effective nursing education, which should aim to identify potential nursing leaders and facilitating for the development.
  14. 96 To improve the professional development of each nurse and their profession.
  15. For all round personality development of individual with nursing education nurse will develop and grow as a person of self-awareness, self-direction and self-motivation.
 
Aims of Nursing Education
  1. Harmonious development: Nursing education aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual and esthetic powers or abilities of the student. Harmonious development is essential for achieving the qualities required for leading a successful profession and personal life. In short, nursing education aims to prepare students as good human beings with qualities of a professional nurse.
  2. Right attitude: Right attitude towards nursing form the basis of nursing career. Right attitude helps to adjust with the student life and motivate to achieve excellence in the upcoming professional life. Nursing education offers a variety of learning experience with an attitude among students.
  3. Knowledge and skill aim: Nursing education provides the needed knowledge and skill required to practice the profession in a successful manner. Technological advancement in the field of education helps nurse educator to fulfill this aim in a meticulous way.
  4. Emphasis on high-tech-high-tough approach: High-tech-high-tough approaches in nursing care were devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of the technical advancements in the field of patient care. Nurse educators have to motivate the students to maintain the human elements of nursing, while rendering care with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
  5. Prepare students to take up a role in learning: The model of teacher as the pivotal and dominant figure in education, presenting a variety of information to pupil has practically disappeared. To a certain extent, this is applicable to nursing education also. Nurse educator of today is considered as a facilitator of learning, whose main duty is to prepare students to adopt a proactive role in learning so that they will actively participate in the teaching-learning process.
  6. Professional development: Nursing education prepares the students to render professional nursing care in the best or highest possible manner. Nurse educators can fulfill the professional aspirations of the students by way of providing guidance, arranging adequate learning experience and serving as role models. The need of professional development in this era of competition and knowledge explosion should be explained properly to the students.
  7. Assist to build a promising career: Nursing profession offers a variety of career opportunities for helping students to relive their potential and interests will enable them to build a promising career.
  8. Citizenship: Nursing education should motivate the student to perform his/her duties as a citizen for the welfare of the fellow human being.
  9. Social aim: Nursing education prepares the student to become a useful member in the society. This will in turn help them to interact effectively with the people and render dedicated care without any discrimination.
  10. To prepare global nurse: Globalization and liberalization has created worldwide opportunities for professional nurses ever than before. Today, a competent nurse with good knowledge in English can easily build a career in other nations. Considering 97 the high demand of Indian nurses in the international context, we can add nurses one more aim namely preparation of global nurse.
  11. Leadership aim: Since, nursing profession is experiencing a shortage of eminent leaders, leadership aim is very important. Nursing education has to nurture leadership abilities among students.
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Figure 1: Factors influencing nursing education
 
Factors Influencing Nursing Education
  • Health needs of the people in the society
  • Needs of the student and time
  • Philosophy of nursing
  • Current trends in general and professional education
  • Advances in sciences and technology.
4. Discuss the characteristics of a good measurement test and how do you check the reliability of such a test?
 
Characteristics of Good Measurement
Various aspects of pupil behavior are evaluated in the school/college such as diagnosing learning difficulties, achievement of desired behavior, etc. regardless of the area of behavior being evaluated or the use to be made of the results, all of the various tests and procedures used for evaluation of program should possess certain common characteristics. These characteristics may be stated as qualities of a desired evaluation. Such characteristics or qualities are listed below.
Characteristics of good measurement:
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Objectivity
  • Practicability
  • Continuity
Table 1   Meaning and definition
Concepts
Meaning
Definition
Measurement
Any device, e.g. rating scale, observation without allow to obtain information in a quantitative form
It is an act or process that involves the assignment of a number in order to whatever is being assessed
Evaluation
To evaluate means to ascertain the valve or amount of appraise careful
It is a process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realized
  • 98 Equity/Equilibrium
  • Relevance
  • Discrimination
  • Time
  • Length
  • Test usefulness
  • Precise and clear
  • Comprehensiveness
  • Adequacy
  • Comparability
  • Utility.
 
Validity
One of the most important criteria of a good evaluation is validity. Validity of a test may be defined as follows:
  1. The validity of a test is the degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure.
  2. It is the accuracy with which a test measures whatever it is intended or supposed to measure.
  3. The efficiency with which a test measures what it attempts to measure.
  4. The accuracy with which a test reliably measures what is relevant, e.g. a test may be valid for specific purpose, but not for general.
Types of validity: Following are the five types of validity.
Content validity: All major aspects of the content area must be adequately covered by the test items and in correct positions. A good judgment may ensure content validity.
Predictive validity: The extent to which a test can predict the future performance of the students. The tests, which are used for classification and selection purposes.
Concurrent validity: The relationship between scores on measuring tool and criteria available at the same time in the present situation. To diagnose the existing status of the individual rather than predicting about his future outcome.
Constructive validity: It refers to the extent to which a test reflects and seems to measure a hypothesized trait.
Face validity: When one looks at the test he/she thinks of the extent to which the test seems logically related to what is being tested. This explains the face validity. The common sense approach gives ‘face validity’.
 
Reliability
The degree of accuracy, consistency with which an examination attest measures what it seeks to measure a given variable. ‘The degree of consistency among tests scores’.
A test score is called reliable when we have reasons for believing it to be stable and trustworthy.
Check the reliability: The reliability of a test refers to stability of measurement over time. When a person’s data entry skills are measured on two occasions (with no special training in between), the two sets of scores should be similar. Reliability is often measured with a reliability coefficient, which is simply a correlation between sets of scores from people who 99 have been given the test on two occasions (X—first time score on the test, Y—second time score on the test).
There are three ways to measure the reliability of a test or inventory: test-retest, split-half and alternate forms.
Test-retest: The same test is given to the same people on two occasions. The scores are correlated and if the reliability coefficient is positive and high, the test is reliable.
Split-half: After being taken by a sample, the answers to the test are divided into two halves (e.g. the odd-numbered versus the even-numbered items). Scores on each half are correlated. If the test is reliable, the scores on the two halves should show a high positive reliability coefficient (correlation).
Alternate forms: Two versions of the test are constructed and given to the same people on two occasions. Scores on the two forms should show a high positive reliability coefficient (correlation).
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Figure 2: Test-retest
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Figure 3: Split-half
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Figure 4: Alternate forms
Table 2   Methods of reliability testing
Methods
Types of reliability measure
Procedure
Test-retest method
Measure of stability
Give the same test twice to the same group with any time interval between tests
Equivalent-forms method
Measure of equivalence
Give two forms of the test to the same group in close
Split-half method
Measure of internal consistency
Give test once; score two equivalent halves say odd and even number items, correct reliability coefficient to fit whole test by Spearman-Brown formula
Kuder-Richardson method
Measure of internal consistency
Give test once; score total test and apply Kuder-Richardson formula
 
Objectivity
A test is objective, when the scorer’s personal judgment does not affect the scoring. It eliminates fixed opinion or judgment of the person who scores it. The extent to which independent and competent examiners agree on what constitutes a good answer for each of the elements of a measuring instrument.
The objectivity is a prerequisite of reliability and validity. Objective judgments are accurate and hence tend to be reliable. Most important thing is to make the evaluation tool as objective as possible. The objectivity of a test can be increased:
  • 100 Using more objective type items, e.g. multiple choice, short answers, true or false
  • Preparing scoring key
  • Two independent examiners (equally competent teachers) evaluating the test and using the average score of the two as final score.
 
Practicability (Usability)
It is important that a test is practical for its purpose. The overall simplicity of use of a test is for both, constructor as well as for learner. It is an important criterion used for assessing the value of a test. Practicability depends upon various factors like ease of administrability, scoring, interpretation and economy.
 
Continuity
The evaluation is the continuous process. Therefore, it should have formative, summative and terminal evaluation.
 
Relevance
The degree to which the criteria established for selecting the item so that they confirm to the aims of the measuring instrument. It is almost equal to validity. What a test is intended to measure are the criteria for relevance of the test.
It must always refer to a specific purpose or objective and a specific group of students. For example, a test for evaluating the nursing students may not be relevant to evaluate medical students or vice versa.
 
Equilibrium/Equity
Achievement of the correct proportion among questions allotted to each of the objectives and teaching content. For example, sample of behavioral changes in the knowledge area 40% of questions, skill area 40%, attitude and values 20%, etc. as indicated in the table of specifications.
 
Discrimination
The basic function of all educational measurement is to place individuals in a defined scale in accordance with differences in their achievements. Such a function implies a high discriminating power on the part of a test.
 
Efficiency
It ensures the greater possible number of independent answers per unit of time.
 
Time
The required time to answer items should be provided to avoid hurry, guessing, taking risks or chances, etc.
101
 
Length
The number of items in the test should depend upon the objectives and content of the topic.
 
Test Usefulness
Grading or ranking of the student can be possible with items in the test.
 
Precise and Clear
Items should be precise, clear so that students can answer well and score marks.
 
Comprehensiveness
The total content and objective has to be kept in mind, while preparing items for the test.
 
Adequacy
A measuring instrument should be adequate, i.e. balanced and fair. The test should include items, measuring both the objectives and the content. Here, a blueprint will be very useful. Also, adequacy is the prerequisite of reliability as well as for validity.
 
Comparability
A test possesses comparability when scores resulting from its use can be interpreted in terms of a common base that has a natural or accepted meaning. Comparability of results used for standardized tests are:
  • Availability of equivalent forms of test
  • Availability of adequate norms.
 
Utility
It serves a definite need in the situation in which it is used. A test possesses utility to the extent to which it satisfactorily serves a definite need in the situation in which it is used. The utility of teacher-made tests depend largely upon the foresight of the teacher in so planning the test and its use that the results will serve the needs of the local classroom.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
5. Simulation in nursing education.
 
Meaning
According to international dictionary of education, simulation is a teaching technique used particularly in management education and training in which a ‘real life situation’ and values are simulated by ‘substitute’ displaying similar characteristics.
Some educators consider simulation as a technique in teacher education in which students act out or roleplay teaching situations in an attempt to make ‘theory’ more practically oriented and realistic.
102 It becomes clear, thus that simulation creates an environment resembling real life situations that helps the students to practice and gain experience as in real life situation so that they can practice confidently when exposed to real life situation.
 
Definition
Simulations have been defined as an operating representation of central features of reality.
BT Basavanthappa, 2003
Role playing in which the process of teaching is displayed artificially and an effort is made to practice some important skills of communication through the technique. The teacher and the students simulate the particular role of person or actual life situation. The whole program becomes training in role perception and role playing.
KP Neeraja, 2003
 
Types of Simulation
 
Simulation Exercise
A controlled representation of a piece of reality that learners can manipulate to better understand the corresponding real situation.
 
Simulation Game
A game that represents real life situation in which learner compete according to a set of rules in order to win or achieve an objective.
 
Role Playing
A form of drama in which learners spontaneously art out rules in an interaction involving problems or challenges in human relations.
 
Characteristics of Simulation
A good simulation will:
  1. Mirror real situations, while providing control over extraneous variables or constraints that might interfere with learning.
  2. Provide a mix of experiences that can be replicated for successive learners.
  3. Provide a safe environment in which learning has priority over patient care or system demands.
  4. Focus on application rather than uncertain recall of knowledge.
  5. Provide immediate feedback on performance.
 
Purposes of Simulation
  • Simulation is intended to help students practice in decision-making and problem-solving skills, and to develop human interactions abilities in a controlled and state setting
  • Through an active involvement in a simulation exercise a game or a role playing situation can occures the student achieves cognitive, affective and psychomotor outcomes
  • Simulation provides a chance to apply principles and theories that students have to learned and to see how and when these principles work
  • 103 Through simulation student can learn, how to learn and test various approaches in a setting where patient cannot be hurt and where wrong decision can always be reminded.
 
Values of Simulation
  1. Simulation ensures safe nursing practice by nursing students through bridging the gap between theory and practice. In the simulated environment of the fundamental laboratory, students learn safe practice of nursing through the perfect application of learned theory under the guidance of teacher. Thus, simulation bridges the gap between theory and practice.
  2. Simulation is an effective technique to learn psychomotor skills. Student learns in fundamental laboratory by the use of equipment and uses this skill for giving nursing care in clinical situation.
  3. Simulation helps the students to develop critical abilities and problem solving. These help the student to apply the nursing process by gathering and analyzing datatifying intervention and evaluating outcomes.
  4. Simulation not only helps the students to learn the decision-making process but also provides feedback regarding the consequences of the decisions made. In simulated environment student learn decision-making process by making decision rather than simply grasping the related theory. They also get the feedback from teacher and classmates.
  5. Simulation, especially role playing, enables students to empathies with the real life situations. By means of empathy, students place themselves in others position this will help to understand others feelings and to interact effectively by employing appropriate communication.
Table 3   Types of simulation
Type
Example
Fidelity
Typical use
Example
Model
Manikins
Low
Demonstration
Pelvic, CPR*
Oral
Problem based
Low
Case discussions
Classroom discussions on problem solving
Written
Paper and pencil latent image
Very low
Teach knowledge assessment
Patient diagnosis and management
Computerized
Microcomputer
Medium
Teach cognitive skills/problems
Clinical solving and management
Simulation of patient
Trained actor roleplay
Very high
Teach interpersonal skills
Simulated burn patient
* CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  1. By way of simulation teacher can easily inculcate proper attitude among nursing students. Simulation helps the students to recognize the need of proper attitude in giving comprehensive nursing care and helps them to cultivate a positive attitude essential for a successful nursing career.
  2. Simulation can also be used to evaluate students. Questions in the simulated form are very useful in assessing the knowledge related to the practical aspects of a subject.
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Activities in Simulation
 
Role Playing
The role, false or actual is performed in an artificial environment. This may give the pupil, an understanding of a situation or relationship among real life participants of a social process. They will gain some perceptions of the actions, attitudes and insight of persons or situations.
 
Sociodrama
It seeks to utilize role playing as a means of finding out the solution to a problematic situation assigned to role players. The problem may be false or based on real life situation and the actor is required to find out an acceptable solution of the situation.
 
Gaming
The situations involve outcomes affected by decisions made by one or more decisions. It is designed in a manner, which enables chance to affect the outcome.
 
Advantages of Simulation
  1. Simulation is highly student centered because of its very interesting and motivating nature, effectiveness in teaching slow learners as well as fast learners and all types of students.
  2. Simulation offers an excellent opportunity to learn from mistakes.
  3. Simulation fosters critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  4. Simulation helps students to acquire concrete meaning for abstract terms.
  5. Simulation provide a realistic experiences, students can easily apply these concepts in the clinics.
 
Disadvantages of Simulation
  1. Simulation cannot be made in all subject of the curriculum.
  2. Simulation cannot be conveniently used in case of small children because mechanism is too difficult for them to follow.
  3. It requires a lot of preparation on the part of teachers.
  4. Minimum of feedback sequence to choose.
  5. Time-consuming.
  6. Difficulty in using analytic approach.
  7. Need for many simulators.
6. Accreditation of nursing institution.
 
Definition
“Accreditation is the process whereby an organization or agency recognizes a college or university or program of study as having met certain predetermined qualifications or standards.”
Selden, 1962
105
 
Purposes of Accreditation
  • For the maintenance of adequate administration requirement
  • Maintaining a uniform standard for nursing education and nursing service
  • Stimulation of institutional self-improvement by evaluation and inspection
  • It safeguards the institution from social education and political pressures
  • It helps in the registration of nurses
  • It prescribes the syllabus
  • It grants recognition to school and colleges
  • It guides the school/college of nursing, according to recommendation and criteria
  • It also services to prepare the competent to serve the public.
 
Functions of Accreditation
  • It aims to protect the autonomy of various health service programs, e.g. nursing education and medical education
  • It preserves the quality of nursing education
  • It protects the public from ill-prepared nurses
  • It protects the institutions unsound and unsafe political pressure
  • It helps the practitioner for the broad scope of nursing practice.
 
Types of Accreditation Agencies
 
Regional Accreditation Agencies
Regional agencies are concerned with as institution as a whole. They are general in nature. They are concerned with appraising the total of the institution of higher learning and with safeguarding the quality of education and foundation of professional programs in colleges and universities. Each agency establishes criteria for the evaluation of institution in its region.
It receives those institutions periodically and publishes from time to time a list of those institution, which it has accreditated.
 
Professional Accrediting Agencies
Professional accrediting agencies are specialized and each is concerned with particular profession.
 
State Accrediting Agencies
Accreditation in certain stages may be the function of state agencies. It assumes the responsibility mainly for teacher education. State universities commissions and other agency are authorized in some state to evaluate college, to give initial approval to institutions for higher learning to formulate standards, to issue licenses and to have various other responsibilities.
zoom view
Figure 5: Types of accreditation agencies
106 Many state agencies accept the accreditation of regional and national accrediting agency as a basis for their approval of the institutions.
 
National Accrediting Agencies
In 1904, started with the accreditation of medical school. Membership in some agencies composed number of some combination of nurses and doctors.
 
Purposes of Accreditation Agencies
  • To ensure safe practice of nursing by setting standards for schools and colleges preparing the professionals
  • To encourage study and self-evaluation within the educational units for the development and improvement of the educational program
  • To ensure maximum benefit for the students and to protect the student’s interests
  • To ensure the graduates of the accredited schools and eligibility for admission to the licensing examinations
  • It acts as a monitoring and controlling agency
  • To provide a list of accredited schools of nursing and this assist students and counselors in selection of schools, which offer accredited program in nursing.
 
Process of Accreditation Agencies
  1. Applying for the institution to be accredited.
  2. Preparing a report by the institutional head according to the criteria and format sent by the accrediting agency. This report is referred to as self-study.
  3. Visit to the site by the inspectors appointed by the accrediting agency to verify the self-study report.
  4. Preparing a report by the visitors.
  5. Report made by the visitors along with the institutional report is sent to the review board of council.
  6. The board of review on the basis of all data and reports makes the final decisions whether accreditation should be granted or not.
 
Criteria for Accreditation
Report of the inspection of the college held on:
  1. Type of training given.
  2. Date of previous inspection.
  3. Recognition of the college by the government order number, date and number of seats sanctioned for the year. Number of the students admitted for the year after the cost date of inspection and regarding the detail of staff qualification.
  4. Register number, registration valid, non-nursing teachers, other staff members and the physical facilities available in the school:
    • Number of classrooms
    • Demonstration room
    • Library
    • Office of principal, tutors
    • Laboratory.
107
 
Process of Registration of Schools/Colleges
Trial basis
Recognition given on the temporary basis based on the application submitted plus pending inspection and is done after the favorable report of accreditation.
Permanent recognition
After the inspection and evaluation that is when the school/college meets all the criteria prescribed by the INC permanent recognition is given.
Services rendered by accredited schools/colleges are:
  1. Registration and admission of students. Accredited institutions are also expected to counsel students as to assist them in proper selection of the subjects.
  2. Distribution of study materials.
  3. Organization of personal contact program.
  4. Registering students for external examination.
  5. Distribution of mark sheets and certificates.
The school and colleges are expected to keep ready for the following.
General information
  • The name of the university it is affiliated
  • Date of establishment of program
  • Date recognition by state nursing council, Indian Nursing Council (INC) or university
  • Number of students graduating per year.
Philosophy
  • Aims and objectives of the institution and departments.
Organization and administration
  • Organization chart of institution and colleges
  • Placement of principal
  • Line of authority
  • Teaching staff and non-teaching staff.
Teaching staff
  • Internal lectures
  • External lectures
  • Staff selection procedures
  • Staff development program
  • Seminars attended.
Administration and physical setup
  • Office and room for principal
  • Staff, clinical staff, number of classrooms, nutrition laboratory, etc.
  • Hostel, cafeteria, dining hall, reading hall, toilet facility, etc.
  • Number of books, periodical.
Finance
  • Total budget sanctioned
  • Drawing offices—separate and combined.
Committees
  • Advisory committee, development committee, student welfare committee.
108 Staff teaching
  • Monitoring technique.
Construction and institution facilities
  • Syllabus, prospectus, application forms, bond paper, etc.
Health facilities for students and staff
  • Medical checkup.
Clinical setup
  • Community experience, family people cocurricular activities
  • Research of students, application forms and bond paper signed
  • Attendance registers, practical record, leave record
  • Evaluation form, master plan, examination results and assignments
  • Drug study, lesson plans, nursing care plans and clinical presentation.
 
Accrediting Agencies—INC, State Nursing Councils and Universities
 
Indian Nursing Council
Introduction
Indian Nursing Council (INC) is considered to be the statutory body that influences nursing education at the national level. The INC was constituted to establish a uniform standard of education for nurses, midwives, health visitors and auxiliary nurses. The Indian Nursing Council Act was ordained in 1947.
Composition and constitution
The Indian Nursing Council consists of the following members:
  • Elected members: 25
  • Nominated member: 4
  • Ex-officio members: 33.
Philosophy
The INC states that nursing is the unique function of the nurse, i.e. is to assist the individual, sick or well in the performance of those activities contributing to health or recovery that he/she would perform unaided if he/she had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.
Keeping this in mind, the nursing is a formal educational preparation, which should be based on sound educational principals. It recognizes the program as the foundation on which the practice of nursing is built and further professional education depends. It recognizes its responsibility to the society for the continued development of students as individuals, nurses and citizens. The INC recognizes the neccesity of developing a deep pride in the nursing profession among students to enable further profession among the students and to enable further professional growth.
Aims of INC
  • To establish uniform standard of training throughout the state
  • Prohibit training center, which are inadequate
  • Prohibit practice of nursing by non-qualified nurses.
Functions and role of INC
The INC provides a framework for nursing in India. It has many roles.
109 Prescribing of syllabi
The INC is prescribing syllabi and curriculum for various courses of nursing and conducting qualifying examination based on the development in science and technology. Syllabi have also been prescribed for all postcertificate courses, degree and courses, diploma courses and for health visitor courses.
Inspection
Inspections are done and granting of recognition based as the requirements, their setup and the strength of the institutions. They also have full freedom to withdraw recognitions. A right of appeal against any disciplinary action takes by the council is provided for in the acts.
Nature of inspections by INC
There are three types of inspections by INC, since 1996.
First inspections
Institutions are inspected by the INC when they apply for starting a course in nursing. This is the first step towards INC recognition.
The schools that seek recognition are required to submit the following:
  • Permission letter for state government
  • Permission letter for state nursing councils
  • A copy of the inspection report of the state nursing council.
Reinspections
Reinspections are done for those institutions, that are found unsuitable on first or subsequent inspection by INC. Once the institution takes necessary steps to remove the deficiencies and informs the INC’s reinspection is done within 1 year or earlier.
Periodic inspections
Once an institution is give recognition by INC the institute is required to send an annual inspection fee regularly. The INC inspects the institute generally after 3 years.
 
