Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriages Pankaj Desai
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, and t refer to table.
A
Aborters
primary 55
secondary 55
Abortion, threatened 54
Acquired uterine anomalies 28
Activated partial thromboplastin time 70
Adverse pregnancy outcomes 116
AES See Androgen excess society
AFI See Amniotic fluid index
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 46
American Fertility Society 21, 23b
Amniotic fluid index 8f
Androgen Excess Society 107
Anembryonic pregnancy 16
Anemia 152
Antibiotic treatment 142
Anticardiolipin 57
antibody 68, 143
Antinuclear antibodies, test for 150
Antiphospholipid antibody 56, 61, 126, 144, 150
originating in infections 126
Antiphospholipid
prevalence of 58
syndrome 56, 86
APA syndrome, treatment of 69
APL syndrome See Antiphospholipid syndrome
APLA See Antiphospholipid antibody
APTT See Activated partial thromboplastin time
Arcuate uterus 27
Asherman's syndrome 31
Aspirin plus heparin therapy 72
Aspirin/heparin 71
Assisted reproductive technology 31
program 81
Autopsy 87
virtual 87
B
Bacterial vaginosis 122, 124
Beta human chorionic gonadotropin 10
Bicornuate uterus 25
complete 26
pregnancy in 38f
USG of 26f
Blighted ovum 81
BMI See Body mass index
Body mass index 143
Body's immune response 117
C
Cadherins 62
Calcium-dependent adhesion 62
Cardiac activity 12f
absent 13f
positive 6
Cardiac motion, detecting 9
Cardiotocography 7, 9f
Central nervous system 83
Cerebral artery, middle 7, 8f
Cervical
cerclage 34, 102
incompetence 31
diagnosis of 32
weakness 139
Cesarean section, lower segment 36, 37f, 38f
Chimerism 80
Chinese herbal medicine 143
Chlamydia trachomatis 122, 124
Chromosomal abnormalities 84
high risk for 85
in abortuses 82t
Chromosomal anomalies 84
in abortuses 82t
in parents 78
in perinatal deaths, frequency of 83t
Chromosomal rearrangements, types of 83t
CNS See Central nervous system
Collin's knife 24
Conceptus alive 149
Congenital abnormalities 102
Congenital syphilis 142, 150
Congenital uterine anomalies 17, 22
diagnosis of 21
Corpus luteum flow 16
Coxiella burnetii 125
Cushing's syndrome 107
Cystathionine beta-synthase 43
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator 78
Cytochrome 105
Cytokines 116
protective 6
types of 6
Cytomegalovirus 121, 122, 150
D
DES See Diethylstilbestrol
Destructive cytokines 6
Diabetes 95
Didelphys 23
Diethylstilbestrol 18t
exposure-related anomalies 28
Doppler findings 16
Doppler in early pregnancy loss, qualitative observations on 16t
Dydrogesterone 102
Dysmenorrhea 17
E
Early fetal loss and malformation 86b
Early pregnancy failure, diagnosing 4
Ectopic pregnancy 26
Efficient syncytiotrophoblasts system 66
Embryo 45
Embryonic demise 16
radiographic assessment of 10b
Embryonic heart rate 10
Embryonic tissues 80
Endocrinal factors 139
Endometrial cavities, separate 24f
Endometriosis 115
causes of 117
Endometrium, benign growths from 28
Endoscopy 20
European Society for Gynecological Endoscopy Consensus on Diagnosis 18
European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology 18
F
Female genital anomalies 18
Fetal
autopsy 87
cardiac activity 9
demise
at miscarriage 149
ultrasonographic features of 4
growth restriction 26
heart rate 11t
loss, etiological causes of 88
malformations 84
medicine expert 90
microchimerism, phenomenon of 48
pathology workups 87
pole, absent 109f
tissue 88
sampling for genetic evaluation 88
sampling techniques 89b
trophoblasts 49
Fetus
as allograft 44
as unique allograft 47
Fluorescent polymerase chain reaction, quantitative 89