Function of Kurdish National Council
  1. Regulation of training programs.
  2. Supervision of practice and profession.
  3. Accrediting the training institutions.
  4. Implementing and prescribing syllabus and curriculum.
  5. Registration and granting certificates.
  6. Take action against malpractices.
Accrediting the nursing institutions
By an inspection committee constituted with several members and reports adequacy of training programs:
  • For various courses they conduct qualifying exam
  • Registering and granting certificate to qualified person to practice nursing
  • The council maintains a register of nurse and midwives, register.
Auxiliarynurs-mid-wives (ANM) register known as Karnataka state nurses. The state registration councils are autonomous to a great extent except that they do not have powers to prescribe syllabi for the various training courses, recognize examining bodies and to negotiate reciprocity.
Registration in state nursing council is very necessary for every nurse. It is necessary to be registered in order to function officially as a professional nurse.
110
7. Continuing nursing education.
 
Meaning
Continuing nursing education is a modern imperative, it must be future oriented, geared to facing of new situations and to the making of new responses appropriate for these situations. New knowledge is emerging rapidly in the physical, biological, medical and behavioral sciences, which constitute the foundations of nursing, problems in the nursing that must be solved by rational effort based upon systematic inquiry.
 
Definitions
According to the dictionary of education, continuing education is any extension of opportunities for reading, study and training to any person and adult following their completion of or withdrawal from full time school and/or college programs.
“Continuing nursing education of the health workers include the experiences after initial training, which helps healthcare personnel to maintain and improve existing and acquire new competence relevant to the performance of their responsibilities. Appropriate continuing education should reflect community needs in the health and lead to planned improvements in the health of the community.’’
‘’Continuing education is all the learning activities that occur after an individual has completed his basic education.’’
Cooper
“That education, which builds on previous education.’’
Shannon
 
Need for Continuing Education in Nursing
Basically, the need for continuing education emerges from the phenomena of change; change in what is known about man and how he functions in health and illness; changes in the way in which people meet the challenge to survive in a dynamic age; and change in the objectives, organization and financing of health services. Professional roles are altered as society changes and as new knowledge and technologies emerge. The individual who wishes to avoid obsolescence cannot leave to change his/her acquisition of new knowledge or his ability to adapt to changing demands. They must meet the challenge of change actively or the world will pass him by them.
If the nursing profession is to respond effectively to the challenge of developing wise leadership and competent practitioners current social changes must be recognized and future ones foreseen.
Legislation had a great impact on the education of health personnel and has made possible the accelerated growth of nursing education through enactments of laws, which provide financial assistance to schools and individual students.
There are forces within the nursing profession as well as in the larger society, which highlight the need for planned programs of continuing education geared to the needs of the practitioner. These forces include the changing functions of the nurse, an increasing trend toward specialization and the relative. Shortage of nurses, the great variations in the nature and necessity of formal education, preparation and the mobility of the nurse population.
Nursing functions requiring a high degree of skill and knowledge are now often performed by RNs with widely varying degree of competence and educational preparation.
111
 
Features
  • Unified approach
  • Relationship with other systems
  • Comprehensiveness
  • Accessibility for women health workers
  • Integration with the management process
  • Internally coordinated
  • Analysis of needs as a basis for learning
  • Credibility and economic.
 
Needs
  • To ensure safe and effective nursing care, nurses need to keep abreast with interest, knowledge and technical advances
  • To meet the needs of population and should cater to the needs of service
  • Development of nurses will occur by updating their knowledge and prepare them for specialization
  • For career improvement
  • Professional roles are changed as society altered and a new knowledge and technologies emerge
  • Nursing functions require a high degree of skill, knowledge, competence and educational preparation
  • The demand after specialized nursing services is increasing more rapidly
  • Planned programs are needed to increase their competence as practitioners
  • Nurses with research aptitudes and preparation are needed
  • To provide and prepare faculty who seeing continuing nursing education as a personal responsibility as well as professional and university responsibility
  • To provide a variety of continuing nursing education opportunities of high quality to nurses in both education and service changes.
 
Functions
  • To meet the health needs and public expectations
  • To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse
  • Recruitment function
  • Recognize gaps in their knowledge
  • To test participants ability to do final academic study
  • To improve the communication between the participants, community, faculty and health sector
  • To test the participants ability to do normal academic study
  • To maintain academic standards
  • To ensure quality of education
  • To meet educational requirements.
 
Elements
The philosophy of continuing nursing education recognizes the learner and teacher/nurse educator.
112
 
Learner
  • As a person, as a nurse and as a citizen, thus continuing nursing education is seen as a totality, a sound philosophy of education recognizes all three aspect of lifelong learning
  • Diversity is a part of learning process and contributes to the development of the individual
  • The learner in his life plays many different roles, e.g. adult, family member, learner, friend, etc. for every aspect of life there are some continuing nursing elements
  • It aims as a self-directed learning.
 
Teacher/Nurse Educator
  • They have to accept the concept of lifelong learning and their responsibility to encourage nurses to recognize the values of participating in different type of educational activities
  • Educator must be aware of source of information about related continuing education activities, e.g. self-directed individual study, in-service education
  • Teacher should act as a role model
  • The skillful teacher has to aware of difference in learning, what is already know and encouraging exploration in those areas yet to be discovered
  • Creative teaching is essential
  • Guide and counselor to the learner
  • Motivator and an encourager for the students
  • Producing instructional materials
  • Select and evaluate materials prepared by others
  • Administrative role like planning, directing, budgeting and evaluation.
 
Agencies of Continuing Education
 
University Departments
Historically, university department have been associated with continuing education in the form of awarding degrees through external examinations, research and private study. However, only in recent times conscious efforts are made to convert external and private studies into organized and structured learning activities in the form of correspondence course. In the Indian context, many universities have started separate departments for organizing correspondence education. Most of such departments offer students regular supply of lessons written by experts in the field and self-evaluation materials for marking their own progress in studies.
 
Open Universities
Open universities are different from correspondence approach in many ways. Organizationally, they are entirely devoted to the distance education unlike the conventional correspondence departments, that are a part of a university. They deliver lessons to the students using multimedia approaches. Correspondence course offered by the university departments usually rely on written form of communication. This single medium approach brings in its own limitations. For example, it becomes difficult to offer science course, which require demonstration of experiments and working of instruments 113 and tools. This limitation is overcome by open universities through a combination of audiovisual media with print and periodic face to face encounters with students at the students counseling centers.
There are seven open universities in India. They are Andhra Pradesh open university, Indira Gandhi National open university, Kota open university, Yashvanthrao Chavan open university, Nalanda open university, Annamalai open university and Karnataka open university.
 
Correspondence Education
In most universities, correspondence education courses run separately from the regular formal education. Students are separately enrolled and offered courses through print matter posted to them. Correspondence courses run by some professional tutorial companies, to prepare the students of 10 plus two for competitive admission examinations, have become very popular. They operate by mailing printed lessons, tutorial sheets, etc. and ask the students to submit their responses. The same are looked up and corrected by the tutors before the next lessons are sent to the students. Students may therefore, continue their school studies in the forenoons and take up correspondence courses for self-study in the afternoon and evenings at their convenience. Correspondence courses are liked by the adult learners who do not like or cannot attend the fixed time courses. They do not come to know about others attending the same course; no one knows whether they are taking the course or lagging behind others, except it there are short-term personal contact programs.
Correspondence courses may be offered through the media of audio and video cassettes or through other means of communication. However, financial restraints usually limit them to print the matter; instruction through correspondence is designed as follows:
  1. Printed lessons and tutorial sheets are mailed to the students.
  2. The student studies the lessons and completes the tutorial sheets. He mails the completed sheets to the sources.
  3. The resource person tutor checks the tutorial sheets and responds to the student. Further lessons and sheets are mailed to the student.
  4. Personal contact program is organized; say once or twice in the duration of the course.
  5. Mock examinations are arranged to prepare the students and to provide them a feel of the examination.
8. Techniques of counseling.
There are three major approaches to counseling. The directive approach, the non-directive approach and the eclectic approach.
 
Directive Approach
  • Williamson BG is the chief exponent
  • The counselor assumes the major responsibility of solving the problem
  • Counselor identifies, defines, diagnoses and provides a solution to the problem
  • Counselor directs thinking by informing, explaining, interpreting and advising
  • Counselor oriented
  • Emphasis on the problem.
114 As the name itself implies this approach envisages a more active role for the counselor. The counselor employs varying degrees of direction to help the counselee to reach sound solutions. Also, through his own specialized knowledge and experience in scientific diagnosis and interpretation of data, counselees are helped to reach earlier solutions for their problems.
According to Frederick Thorne, the proponent of this approach, the need for direction by the counselor is inversely proportional to the individual counselee’s potentialities for self-regulation. However, the basic responsibility for reaching the solution is primarily with the counselor as the counseling proceeds. Counselees are encouraged more and more to take up increased responsibility for self-direction. This approach presupposes a more personalized relation with the counselee where the counselor strives to identify psychologically with the counselee, so that he can be understood better.
 
Counseling Steps
Directive counseling involves six stages. They are as follows:
  1. Analysis: This involves collecting from various sources the data needed for an adequate understanding of the client. This includes administration of psychological tests, etc. However, such testing and form filling should not come between the counselor and counselee and its importance should be limited to the extent that it gives a better idea about the counselee.
  2. Synthesis: This refers to summarizing and organizing the data so obtained, as to reveal the assets, liabilities, adjustments and maladjustments of the counselee. This includes of the data obtained through psychological testing also.
  3. Diagnosis: This stage is concerned with formulating conclusions regarding the nature and the course of the problems exhibited by the student. Drawing conclusions from the results of psychological testing, administration of questionnaires, etc. are done here.
  4. Prognosis: This refers to predicting the future course of development of the counselee’s problem in the light of conclusions as made earlier.
  5. Counseling: This is the most important and time-consuming step in the whole process. This is where the expertise of the counselor is needed most. It is a highly personalized teaching and learning process. It may be direct teaching through explicit explanations, assistance in searching for relevant aptitudes, interests, etc. that illuminate the counselee’s problems and so on. Sometimes, the counselor listens in a friendly encouraging way. It may also involve practice sessions with the warm support of the counselor the counselee acts out the way he/she should. Thus, he/she becomes his/her own teacher to the extent his/her capabilities and circumstances permits. Success, thus, achieved reinforces and retains those successful behaviors, which in turn establishes an adjusted way of life.
    Thus, counseling involves:
    • Assisting the student in self-appraisal, i.e. identifying his/her interests, motives and capabilities.
    • Helping him/her to plan a course of action, which utilizes the capabilities and potentialities so identified.
  1. Finally, in establishing an adaptive lifestyle.
To help the counselee appraise himself/herself two types of data are needed—self perceived data and data from external appraisal. The counselee himself is the best source 115 of certain type of information. However, the counselors should also communicate that information obtained through analysis and diagnosis. Thus, the counselor cooperate with the counselee to reach a valid interpretation of the case and an effective program of adaptive behavior changes.
 
Role of the Counselor
  1. Analysis: Collecting data from various sources to understand the client‘s problem.
  2. Synthesis: Interpreting and organizing data to reveal students assets, liabilities, adjustments, etc.
  3. Diagnosis: Identifying the nature and cause of the problem.
  4. Prognosis: Predicting the future development of the problem.
  5. Counseling: Taking steps to bring about adjustment.
  6. Follow-up: Helping with recurrence or new patterns.
 
Merits
  • Time saving and economical
  • Gives happiness to the counselee as he gets a solution to this problem
  • Emphasis is on the intellectual rather than the emotional aspect.
 
Demerits
  • Kills the initiative
  • Makes him helpless
  • Does not guide counselee to be efficient and confident
  • Undemocratic
  • Made dependent.
 
Non-directive Counseling (Client-oriented/Centered Counseling)
  • Chief exponent—Carl Rogers
  • Counselee is allowed free expression
  • Counselor only directs and guides
  • Counselor asks a few questions, so as to think about the solution of the problem
  • Counselee takes active part, gains insight into the problem with the help of the counselor and arrives at the decision and action to be taken
  • Counselor’s role is passive
  • Goal is independent and integration of the client rather than the solution
  • Role of the counselor is to create an atmosphere in which the counselee can work out his own understanding
  • Emotional aspect rather than the intellectual aspect is stressed
  • Counseling relationship is the establishment of a warm, permissive and accepting climate, which helps the client to express his/her self-structure.
In this approach, the counselor provides an atmosphere in which the client can fully explore his/her own thoughts and feelings freely without any fear or pressure. This by making the counselee understands his/her potentialities the counselor acts as a catalytic agent. Here tile source of data is the client him/herself and the responsibility for change 116 rests with the counselee rather than the counselor. The counselor should not be as passive as trying to keep out client’s way nor should be as active as to shift the focus from client to counselor.
Steps involved are as follows:
  • Need
  • Attitude
  • Understand
  • Accept
  • Translate.
 
Merits
  • Freedom of the individual
  • Relieves tensions due to catharsis
  • Moves toward acceptance of himself
  • Confronts weaknesses without feeling threatened.
 
Demerits
  • Time-consuming
  • Wisdom and judgment of the client cannot be relied upon
  • All the problems cannot be sorted out through talking.
 
Eclectic Approach
  • Chief exponent—Bordin (Thome)
  • Counseling may be evaluated along a continuum from directive to non-directive to directive
  • Eclectic is a continuation and synthesis of directive and non-directive counseling
  • Both counselor and counselee are active and cooperative
  • Both do the talking in turn
  • The problem is solved jointly.
The counselor studies the needs and personality of the client and then selects the technique (appropriate). Begins with directive but switches over to non-directive or vice versa as demanded by the situation.
Here the counselor bases his/her counseling on concepts taken from various available viewpoints. He/She owes on specific theoretical allegiance. Instead, incorporates those procedures and techniques, which he/she believes to be most effective in the case of that particular counselee, without any prejudice or bias to any particular school of thought. It is the combination of directive and non-directive counseling.
Steps involved are given below:
  • Diagnosis of the cause
  • Analysis of the problem
  • Preparation of a plan
  • Interviewing and stimulating a client
  • Proper handling of any related problems.
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Steps
 
Initial Interview
  1. Develops report and does structuring, so that client understands what to expect from the counseling.
  2. Tentative diagnosis and plan of counseling is formulated.
  3. Gathers information about the client and their needs to be helped to assimilate this information.
  4. Client achieves emotional release and gains insights, modifies perceptions/attitudes about himself and situations.
 
118Nursing Education: Paper 2011 May
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1. Critically evaluate the impact of social, political, economical and technological changes on the quality of nursing education.
  2. Discuss in brief determinants, process and steps of curriculum development.
  3. Write the responsibilities of a teacher in selection, preparation and utilization of different audiovisual (AV) aids.
  4. Enumerate the importance of internal assessment in nursing education, plan a scheme of internal assessment for 1st year BSc nursing students.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Microteaching.
  2. Performance appraisal.
  3. Importance and functions of evaluation.
  4. Function and qualities of a teacher.
 
LONG ESSAYS
1. Critically evaluate the impact of social, political, economical and technological changes on the quality of nursing education.
Changes are the law of nature. The word change denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Society is a web of social relationship, therefore observable differences in any social phenomenon over any period of time. It is a change in the institutional and normative structure of society.
Whenever individuals come in contact, there takes place an interaction between them. Whenever there is an interaction, there is implied a change. Individual never establish contact with each other in the same way at two occasions. It may be seen that in each, new human relationship established, there is some novelty, some changes. This change, we may term as social change.
Changes can be felt in different areas of social life. When the values or standard of social life changes, the social structure also undergo changes.
Education is a powerful instrument for social and economical change. Educational institutions have an important role to play in the social progress of any country. Education has a creative force that brings about changes in the society.
 
Definition
“Social change is a term used to describe variation in or modifications of any aspect of social process, social pattern, social interaction or social organization.”
—Jones
119 “Social change is the change in social behavior and in social structure.”
B Kuppuswami
“Social change is simply a change in the human relationship.”
—Maclver
Based on these definitions, social change refers to the alterations, which takes place in the entire aspect of human life including customs, traditions, values, social structure organization and function.
 
Meaning
It means replacing the old with the new in the society. It can be a modification of the old, if not total replacement. There are changes in the field of economics as well.
 
Concept of Social Change
  1. Social changes may be used in a collective sense to include both cultural and social ways.
  2. Social changes are a continuous process, which may be very slow or rapid.
  3. Social changes imply changes in the social structure and function of various units which form society.
 
Factors of Social Changes
Social change is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. Social change is due to various factors, some of the factors are:
  1. Endogenous: Internal factors of social changes occur due to interaction and conflict caused by differential values of the old and the young, the literates and the illiterates, the urban and the rural.
  2. Exogenous: External factor of change emphasize on the impact of such forces in a society, which are beyond human control such as natural disasters and unexpected development in technology. Some factors of social changes are technological changes, cultural changes, educational changes, etc.
 
Nature of Social Change
  1. Social change is universal: According to sociologist, social change means variation or modification in any aspect of social process or pattern. Change is the characteristic of every culture and all the society. The rate of change in such societies may be slow, because the acts are not well developed.
  2. Social change is not uniform: Although social change occurs in all societies, but its rate varies from place and time to time. Social change is relative in terms of time, space and context. Social change, in fact, depends upon the nature of society itself and upon the readiness of the people to adapt to new innovations and emerging social institutions and structure of social change is deliberate.
  3. Social change covers the whole community.
  4. Duration of change varies: It implies change can be rapid or gradual, continuous or abrupt, long or short. Thus, by definition it occurs over a period of time. Some changes occur within a short time, while other takes centuries to be notified. Green revolution popularized multiple cropping and high-yielding varieties of seeds within 120 decade. Whereas, spread of female education and changes in the information technology have brought rapid changes.
  5. Nature and speed of social changes is affected and related to time factor, e.g. in India, the speed of social change after 1947 is faster than before 1947.
  6. Social change is an essential law and it becomes as necessity: The change is unavoidable. It is one of the law of natures. Change can occur in two ways, one is unplanned and another is planned.
  7. Definite prediction of social change is not possible.
  8. Social change is a network: It occurs as a chain reaction. All aspects of social life are interrelated, so the changes occurring in one aspect can lead to change in another aspect of social life.
  9. Social change occurs in the form of modifications or of replacement.
 
Education and Social Change
Education plays an important role in social change. Change is a natural process. We see changes in society too. Society is always dynamic and changes that occur in different social system in a specific period of time are called social change. Change may takes place in all fields such as educational, economical, political, etc.
“Education reflects society and educational changes follow social changes.” Technical and professional educations have revolutionaries the entire field of economics. Green revolution, white revolution, industrialization, etc. are all the result of the advancement in science and technology. Education has given man and women equal status. More and more women are taking to careers. Education has given a big blow to superstitions, caste, system and untouchability. On the whole, education build up characteristics and makes a person socially useful to society, i.e. makes him a good citizen.
—Peter Worsley
The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change and social development is widely recognized today. Social change may take place—when humans need change; when the existing social system or network of social institutions fails to meet the existing human needs and when new materials suggest better ways of meeting human needs.
Social change takes place as a response to many types of changes that take place in the social and non-social environment. Education can initiate social changes by bringing about a change in outlook and attitude of man. It can bring about a change in the pattern of social relationships and thereby it may cause social changes.
—Maclver
Earlier educational institutions and teachers used to show a specific way of life to the students and education was more a means of social control than an instrument of social change. Modern educational institutions do not place much emphasis upon transmitting a way of life to the students. The traditional education was meant for an unchanging static society not marked by any change. But today education aims at imparting knowledge. Education is associated with religion.
It has become secular today. It is an independent institution now. Education has been chiefly instrumental in preparing the way for the development of science and technology. Education has brought about phenomenal changes in every aspect of men’s life. Francis J Brown remarks that “education is a process, which brings about changes in the behavior of society”. It is a process, which enables every individual to effectively participate in the activities of society and to make positive contribution to the progress of society.
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Teacher’s Role in Social Changes
Teacher is an agent of positive social changes:
  • He/She should have a belief in social change
  • He/She should expose himself/herself to mass media and be encouraged to use mass media to increase his/her own knowledge
  • The rigidities of the education system should be replaced in an enlighten manner
  • He/She has to give positive and constructive suggestions for social change
  • He/She should encourage adult education, women education, education of backward classes
  • He/She should participate in the activities to bring about social change
  • Remove obstacles in the way of social change
  • The teacher must present things before public
  • A teacher has to welcome social change and should not be orthodox, but be narrow minded.
 
Economical Changes
Knowledge is the driving force in the rapidly changing globalized economy and society. Quantity and quality of highly specialized human resources determine their competency in the global market. Emergence of knowledge as a driving factor results in both challenges and opportunities. The funds for higher education in India come mainly from three different sources, viz. government, fee income from students and other sources of income from philanthropy (donation money to help people in need). On the other side, the needs of the higher education system have been growing rapidly.
 
Increase of Poverty
About 40–50% of Indians live under threshold of poverty.
 
Increase Price for the Needed Product
The importance of economic growth (growth in average living standards) deserves emphasis. Even apparently small differences in growth rates, if they persist over extended periods of time, make huge differences to the living standards of the average citizen. For this reason many economists have noted that understanding the determinants of long-term growth is one of the most significant economic problems.
The adverse impact of economic reforms reflects upon various revenue diversification measures such as student fees, student loan programs operated by commercial banks and privatization. Various revenue raising measures take place in the form of:
  1. Raising tuition fee as a significant source of revenue for the support of instructional cost.
  2. Other fees: With regard to fees for admission and examination fee, it is recommended to recover the recurring cost of operations. While in library, helmet facility, clinical, laboratory, sports and similar other facilities are concerned, it is suggested that these fees must be revised to recover a significant part of the recurring cost.
  3. Full cost recovery of other fees such as institutionally provided hostel and mess fees.
  4. Other services: It is recommended to revise appropriately to recover costs. It may include cost of transport, phone, postage and stationery, typing, computing, photocopying, etc.
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Impact of Changes in Nursing Education
 
Impact of Social Changes
Education is a powerful instrument of social change. Educational institute have an important role to play in the social progress of any country. Education has a creative force that brings about changes in the society. Many levels of education; primary, secondary, informal, formal, non-formal education, women education are included in the curriculum. It should also preserve the cultural heritage of mankind both materialistic and non-materialistic. It must stimulate new inventions, discoveries in materialistic culture and new ideas in non-materialistic culture.
 
Impact of Technological Changes
Technology plays an important role in education. Technology helps the learner to get the lesson objectives faster than the manual and conventional way. Almost all schools, nowadays have been using computer and internet technology in their education system. It is used to deliver the information and knowledge to the learners. It also gives fun education to students. The program in a computer such as power point allows to display animation features that can attract the students interest in learning subject matter. The students are able to search any information, which is helpful comprehensively in their lessons.
Technology is now regarded as a more effective tool other than textbook. The use of laptops in school is increasing as well, an estimated 12% of US schools have used laptops as an instructional tool. So, hence students learn more in less time when they receive computer based instruction.
 
Impact of Political Changes
Today education is perhaps most important function of state and local government because of importance of public education. Local education and politics are inseparable. Funding priorities become the object of political debate at local, state and national levels and finally education has become more politicized as we have moved from a society in which higher level of education were considered.
Religious and political affiliations also play the role in the politics of education. If the members of a certain religion persuasion/political affiliation have dominant control of a local school board, they can seek to inoculate the local school system with their perception of community values.
In extreme rare cases, local school administrators can be faced with a law on one side and school board influence on other side.
 
Impact of Economic Changes
The accelerated development in education is brought by the educated people. Education produces the quantum of manpower that the economy needs at any time, e.g. lawyers and teachers. Educational investments are higher at lower level of schooling and also higher for countries at lower level of economic development.
The scarcity of human capital in low income countries provide a significant premium to invest in education. The high returns on primary education provide an added justification for making education a priority in developing countries.
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  1. Discuss in brief determinants, process and steps of curriculum development.
The term ‘curriculum’ is a Latin word ‘currere’, which means running, race, lap or course, which are taken to reach a goal; it is the last meaning, i.e. closer to the accepted use of the word in education, i.e. as applied to a course of study. Thus curriculum means a course to be run for reaching certain goal or destination.
Curriculum may be considered as a blue print of an educational program. It is the base of education on which the teaching learning process is planned and implemented.
The concept of curriculum has changed from time to time. If one goes through the traditional books on curriculum and the modern books on curriculum one will realize, leading to the goal.
 
Definitions of Curriculum
“Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist to mould his material, according to his ideals in his studio.”
—Cunningham
“The sum total of student activities with the school sponsors for the purpose of achieving its objectives.”
—Alberty
“Curriculum is a systematic arrangements of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a school for a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational program.”
—Florence Nightingale
 
Determinants and Foundation of Curriculum
The development of curriculum depends largely on three fields:
  • Philosophy
  • Sociology
  • Psychology.
The knowledge of three fields will help them to satisfy their lives within the context of the society.
 
Philosophical Determinants of Curriculum
Philosophy is a powerful determinant factor of aims of education, but is also equally a strong deciding factor of contents and methods of education, which are as detailed below:
  • It aims at the all-round development of the individual
  • It is based on the philosophy of nation
  • It reflects the ideals and aspirations of the people
  • It inculcates the desired ideals of life in the youngsters
  • It helps in the development of proper philosophy of life
  • It is in accordance with the aspiration level of the individual
  • It enables the learners to learn the desirable cultural values, intellectual virtues, social norms and moral doctrine
  • It helps in developing personal and national character.
Philosophical foundation of education
The philosophical foundation of education includes:
  • Child-centered education (naturalistic philosophy)
  • Need-centered education (pragmatic philosophy)
  • Activity-centered education (projects and basic curriculum).
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Sociological Determinants of Curriculum
Schools are the social institutions, specially set up for the preservation and transmission of culture by society to discharge this function through the curriculum.
Sociological considerations that guide the curriculum development are:
  • Core values and needs of Indian society
  • Changing values of the people
  • Demands of modernization
  • Good family life, ways of life
  • Democratic temper of the society
  • Faith, beliefs and attitudes of the people
  • Cooperation
  • Media explosion
  • Population explosion
  • Regional and national imbalance
  • Economic efficiency
  • Education for fellowship and leadership
  • Creative and purposeful activities
  • Cultural, political factors
  • Knowledge attitude, beliefs.
 
Psychological Determinants
Knowledge of the nature of the learner and learning process, and the conditions facilitating optimum learning:
  • Knowledge of growth and development
  • Intelligence, development capacities
  • Curriculum to be child centered, learning experiences should be provided in accordance with the mental development of learner, i.e. ability grouping
  • Interests of the learner.
 
Other Determinants
Scientific: To achieve complete development of an individual and to prepare for complete living, i.e. human activities are divided into five categories—self-preservation, self-protection, promote human progeny and its protection, social and political protection and proper utilization of leisure time.
Political: To develop democratic values of social justice, equality, socialism, rights and duties.
 
Process and Steps of Curriculum Development
 
Definition of Curriculum Development
Beane, Toepfere and Alessi (1986) defined curriculum development in their book, ‘Curriculum Planning and Development’—curriculum development is mainly concerned with the design of plans for actual teaching-learning situations. It is based upon the broad goals and identified ways to translate those goals into a coordinated and coherent program of learning experience.
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Steps in the Development of Curriculum
The curriculum is based on the philosophy and purposes of the school or college or university and its construction requires an understanding of educational psychology together with knowledge and skill in the principles and practice of nursing education. There are five steps in the development of the curriculum.
There are five phases in curriculum process, which include as follow:
  1. Phase I: Formulating the statement of philosophy of the school or college or university.
  2. Phase II: Establishment of purposes and objectives of the school or college or university.
  3. Phase III: Selection of learning experience to achieve the purposes and objectives.
  4. Phase IV: Effecting organization of the selected learning experience.
  5. Phase V: Evaluation of the total program.
zoom view
Figure 1: Phases of curriculum process
 
Phase I: Formulating the Statement of Philosophy
The philosophy and administration of school or college institution of education program originates from the board of trustees and its members constituted by the government or any private trust, who are expected to become acquainted with the interests and problems in the community. For example, community may decide to organize hospital for care of sick organization of university or college or school of nursing may follow:
  1. An educational philosophy states the values, which are believed to be right, true and good by the persons responsible for the school or college.
  2. An educational philosophy will be unique to the particular society and individuals whom it serves.
  3. All teaching staff should participate in the formation of the school philosophy or college philosophy.
  4. College or school philosophy is used as a screen.
  5. College or school philosophy should not conflict with the philosophy of the institution of which it is a part.
  6. College or school philosophy should be re-examined periodically to determine its suitability in the light of changing condition.
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Phase II: Aims Goals and Objectives
One of the major difficulties of the curriculum process is the transition from general aims to the particular objectives of the classroom. Whether the aims of the educational process are stated as a part of the curriculum process.
Goals
  1. The ultimate goals are the expected outcomes expressed as patterns or categories of behavior.
  2. Ultimate goals are the expected end products of an education carried out over time.
  3. Mediate goals are the patterns of expected behavior at given stages over the educational period.
  4. It is doubtful whether specific objectives can be determined in phase I at all, because they are concerned with fairly discrete educational goals at the classroom level.
Aims and objectives of basic BSc nursing
Aims
The aim of the basic BSc nursing program is to:
  1. Provide a balance of professional and general education.
  2. Enable a student to become a professional nurse practitioner.
  3. Prepare graduates to assume responsibilities as professional, competent nurses and midwives in providing promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services.
  4. Prepare nurses who can make independent decisions in nursing situations, protect the rights and facilitate individuals and groups in pursuit of health, function in the hospital, community nursing services and conduct research studies in the area of nursing practice. They are also expected to assume the role of teacher, supervisor and manager in a clinical/public health.
Objectives
On completion of the 4 year BSc nursing program the graduate will be able to:
  1. Apply knowledge from physical, biological and behavioral sciences, medicine including alternative systems and nursing in providing nursing care to individuals, families and communities.
  2. Demonstrate understanding of life style and other factors, which affect health of individuals and groups.
  3. Provide nursing care based on steps of nursing process in collaboration with the individuals and groups.
  4. Demonstrate critical thinking skill in making decisions in all situations in order to provide quality care.
  5. Utilize the latest trends and technology in providing health care.
  6. Understanding of fundamental principles of administration and organization of nursing services.
  7. Understanding the human behavior and an appreciation of effective interpersonal relationship with individuals, families and groups.
  8. Appreciation of the various factors affecting the community, social health and welfare program.
  9. Ability to assume responsibility for continuing learning and for increasing competence in nursing practice.
  10. 127 Appreciation of professional attitudes necessary for leadership roles in nursing.
  11. Demonstrate skills in teaching to individuals and groups in clinical/community health settings.
  12. Participate effectively as member of the health team in healthcare delivery system.
  13. Demonstrate leadership and managerial skills in clinical/community health setting.
  14. Conduct need-based research findings to improve the quality of care.
  15. Demonstrate awareness, interest and contribute towards advancement of self and of the profession.
 
Phase III: Selection of Learning Experience
Even if the general aims are derived and stated apart from the process of curriculum development, it is obvious that data useful in the three step process—in phase I, must be derived from the behavioral sciences. In order to achieve ends, appropriate means are required. The means of instilling or changing behavior are through learning experiences. Phase II of the curriculum process is concerned with the selection of appropriate experience to bring about the desired behavior specified in phase I. Though learning experience are specific, they may be classified into general categories, which deal with man’s functioning in particular ways or his interests in certain directions or his attempts to solve certain directions or his attempts to solve certain kinds of problems.
Learning and learning experience
Learning refers to a more or less permanent change in behavior, which occurs as a result of practice. The term behavior, as is used here, demands special attention. It refers to mental, emotional and physical reactions or responses. So mental, emotional and physical reactions or responses are behaviors.
Classifications of learning experiences
Learning experiences can be classified into two categories, i.e. direct learning experiences and indirect learning experiences:
  1. Direct learning experiences: There are first-hand experiences with various objectives or symbols. Some of the direct experiences are as follow:
    • Observing samples or specimen
    • Experimenting with physical and chemical materials
    • Setting up apparatus for experiment
    • Operating machines
    • Constructing models, charts, plans, diagrams
    • Drawing figures, painting models
    • Summarizing a lengthy description
    • Collecting, analyzing and interpreting the data and generalizing
    • Listing important facts and points
    • Presenting ideas orally or in writing
    • Conducting physical examination of clients
    • Performing nursing procedures
    • Handling different types of medical equipment.
  2. Indirect learning experience: These are those experiences, which are not first-hand experiences. In education program such as nursing education, most of the time every student cannot get direct experiences in all matters relating to nursing.
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Phase IV: Organization and Integration of Experiences and Content
The major task to be attempted in phase IV is the combining of information about experiences, including developmental sequences and stages discovered in phase II. Phase IV is the phase, which leads directly into teaching situation.
 
Phase V: Evaluation of the Curriculum
The final phase in the curriculum process is coming to conclude about the success or failure of the educational enterprise by means of some measurement or assessment of change in behavior.
3. Write the responsibilities of a teacher in selection, preparation and utilization of different audiovisual (AV) aids.
Refer Question No. 2 November 2012.
4. Enumerate the importance of internal assessment in nursing education, plan a scheme of internal assessment for 1st year BSc nursing students.
Internal assessment is continuous, periodic and internal. This means that assessment is done in relation to certain abilities and skills in certain areas periodically and continuously. This has to be planned at the time of curriculum development, syllabus interpretation and clarifying objectives of learning.
 
Importance of Internal Assessment
  1. To give credit in final assessment.
  2. To reduce tension associated with final assessment.
  3. To provide link for feedback in teaching.
  4. To evaluate sphere of activity, which cannot be done through public examinations.
  5. To provide opportunity for teachers to evaluate his students.
  6. To induce student for continuous learning.
  7. The education commission recommends, “internal assessment should be built into the total educational program and should be used for the improvement rather than for certifying level of achievement.”
 
Basic Principles of Internal Assessment
  1. Should be continuous and made by subject teachers and it does not replace examinations.
  2. It uses suitable evaluation tools and techniques; considers time, efforts, finance and acceptability for selected methods.
  3. Fix proportion of marks according to hours of instructions and importance of subject to nursing.
  4. Used as a feedback to improve teaching.
  5. Students should know their internal assessment marks before their final examinations.
  6. Give opportunity to students to improve their internal assessment grade by additional tests, assignments, etc.
  7. 129 Results must be studied statistically.
  8. Involve more teachers in the decision making process in relation to components and weightage.
 
Plan a Scheme of Internal Assessment for First Year BSc Nursing Students
 
Procedure for Internal Assessment
  1. Internal assessment (IA) should be comprehensive, evaluating all the aspects of students growth, e.g. academic achievement, personal growth, etc.
  2. All items of IA need not follow qualified scoring procedures. The results should be kept separately.
  3. Through IA teachers can change attitude of students favorable towards day-to-day programs.
  4. IA should be objective, unbiased and based on all the records of unit test, practical tests, homework, class work, observational scales and inventories, participation in group projects, etc.
 
Components of Internal Assessment System
The school provides many opportunities for students and a detailed track of reports on these activities must be kept.
The items of activities may be as follows:
  1. Subject wise assessment:
    • Unit tests: 25 marks
    • 2 term tests: 25 marks
    • Performance tests: 10 marks
    • Homework and class work: 10 marks
    • Term papers: 10 marks
    • Assignments: 20 marks
    • Total: 100 marks.
The final maximum score in a subject should be 100 and a student must obtain at least 50 in order to pass.
  1. Assessment of co-curricular activities:
    • Library work: 20 marks
    • Sports: 20 marks
    • Debates, drawings: 20 marks
    • Study circle: 20 marks
    • Visits: 20 marks
    • Total: 100 marks.
The final maximum score in a subject should be 100 and a student must obtain at least 50 in order to pass.
  1. Assessment of personality traits.
Percentage scores are determined and reported separately. The minimum expected score for pass must be made known to people.
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Validity of Internal Assessment
Though IA is a powerful tool in the hands of a teacher, there is likelihood of its misuse. It becomes invalid if the teacher is biased, has prejudice against a particular pupil or antagonism. The tool of IA is very powerful, if assessment is made objectively and is free from bias.
 
Advantages of Internal Assessment
  1. No undue weightage is given to annual or eternal examinations. This is logical, psychological and scientific.
  2. Proper study habits are likely to be developed.
  3. Students will be engaged in study throughout the year.
  4. They will be more regular, alert sincere in studies.
  5. Undue emphasis on 11th (last) hour preparation in examinations will be reduced to minimum.
  6. Students will pay attention to all activities organized by the school and will try to participate in it.
  7. Internal assessment helps to reduce anxiety and prevent nervous breakdown in students.
  8. Gives a comprehensive picture of student’s progress.
  9. Helps to diagnose the weakness and strength of pupils and remedial measures if possible.
  10. Used as a good device for motivating students.
  11. It brings about a change in attitude, interests and appreciation of students and teachers towards school programs.
  12. It gives an ample opportunity to the teacher to assess his own students; it is completely in accordance with the principle ‘the teacher who teaches should assess’.
  13. If IA is having a considerably high weightage in the promotion of a student to next higher level not only teacher but also students and parents should feel responsible for the entire syllabus during the whole year.
Table 1   Internal assessment
Traits
Very much
Not at all
Cooperation
Initiative
Honesty
Leadership
Followership
Perseverance
Confidence
 
Disadvantages
  1. A teacher may misuse it.
  2. It can cause a great harm in the hands of an inexperienced, insincere teacher.
  3. It will lose its validity if favoritism, personal prejudices and subjectivity in assessment are rampant.
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SHORT ESSAYS
5. Microteaching
 
Definitions
“Microteaching as a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time.”
—Allen
“Microteaching is a device, which provides the novice and experience teacher such as new opportunities to improve teaching.”
—David B Young
“Microteaching is a teacher’s education technique, which allows the teacher to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepare lessons in planned series of 5–10 minutes encounters with a small group of real students often with an opportunity to observe the result on video tape.”
—Buch MBI
 
Principles of Microteaching
  1. Psychological theory of reinforcement: In microteaching, the student teacher is given encouragement from time to time for his better performance with the feedback. As a result of this reinforcement, feedback and reteaching, he becomes perfect.
  2. The pedagogic principle of practice and drill: Teaching is a complex skill, which needs constant drill and practice. It affords practice in each small task or skill and thereby the pupil teacher gain mastery.
  3. Principles of continuity: Microteaching is continuous process; teaching feedback, the teaching till perfection is attained.
  4. Principle of microscopic supervision: Supervisor has an observation schedule, which he fills up while supervising and makes assessment at a rating scale. The supervisor goes through all important points in the lesson, paying full attention to one point at a time.
  5. Principles of evaluation: Evaluation by supervisor and valuation of own performance.
 
Steps in Microteaching
  1. Defining the skill: A particular skill is defined to student teachers in terms of specific teaching behaviors and the objectives of such behavior aims at achieving.
  2. Demonstrating the lesson: The teacher educator can give a demonstration lesson using the particular skill.
  3. Planning the lesson: The student teacher prepares a lesson plan based on the pre-decided model on a suitable topic relating to the particular skill which he proposes to practice.
  4. Teaching the micro lesson.
  5. Discussion on the lesson delivered: The lesson delivered by the trainee is followed by discussion to provide him feedback. Peers who participated in the lesson as learners, peer observers or the supervisor can provide the necessary feedback. Feedback can also be provided by audiotape or videotape recorder. The student teacher observes and analyses his lesson with the help of the supervisor.
  6. 132 Replanning the lesson: In the light of the feedback and supervisors’ comments, the student teacher replans the same lesson or a different lesson in order to use the skill more effectively.
  7. Reteaching the lesson: The revised lesson is retaught to a different, but comparable group of pupils.
  8. Rediscussion or refeedback: The lesson is again observed or audiotaped or videotaped. Observations are noted. Feedback is again provided on the retaught lesson.
  9. Repeating the cycle: The teach-re-teach cycle is repeated till the desired level of skill is achieved. The supervisor is to enable the teacher trainee to perfect his performance in the particular teaching skills.
 
Microteaching Cycle
The components of microteaching cycle are shown in the figure.
 
Need of Microteaching
  1. To ensure the desired skills, which are actually acquired by the teacher trainee. Supervised teaching and learning practice are more useful after the student-teacher goes through the microteaching style.
  2. Teaching is a complex task, involving a number of teaching activities such as over teaching behavior (observable, measurable and recordable behavior) and covert behavior (they bring about a change in opinions and beliefs).
    zoom view
    Figure 2: Components of microteaching cycle
  3. Desirable microteaching behaviors, which constitute teaching skills, e.g. standing skill, thinking, framing a question, facing the students, listening, looking around for a response.
  4. Different teaching skills are not exclusive to each other; it is observable skills, which are better to identify and such skill acts as desired means to quantify them.
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Teaching Skills Involved in Microteaching
 
Stanford Model
  • Stimulus variation
  • Set induction
  • Closure
  • Silence
  • Non-verbal clues
  • Reinforcement of student participation
  • Fluency in questioning
  • Probing questions
  • Divergent questions
  • Recognizing attending behavior
  • Illustrating and use of examples
  • Lecturing skills
  • Planned repetition move
  • Completeness of communication.
 
Passi Model
  • Writing instructional objectives
  • Introducing a lesson
  • Fluency in questioning
  • Probing questions
  • Explaining
  • Illustrating with examples
  • Stimulus variation
  • Silence and non-verbal cues
  • Reinforcement of learning
  • Increasing participation
  • Using a chalk board
  • Achieving closure
  • Recognizing attentive behavior.
 
Procedures Adopted in Microteaching
  • Lecture method
  • Demonstration method
  • Diagnostic lesions
  • Micro lessons for practice.
 