Folic acid 43, 144
Follicle-stimulating hormone 103, 150
G
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 117f
Genetic causes, investigative workup for 85
Genetic counseling 90
Genetic factors 137
in pregnancy loss, etiologies of 78b
Genital mycoplasma 125
Gestational age 11t, 13f, 14f
Gestational sac 4
irregular 14f
Glucocorticoids 141
GnRH See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 63
GPER See G protein-coupled estrogen receptor
Graft-versus-host diseases 48
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor 46
H
hCG See Human chorionic gonadotropin
Heart
activity, absent 111f
rate, slow 110f
Hematoxylin 87
Hemochorial pregnancy 45
Heparin 70
earlier, discontinue 71
side effect of 71
HER See Embryonic heart rate
Herpes simplex 122
virus 121
infections 150
Histocompatibility complex 45
HIV See Human immunodeficiency virus
Homocysteine 43
Human chorionic gonadotropin 15, 81, 98, 140, 149
immunological basis of 99
supplementation 140
Human immunodeficiency virus 121, 122
Human leukocyte antigen 47
Human menopausal gonadotropin 104
Human T-lymphotropic virus 121
Hydatidiform mole, partial 79
Hyperhomocysteinemia 43
Hyperprolactinemia 94
Hypersensitivity cells, delayed-type 55
Hypertension, chronic 66
Hypoimmunogenic embryo 47
Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography 19
Hysterosalpingography 18
Hysteroscopy 20
I
Immune factors 141
Immunology 130
Immunomodulatory effects 73
Implantation failure 81
In vitro fertilization 69, 104, 137
embryo transfer 92
failures 78
Incompetent gonadotropin-releasing hormone activity 63
Infection 121, 142
specific 124
Infertility 3
Insulin resistance 106
severe 107
Interleukin 46
Intrauterine
adhesions 31
growth restriction 12, 42, 148
synechia 31
Intravenous immunoglobulin 72, 141
IUGRs See Intrauterine growth retardations
IVF See In vitro fertilization
L
LAC See Lupus anticoagulant
Laparoscopic encerclage 35
Leukocyte transfusions 72
LH-releasing hormone 105
Listeria monocytogenes 122
Living organism 1
Lupus anticoagulant 143
Luteal phase defect 97, 139
and recurrent miscarriages 97
Luteinizing hormone 2, 139
endocrinopathy 103
hypersecretion of 94
suppression of 105
M
Male hormones 103
Maternal lymphatic systems 45
Maternal lymphomyeloid cells 47
Maternal protector systems and pregnancy, paralysis of 46
MCA See Middle cerebral artery
Medicine, evidence-based 135
Messenger ribonucleic acid 46
Methionine synthase 43
Methylenetetrahydrofolate 43
Methyltetrahydrofolate 144
Micro ribonucleic acid 117
Miracle of paradox 67
Miscarriage 3, 26, 77, 102
early 81
increased risk of 27
medical treatments for 145
partner specificity in 54
post-treatment 25
Missed abortion 1, 81, 149
Müllerian abnormalities 17
Müllerian anomalies 23
Müllerian duct 23, 27
anomalies 25
malformations 22
Müllerian fusion 25
Mycoplasma hominis 122, 125
Myometrium, benign growths from 28
N
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidelines 138
Natural killer cell 53, 118, 130, 143
Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet 24
Neonatal intensive care unit 37
Neural tube defect 79
NICU See Neonatal intensive care unit
Nitric oxide synthase 2 46
NK cell See Natural killer cell
Nonfertile menstrual cycle 97
Nonimmunological basis 55
O
Obstetric vasculopathy 2, 42, 44
manifestation of 42
Oocytes, abnormalities in 78
Oogenesis, abnormal 78
Organisms associated with spontaneous miscarriages 122t
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 99
Oxygen species, reactive 80
P
Parental chromosomal rearrangements 138
Parental karyotyping 90
PCOS See Polycystic ovarian syndrome