Phases of Microteaching
According to JC Clift there are three phases:
  • Knowledge acquisition phase
  • Skill acquisition phase
  • Transfer phase.
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Knowledge Acquisition Phase
  1. The student teacher attempts to acquire knowledge about the rationale of the skill, its role in the classroom and its component behavior.
  2. He reads relevant literature, observes demonstration lesson to develop knowledge regarding the mode of presentation of the skill.
  3. Therefore the student gets theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge of the skill.
 
Skill Acquisition Phase
  1. On the basis of the model presented to the student teacher, a micro lesson is prepared and skill is practiced by caring out the microteaching cycle.
  2. It has two components:
    1. Microteaching setting: Such as micro class duration of micro lesson, supervisor and type of the student.
    2. Feedback: Given by the supervisor, the pupil and self-analysis.
 
Transfer Phase
  1. Here the student teacher integrates different skills.
  2. In place of scaled down teaching, the student teacher in the real classroom phase tries to integrate all the skills.
 
Advantages of Microteaching
  • Superior performance
  • Real teaching teacher and pupils, both work together
  • Accomplishment of specific tasks—practice of instructional skills and practice of techniques of teaching
  • Increased control of practice
  • Expansion of normal knowledge of results or feedback dimension in teaching
  • Hopes in solving some of the problems involved in student teaching practice as microteaching focuses upon specific teaching skills
  • Effective in modifying teaching behavior
  • Helps in developing important teaching skills: Questioning, reinforcement, silence and non-verbal clues
  • Effective technique for transfer of general teaching competence to classroom teaching
  • Provides good prelude to a micro lesson
  • It helps to build up confidence step by step and improves teaching behavior
  • Different feedback forms: As oral feedback by teachers, peer groups, audio and video tape recording is the powerful feedback
  • Provides many opportunities for a trainee to study
  • Lessens the complexities of the normal classroom teaching by scaled down teaching
  • Facilitates the development of teaching skills, e.g. reinforcement, probing questions
  • Individualizes teacher training
  • It is a teaching in relatively simple and no threatening (number of students hardly 5–10)
  • Provision of much fuller use of microteaching and more objective feed back to the trainee than in any other teacher training procedure
  • Immediate evaluation and additional trials will be done
  • 135 Patterns of class room interaction and communication between the teacher and the students can be objectively and easily studied
  • Individual micro lessons are observed by other teachers and improvements can be suggested by them by observing video recording
  • It enables the student-teacher to view and hear his/her own performance and thus enable him/her to make self-criticism
  • Subsequent cycles of microteaching results in critical analysis and improvement in teaching skills.
 
Disadvantages of Microteaching
  • It is only stimulated technique with less number of persons over a short period of time
  • It is expensive to produce and to maintain video recording just for microteaching
  • Limited to lecturing
  • Conducted under controlled environment where different AV aids are provided
  • Real life situations are quite different
  • It does not apply to skills such as decision making, preparation of AV resources, maintaining student records
  • Minimum of feedback sequence to choose from the feedback provided by stimulation is not total, but only the most likely feedback
  • Time consuming
  • Difficulty in using analytic approach as analytic approach to problem solving becomes a problem
  • Need for many stimulators since instruction is individualized
  • Scope is narrow
  • Requires more skills.
6. Performance appraisal
 
Meaning
Performance appraisal means the systematic evaluation of the performance of an expert or his immediate superior.
Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Often the term is confused with effort, but performance is always measured in terms of results and not efforts.
The performance appraisal process includes day-to-day manager-employee interactions (coaching, counseling, dealing with policy/procedure violations and disciplining); written documentation (making notes about an employee’s behavior completing the performance appraisal form); the formal appraisal interview and follow-up sessions that may involve coaching and/or discipline when needed.
 
Definitions
“Performance appraisal is a systematic, periodic and so far as humanly possible, an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and to his potentialities for a better job.”
—Edwin B Flippo
136 The performance of an employee is compared with the job standards. The job standards are already fixed by the management for an effective appraisal.
“Performance appraisal is a record of progress for apprentices and regular employees, as a guide in making promotions, transfer or demotions, as a guide in making lists for bonus distribution for seniority consideration and for rates of pay, as an instrument for discovering hidden genius and as a source of information that makes conferences with employees helpful.” —Scott Clothier and Spiegal
 
Objectives of Appraisal
  1. To determine the effectiveness of employees on their present jobs to decide their benefits.
  2. To identify the shortcomings of employees to overcome them through systematic guidance and training.
  3. To find out their potential for promotion and advancement.
 
Purposes and Benefits
Performance appraisal can serve many purposes and has several benefits. Among them are:
  1. To provide backup data for management decisions concerning salary standards, merit increase, selection of qualified individuals for hiring, promotion or transfer and demotion or termination of unsatisfactory employees.
  2. To serve as a check on hiring and recruiting practices and as validation of employment tests.
  3. To motivate employees by providing feedback about their work.
  4. To discover the aspirations of employees and to reconcile them with the goals of the organization.
  5. To provide employees with recognition for accomplishments.
  6. To improve communication between supervisor and employee and to reach an understanding on the objectives of the job.
  7. To help supervisors, observe their subordinates more closely, to so a better coaching job and to give supervisors a stronger part to play in personnel management and employee development.
  8. To establish standards of job performance.
  9. To improve organizational development by identifying training and development needs to employees and designing objectives for training programs based on those needs.
  10. To earmark candidates for supervisory and management developments.
  11. To help the organization determine if it is meeting its goals.
 
Importance
Nowadays, the management uses performance appraisal as a tool. The scope of performance appraisal is not limited to pay fixation and is enlarged to include many decisions:
  1. Performance appraisal helps the management to take decision about the salary increase of an employee.
  2. 137 The continuous evaluation of an employee helps in improving the quality of an employee in job performance.
  3. The performance appraisal brings out the facilities available to an employee, when the management is prepared to provide adequate facilities for effective performance.
  4. It minimizes the communication gap between the employer and employee.
  5. Promotion is given to an employee on the basis of performance appraisal.
  6. The training needs of an employee can be identified through performance appraisal.
  7. The decision for discharging an employee from the job is also taken on the basis of performance appraisal.
  8. Performance appraisal is used to transfer a person, who is misfit for a job to the right placement.
  9. The grievances of an employee are eliminated through performance appraisal.
  10. The job satisfaction of an employee increases morale. This job satisfaction is achieved through performance appraisal.
  11. It helps to improve the employer and employee relationship.
 
Concept of Performance Appraisal
  1. The appraisal should be in writing and carried at least once a year.
  2. The performance appraisal information should be shared with the employee.
  3. The employee should have the opportunity to respond in writing to the appraisal.
  4. Employees should have a mechanism to appeal the results of the performance appraisal.
  5. The manager should have adequate opportunity to observe the employees job performance during the course of the evaluation period.
  6. Anecdotal notes on the employee’s performance should be kept during the entire evaluation period.
  7. Evaluator should be trained to carry out the performance appraisal process.
  8. As far as possible, the performance appraisal should focus on employee behavior and results rather than on personal traits or characteristics.
 
Characteristics and Obstacles
The following characteristics are essential elements of effective performance appraisal:
  1. The philosophy, purpose and objectives of the organization are clearly stated so that performance appraisal tools can be designed to reflect these elements.
  2. The purposes of performance appraisal are identified, communicated and understood.
  3. Job descriptions are written in such a manner that standards of job performance can be identified for each job.
  4. The appraisal tool used is suited to the purposes for which it will be utilized and is accompanied by clear instructions for its use.
  5. Evaluators are trained in the use of the tool.
  6. The performance appraisal procedure is delineated, communicated and understood.
  7. Plans for policing the appraisal procedure and evaluation appraisal tools are developed, and implemented.
  8. Performance appraisal has the full support of top management.
  9. Performance appraisal is considered to be fair and productive by all who participate in it.
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Limitations of Performance Appraisal
The following are the limitations of performance appraisal:
  1. The performance appraisal methods are unreliable.
  2. If an employee is well known to an employer, the performance appraisal may not be correct.
  3. The inability of supervision to appraise an employee does not bring out the accurate performance appraisal.
  4. Some qualities of an employee cannot be easily appraised through any performance appraisal method.
  5. A supervisor may appraise an employee to be good to avoid incurring his displeasure.
  6. Uniform standards are not followed by the supervisors in the performance appraisal.
 
Potential Appraisal Problems
  1. Leniency error: The tendency of a manager to over rate staff performance.
  2. Recency error: The tendency of a manager to rate an employee based on recent events rather than over the entire evaluation period.
  3. Halo error: The failure to differentiate among various performance dimensions, when evaluating.
  4. Ambiguous evaluation standards problem: The tendency of evaluators to place differing connotations on rating scale words.
  5. Written comments problem: The tendency of evaluators does not include written comments on appraisal forms.
7. Importance and functions of evaluation.
 
Definitions
“Evaluation is essential and never ending process, vicious cycle of formulating goals, measuring the progress towards them and determining the new goals, which emerge as a result of new warning.”
—Chara M
“Evaluation is a process wherein the parts, processes or outcomes of a program are examined to see whether they are satisfactory, particularly with reference to the stated objectives of the program, our own expectations or our own standards of excellence.”
—Tuckman (1975)
“Evaluation means the systematic examination of events occurring in and consequent on a contemporary program. It is an examination conducted to assist in improving this program and other programs having the same general purpose.”
—Cronbach et al (1980)
 
Importance of Evaluation
The teacher of nursing students’ should have complete program of evaluation, which should be considered as an integral, continuous part of teaching, which enables them to accomplish the following important purposes:
  1. To determine the level of knowledge and understanding of the students in her/his classes at various times during the year or semester.
  2. To determine the level of the student’s clinical performance at various stages.
  3. 139 To become aware of the specific difficulties of individual students, of an entire class, as a basis for further teaching.
  4. To diagnose each student’s strength and weaknesses, and to suggest remedial measure, which may be needed.
  5. To encourage student’s learning by measuring their achievement and inform them of their success.
  6. To help students to become increasingly self-directing in their study.
  7. To help students to acquire the attitude and skills in self-evaluation.
  8. To provide the additional motivation of examinations, which gives opportunity to practice thinking, the application principles, the making of judgments, etc.
  9. To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and learning techniques of subject content and of instructional media in reaching the goals of her course.
  10. To gather information needed for administrative purposes such as selecting students for higher courses, placement of students for advanced training, etc.
 
Functions of Evaluation
The main purposes of measurement and evaluation are:
  1. Placement of student, which involves bringing students appropriately in the learning sequence and classification or streaming of students according to ability or subjects.
  2. Selecting the students for courses—general, professional, technical, commercial, etc.
  3. Certification: This helps to certify that a student has achieved a particular level of performance.
  4. Stimulating learning: This can be motivation of the student or teacher, providing feedback, suggesting suitable practice, etc.
  5. Improving teaching: By helping to review the effectiveness of teaching arrangements.
  6. For research purposes.
  7. For guidance and counseling services.
  8. For modification of the curriculum purposes.
  9. For the purpose of selecting students for employment.
  10. For modification of teaching methods.
  11. For the purposes of promotions to the students.
  12. For reporting students progress to their parents.
  13. For the awards of scholarship and merit awards.
  14. For the admission of students into educational institutions.
  15. For the maintenance of students.
 
Measurement of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Domain
 
Cognitive Domain
  1. Written test:
    1. Subjective type:
      • Essay type—descriptive, narrative, comparison, amplification, precise, core item and short notes.
    2. 140 Objective type:
      • MCQ, matching type, F/F, fill in blanks and sentence completion.
    3. Problem solving/situational type.
  2. Oral examination:
    • Observation with rating scale questionnaire.
  3. Practical examination:
    • In a real situation
    • In simulated situation.
 
Affective Domain
  • Interview
  • Assignments
  • Communicative records
  • Observation developing procedure (carrying out project)
  • Anecdotal records
  • Critical maiden technique
  • Discussion skills
  • Scaling techniques:
    • Rating scale
    • Point scale
    • Differential (LL Thurstone)
    • Summated (Likert)
    • Scalogram
    • Q-sort scaling
    • Semantic differential scale.
 
Psychomotor Domain
  • Performance appraisal
  • Rating scale:
    • Numerical
    • Graphic
    • Descriptive.
  • Observation checklist
  • Anecdotal record
  • Cumulative record
  • Critical maiden technique
  • Oral examination
  • Practical examination
  • Objective structured clinical/practical examination (OSCE/OSPE).
 
Uses of Assessment of Domain in Nursing Education
  • Knowledge (cognitive domain)
  • Attitude (affective domain)
  • Skill (psychomotor domain).
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8. Function and qualities of a teacher.
 
Definition
Teaching is distinctively a human activity. It is an imparting knowledge and the learning process that means by which the student assimilates the information and share of it. Teaching is immediate mastery of particular knowledge or skill. It is concerned with growth and development of whole personality of the student’s mind, spirit, character and effective behavior. Teaching is a mixture of art and science.
 
Teacher’s Preparation
“Teaching is an interaction process. Interaction means participation of both teacher and student and both are benefited by this process. The interaction takes place for achieving desired objectives.”
—Flanders
 
Definition of a Teacher
A teacher is a person who selects and organizes teaching-learning methods, consciously planning and controlling a situation directed to the achievement of optimum student learning.
 
Functions of a Teacher
  • Instructional role
  • Faculty role
  • Individual role.
Instructional role: Following are the instructional roles:
  • Plan and organize courses
  • Create and maintain a desirable group climate, which will encourage and enhance learning and will lead to the development of learner’s self-discipline
  • Adapt teaching and preparing the instructional materials to the varying interests, needs and abilities of the students
  • Motivate the challenging students to pursue and to sustain learning activities, which will lead them towards acceptance of responsibility for their own learning.
Faculty role: The role of faculty will vary according to the philosophy, objectives and setting of teaching institution:
  • Chairperson, secretary or member of one or more committees
  • Counselor of students in matters (academic and nonacademic)
  • Researchers
  • Resource persons of the groups outside the institution, health agencies or other schools
  • A representative of professional nursing organizations and other agencies for the faculty or for the institution
  • A public relations agent, who interprets the objectives and policies of the institution and helps in recruitment.
Individual role: As follows:
  • Plays a personal role as a member of a family, a community and a citizen
  • Dignified and distinct personality.
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Qualities of a Teacher
 
Knowledge of the Subject Matter
All teachers need not be experts in their fields, but possessing knowledge is important. Teachers must continue building their understandings of their subjects throughout their careers.
 
Patience
No teacher should be expected to have much patience with individuals whose lack of discipline, immaturity or indolence interrupts the work of other students. Patience with students who are trying to learn, however, is part and parcel of the teaching profession. Impatience with sincere students is an indication of the teacher’s own shortcomings.
 
Intellectual Curiosity
All good teachers are intellectually curious and naturally driven by their interests in keeping abreast of changes in their fields.
 
Confidence
Good teachers are confident in the abilities to sense their students, who are in the learning process and in their abilities to learn material, i.e. presented in a logical and graduated fashion.
zoom view
Figure 3: Functions of a teacher
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Compassion
Talented teachers are able to work with their students in various levels of maturity and knowledge. A college professor once made the following statement about his experience as a teacher: “Each year teaching is more challenging for him, because he grows a year older and the students stay the same age. The widening age gap forces him to stretch the matter in order to reach them”.
 
Achievement
Experienced teachers have clear thoughts about what their students should know at the end of the term and they understand what they must do along the way in order to reach those goals.
 
Planning
Teachers must have clear plans and they must stick to them. This goes deeper than rigidly following a course syllabus. Effective teachers sense when students need more time to absorb the material and within limitations are willing to give it to them.
 
Awareness
Teachers in elementary and secondary schools must have eyes in the back of their head. They need to be aware of everything that happens in their classrooms and in adjacent hallways. Teachers who are awake are able to stop nonsense before it starts and keep students on track.
 
Mentorship
Teachers often serve as mentors to their students. The desire to influence students positively is a core motivation of many teachers, when they enter the teaching profession.
 
Maturity
In no other profession maturity is more important than in teaching. Students experience emotional ups and downs and insightful, teachers are able to sense the changes and respond to them appropriately. Teachers must be like pillars, consistently encouraging students to grow as human beings and to develop academically.
 
Community Involvement
Maintaining good community relations is part of being a teacher and teachers’ contact with parents, administrators and community leaders enhances their effectiveness in the classroom.
 
Organization
One-on-one tutoring is easy compared to leading a classroom of students in a single direction. Teachers must be able to manage students’ multiple personalities and organize their subject matters, so that a maximum number of students benefits from their presentations.
144
 
Vision
Teaching encompasses far more than passing information from teachers to students. Teachers should be illuminators who provide their students not only with interesting and useful material but also with visions of where they might end up if they learn well.
 
Context
Every subject has a context and teachers are responsible for providing it to their students. Since, no one learns in a vacuum, teachers must show their students how the information they are learning might be used or might lead to the development of some other useful skill.
zoom view
Figure 4: Qualities of teacher
 
Mission
Perhaps, the most important thing that teachers communicate to students and to the community is a sense of satisfaction with their choice of teaching as their life mission. Teaching at its highest level is a calling and good teachers feel it to their cores.
 
Enthusiasm
Excellent teachers never lose enthusiasm for their profession. They might become temporarily burdened by administrative hassles or isolated problems, but their underlying engagement with their work is unwavering. Students feel this energy and teachers who project it are much more successful than those who do not.
 
Competencies of a Teacher
  • Teacher is a student forever in his/her career
  • Teacher’s behavior is characterized by some degree of consistency and therefore is predictable
  • Teacher’s behavior is characterized by limited number and types of responses
  • Teacher’s behavior is a function of personal characteristics of the individual teacher.
 
145Nursing Education: Paper 2010 October
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1. Discuss in detail the current trends and issues in nursing education in India and suggest measures to improve standards in nursing education.
  2. Discuss in brief the advantages and disadvantages of essay questions. Suggest measures to maintain objectivity while correcting essays.
  3. Classify audiovisual aids. Write the responsibilities of a teacher in procuring and managing instrumental aids in nursing educational institutions.
  4. 4.As a Principal of a college of nursing, prepare a plan for implementation and evaluation of continuing education programs for the nursing teachers working in your college.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Job description of nursing teachers in nursing educational institutions.
  2. Role and responsibilities of nursing teacher.
  3. Qualities of a tool.
  4. Item analysis.
 
LONG ESSAYS
1. Discuss in detail the current trends and issues in nursing education in India and suggest measures to improve standards in nursing education.
 
Trends in Nursing Education
A profession with a dynamic integration of various faculties of knowledge. Since nursing education is a professional education. It is dynamic by its own nature and thereby giving rise to trends, some of the current trends in nursing education are explained below.
 
Curriculum Changes
Flexible curriculum designs are evolving to facilitate diversity of educational opportunity and overcome barriers of distance and time. These curriculum are often competency based, focused on outcome and emphasize student participation and responsibility for learning.
 
Innovations in Teaching and Learning
In nursing education, lot of innovations are taking place in the areas of teaching and learning, invariably these innovations lead to intellectual development, personal development and career development.
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Education Quality Assurance
Educational quality assurance is a process for monitoring and evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of educational provision and to institute remedial measures as and when needed in India, nursing education is flourishing in an unprecedented manner, naturally this will lead to dilution in the quality of nursing education in the absence of proper quality control measures. Accrediting bodies and nurse educators are expressing deep concern regarding the quality of nursing education. It is high time to prepare a quality index of nursing institutions all over the country by categorizing them into different grades based on the infrastructure and faculty profile.
 
More Reliance on Technology
Technology exerts greater influence on nursing education as a tool for teaching and learning.
 
Emphasis on High-tech-high-touch Approach
High-tech-high-touch approach in nursing care was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of technological advancement in the field of patient care. Present day nursing education is preparing the students to maintain the human element of nursing, while caring the patient with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
 
Preparation of Global Nurses
Nursing education is all set to reap benefits created by globalization and liberalization by way of preparing global nurses. Many institutions are preparing student’s with a global perspective through providing learning experiences to enrich students’ knowledge in English along with the attainment of other objectives.
 
Transnational Acceptance
Nursing education program in one nation is widely accepted by other nations. In fact, this transnational acceptance is the main reason for the development of nursing education in the countries like India.
 
Ensuring a Promising Career
Unlike many other professional education programs, nursing education ensures a promising career either in India or abroad. A study conducted reveals that nursing education will maintain this status for at least 20 years.
 
Emergence of New Specialists
With the developments in the medical and allied fields, nursing education is also offering a new specialties to meet the needs of the community.
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Increased Opportunities for Higher Studies
Many institutions are offering programs, such as post certificate BSc nursing, MSc nursing, MPhil and PhD. An eligible candidate can easily pursue higher education by this.
 
Preference to Short-term Clinical Programs than Postgraduate Programs
Many graduate nurses prefer short-term clinical programs of 6 months to 1 year duration like trauma nursing, critical care nursing, etc. than postgraduate programs, while deciding to go for higher studies. This is mainly due to better career opportunities prevailing in the service sector compared to the education side.
 
Potential Shortage of Nurse Educators
As a result of the exciting career opportunities in service sector when compared to education side, talented nurses are not opting a career in the service side for better prospectus. This may lead to a shortage of nurse educator in the future.
Since, the presence of talented nurses in the service sector will do a lot in uplifting the public image of our profession. Allowing the qualified nurses from the service side to work in teaching institution on a part time basis will help to solve this problem to a certain extent.
 
Diminishing Government Role
Shortage of funds coupled with certain policy decisions has prevented the government from investing further in the field of nursing education, now; the private sector is playing a dominant role for the development of nursing education.
 
Uniformity and Standardization
Various universities and nursing boards are conducting nursing program in a different manner. Even though efforts are on the way to bring about the much needed uniformity and standardization.
 
Current Issues in Nursing
Modern nursing involves many activities, concept and skills related to basic sciences, social sciences, growth and development there are so many issues occurring in the nursing profession.
 
Government Institutions
The schools and college face so many problems as mentioned below:
  • No independent building for school
  • No independent principal for school
  • Inadequate hostel facilities for student
  • Acute shortage of qualified teachers in nursing
  • 148Underutilization of clinical facilities
  • Inadequate library facilities
  • No transport facilities
  • No UGC status for college teachers in nursing
  • Less supply of audiovisual (AV) aids
  • Less promotional opportunity for teachers of both school and college
  • No separate budget for school.
Recommendations for solving problem: For smooth of school and college, proper measures should be taken to solve these problems, which includes:
  1. Separate budget should be sanctioned and it should be operated by the principals of school of nursing.
  2. It is genuine to start PhD course in government steps as early as possible.
  3. Provision of sufficient teaching staff.
  4. Provision of adequate facilities, like a void facility, stipends, transport and library in schools and college.
 
Private Institutions
The nursing education is also in the hands of provides bodes. Number of provide school and college of nursing nurse sanctioned irrespective of their facilities needed to train nurse, the private schools and college face so many problems as mentioned below:
  1. Lack of sufficient and qualified teachers.
  2. Most of the private institutions of nursing are running bin bared buildings, hostels where there are no qualified hands to teach nursing.
  3. Most of the institutions have no hospital for their clinical facilities, they depend on government hospitals.
  4. Lack of library and transportations facilities.
Recommendations: given below:
  1. The state nursing council and government should take certain step to study the facilities according to norms/aid by the INC.
  2. The institutions not meeting the INC standards should be recognized and stopped.
  3. Periodical inspection should be organized by INC as well as by state nursing council to see the of facilities institutions.
 
Issues in Nursing Administration and in Independent Nursing Practices
Health Survey and Development Committee (1946) recommended giving gazette ranks for nurse manger and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are therefore giving decision-making powerful nurse.
Both union and state governments have decide to give some gazette post, but there is no independent power or authority, the problems prevailing in the nursing administration are given below:
  • Noninvolvement of nursing administration in planning and decision-making in the government hospital administration
  • Nursing superintendent will take no authorities to sanctions leave to their subordinates
  • Unnecessary interface of non-nursing personal (medical clerical)
  • 149No prepared authority to do independent nursing practice
  • No proper job description for various a cadre
  • No organized staff development program, which include orientation in service education, continuing education, etc.
  • No special incentive like Rajyotsava award, Republic Day award, teacher award, as government itself honors with these awards, other government servants like teachers, police persons, etc.
  • Inefficiency of nursing councils of state and union to maintain standards in nursing.
 
Issues in Higher Education in Nursing
  • Lack of recognized institutions
  • Institutions are not well equipped
  • Subject or content are very vast
  • Higher education is very expensive
  • Lack of qualified teaching facilities for higher education
  • Lack of awareness regarding higher education, its benefits and scope
  • Some higher education is not available through correspondence
  • Inadequate government support for maintaining higher education’s in India regarding nursing.
Recommendation for higher education: As follows:
  1. Establishment of fully equipped institutions for higher education by government as well as by private authority.
  2. Interest and awareness should be created among the nursing staff as well as for all peoples by council and TNAI.
  3. Guidelines and criteria should be somewhat flexible for getting higher education.
 
Issues Regarding Nursing Job for Males
  • Males are not allowed to do practice in maternity departments in some areas
  • Some institutes are not allowing to study for males
  • Some clinic (or hospital) does not recruit the males (e.g. Escort hospital)
  • In some of clinical area, males are restricted to do physical assessment of females
  • According to ancient, nursing means women oriented course, also there is no proper equality in some areas.
Recommendation for nursing job for male: As given below:
  1. Recruitment of staff should be based on skill and knowledge.
  2. All skilled people should be allowed to join clinical practice, while it may be male or female in every department.
 
Issues in Nursing Research
Doctoral preparation is required to be a scientist in nursing. It is designed to prepare a nurse to be able to conceptualize advanced practice with in the nursing research.
Community seems to provide lack of support for nurse researcher, whose subtractive contracts down:
  • There are battles between qualitative and quantitative methods and hence research and clinical studies
  • 150Currently no employed clinical nurse specialist
  • Not available of full time or part time like researcher
  • Only few nurse involved in the nursing research
  • No separate nursing research department or division.
Recommendation: As given below:
  • Establishment of research committees
  • Using consultant services for the development of implementation of clinical research
  • Using a currently employed clinical nurse specialist to develop and carry out research
  • Appointment of full time or part time researcher
  • Creating a nursing research development of division.
2. Discuss in brief the advantages and disadvantages of essay questions. Suggest measures to maintain objectivity, while correcting essays.
 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Essay Questions
Essay type of examination may be one of the oldest types of examination and mostly used in India even today. Essay type questions permit the pupil to respond by selecting, organizing and presenting the facts he/she considers appropriate.
Essay types of examinations are of two types, based on the freedom of response allowed to the pupil.
 
Advantages
  1. Provide candidate with opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and ability to organize ideas and express them effectively.
  2. Can measure understandings, thinking skills and other complex learning outcomes.
  3. Preparation of question is relatively easy.
  4. Freedom of response in own words, influence bluffing and writing skill to influence the score. Guessing is minimized.
  5. Encourage pupil to concentrate on larger units of subject matter with special emphasis on the ability to organize, integrate and express idea effectively.
  6. It is highly regarded by many teachers because it is believed to be capable of measuring the higher mental processes involved in selecting and organizing ideas, formulating and supporting hypothesis and developing an argument and writing creatively.
  7. Essay questions provide direct measures of complex learning outcomes, which cannot be measured by other means.
  8. Essays are useful for assessing higher levels of cognitive functioning, such as application, analysis and evaluation.
  9. Essays can also be used as an indirect method of assessing the affective domain of attitudes, values and opinions. It helps the students to learn to organize ideas and information efficiently.
 
Disadvantages
  1. Low content validity.
  2. Lacks objectivity.
  3. 151 Provide little useful feedback.
  4. Scoring difficult.
  5. Inefficient for measuring knowledge of facts.
  6. Only a few questions could be used in a test. Therefore, sampling of content is limited.
  7. Subjective scoring, which is slow, difficult and inconsistent.
  8. Low marker reliability.
  9. Marking is time consuming.
  10. Ambiguous and unclear for students for students to understand.
  11. Writing ability of students affects marking.
  12. Student fatigue.
 
Measures to Maintain Objectivity While Correcting Essays
 
Suggestion for Improving the Scoring of Essay Questions
Adequate appraisal of student achievement with an essay test requires sound and consistent judgment of the quality of the answers. In order to obtain accurate and dependable scoring of answers we should maintain consistent standards for all students regardless of those who scores the paper. The common criticism of essay test is that it is difficult to score and generally unreliable.
The following suggestion is offered to improve the scoring:
  1. Prepare an outline of the expected answer in advance. List the major points and marks allotted for each. Develop a statement of predetermined criteria for evaluating the papers. An itemized check list of what you are looking for will help to check accordingly. You can allot marks for organization, accuracy of information, comprehensiveness and relevance of ideas. Consider any other areas, such as spelling, neatness, etc. if you think they are important, as they are irrelevant to the learning outcomes. Preparing a scoring key provide a common basis for evaluating student’s answers.
  2. Use the scoring method, which is most appropriate. Commonly used methods are the point method and rating method. Each answer is scored, giving certain points according the adequacy of answer and as per the scoring key, this is the point method. The other method, rating method, answers are compared and given points according to quality. The highest quality answers are given more points and rate according to level of performance. The extended response questions usually require rating method.
    Heidgerken describes scoring methods as ‘absolute’ and ‘relative’. Absolute scoring means that the teacher arbitrarily determines the standards that will be used in assigning scores or grades. Relative scoring means that standards relating to a curve of performance will be used.
  3. Evaluate all answers to one question in all the papers being valued before going on to the next question. This is to prevent shifting of standards from one paper to the next. Code papers instead of using names, these procedures will help to reduce the ‘halo’ effect on the total paper and will provide a better basis for comparison. Pull out some papers randomly from the pile of answer papers in order to get some idea about the standard of performance of students. If the first answers are of high quality, we tend to under rate them. Where the rating method is used, the papers are placed in several piles on the basis of each answer. Reading each answer second time and reclassifying will also help to reduce the effect.
  4. 152Obtain two or more independent ratings from different evaluators when important decisions are to be based on the results. The test result may be used to select students for awards and scholarships. In such cases, two or more competent persons should score papers independently and their rating should be compared and averaged for more reliable results. This type of scoring is used for award of advanced degrees for postgraduate students.
  5. Prepare an answer guide or model answer in advance showing what points to be covered. After the preliminary guide has been prepared, it should be checked against a sample of student responses to determine the adequacy of scoring guide on what represent acceptable answer for that group of students. Making a score guide help to provide a common frame of reference.
  6. Evaluate the answers without looking at the student’s name; grade the papers as nearly anonymously as possible in order to be objective in judging what is written?
  7. Write comments and correct errors on answers to essay questions. This will help the students and the teacher regarding weak and strong areas in learning. Feedback to students is necessary to improve their learning. A class hour can be utilized for discussion of answers and to point out common errors.
    Construction and scoring of essay questions are interrelated processes, which require careful attention if valid and reliable measures of achievement is to be obtained.
3. Classify audiovisual aids. Write the responsibilities of a teacher in procuring and managing instrumental aids in nursing educational institutions.
 
Audiovisual Aids Classification
Audiovisual (AV) aids are classified into audio, visual, audiovisual and activity aids:
  1. Audio:
    • Radio
    • Tape recorder
    • Gramophone
    • Compact discs
    • Voice mail.
  2. Visual:
    • Projected:
      • Slides
      • Filmstrips
      • Overhead projectors
      • Computer
      • Internet.
    • Non-projected:
      • Maps
      • Cartoons
      • Charts
      • Pictures
      • Posters
      • News clippings
      • Flash cards
      • 153Flip charts
      • Graphs and booklets
      • Puppets
      • Models
      • Real things (specimen)
      • Black board
      • Bulletin board.
  3. Audiovisual:
    • Television
    • Films
    • Computer floppies.
  4. Activity aids:
    • Museum
    • Exhibition
    • Field trip
    • Roleplay
    • Drama
    • Monoacting
    • Story telling.
 
Responsibilities of a Teacher in Procuring and Managing Instrumental Aids in Nursing
 
Characteristics of Good Teaching Aids
Teaching aids should be:
  • The aid must be adapted to the intellectual maturity of the pupils and the nature, and extent of their previous experience
  • They should be meaningful and purposeful
  • As far as possible, they should be improvised, i.e. locally available materials should be used in the preparation of AV aids by the teacher
  • They should be simple
  • They should be cost-effective as well as cheap
  • They should be large enough to be properly seen by the whole students in the class
  • They should be up-to-date
  • They should be easily portable.
Above all, they should supplement the instruction properly and motivate the learners.
 
Principles to be Followed for the Effective Use of Audiovisual Aids
  • The AV aids materials should function as an integral part of the educational program
  • The AV aids should be centralized, under specialized direction and leadership in educational program
  • An advisory committee should be appointed to assist in the selection and coordination of AV material
  • The AV educational program should be flexible
  • Instructors have to help the students in using AV aids
  • 154Budget appropriations should be made regulatory for the AV educational program
  • Legal aspects should be considered in the production and utilization of educational communication media.
 
Principle of Selection
  1. Audiovisual aids should suit:
    • The teaching objective
    • Unique characteristics of the special group of learners
    • The age level
    • Grade level, etc.
  2. Specific educational value and stimulate interest and motivation.
  3. True representatives of the real things.
  4. Help in the realization of desires, learning objective.
 
Principle of Preparation
  • Locally available material
  • Students should be associated in preparation of AV aids.
 
Principle of Physical Control
Arrangement of aids safely to facilitate their leading to the teachers for use.
 
Principle of Proper Presentation
  • Carefully visualize the use of teaching aid before their actual presentation
  • They should fully acquaint themselves with use and manipulation of the aids to be shown in the classroom
  • Adequate handling of aid to prevent damaging
  • Display properly so that all the student are able to see it and observe it to derive maximum benefit out of it
  • Avoid distraction of all kinds.
 
Principle of Response
The teacher should guide the students to respond actively to the AV stimuli so that they derive the maximum benefit in learning.
 
Principle of Evaluation
Continuous evaluation of:
  • Audiovisual material, based on realization of desired
  • Accompanying techniques, objectives.
 
Factors Influencing in Selection of Audiovisual Aids
Audiovisual aids will be used either single or in combination depend upon:
  1. 155The objectives of training program/the teaching objective, i.e. the type of behavior change you want to bring in learner or to change the attitude of the learner or to gain certain skills.
  2. The nature of subject matter being taught.
  3. The nature of audience:
    • Number, e.g. small group—flash card, large group—movies.
    • Age
    • Education level
    • Socioeconomic status
    • Interest
    • Experience
    • Knowledge of the subject
    • Intelligence levels.
  4. Relative cost.
  5. The teacher’s familiarity with originality and skill in selection, preparation and use of aids.
  6. The availability, functioning or working condition of aids.
  7. Knowledge of resources and availability of facilities.
 
Criteria for Selecting Audiovisual Aids
The teacher has to put the following questions to his mind before selecting any AV aid for teaching activity:
  • Do the materials give a true picture of the idea they present?
  • Do they contribute meaningful content to the topic under study?
  • Is the material appropriate for the learners? (age, intelligence and experience)
  • Is the physical condition of the materials satisfactory?
  • Do they make learners better thinkers with a critical mind?
  • Do they tend to improve human relations?
  • Is the material worth with the time and efforts involved?
If the teacher finds satisfactory, then only he/she has to choose the material for using in teaching-learning process.
 
Guides for Selecting and Making Audiovisual Aid
  • Aid must be easy to see and understand
  • Simple and direct
  • Easy to handle and transport
  • Emphasizes the key point
  • Good working condition
  • Time and place
  • Please the senses
  • Accurate
  • Represent the things that are common and understandable
  • Convey up-to-date ideas
  • Encourage the viewers to eye your ideas
  • 156 The message to be conveyed should be written, brief, clear, easy and attract the vision of others
  • Letters should be neat, clear, easy to hold, visible, simple words, leave the space between letters and give gap between words
  • Avoid over writing, overcrowding and clumsiness in writing. Give space between lines
  • By seeing the visual aid, the learner should get interest, positive attitude, clear to understand and use its knowledge effectively and adequately in his/her learning process
  • Select the colors, which are natural of related items, appealing, attractive, clear and visible, appropriate to the pictures.
 
Effective Use of Audiovisual Aids
  1. Planning:
    • Know clearly the objectives of the presentation
    • Plan well in advance
    • Anticipate the problem and avoid them
    • Anticipate the size of the audience; the aids should be visible, audible for entire group of audience
    • Plan in advance appropriate time of presentation
    • Plan for the use of variety of colorful visual aids, ample number of aids (different types) has to be planned. They help change in phase of presentation and keep the audience hold and develop interest, enthusiasm and creativeness among the group of audience.
  2. Preparation:
    • Select a convenient and comfortable meeting place, seating arrangements must be suited to the specific purpose
    • Anticipate the need for special effects either total lighting or darkness, prepared to provide, at the right time
    • Make sure that all equipment are in good working order, before starting the meeting
    • Prepare by rehearsing or previewing in order to make a smooth presentation
    • Arrange the AV aids in sequence and have them within easy reach
    • Keep aids out of sight until actually required for use.
  3. Presentation:
    • Motivate the audience and stress the key points they should observe during the presentation
    • Present aids at the right moment and in proper sequence
    • Display only one aid at a time
    • Remove all unrelated materials
    • Stand beside the aid, not in front of it
    • Speak facing the audience and not the side.
  4. Evaluation:
    • At the end, evaluate by providing discussion and application to discover and dispel misunderstanding, if any
    • Undertake follow-up studies and observe results.
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Conclusion
Educational technology is a vast subject concerned with the application of knowledge about learning and conditions of learning in order to improve the effectiveness of teaching, learning and evaluation, whereas AV aids are merely the aids or resources, i.e. materials, which are employed to improve the quality of the message.
4. As a principal of a college of nursing, prepare a plan for implementation and evaluation of continuing education programs for the nursing teachers working in college.
 
Definition
Continuing nursing education of the health workers includes the experiences after initial training, which helps healthcare personnel to maintain and improve existing and acquire new competence relevant to the performance of their responsibilities. Appropriate continuing education should reflect community needs in the health and lead to planned improvements in the health of the community.
‘’Continuing education is all the learning activities that occurs after an individual has completed his basic education.’’
—Cooper
“The education, which builds on previous education.’’
—Shannon
 
Planning for Continuing Education
Planning is the key stone for the administrative process. Without adequate planning, continuing education offerings are fragmented, haphazardly constructed and often unrelated. A successful continuing education program is the result of careful and detailed planning.
Effective planning is required at all levels, local, state, regional and national and eventually international to avoid duplication and fragmentation of efforts, and to help keep at minimum gap in meeting the continuing education needs of nurses.
 
Planning Formula
  1. What is to be done?
    Get a clear understanding of what your unit is expected to do in relation to the work assigned to it. Break the unit’s work into separate jobs in terms of the economical use of the men, equipment, space, materials and money you have at your disposal.
  2. Why is it necessary?
    When breaking the units into separate jobs think of the objectives of each job. The best way to improve any job is to eliminate unnecessary motion, materials, etc.
  3. How is it to be done?
    In relation to each job, look for better ways of doing it in terms of the utilization of, materials, equipment and money.
  4. Where is it to be done?
    Study the flow of work and the availability of the materials and equipments best suited men for doing the job.
  5. 158 When is it to be done?
    Fit the job into a time schedule that will permit the maximum utilization of men, materials, equipment and money and the completion of the job at the wanted time. Provisions must be made for possible delays and emergencies.
  6. Who should do the job?
    Determine what skills are needed to do the job successfully, select or train the man best fitted for the job.
 
Steps in the Planning Process
 
Establishing Goals with the Purpose or Mission of the Organization
Purpose gives direction in planning. It identifies reason for existence. Purpose are based on the learning needs and social needs; so it has to be reviewed from time and restated as appropriate.
 
Establishing Goals and Objective
  • Planning moves towards goals, which are significant and realistic, which can be attained, goals serve to stimulate and should be reachable
  • An objective is specific, it is a desired end or accomplishment to be sought.
Objective: As given below:
  • To assist the nurse in identifying and meeting current learning needs generated by changing professional practice
  • To encourage the nurse to identify and influence societal changes, which have implication for nursing and to modify practice accordingly
  • To promote the development of leadership potential of nurse
  • To identify nursing problem and in seeking solution to them
  • To disseminate new information from varied channel
  • To facilitate a return to practice
  • To assess the health needs of nurses, hospital and community to plan, implement and evaluate educational programs in hospital and health facilities.
 
Determining Needs and Priorities
Assessment of needs will be done by survey, through mailed questionnaires, interview formal and informal discussions with participants and check list. After assessing the needs prioritization of needs has to be done.
 
Assessing the Available Resources for Establishing the Program
Careful assessment of ways and means to meet the established program goal. Faculty finances and facilities may be seen as the major resources required for continuing a nursing education program. A broad survey of the major resources are necessary to continuing nursing education program and a more detailed assessment for any specific course or activity. The resources planning includes deciding necessary activity and then determining the availability.
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Plan the Budget Appropriate for the Program
Separate budget is required for each specific activity and each individual offering is expected to be self-supporting. Sometimes budget for in-service training or continuing education program will be sanctioned by government, university grants or fee collected from participants. The coordinators have to write the proposal after the problem has been identified and substantiating data collected, guideline studied, guidelines has to be followed in writing the proposal.
 
Reassessing the Goals
  • Applies adult learning principles when helping employees learn new skills or information
  • Uses teaching techniques that empower staff
  • Sensitive to the learning deficits of the staff and creatively minimize these difficulties
  • Prepare employees readily regarding knowledge and skill deficits
  • Actively seeks out teaching opportunities
  • Frequently assess learning needs of the unit.
 
Organization
Programming of professional courses in nursing is a joint responsibility of a director of continuing nursing education and a dean of school of nursing. The formal channels of communication make possible the optional use of the nursing faculty to explore the needs of continuing nursing education, to set priorities, to plan courses and to teach them.
 
Evaluate the Results at Stated Intervals
Evaluation is needed to assess the effectiveness of the program or the progress in order to find out what extent preset goals have been achieved evaluations should be done at different stages of program.
 
Purpose of Evaluation
  • To identify the area, which require greater attention
  • To identify bottlenecks in various activities carried out during the operation of the program
  • To assess the applicability of training in the field and actual situation
  • Qualitative improvement in instruction, promote better training, determines future changes and needs
  • For quality control or qualitative improvement.
 
What to Evaluate
  1. Evaluation should cover:
    • Growth and satisfaction of participants
    • The outcome course and the whole program or activity
    • Effectiveness of faculty members
    • Transfer of knowledge
    • Effect on the system.
  2. 160 Procedure for evaluation:
    • Pretest and post-test
    • Attitude test
    • Observation of skill
    • Questionnaires
    • Audio or video tapes.
  3. Evaluation design:
    • Focus of evaluation—what do you want to find out?
    • Devise the instrument—collection of information
    • Organize the information—coding, organizing, storing and retrieving
    • Analyze the information
    • Report the finding
    • Reassessing the goal
    • Updating, modify the plan periodically based on needs
    • Evaluate the design for validity, reliability, credibility, timeliness and pervasiveness.
 