PIH See Pregnancy-induced hypertension
Placenta 53, 80
and cord, normal 12f
protective mechanisms in 53
Placental abruption 43
Platelets 59
Polycystic ovary 111f
syndrome 94, 106, 107, 107t, 149
Polymerase chain reaction 124
Poor prognostic indicators 10
Postzygotic
abnormalities 79
mitotic divisions 79
Preeclampsia 42
Pregnancy
abnormal 16
eight weeks 110f
loss 17, 77, 115
causes of 117
nine weeks 111f
seven weeks of 7f
six weeks 109f
test, false-positive 149
with gestational sac, abnormal 4
Pregnancy-induced hypertension 12, 50
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 89, 92
Premature rupture of membranes 122
Preterm births, prevent 102
Preterm delivery 17
Preterm labor 17, 26
symptoms of 33
Progesterone 72, 101
and human chorionic gonadotropins supplementation 98
and recurrent spontaneous miscarriages 96
levels, low 96
receptor modulator 30
supplementation 140
Protects fetus 45
Protein 116
C activation 60
Proximal cervix, funneling of 33f
Psychology 130
Psychotherapist 133
Pyridoxine 43
R
Randomized controlled trials 135, 144
RCTs See Randomized controlled trials
Recurrent early pregnancy loss 96
Recurrent miscarriage 43, 96
corticosteroids in 69
genetic of 77
psychological bearings of 129
Recurrent pregnancy loss 81, 85, 106, 121, 122, 124, 130, 131
autoimmunity in 56
specific organism and 123
women with 22
Recurrent pregnancy miscarriage, immunology of 42
Recurrent spontaneous abortion 44, 104, 142
causes of 44
Recurrent spontaneous miscarriage 1, 2, 65, 95, 103, 115, 121, 143b, 148
anatomical causes of 17
endocrinal causes of 94
evidence-based practice in 135
management of 132
treatment of 98, 144b
Robotic encerclage 35
RPL See Recurrent pregnancy loss
Rubella 121, 122
S
Saline infusion sonography 143
Segmental müllerian agenesis-hypoplasia 23
Septate uterus 23
Sildenafil 73
Singleton versus twins 33
SIS See Saline infusion sonography
SLE See Systemic lupus erythematosus
Spermatogenesis, abnormal 79
Spontaneous resolution 65
Stillbirth 83
and neonatal deaths 81
Strassman metroplasty 26
Subchorionic hemorrhage 6, 109
absence of 153
diffuse areas of 14f, 109f
presence of 153
Subclinical hyperthyroidism 96
Submucous fibroids 29f
Superoxide anion radical 80
Syncytiotrophoblasts
defective generation of 62
privileged status of 63
Syndromes 84
Systemic lupus erythematosus 44
T
TAS See Transabdominal sonography
Tender loving care 131, 143
Teratogens and environmental factors 80
Testosterone 103
Three-dimensional ultrasonography 19
Thrombomodulin 60
Thromboxane prostacyclin mechanism, disruption of 60
Thyroid
abnormalities 95
function 95
TORCH 121, 142
Toxoplasmosis 121
Transabdominal sonography 5
Transforming growth factor-beta 52
Transvaginal sonography 5
Trophoblastic flow 16
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 46
Two well-formed cervices 36f
Two-dimensional ultrasonography 19
U
Unicornuate 23
uterus 26
Ureaplasma
infection 125
urealyticum 122, 125
Uterine
anomalies
classification of 18f
screening test for 138
artery
embolization 30
pulsatility index 61
corpus 27
fibroids 28
malformation, classification of 138
septa 23
wall thickness 21
Uterus 53
anatomical defects in 3
coronal section of 24f
didelphys 27
ultrasonography of 36f
intraoperative appearance of 38f
left 36f
right 36f
V
Vaginal progesterone 102
Viruses 142, 150
Vitamin 43
B6 43
supplements 143
W
Waddlia chondrophila 126
White blood cell 122, 130
Y
Yolk sac 14
double 15f
Z
Zona pellucida 46
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Chapter Notes

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