Process of Continuing Education
It is a common belief that nurses feels that their education finishes when they complete the basic nursing program. Once a nurse always a nurse. But with fast changes in medical technology nurse has to keep updating his/her knowledge. Continuing education program to be planned on regular basis. While planning continuing education or in-service education the followings steps are included.
  • Identifying the learning needs of the nursing personnel
  • Setting goals and defining specific objectives
  • Planning and organizing course and designing learning experience
  • Assessing available resources
  • Establishing a workable budget
  • Implementing plan of teaching
  • Evaluating the program
  • May restart the process.
 
Identifying Learning Needs
A training activity/education program must create an enthusiasm in the nurse learner.
  1. Define learning needs.
  2. Types of learning needs.
  3. Sources of identifying needs.
  4. Approaches used to assess the learning needs.
  5. Sample proforma for assessment of learning needs.
  6. Common tools used to assess the learning needs.
 
Setting Goals and Defining Specific Objectives
It is important to establish goals/purpose and define the specific objective, which will give direction in planning and assists in the determination of appropriate objectives.
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Planning and Organizing Course and Designing Learning Experiences
Planning and organization is the relation of efforts and capacities of individuals and groups engaged upon a common task in such a way as to secure the desired objectives with the least friction and the most satisfaction for whom the task is done.
 
Selection of Resources
Resources are categorized as financial resources, human resources, facilities, equipments and supplies.
 
Implementing the Program
Develop the agenda and prepare correspondence to guest speaker.
 
Evaluating the Program
As the program is coming near to end on the last day, the evaluation of the following areas may be done by rating scale, questionnaire or opinionative.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
5. Job description of nursing teachers in nursing educational institutions.
 
Job Summary
He/She works under the direction of the department head and assists them in administration, instruction and guidance activities.
 
Instruction
  1. Identifies the needs of the learners in terms of the program by utilizing the records of previous experience, personal interviews, tests and observation.
  2. Assists the learners in identifying their needs.
  3. Participates in formulation and implementation of the philosophies and objectives of the post.
  4. Selects and organizes learning experiences, which are in accordance with these objectives.
  5. Plans with the educational unit with nursing service and allied groups.
  6. Ascertains, selects and organizes facilities equipment and materials necessary for learning.
  7. Assists the learners in using problem solving process.
  8. Measures and describes quality of performance objectively.
  9. Prepares clear and concise reports.
  10. Share information about learner’s needs and achievements with others concerned.
  11. Measures effectiveness of instruction by use of appropriate devices.
  12. Increases knowledge and skill in own curriculum area.
  13. Devices teaching methods appropriate to objectives and content.
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Guidance and Counseling
Gives guidance with own field of competence and helps the learner to grow in self-understanding.
 
Research
  • Assist in initiating and participating in studies for the improvement of educational program
  • Identifies the problems in which research is indicated or potentially desirable
  • Make data available concerning learners and concerning methods of teaching and evaluation
  • Continues to develop competence in problem solving process
  • Cooperate in and/or initiates group activity in development and evaluation of studies
  • Utilizes the findings of research.
 
Senior Tutor
  • Participates in teaching and supervising the courses of undergraduate students
  • Participates in curriculum development, evaluation and revision
  • Guide in research projects for undergraduate students
  • Acts as a counselor for staff and students
  • Maintains various records
  • Conducting and participating in department meetings and attending various meetings
  • Participating in administration activities of department.
 
Tutor
  • Participates in teaching and supervising the courses of undergraduate students
  • Coordinates with the external lecturer for various courses as assigned
  • Participate in the evaluation of students
  • Guide the students in conducting seminars, discussions and presentations, etc.
  • Maintain students’ records
  • Participate in student counseling programs.
 
Clinical Instructor
  • Demonstrate standards for nursing practice
  • Supervise and teach the students in the clinical fields
  • Participate in evaluation of students
  • Assist the students in conducting health education program
  • Maintain students’ records
  • Participate in the student counseling programs
  • Participate and promote student welfare activities.
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6. Role and responsibilities of nursing teacher.
 
Definition of a Teacher
A teacher is a person who selects and organizes teaching-learning methods, conscious planning and controlling a situation directed to the achievement of optimum student learning.
 
Roles and Responsibilities
  • Instructional role
  • Faculty role
  • Individual role.
 
Instructional Role
  • Plan and organize courses
  • Create and maintain a desirable group climate, which will encourage and enhance learning and will lead to the development of learner self-discipline
  • Adapt teaching and preparing the instructional materials to the varying interests, needs and abilities of the students
  • Motivate the challenging students to pursue and to sustain learning activities, which will lead them towards acceptance of responsibility for their own learning.
 
Faculty Role
The role of faculty will vary according to the philosophy, objectives and setting of teaching institution:
  • Chairperson, secretary or member of one or more committees
  • Counselor of students in matters (academic and nonacademic)
  • Researchers
  • Resource persons to groups outside the institution, health agencies or other schools
  • A representative to professional nursing organizations and other agencies for their faculty or for the institution
  • A public relations agent, he/she interprets the objectives and policies of their institution and helps in recruitment.
 
Individual Role
  • Plays a personal role as a member of a family, a community and a citizen
  • Dignified and distinct personality.
 
Characteristics
  • Thorough knowledge of their subject matter
  • Excellent speech and deliver
  • Neatness and poise
  • Sense of humor
  • Broad interest
  • 164Well-balanced personality
  • Professional well groomed
  • Tolerant and fair, without partiality
  • Kind and patient
  • He/She should present outlines to the student
  • Clear exposition of subject matter
  • Leadership ability as well as a deeper knowledge
  • Interest in student nurse and nursing
  • Responsible systematic the stimulating, imaginative and creative teacher
  • Ever loving nature
  • Keen observer, supporter and listener
  • Good communicator.
 
Qualities of a Teacher
  • Respect for the student’s maturity and sense of responsibility
  • Stimulating:
    • Ideas presented were with meaning
    • Strong, modulus and clear voice
    • No embarrassing stuttering or stammering for the proper or correct word, term or phrase
    • Phases were inserted deliberately and yet non-dramatically to allow for some ‘digestions of complex thoughts’.
  • Assignments should clear and concise
  • Subject matter content:
    • Lectures with student discussion, e.g. give opportunity to ask questions
    • Organization of subject matter in class or clinical experiences
    • Time should not be wasted by teacher in trying to clarify his/her own ideas
    • He/She must know what to say, when to say and how to say.
 
Competencies of a Teacher
  • Teacher is a student forever in their career:
    • Teacher behavior is characterized by some degree of consistency and therefore is predictable
    • Teacher behavior is characterized by limited number of types of responses
    • Teacher behavior is a function of personal characteristics of the individual teacher.
7. Qualities of a tool.
 
Characteristics of Good Tool
Various aspects of pupil behavior are evaluated in the school/college, such as diagnosing of learning difficulties, achievement of desired behavior, etc. regardless of the area of behavior being evaluated or the use to be made of the results, all of the various tests and procedures used for evaluation of program should possess certain common characteristics. These characteristics may be stated as qualities of a desired evaluation. Such characteristics or qualities are listed below:
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  • Validity
  • Relevance
  • Precise and clear
  • Reliability
  • Discrimination
  • Comprehensiveness
  • Objectivity
  • Efficiency
  • Adequacy
  • Practicability
  • Time
  • Comparability
  • Continuity
  • Length
  • Utility.
  • Equity/equilibrium
  • Test usefulness
So evaluation process must have the above mentioned qualities or characterization to gain accurate expected outcomes. Let we discuss each characteristics.
 
Validity
One of the most important criteria of a good evaluation is validity. Validity of a test may be defined as:
  1. The validity of a test is the degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure?
  2. It is the accuracy with which a test measures whatever it is intended or supposed to measure.
  3. The efficiency with which a test measures what it attempts to measure.
  4. The accuracy with which a test reliably measures what is relevant, e.g. a test may be valid for specific purpose but not for general?
 
Reliability
The degree of accuracy, consistency with which an examination, attest measures, what it seeks to measure a given variable. ‘The degree of consistency among tests scores’.
A test score is called reliable when we have reasons for believing, it to be stable and trustworthy.
 
Objectivity
A test is objective, when the scorer’s personal judgment does not affect the scoring. It eliminates fixed opinion or judgment of the person, who scores it. The extent to which independent and competent examiners agree on what constitutes a good answer for each of the elements of a measuring instrument.
The objectivity is a prerequisite of reliability and validity. Objective judgments are accurate and hence tend to be reliable. Most important thing is to make the evaluation tool as objective as possible.
The objectivity of a test can increase by:
  • Using more objective type items, e.g. multiple choice, short answers, true or false
  • Preparing scoring key
  • Two independent examiners (equally competent teachers) evaluating the test and test using the average score of the two as final score.
 
Practicability (Usability)
It is important that a test is practical for its purpose. The overall simplicity of use of a test for both constructor and for learner. It is an important criterion used for assessing the value of a test. Practicability depends upon various factors, like ease of administrability, scoring, interpretation and economy. This includes the ease of administering the test little 166 possibilities for error in giving directions, timing, ease and economy of scoring without sacrificing accuracy and the ease of interpretation.
  1. Ease of administrability:
    1. Provision should be made for the preparation, distribution and collection of test materials.
    2. Instruction should be simple, clear and concise.
    3. Practice exercises will be illustrated.
    4. Illustrations should be clear-cut and easily tied up with the appropriate test items.
  2. Ease of scoring:
    1. The results of a test possessing scorability should be obtainable in as simple, rapid and routine a manner as in proportion to their importance.
    2. The test should be subjected to accurate scoring even by persons not conversant with their content.
    3. No algebraic manipulations should be required to get the score.
  3. Ease of interpretation:
    1. The raw scores of a test should be easily converted into meaningful derived scores.
    2. It should be feasible to interpret the results with the competence of classroom teachers. No specially trained personnel required in order that the results may be interpreted validity.
  4. Economy:
    1. It should be computed in terms of the validity of the tests per unit of a cost.
    2. Economy refers to the cost as well as the time required for administering and scoring a test.
  5. Continuity: The evaluation is the continuous process. Therefore, it should have formative, summative and terminal evaluation.
  6. Relevance: The degree to which the criteria established for selecting the item so that they confirm to the aims of the measuring instrument. It is almost equal to validity. What a test is intended to measure the criteria for relevance of the test. It must always refer to a specific purpose or objective and a specific group of students. For example, a test for evaluating the nursing students may not be relevant to evaluate medical students or vice versa.
  7. Equilibrium/Equity: Achievement of the correct proportion among questions allotted to each of the objectives and teaching content. For example, sample of behavioral changes in the knowledge area 40% of questions, skill area 40% and attitude and values 20%, etc. as indicated in the table of specifications.
  8. Discrimination: The basic function of all educational measurement is to place individuals in a defined scale in accordance with differences in their achievements. Such a function implies a high discriminating power on the part of a test. The quality of a test directly affects its validity. The discriminating power of a test items refers to the degree to which it discriminates between good and bad students in a given group or a variable. This suggests that pupils with superior ability should answer the item correctly more often than pupils who do not have such ability.
zoom view
167 where,
Ru is number of pupil in the upper group who got the item right.
RL is number of pupil in the lower group who got the item right.
T is total number included in the item analysis.
  1. Efficiency: It ensures the greater possible number of independent answers per unit of time.
  2. Time: The required time to answer items should be provided to avoid hurry, guessing, taking risks or chances, etc.
  3. Length: The number of items in the test should depend upon the objectives and content of the topic.
  4. Test usefulness: Grading or ranking of the student can be possible with items in the test.
  5. Precise and clear: Items should be precise and clear so that students can answer well and score marks.
  6. Comprehensiveness: The total content and objective has to be kept in mind, while preparing items for the test.
  7. Adequacy: A measuring instrument should be adequate, i.e. balanced and fair. The test should include items, measuring both the objectives and the content. Here, a blueprint will be very useful. Also adequacy is the prerequisite of reliability as well as for validity.
  8. Comparability: A test possesses comparability when scores resulting from its use can be interpreted in terms of a common base that has a natural or accepted meaning. Comparability of results used for standardized tests are:
    • Availability of equivalent forms of test
    • Availability of adequate norms.
  9. Utility: It serves a definite need in the situation in which it is used. A test possesses utility to the extent to which it satisfactorily serves a definite need in the situation in which it is used. The utility of teacher-made tests depends largely upon the foresight of the teacher in so planning the test and its use that the results will serve the needs of the local classroom.
8. Item analysis.
 
Meaning of Item Analysis
Item analysis is a process, which examines student responses to individual test items (questions) in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole. Item analysis is especially valuable in improving items, which will be used again in later tests, but it can also be used to eliminate ambiguous is leading items in a single test administration. In addition, item analysis is valuable for increasing instructors’ skills in test construction and identifying specific areas of course content, which need greater emphasis or clarity. Separate item analyses can be requested for each raw score 1 created during a given run. It is a statistical technique used for selecting and rejecting the items of a test on the basis of their difficulty value and discriminative power.
168
 
Estimating Item Difficulty
According to Frank S Freeman, the difficulty value of an item may be defined as the proportion of certain sample of subjects (learners), who actually know the answer of the item.
This statement is most functional and dependable because an item can be answered correctly by guessing. The difficulty value depends on actually knowing the correct answer of an item rather than answering an item correctly.
For each item compute the percentage of students who get the item correct. This is called item difficulty index. The formula for calculating item difficulty index is:
zoom view
where,
R is number of pupils who answered the item correctly;
N is total number of pupils who tried them.
 
Estimating Discrimination Index
The discriminating power (i.e. the validity index) of an item refers to the degree to which a given item discriminates among students who differ sharply in the function(s) measured by the test as a whole.
An estimate of an item’s discrimination index may be obtained by the formula:
zoom view
where,
RU is number of correct responses from the upper group;
RL is number of correct responses from the lower group;
N is total number of pupils who tried them.
 
Difficulty and Discrimination Distributions
At the end of the item analysis report, test items are listed according their degrees of difficulty (easy, medium and hard) and discrimination (good, fair poor). These distributions provide a quick overview of the test and can be used to identify items, which are not performing well and which can perhaps be improved or discarded.
 
Test Statistics
Two statistics are provided to evaluate the performance of the test as a whole.
 
Reliability Coefficient
The reliability of a test refers to the extent to which the test is likely to produce consistent scores.
169
 
Reliability Interpretation
  1. 0.90 and above : Excellent reliability; at the level of the best standardized tests.
  2. 0.80–0.90 : Very good for a classroom test.
  3. 0. 70–0.80 : Good for a classroom test; in the range of most. There are probably a few items, which could be improved.
  4. 0.60–0.70 : Somewhat low. This test needs to be supplemented by other measures (e.g. more tests) to determine grades. There are probably some items, which could be improved.
  5. 0.50–0.60 : Suggests need for revision of test, unless it is quite short (10 or fewer items). The test definitely needs to be supplemented by other measures (e.g. more tests) for grading.
  6. 0.50 or below : Questionable reliability. This test should not contribute heavily to the course grade and it needs revision.
 
Standard Error of Measurement
The standard error of measurement is directly related to the reliability of the test. It is an index of the amount of variability in an individual student’s performance due to random measurement error. If it were possible to administer an infinite number of parallel tests, a student’s score would be expected to change from one administration to the next due to a number of factors. For each student, the scores would form a ‘normal’ (bell shaped) distribution. The mean of the distribution is assumed to be the student’s ‘true score’ and reflects what he/she ‘really’ knows about the subject. The standard deviation of the distribution is called the standard error of measurement and reflects the amount of change in the student’s score, which could be expected from one test administration to another.
 
Objectives of Item Analysis
The main objectives of item analysis technique are as below:
  1. To select the proper items for the final draft of the test and reject the poor items that are unable to contribute any worth in the functioning of the test.
  2. To modify some items to make them functionable.
  3. To obtain the difficulty index and discrimination index of each items of preliminary draft of the test.
  4. To increase the functioning of a test by considering difficulty index and discrimination index simultaneously in selecting and rejecting the test items.
  5. To obtain basis for preparing the final draft of the test.
 
Steps Involved in Item Analysis
In conducting an item analysis of a classroom test, one should bear the following points in mind:
  1. Arrange answer books (or answer sheets) from the highest score to the lowest score.
  2. From the ordered set of answer books, make two groups. Put those with the highest scores in one group and those with the lowest scores in the other group. There are 170 some statistical reasons why one should place the best 27% of the answer books in one group and the poorest 27% in the other group. But, for classroom tests, it is really not important what percentage is used. If the class is small, say, of 50 or fewer students, there would be too few answer books in the top and bottom 27% to yield a very reliable item analysis indices. In a typical type of classroom situation, it is quite appropriate to divide the total group into the top and bottom halves.
  3. For each item (e.g. true-false type, completion type), count the number of students in each group who answered the item correctly. For alternate-response type of items, count the number of students in each group who choose each alternative.
  4. Record the count for each item. Assume a total of 40 answer books, 20 in each group. Below is given a hypothetical illustration:
Table 1   Item analysis
Item number
1
2
3
4
5
Number of correct responses of the best 20 (or upper 27% or top half)
12
15
20
3
6
Number of correct responses of the poorest 20 (or lower 27% or bottom half)
3
12
0
3
12
Omits
0
4
0
0
10
 
Interpreting Item Analysis Data
Item analysis data should be interpreted with caution.
Remember that:
  • Item analysis data are not analogous to item validity
  • The discrimination index is not always a measure of item quality
  • Item analysis data are tentative
  • Avoid selecting test items purely on the basis of their statistical properties.
 
Using Items Analysis Results
Item analysis data have several values:
  • They help one judge the worth or quality of a test
  • They can be of aid in subsequent test revisions
  • They lead to increased skill in test construction
  • They provide diagnostic value and help in planning future learning activities
  • They provide a basis for discussing test results
  • If students assist in or are told the results of item analysis. It can be a learning experience for them
  • They help in revising the test or test items.
 
171Nursing Education: Paper 2010 May
 
LONG ESSAYS
  1. Write in detail about method of evaluation of nursing education.
  2.  
    1. Enumerate the various methods of teaching.
    2. Explain in detail about lecture method.
  3.  
    1. Define guidance and counseling.
    2. Enumerate the problems in counseling.
  4.  
    1. Explain the curriculum change.
    2. Discuss the selection and organization of learning experiences.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
  1. Elicit role of teacher using instructional aids effectively.
  2. Explain the steps in constructing a test.
  3. Write in detail about performance appraisal.
  4. Develop a lesson plan on communication for 1st year BSc (N) students.
 
LONG ESSAYS
1. Write in detail about method of evaluation of nursing education.
 
Definition of Evaluation
Evaluation is a process of ascertaining the worth or significance of something by detailed study and appraisal. Evaluation may be defined as a systematic process of determining the extent to which educational objectives are achieved by pupil.
 
Concept of Evaluation
Evaluation is the systematic process for determining the degree to which changes in behavior (of students) are actually taking place (Tyler).
It is a process of assessment; certain specific characteristics of the program, individual or an institution described, these will serve as the basis for making an assessment about the individual program or the institution.
It is a continuous process, helps in making decisions about students, teaching-learning techniques, facilities, objectives to be realized. Evaluation includes measurement, but goes beyond in having qualitative considerations and suggesting modifications for deficient areas. Whereas, measurement includes a variety of teaching procedures that describe output in qualitative terms.
172
 
Meaning and Need for Curriculum Evaluation
Evaluation is a necessary step to find out whether curriculum is right or wrong, to find out causes for defective curriculum:
zoom view
Figure 1: Concept of evaluation
  1. It helps to clarify objectives and also to know the extent of objective achieved.
  2. It leads to improvement of instruction and the teaching-learning process, motivates the students, determines the student level of knowledge, skills and attitudes at intervals and finally the learner can be promoted to next grade.
  3. Diagnosis difficulty in curriculum process, i.e. with the individual student or class teachers as well as for teaching-learning activities.
  4. Helps in gathering information for administrative purpose.
  5. It is a mean to assess the performance trends of teachers and students in certain achievement areas.
  6. It provides quality control in education.
  7. It helps to find out the usage of new material, which will satisfy the purpose and the objectives of curriculum develops have in mind.
  8. Evaluation helps in modifying curriculum to adequately meet the growing challenges.
 
Methods and Techniques of Curriculum Evaluation
  • Discussions
  • Experiments
  • Interview—individual group
  • Opinions
  • Observation
  • Questionnaire
  • Schedules
  • Practical performance
  • Anecdotal records.
 
Types of Evaluation
According to RD Tennyson:
  • Phase 1: Feasibility
  • Phase 2: Formative (diagnostic) evaluation
  • Phase 3: Summative (certifying) evaluation
  • Phase 4: Maintenance evaluation.
According to Sankaranarayanan and B Sindhu:
  1. Based on frequency of conducting:
    • Summative
    • Formative.
  2. Based on nature of management:
    • Maximum performance evaluation
    • Typical performance evaluation.
  3. 173 Based on method of interpreting results:
    • Criterion-referenced evaluation
    • Norm-referenced evaluation.
 
Formative Evaluation
The term formative denotes the ongoing/systematic assessment of student’s achievement, while the course or instructional program is in progress.
It is concerned with judgment made during the design and/or development of a program, which are directed toward modifying, forming or otherwise improving the program before it is completed. —AJ Nitke, 1983
It is conducted to monitor the instructional process, to determine whether learning is taking place as planned. —RL Ebel and DA Frisbic, 1986
Formative evaluation occurs over a period of time and monitors student’s progress.
It is used to monitor learning progress during instruction and to provide continuous feedback to both pupil and teacher regarding learning success and failures. Feedback to pupils reinforces successful learning and identifies the learning errors that need correction. Feedback to the teacher provides information for modifying instruction and, prescribing group and remedial work. Formative evaluation depends on specially prepared tests for each segment of instruction like unit/chapters. Tests used for formative evaluation are most frequently prepared by teacher, but published tests are also available.
Activities of formative evaluation: The purpose of formative evaluation is to provide continuous feedback to both student and teacher concerning learning success and failure.
 
Teaching-learning Success
Advantages: As follows:
  • It is an ongoing process
  • Its purpose is to improve the instructional methods and materials so that greater student learning will result
  • It provides the teacher with qualitative and quantitative data for modification of teaching
  • It helps the students to identify learning difficulties
  • It helps the teachers to plan according to the needs of the students
  • It measures the progress or gains made by the students from beginning to the completion of the program.
Disadvantage: The result of formative evaluation is not used by the teacher to make certifying judgment and the result will not be displayed any official record.
zoom view
Figure 2: Concept of formative evaluation
 
Summative Evaluation
Summative evaluation is done after the planned curriculum is implemented fully and to determine the degree to which curriculum is effective in meeting the instructional objective. Summative evaluation is concerned with the analysis of an established program.
174 The term summative refers to assigning a grade for student’s achievement at the end of a term, course or instructional program.
Done at the condition of instruction and measure the extent to which students have attained a desired outcome.
—W Weerma and SG Gun, 1990
To conduct at the end of instructional segment to determine if learning is suffer complete to warrant moving the learner to the next segment of instruction.
Summative evaluation describes judgment about the merits of an already completed program.
—AJ Nico, 1983
Concept of summative evaluation: It typically comes at the end of instruction, it is designed to determine the extent to which the instructional objectives have been achieved and is used primarily for assigning course grades or certifying pupil mastery of the intended learning outcomes. The techniques used are determined by instructional objective, but they usually include teacher made achievement tests, rating on various types of performances and evaluation of products. The main purpose is to provide grading or certification, it also provides information for judging the appropriateness of the course objectives and effectiveness of the instruction.
This is the type of evaluation carried out at the end of the course of instruction to determine the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. It is called a summarizing evaluation because it looks at the entire course of instruction or program and can pass judgment on both the teacher and students, the curriculum and the entire system. It is used for certification.
Purposes: As follows:
  • To appraise the overall effectiveness of a curriculum program
  • To select most appropriate curriculum
  • It is done at the end of the course to see if students achieved the course objectives
  • It is done as a formal list covering the content of the course
  • It is done for giving a certificate after completion of a course or for promotion to the next class
  • It protects the society by preventing incompetent personnel from practicing.
 
Feasibility Evaluation
  • Activity occurs concurrently with the instructional development problem analysis phase
  • Teacher and other potential develops should first identify the instructional problem and then proceed with recommendations concerning the need for developing instructional materials
    zoom view
    Figure 3: Various methods of formative evaluation
  • 175 Documentation of procedures, sources of data are used in the need assessment for which are should be specified
  • Educational policies and educational organizations, which will help in standardizing the policies, rules and regulations of educational institutions to be identified.
zoom view
Figure 4: Process of formative evaluation
 
Maintenance Evaluation
  • For placing qualified people in job or to select suitable candidates for filling the vacancies or promotion
  • To maintain the level or the student up to the mark, the maintenance evaluation will be carried out.
 
Maximum Performance Evaluation
  • Determines what individuals can do while performing at their best
  • It is concerned with person’s abilities and how well an individual performs when motivated to obtain a high score
  • Aptitude and achievement tests are useful in measuring maximum performance.
 
Typical Performance Evaluation
  • Determines individual behavior under natural condition in their behavior
  • How does the individual usually behave in normal or routine situation? For example, a student who knows rules of sportsmanship may refuse to abide.
 
Criterion-referenced Evaluation
  • Describe pupil performance according to specific domain of clearly defending test
  • Criterion-referenced interpretation enable us to describe what an individual can do with reference to others performances
  • Evaluation instrument—teacher made tests, published test and observable.
 
Norm-referenced Evaluation
  • Designed to provide measure of performance, i.e. interpretive in terms of an individual’s relative standing in some known group
  • Describes pupil’s performance according to relative person in some known group, e.g. rank 10th in classroom groups of 30
  • Its interpretation evaluation make us to determine how an individual would perform compared to that of others.
 
Clinical Evaluation
Clinical evaluation enjoys a dominant position in nursing education so as the clinical 176 teaching.
Purposes: As follows:
  • To evaluate the competency, especially the speed and accuracy in providing nursing care
  • To provide feedback and reinforce positive behavior
  • To assist students in refining their skills
  • To diagnose deficiencies and to undertake appropriate remedial measures
  • To provide information essential for conducting guidance and counseling
  • To judge the adequacy of the objectives.
Clinical evaluation techniques and tools: It mainly depends on direct observation for judging the quantity and quality of student’s performance in the clinical area. Most frequently used tools for clinical evaluation are check lists, rating scales and anecdotal records.
 
Student Evaluation
  • Conventional role of examination is to determine the success or failure on the part of the student
  • To provide feedback for the student
  • To inform up to what level the student is receiving instruction and the extension of their achievements
  • To make them aware of the question whether they have understood or not
  • To modify the style of teaching to ensure that what they wish to communicate whether the student has is correctly understood or not
  • The reputation of the school will be represented by the percentage of the results the institution got
  • Selection of students
  • Motivates the student to learn
  • Certify whether they had succeeded or failed in the due course
  • Maintains school public relation
  • Protects the society by certifying the competency.
 
Curriculum Evaluation Plan
  1. The rationale of evaluation: It denotes the need for evaluation; the approach and the benefits obtained by evaluation.
  2. Objectives of the evaluation study: Concerned with the specification of the standards that the curriculum should meet.
  3. Curriculum description: It includes:
    • Description of curriculum objectives
    • Philosophy
    • Content
    • Procedures
    • Description of learners.
  4. Evaluation design:
    • Constraints under which evaluation is developed
    • Evaluation model to be used
    • 177 Appropriateness of evaluation design
    • Determination of achievement of objectives
    • Sources of information
    • Data analysis techniques
    • Schedule of events
    • Budget.
  5. Evaluation report: It contains:
    • The findings of the evaluation program
    • The extent to which the objectives of curriculum have been achieved
    • Suggestions for further study.
  1.  
    1. Enumerate the various methods of teaching.
    2. Explain in detail about lecture method.
a. Enumerate the various methods of teaching.
 
Clinical Teaching Method
The clinical teaching method is a type of group conference in which a patient or patients are observed and studied, discussed, demonstrated and directed toward the improvement and further improvement of nursing care. Clinical teaching may be given by any faculty member that is clinical instructor, tutor, ward staff and will concentrate on a particular patient’s needs as a person, and how the doctor’s treatment orders can be met by the right understanding and nursing care.
 
Definition
The ideal way to teach clinical nursing is center the teaching around specific patients.
 
Purposes
  • To provide individualized care in a systematic, holistic approach
  • To develop high technical competent skills
  • To practice various procedures
  • To collect and analyze the data
  • To conduct research
  • To maintain high standard of nursing practice
  • To become independent enough to practice nursing
  • To develop cognitive, conative, affective and psychomotor skills
  • The students will develop the techniques, e.g. observation
  • To meet the needs of a client
  • To improve the standards of nursing practice
  • To develop various methods in delivering care
  • To identify the problems of clients
  • To learn various diagnostic procedures
  • To learn various skill in giving health education techniques to the client and significant others
  • 178 To help in integration of theoretical knowledge into practice
  • To develop communication skills and maintain interpersonal relationship
  • To maintain interinstitutional relationship
  • To develop proficiency and efficiency in carrying out various nursing procedures
  • To learn managerial skills
  • To become professionally an active member
  • To encounter reality in the practice of nursing, synthesis learning practice activities described in the course objectives.
 
Methods of Clinical Teaching
  • Client and family centered approach:
    • Conference
    • Group conference
    • Staff conference
    • Nursing care conference
    • Individual conference
    • Team conference.
  • Bedside clinic
  • Nursing rounds
  • Assignments
  • Field visit
  • Process recording
  • Ward teaching
  • Ward class
  • Ward clinics
  • Case method
  • Brain storming method
  • Group discussion
  • Demonstration method
  • Laboratory method
  • Health talks.
b. Explain in detail about lecture method.
 
Lecture Method
Lecture method is the oldest method of teaching. It is based on the philosophy of idealism. Lecture is generally described as a teacher centered teaching method involving oneway communication. The term lecture was derived from the word ‘lectare’, which means to ‘read aloud’.
 
Definition
“Lecture is a pedagogical method whereby the teacher formally delivers a carefully planned expository address on some particular topic.”
—James Michael Lee
179
“Lecture is a teaching activity where the teacher presents the content in a comprehensible manner by explaining the facts, principles and relationships during, which the teacher is expected to elicit student participation by employing appropriate techniques.”
 
Purposes of Lectures
  1. To provide structured knowledge: It is the prime function of lecture by integrating and synthesizing knowledge from different fields or sources. It is difficult for the students to locate all sources of knowledge. Through lecture it is easy for the teacher to provide relevant knowledge by selecting and organizing the content in a learner centered way.
  2. To motivate and guide in hunting knowledge: As teacher alone cannot satisfy the knowledge requirement of students, they have to explain the various sources of knowledge. This purpose underlines the importance of giving references to the students after completing a particular topic. Teacher has to give main reference as well as general references. Main reference will provide a list of books, which are commonly followed for learning a particular topic. Books coming under the general reference provide additional information, if needed.
  3. To arouse students interest in a subject: By following lecture method, teacher can orient the students to a subject by explaining the need for studying it, ways of learning and mode of writing university examinations, etc. Once they understand the ways of learning they will be motivated naturally.
  4. Introduce students to new areas of learning: Innovations are occurring on a regular basis in the diagnosis treatment and nursing management of disease conditions. These innovations have created new learning areas and lecture method will help the teacher to introduce those areas to students.
  5. To clarify difficult concepts: Lecture is highly suitable for clarifying the concepts. Teacher should use enough examples and illustrations to clarify the concepts.
  6. To assist in preparing students for discussion: Before discussion teacher has to provide a concrete idea regarding the topic of discussion.
  7. To promote critical thinking: Compared to the other methods lectures usually give less emphasis to critical thinking. Critical thinking can be encouraged through incorporating challenging questions throughout the lecture.
 
Factors in Planning the Lecture
  1. Learners factors: The most obvious factor to be considered is the type of course, the class they are pursuing as this will dictate to a large extent the level of objectives, e.g. ANM, GNM, etc.
  2. Subject matter factor: The domain of the objectives will exert profound influence over the planning of lecture.
  3. Environmental factors: These exert a practical constraint over lecture planning as the environment may not contain such things as power points, chalkboards, OHP, movie projector, computer LCD, etc.
  4. iv. Psychological factors: The organization of the content must be logical and meaningful and the sequence should progress from simple to complex, from concrete to 180 the abstract and from known to unknown.
 
Types of Lecture
Ideal lecture: The hallmark of the ideal lecture is voluntary nature; participants attend the lecture of their own volition and this implies commitment on their part, e.g. political lecture.
Classical lecture: In public educational systems attendance at lecture is seen being largely compulsory in contrast to ideal lecture. This element of coercion tends toward a performance centered focus with students mainly concerned with getting good grades.
Experiential lecture: This form of lecture is used prior to experiential learning activities and is intended to give participants basic concepts and explanation about the issue in question.
zoom view
Figure 5: Organizing a lecture
 
Importance of Lesson Plan in Lecture Method
It is a plan prepared by a teacher to teach a lesson in an organized manner.
  • It ensures a definite objective for the day’s work and a clear visualization of that objective
  • It keeps the teacher on the track to ensure steady progress and a definite outcome of teaching and learning procedures
  • Enables to choose and adopt effective method of teaching
  • Enables to evaluate teaching section
  • It helps the teacher to delimit the teaching field, keeps boundaries within which the teacher has to work and thereby it saves time and labor
  • When it is well planned, interest of the students can be maintained
  • Gives the teacher greater confidence, self-reliance and freedom in teaching, they will not forget any point that should be explained to students
  • It prevents the teacher deviating from the topic
  • Helps the teacher to select and organize the material, which they want to present in the class
  • Relates the learning structures with teaching activities.
 
Lecturing Techniques
Voluntary dissemination of information or spontaneity: Reading continuously from the note will hamper spontaneity and reduce the interest of the students. Instead of reading continuously from a prepared note the teacher has to converse freely with the students. Looking in between at the prepared note is needed as it helps the teacher to maintain the sequence. Spontaneity is not merely a recollection of learned lessons, but it is a sudden out flow of information, which is enriched with life experience.
181 Voice gradation and voice quality: Voice gradation is the periodical alteration of both pitch and volume, while lecturing. Lecturing in a monotone makes students more passive.
Adequate pacing: Too slow a pace and too fast a pace are not advisable as the former creates boredom and confusion. The teacher has to develop a routine pace of going fast, while teaching simple topics and has to slow down when dealing with difficult areas so that the students can follow easily.
Proper body language: Action often speaks louder than words so the teacher must be aware about the body language, while lecturing. Maintaining eye contact with students is very essential. Occasionally move toward the students rather than continuously standing behind the podium.
Control annoying mannerisms: Annoying mannerisms are very distracting to the students. Crushing or tossing chalk, breaking the knuckles, waving hands unnecessarily, pinching the nose and repeatedly saying ‘so’ ‘right’ ‘okay’ are the common annoying mannerisms. Usually teachers are unaware about these mannerisms and realize only through the feedback provided by the superiors or colleagues during an evaluation session.
Judicious use of audio visual aids: In addition to blackboard, charts and graphs, advancement in educational technology offers help through a handful of sophisticated AV aids to the teacher in facilitating learning by way of the lecture method.
Simple plans and key points: When planning for a lecture always go for a simple plan instead of complicated ones. Select some key points from the content, this will help students to recollect the taught lessons in an easy manner.
Elicit feedback from students: To a certain extent feedback assists the teacher to assess the amount of knowledge received by the students and the progress they have achieved. An intelligent teacher critically analyzes the feedback from the students as a means for evaluating the effectiveness of her lecture and the subsequent diagnosis of any defects.
Providing further clarification: The purpose of the lecture is to clarify difficult concepts by citing examples or through illustrations. It is better to provide further clarification before proceeding to the next topic or session.
Time management: When time exceeds than expected, tension slowly invades the teacher and damages the lecture. Hence, skill in managing time is essential for conducting lecture in a smooth way. Restricting the tendency to deviate from the main objectives of lecturing is also helpful in saving time.
 
Advantages of Lecture Method
  • It is an efficient method of teaching where one teacher can communicate with a large number of students
  • Helps to apparent time saving and resources
  • The teacher can plan exactly the presentation in advance
  • It provides better opportunity for clarification of important things
  • A well presented lecture may increase student motivation
  • It enables to present large amount of information in a short time
  • New knowledge may be presented, which is not yet in the textbooks
  • It is good for introducing a new topic, supplementing information and introducing important incidental information
  • It is useful in giving a framework upon which students can build
  • 182 Since presence of teacher in the class, they have complete control over the content and can develop presentation according to the plan
  • The presence of teacher avoids interruption and disturbance, and also gives a feeling of security.
 
Disadvantages of Lecture Method
  • It keeps the students in passive situation, provides only limited participation
  • It does not facilitate learning problem solving
  • Student’s attention may want, the need to suit the material presented to the level of understanding of all students
  • In this method more content may be covered by a teacher, but less learning may take place
  • Lecture do not cater individual student needs
  • There is no way to know the real reactions of pupil
  • It may be difficult for students to take complete and accurate notes
  • Pace of lecture does not suit all students
  • Students get second hand material rather than from primary sources
  • It offers hardly any possibility of checking learning progress.
  1.  
    1. Define guidance and counseling.
    2. Enumerate the problems in counseling.
a. Define guidance and counseling.
 
Definition of Guidance
“Guidance is an assistance made available by personally qualified and adequately trained men or women to an individual of any age to help them manage their own life activities, develop their own points of view, make their own decisions and carry out their own burden.” —Lester D Crow and Alice Crow, 1962
According to Jones, “Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments, and in solving problems.”
While Skinner says “Guidance is a process of helping young persons learning to adjust to self, to others and to circumstances.”
 
Definition of Counseling
The term ‘counseling’ includes work with individuals and with relationships, which may be developmental, crisis support, psychotherapeutic, guiding or problem solving. The task of counseling is to give the ‘client’ an opportunity to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more satisfyingly and resourcefully. —(BAC, 1984)
Support process in which a counselor holds face-to-face talks with another person to help them in solving a personal problem or to improve their attitude, behavior or character.
According to Halm and Mcheall (1955), “Counseling is a one-to-one relationship between an individual troubled by problems with which they cannot cope alone and a professional worker whose training and experience have qualified them to help in reaching solutions to various types of personal difficulties.”
According to Shostorm and Brammer (1952), “Counseling is a purposeful reciprocal relationship between two people in which only a trained person helps the other to change their environment.”
183
b. Enumerate the problems in counseling.
 
Problems in Guidance and Counseling
 
Counselor: Face Problems
Counseling individuals with strong emotions such as anxiety, anger, depression, intimacy, which will hinder counseling process.
 
Counselor Burnout
Listening to a problem carefully and identifying right choices to solve the problems, consumes energy. Perhaps, when a counselor does not plan for appointments or time schedules, it would result in burnout. The symptoms like restlessness, boredom, irritability, lethargy, fatigue, etc. can be managed by changing the work environment, approach taking care of themselves.
 
Counseling Individuals of Different Cultures
Institution is an area where there is pooling of a section of society from various culture. Each culture has their own values, beliefs, rituals expectations and practice. When these are not understood in the way they are, then it would result to chaos. Counselee with different cultures. The counselor should be very careful in dealing counselee’s with different cultures.
 
Resistance to Counseling
Mostly individuals facing problems fail to approach the counselor due to fear of change. Resistance to counseling is done either by counselee or by faculty.
 
Counseling Individual with Strong Emotions
Emotions especially when they are strong such as depression, high levels of anxiety and so on may hinder counseling process. These emotions prevent in accurate diagnosis of problems.
 
Noncompliance to Therapy
The counseling process cannot be completed in a single session. It will vary with problem and personality of the counselee.
 
Unawareness of Counseling
Many individuals consider consultation with a counselor that is done only for psychiatric patients. Lack of awareness regarding value of counseling by public.
 
Organizational Setup
  • Inadequate administrative setup
  • Lack of physical facilities
  • Non-availability of time and tools, lack of facilities for training counselors and physical setup.
184
  1.  
    1. Explain the curriculum change.
    2. Discuss the selection and organization of learning experiences.
a. Explain the curriculum change.
Curriculum changes/revision means making the curriculum different in some way, to give it a new position or direction. This often means attraction to its philosophy by way of its aims and objectives, reviewing the content included, revising its methods and rethinking its evaluator procedure.
 
Definition
Acceptance overtime of some specific item, ideas or practice by individual, groups or other adopting units, linked by specific channels of communication to a social structure and to a given system of values or structure.
 
Need for Curriculum Change
  • To restructure the curriculum according to the needs of learners society
  • To eliminate unnecessary units, teaching methods and contents
  • To introduce latest and update methods of teaching and content, new knowledge and practices
  • To add or delete number of clinical hours of instruction.
 
Factors Influencing the Change Curriculum
  1. General societal changes:
    • Population growth
    • Population pattern
    • Move toward urbanization
    • Consumption of natural resources.
  2. Healthcare changes:
    • Increasing government control in health care
    • Increasing need for health professional to work with other professionals as well as the client system
    • Increasing the professionalization of health workers
    • Increasing socialization in health field
    • Increasing in the supply of health workers perhaps resulting in over supply
    • Rapid obsolescence of practice, skills and knowledge level.
 
Approaches to Curriculum Revision
The three main approaches to curriculum revision are:
  • Addition
  • Deletion
  • Recognition.
In addition, new elements are added to the existing curriculum. In deletion some elements are deleted to modify the curriculum. In recognition, nothing added or deleted, but only restructuring of the existing curriculum is done.
185
 
Phases of Curriculum Changes
Changes in curriculum involves three phases namely, the planning, implementation and evaluation. Any innovation in curriculum needs planning and conscious effort to implement the change and evaluation, to know how effective was the change, the problems involved in change and how to continue or stop the change process.
Innovation can be introduced in any component of curriculum since a total change in curriculum is not often necessary. It may be only a change in concept organization of content, adding new content or deleting certain aspects—adding new courses according to the social needs, technological advancement or change due to change in student characteristics and needs.
Planning phase: There is need for curriculum committee to study, report and make plans for the change in curriculum. There should be involvement of administration, faculty and students in the curriculum change. Reviewing the curriculum is the first phase of the curriculum change. During the first phase the curriculum should be reviewed by a committee to identify areas that need to be changed. The objectives, learning experiences provided, teaching and learning activities need to be studied. It is also necessary to get the views of students and experts in the field. Objectives have to be reviewed and changed as necessary.
The planning, during which the report of the review committee is studied. When planning the change, where should the change be; throughout the curriculum or only in the selected areas and how should the change be introduced. The data collected during the first phase would help to make these decisions. The change takes place at various levels. The objectives and philosophy should be examined—keeping in mind the required changes. The next change will be at the course and at the broader departmental level. The teachers have to study the course content and methods of teaching, and the learning experience provided. It may be necessary to arrange for orientation program for the staff to prepare them for change and to overcome resistance to change.
Implementation phase: This is the second phase in curriculum change. Once the curriculum has been finalized, the course modification steps have to be taken. The change plan will be implemented by formulating objectives, course content, learning methods, teaching approaches and evaluation process. The behavioral changes expected in the students, with the implementation of the change have to be started clearly. Appropriate learning experiences have to be provided to the students. New teaching methods have to be accepted according to the change.
Evaluation phase: Evaluation methods and procedures are made at the planning. Evaluation must be used to monitor the progress of the students learning. To determine the extent to which the objectives have been achieved and to find ways of improving teaching-learning methods. This will give feedback to planners and should be used for further improvement of curriculum.
Implementing the plan of change in curriculum requires system development of the content, learning experiences and evaluation. There are certain principles to be made use of when changing a curriculum. Change occurs within the institution and in the participants. Most of the change in education, in India, comes as a result of national or state governments recommendations or directions from university or boards of education. Change in other words, is compulsorily brought down from the top.
186
 
Guidelines for Changing Curriculum
  • When a change occurs, there are forces, which support and those that oppose change. Try to work with those supportive forces especially in the initial phase of change
  • Try to produce a self-motivated team of workers who get power within themselves
  • Ensure that the people who are working for the change have freedom authority to implement the proposed change
  • Get the key personnel in the institution and get them involved in change
  • Protect the team members under stress and strain, support and encourage them in their work
  • The person or group working on change should maintain good interpersonal relationship and skills to manage the staff.
b. Discuss the selection and organization of learning experiences.
 
Selection of Learning Experiences
Learning experience is defined as deliberately planned experience in selected situations where students actively participate, interact and which result in desirable changes of behavior in the students. In nursing education, selection of learning experience is concerned with the decision about the content of subject matter and clinical, community and laboratory practice. Thus, selection of learning situation together with corresponding learning activities will comprise the learning experiences. When these are in relation to the selection of subject matter, i.e. different theoretical are selected in terms of community, clinical nursing practice and laboratory work, these will constitute practical learning experience. In short, learning experience are those experiences, which make appropriate responses among students as indicated in the objectives.
 
Principles to be Followed in the Selection of Learning Experiences
  • All learning needs should be in relation to the selected objectives
  • Learning activities should be in relation to those real life situations where the students are expected to practice after being qualified
  • Selection should be in a manner that there is an effective integration between theory and practice
  • Reaction sought must be within the range of possibility for the students concerned
  • The same learning experience will result in several outcomes and several learning experiences may bring out the same outcome
  • Learning experiences should be selected in such a way that learners are constantly motivated
  • Learning experiences should be planned and organized in such a way that the student gets meaning out of each experience and focuses on the future needs
  • Learning is enhanced by utilizing a wide variety of teaching-learning methods
  • Students will learn effectively if the experiences are satisfactory to them
  • Learning experiences should consider the students ability to undergo the desired changes in behavior
  • Learning experiences selected should be according to the needs of the students and every student should be given similar learning experience
  • Learning experiences selected should provide same or equal chances for all the students.
187
 
Organization of Learning Experience
Once learning experiences are selected, teacher has to organize the learning experiences.
 
Elements of Organizing the Learning Experiences
Elements to be considered, while organizing the learning experiences are:
  • Grouping the learning experiences under subject heading
  • Preparation of master plan for curriculum
  • Placement of learning experiences in the total curriculum
  • Preparation of the correlation chart
  • Organization of clinical experience in the total curriculum
  • Types of teaching system have to be followed.
 
Preparation of Master Plan for Curriculum
Preparation of master plan will guide teachers in the placement of subject matter and clinical experience. This will give a clear picture as to how, in which year and at what stage are the subject matter going to be taught and the relevant clinical experience to be offered. Master plan should be prepared in accordance with the requirement prescribed by the statutory bodies like Indian Nursing Council and universities. The master plan also spells out the hours of planned instructions and required hours of clinical experience per week or per month of the year; invariably the master plan explains the following:
  • Total duration of program
  • Explanation of different course of study with special reference to theory and practical
  • Total allotted hours in terms of theory and practical.
 
Organization of Clinical Experience
Organization of clinical experience in the curriculum is done on the basis of the syllabus and regulations laid down by the statutory bodies like INC and universities. Organization of clinical experience is the responsibility of the faculty. Clinical experience related to each course should be planned according to the objectives, so that students will get enough opportunities for developing the desired nursing skills and attitude.
 
Factors Influencing the Clinical Rotation Plan
Multiple factors influence the planning of clinical rotation plan. They are:
  • Requirement stated by the statutory bodies like INC and universities
  • The objectives of the course
  • Only a limited number of students can be posted in a particular clinical area
  • Infrastructure of various clinical areas
  • Duration of experience in each area
  • Nurse educators available for supervision.
188
 
Principles of Developing Clinical Rotation Plan
Principles related to the development of clinical rotation plan will help to accomplish the objective of the clinical postings in a more effective manner:
  • A clinical rotation plan must be in developed accordance with the master plan of the curriculum
  • The master plan must be made in advance with the cooperation of all the faculty members involved in the clinical teaching
  • Maxims of teaching should be followed, while selecting areas of experience
  • Principle of continuing sequence and integration should be followed to maximum extent
  • Enough teaching staff should be made available in the clinical areas for giving proper instructions to the students
  • Seeks suggestions of the nursing staff working to the suggestion of nursing staff will help to post the students in such a way that they will get enough exposure
  • First year students should receive maximum supervision and attention
  • All students should get enough experience as per the clinical rotation plan
  • All assignments related to the clinical area should be finished before completion of the postings
  • Overcrowding in clinical areas with different groups of students is not advisable.
 
SHORT ESSAYS
5. Elicit role of teacher using instructional aids effectively.
 
Principles to be Followed for the Effective Use of Audiovisual Aids
  • Audiovisual aids should function as an integral part of the educational program
  • Audiovisual aids should be centralized, under specialized direction and leadership in educational program
  • An advisory committee should be appointed to assist in the selection and coordination of audiovisual material
  • Audiovisual educational program should be flexible
  • Instructors have to help the students how to use AV aids
  • Budget appropriations should be made regulatory for the audiovisual educational program
  • Legal aspects should be considered in the production and utilization of educational communication media.
 
Principle of Selection
  • Audiovisual aids should suit:
    • The teaching objective
    • Unique characteristics of the special group of learners
    • 189The age level
    • Grade level, etc.
  • Specific educational value and stimulate interest and motivation
  • True representatives of the real things
  • Help in the realization of desires, learning objective.
 
Principle of Preparation
  • Locally available material
  • Students should be associated in preparation of audiovisual aids.
 
Principle of Physical Control
Arrangement of aids safely to facilitate their leading to the teachers for use.
 
Principle of Proper Presentation
  • Carefully visualize the use of teaching aid before their actual presentation
  • They should fully acquaint themselves with use and manipulation of the aids to be shown in the classroom
  • Adequate handling to aid and prevent damaging
  • Display properly so that all the students are able to see it and observe it to derive maximum benefit out of it
  • Avoid distraction of all kinds.
 
Principle of Response
The teacher should guide the students to respond actively to the audiovisual stimuli, so that they derive the maximum benefit in learning.
 
Principle of Evaluation
Continuous evaluation of:
  • Audiovisual material, based on realization of desired
  • Accompanying techniques, objectives.
 
Factors Influencing in Selection of Audiovisual Aids
Audiovisual aids will be used either single or in combination depend upon:
  • The objectives of training program/the teaching objective, i.e. the type of behavior change you want to bring in learner or to change the attitudes of the learner or to gain certain skills
  • The nature of subject matter being taught
  • The nature of audience:
    • Number, e.g. small group—flash card, large group—movies
    • Age
    • Education level
    • Socioeconomic status
    • Interest
    • Experience
    • Knowledge of the subject
    • Intelligence levels.
  • Relative cost
  • The teacher’s familiarity with originality and skill in selection, preparation and use of aids
  • 190The availability, functioning or working condition of aids
  • Knowledge of resources and availability of facilities.
 
Criteria for Selecting Audiovisual Aids
The teacher has to put the following questions to their mind before selecting any audiovisual aid for teaching activity:
  • Do the materials give a true picture of the idea they present?
  • Do they contribute meaningful content to the topic under study?
  • Is the material appropriate for the learners? (age, intelligence and experience)
  • Is the physical condition of the materials satisfactory?
  • Do they make learners better thinkers with a critical mind?
  • Do they tend to improve human relations?
  • Is the material worth with the time and efforts involved?
If the teacher finds satisfactory, then only they have to choose the material for using in teaching-learning process.
 
Guides for Selecting and Making Audiovisual Aid
  • Aid must be easy to see and understand
  • Simple and direct
  • Easy to handle and transport
  • Emphasizes the key point
  • Good working condition
  • Time and place
  • Please the senses
  • Accurate
  • Represent the things that are common and understandable
  • Convey up to date ideas
  • Encourage the viewers to eye your ideas
  • The message to be conveyed should be written, brief, clear, easy, attract the vision of others
  • Letters should be neat, clear, easy to hold, visible, simple words, leave the space between letters, give gap between word to word
  • Avoid over writing, overcrowding and clumsiness in writing; give space between lines
  • By seeing the visual aid, the learner should get interest, positive attitude, clear to understand and uses its knowledge effectively and adequately in their learning process
  • Select the colors, which are natural of related items, appealing, attractive, clear and visible, appropriate to the pictures.
 
Effective Use of Audiovisual Aids
 
Planning
  1. Know clearly the objectives of the presentation.
  2. Plan well in advance.
  3. Anticipate the problem and avoid them.
  4. Anticipate the size of the audience; the aids should be visible, audible for entire group of audience.
  5. 191 Plan for the use of variety of colorful visual aids, ample number of aids (different types) have to be planned. They help change in phase of presentation and keep the audience hold and develop interest, enthusiasm, creativeness among the group of audience.
  6. Plan in advance appropriate time for presentation.
 
Preparation
  • Select a convenient and comfortable meeting place—seating arrangements must be suited to the specific purpose
  • Anticipate the need for special effects either total lighting or darkness, prepared to provide either, at the right time
  • Make sure that all equipments are in good working order, before starting the meeting
  • Prepare by rehearsing or previewing in order to make a smooth presentation
  • Arrange the audiovisual aids in sequence and have them within easy reach
  • Keep aids out of sight until actually required for use.
 
Presentation
  • Motivate the audience and stress the key points they should observe during the presentation
  • Present aids at the right moment and in proper sequence
  • Display only one aid at a time
  • Remove all unrelated materials
  • Stand beside the aid, not in front of it
  • Speak facing the audience and not the side.
 
Evaluation
  • At the end, evaluate by providing discussion and application to discover and dispel misunderstanding, if any
  • Undertake follow-up studies and observe results.
6. Explain the steps in constructing a test.
 
Administering a Test
 
Planning the Test
  1. Unit plan has to be developed, teachers careful analysis of the content and their plan for promoting pupils learning:
    • Promotes objective based learning
    • Brings the relationship between the content, objectives, methodology, economies the plan.
  2. Preparing weightage tables. To enhance content validity, objective has to be prepared in terms of knowledge, understanding and application oriented, number and usability of concepts:
    • 192By difficulty index face validity can be enhanced
    • Objectivity, reliability, practicability of items has to be maintained
    • Weightage to form of question that is construct validity has to be given, e.g. essay type, short answer, objective type questions, etc.
 
Blue Print
Blueprint is a three dimensional chart, which has a provision for giving weightage for objectives content and form of questions. It depicts the true nature and purpose of test.
It describes the feasibility of items, guides to correct questions, helps the students to advance plan for development of study/learning experiences.
 
Preparing the Test
The teacher has to prepare the test in accordance with the blue print. Arrange the test item in ascending order of difficulty. Prepare instructions for the student in writing principles of valuation, fix norms for grading.
 
Administering the Test
Administering the test pays a vital role in enhancing the reliability of the test scores. Test should be administered in a congenial environment strictly as per the instructions planned and assure uniformity of conclusions to all the people tested.
 
Scoring the Test
The principles of valuation should be followed in scoring the test. It enhances the objectivity and reliability of the test.
 
Evaluating the Test
Learning activities are the methods, techniques, which the class teacher employs to help pupils to learn the content and realize the objectives. The mean of determining the extent to which the learning activities have been effective are termed as evaluation procedure or testing.
The test scores must be evaluated in relation to the objectives and learning experiences planned so that these components may be modified. To evaluate the individual performance and progress their scores must be compared with peer group scores and their previous scores. It helps to uplift the total pedagogic program. The process of evaluation:
zoom view
Figure 6: Administering a test
  1. 193Identifying and defining general objectives.
  2. Identifying and defining specific objectives.
  3. Selecting teaching points. Through teaching points objectives can be realized.
  4. Planning suitable learning objectives. The teacher has to coordinate the objectives, teaching points and learning activities.
  5. Evaluating. The teacher observes and measures the challenges in the behavior of their pupils through testing.
  6. Using the results as feedback.
The results will act as a feedback the teacher observes the results and plans appropriate learning activity for achieving the objectives.
7. Write in detail about performance appraisal.
 
Performance Appraisal
After an employee has been selected for a job, has been trained to do it and has worked on it for a period of time, their performance should be evaluated. Performance evaluation or appraisal is the process of deciding how employees do their jobs. Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job requirements. Often the term is confused with efforts, which means energy expended and used in a wrong sense. Performance is always measured in terms of results. A bank employee, for example, may exert a great deal of effort, while preparing for the Certified Associate of the Indian Institute of Bankers (CAIIB) examination, but manages to get a poor grade. In this case the effort expended is high, but performance is low.
 
Meaning
Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Often the term is confused with effort, but performance is always measured in terms of results and not efforts.
The performance appraisal process includes day-to-day manager-employee interactions (coaching, counseling, dealing with policy/procedure violations and disciplining); written documentation (making notes about an employee’s behavior, completing the performance appraisal form); the formal appraisal interview; and follow-up sessions that may involve coaching and/or discipline when needed.
 
Definition
Performance appraisal is defined as “the process of interaction, written documentation, formal interview and follow-up that occurs between managers and their employees in order to give feedback, makes decisions and cover fair employment practice law.”
Performance appraisals are conducted for a number of reasons. The primary reason is to give constructive feedback; therefore, the performance review should be future oriented. This is not easy, but evaluators can become more skilled and more professional with experience.
194Performance appraisals often serve as the basis on which administrative decisions, such as the size of a salary increase or who gets promoted, are made. Ideally, accurate appraisal information allows the organization to tie rewards to performance. Accuracy is skill developed, however, only with experience.
 
Performance: Evaluation Principles
  • Assess performance in relation to behaviorally stated work goals
  • Observe a representative sample of employee’s total work activities
  • Compare supervisor’s evaluation with employee’s self-evaluation
  • Cite specific examples of satisfactory and unsatisfactory performance
  • Indicate, which job areas have highest priority for improvement
  • Purpose of evaluation is to improve work performance, job satisfaction.
 
Features of Performance Appraisal
Some of the important features of performance appraisal may be captured thus:
  1. Performance appraisal is the systematic description of an employee’s job-relevant strengths and weaknesses.
  2. The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job and for establish a plan to improvement.
  3. Appraisals are arranged periodically according to a definite plan.
  4. Performance appraisal is not job evaluation. Performance appraisal refers to how well someone is doing the assigned job. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to the organization and therefore, what range of pay should be assigned to the job.
  5. Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large scale organization.
 
Need for Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is needed in order to:
  1. Provide information about the performance ranks based on decision regarding salary fixation, confirmation, promotion, transfer and demotion are taken.
  2. Provide feedback information about the level of achievement and behavior of subordinate. This information helps to review the performance of the subordinate, rectifying performance deficiencies and to set new standards of work, if necessary.
  3. Provide information that helps to counsel the subordinate.
  4. Provide information to diagnose deficiency in employee regarding skill, knowledge, determine training and developmental needs, and to prescribe the means for employee growth provides information for correcting placement.
  5. To prevent grievances in disciplinary activities.
 
Purposes
Performance appraisal aims at attaining the different purposes. They are:
  • To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance
  • To contribute to the employee growth and development through, training, self’ and management development programs
  • 195 To help the superiors to have a proper understanding about their subordinates
  • To guide the job changes with the help to continuous ranking
  • To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance
  • To facilitate for testing and validating selection tests, interview techniques through comparing their scores with performance appraisal ranks
  • To provide information for making decisions regarding lay off, retrenchment, etc.
  • To ensure organizational effectiveness through correcting employee for standard and improved performance, and suggesting the change in employee behavior.
 
Tools of Performance Appraisal
  1. Trait rating scales (TRS): A rating scale is a method of rating an individual against a set standard, which may be the job description, desired behaviors or personal traits. The rating scale is probably the most widely used one.
  2. Job dimension scales (JDS): The technique that a rating scale be constructed for each job classification. The rating factors are taken from the context of the written job description.
  3. Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS): It is also called behavioral expectation scale that overcomes some of the weakness of the rating system. As in JDS, the BARS technique requires a separate rating form be developed for each job classification.
  4. Checklists: There are several types of checklist appraisal tools. The weighted scale is composed of many behavioral statements that represent desirable job behaviors. Each of these behavior statements has a weighted score attached to it. Score is based on employees behavior or attributes:
    1. The forced checklist requires that the supervisor selects an undesirable and desirable behavior for each employee. Both have quantitative values and employee gains end up with total score.
    2. The simple checklist is composed of numerous words or phrases describing various employees’ behaviors or traits, e.g. assertiveness or interpersonal skill, etc.
  5. Essays: This method is often referred to as the ‘free from review’. Here, the appraiser describes in narrative form, the employee strengths and area where improvement or growth is needed.
  6. Self-appraisals.
  7. Management by objectives.
  8. Per review-performance carried out by peers.
196
8. Develop a lesson plan on communication for 1st year BSc (N) students.
College of Nursing
Subject: Nursing Foundations
Topic: A Lesson Plan on Communication Methods and Special Care Considerations in Meeting the Special Needs of the Patients
Submitted to,
Submitted to,
Mrs............
Mrs............
HOD of Psychiatric Nursing
1st year MSc Nursing
Course title
:
BSc Nursing
Year
:
1st year
Subject
:
Nursing foundations
Number of students
:
Teaching method
:
Lecture method
Topic
:
Communication methods and special considerations in meeting the special needs of the patient
AV aids
:
Blackboard, handouts and charts
Date and time
:
Hours
:
1 hour
 
General Objectives
After the end of the class, students will be able to understand about the methods of communication and special considerations in meeting the special needs of the patients.
 
Specific Objectives
  • Students will learn about the levels of communication
  • Students will learn about the basic elements of communication process
  • Students will learn about the forms or methods of communication
  • Students will learn about the special considerations in meeting the special needs of the patient.
197
Table 1   Structured lesson plan
Time
Specific objective
Content
Teaching activity
Learning activity
AV aids
Evaluation
2 min
To introduce the topic to the students
Introduction
Communication is a lifelong process for the nurses. Nurses communicate with people under stress: clients, families and colleagues. Nurses must be assertive to ask the right questions and make their voices heard
5 min
Students will learn about the levels of communications
Levels of communication
Teaching
Listening and taking down notes
Explain about the levels of communi-cations?
  • Intrapersonal communication
  • Interpersonal communication
  • Transpersonal communication
  • Small-group communication
  • Public communication
5 min
Students will know about the basic elements of communication process
Basic elements of communication process
Teaching
Listening and taking down notes
What are the basic elements of communi-cation process?
Students will know about the basic elements of communication
  • Referent
  • Sender and receiver
  • Messages
  • Channels
  • Feedback
198
  • Interpersonal variables
  • Environment
FORMS OF COMMUNICATIONS/METHODS
Messages are conveyed verbally and non-verbally, concretely and symbolically. As people communicate, they express themselves through words, movements, voice inflection, facial expressions and the use of space
5 min
Critical thinking model for immobility assessment
Assessment
Teaching
Listening and taking down notes
Explain about the methods ofcommunication?
  • Identify the impact of underlying disease on the client’s mobility
  • Determine the effects of medication on the client’s mobility status
  • Observe body systems for hazards of immobility
199
  • Assess psychological factors influenced by the client’s immobility
40 min
Knowledge
  • Normal mobility needs
  • Impact of immobility on physiological systems and client’s psychological and developmental status
  • Effect of therapies on client’s mobility status
  • Risks to potential alterations in clients mobility status
Experience
Explain in detail about the special consideration in meeting special needs of the patient
  • Caring for clients with impaired mobility status
200
  • Personal experience with an alteration in mobility
Attitudes
  • Be responsible for collecting complete and correct data related to mobility status
  • Use creativity in observing client’s mobility status while receiving care
Standards
Teaching
Listening and taking down notes
  • Apply intellectual standards of accuracy, relevancy and significance when obtaining health history and data related to the client’s mobility status
Critical thinking model for immobility patient
Planning
201
  • Consult with the members of the healthcare team for resources to improve the client’s mobility status
  • Identify the nursing interventions designed to reduce hazards of immobility and to increase mobility status
  • Involve the client and family in care activities
  • Determine the client’s ability to increase activity level
Knowledge
  • Benefits of mobility on body system functioning
  • Role of the physical, occupational or respiratory therapist or dietician in reducing the hazards of immobility
202
  • Effect of new medications on the clients mobility status
  • Effect of mobility interventions
Experience
  • Previous client’s responses to planned nursing interventions for improving immobility
Attitudes
  • Use creativity to design interventions that improve mobility stately
Standards
  • Individualize therapies for the client’s mobility needs
  • Apply skin care therapies
  • Apply cardiopulmonary reconditioning therapies
  • Apply protocols for fall prevention
Bibliography
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*AV, audiovisual