Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
JP Medical Ltd.
83, Victoria Street, London
SW1H 0HW (UK)
Phone: +44-20 3170 8910
Fax: +44(0)20 3008 6180
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
17/1-B, Babar Road, Block-B, Shyamoli
Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc.
City of Knowledge, Bld. 235, 2nd Floor, Clayton
Panama City, Panama
Phone: +1 507-301-0496
Fax: +1 507-301-0499
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal
© 2018, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
The views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) of the book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. The CD/DVD-ROM (if any) provided in the sealed envelope with this book is complimentary and free of cost. Not meant for sale .
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nutritional Guidelines for Sportspersons
First Edition: 2018
We dedicate this book to all the sportspersons who constantly strive for success and glorify the nationForeword
It was almost three decades ago, inspired by the brainstorming session at National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, under the leadership of Dr K Satyanarayana indicating the difference in the energy expenditure of different sports activities; I felt the urgent need for nutritional guidance for the sportspersons. At that time, the focus was only on energy needs and its relation to sports performance as the research indicated that carbohydrate intake during exercise improves performance, decreases stress and prevents post-event respiratory infections. The timing of carbohydrate intake, the type of carbohydrate and also the amount of carbohydrate ingested by sportsmen and women are all important factors that can affect performance. In addition to carbohydrates, athletes also need extra protein post-exercise to boost whole body protein synthesis. Thus, the coaches and the players whose intention focused on improving the performance realized the need for nutritional guidelines for sportspersons. In spite of such a great demand, the books on this subject are scanty and those that are available are of western authors and practical guidelines for Indian sportsmen are rare to find.
Dr Subhadra Mandalika, a senior nutritionist and her colleague, Dr Geetanjali Bhide have been working on the nutritional needs of sportspersons for more than a decade. With their theoretical knowledge coupled with research and practical experience in this area, they have brought out this book on Nutritional Guidelines for Sportspersons which includes various basic as well as applied aspects along with practical suggestions for sportspersons of various categories—endurance, power/strength, team, weight class, racket sports, etc. Apart from the role of macro and micronutrients in sports performance, the authors have also included in this book comprehensive information on hydration guidelines and sports supplements. Explanation of nutritional aspects based on exercise physiology, guidelines to plan diets for sportspersons based on training schedules, concerns of overconsumption of supplements are worth mentioning features of this book.
It is at an opportune time that this book has been published.
I wish the readers take full benefit of this scientific information and succeed.
SNDT Women's UniversityForeword
Excellence in sports requires judiciously planned training, physical fitness, skill, motivation and nutrition. In fact, good nutrition is the basis for high level sports performance. Athletes are on a constant search for a diet/food that will help them perform better. They either use age old dietary practices passed on to them by seniors, coaches and peers or fall prey to various fads and fallacies. The use of nutritional ergogenic aids, supplements and inadvertent doping is also a cause for concern. Thus, there is a need to provide athletes appropriate nutrition/dietary guidelines that are based on scientific research.
A wide variety of sports and games are played in India and Indian athletes are making a remarkable contribution at the national and international level.
The present book Nutritional Guidelines for Sportspersons is must read for all athletes, coaches, physical fitness trainer and future budding sports nutritionists. It provides the reader with current scientific information. The book will help students, coaches or physical fitness trainers understand the basics of nutrition, exercise, physical activity and various types of sports. The benefits of exercise, guidelines for various aspects of physical fitness and exercise training are broadly discussed. The chapter on bioenergetics of exercise explains how body derives energy from the different macronutrients—carbohydrates, proteins and fats through aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. The importance of body weight and composition, its impact on an athlete's performance and the methods of assessment are explained well. The requirements of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, their food sources, amounts and timing of consumption—pre, during and post exercise is elaborated with appropriate examples. Along with solid foods, hydration or water intake too contributes to performance. The importance of hydration in terms of fluid, electrolyte requirements, timing of consumption as well as methods of monitoring, the hydration status in athletes have been well explained in the book.
The second section of the book gives the practical dietary guidelines for athletes from varied sports. It begins with evaluation of energy and nutritional needs of athletes in different phases of training and competition (general preparatory phase, special preparatory, competition and off season) and proceeds with nutritional guidelines for five different types of sports— endurance, power/strength, team sports, racket sports and combat sports. The characteristics of sports, body compositional targets, physiological needs and nutrient requirements of sports persons along with suggestions for weight loss and/or weight management particularly for weight class sportspersons are explained in detail. Every chapter also has a case study with a suggested menu of training and/or competition. The book also has a chapter dedicated to nutrition supplements that includes the need, dose, efficacy, effects and safety of supplements along with guidelines to choose an appropriate supplement. Case studies and nutrition spotlight on recent trends in various topics are highlights of the book. The book can also be used as a textbook and/or a reference book by all those who wish to gain precise information on sports and exercise nutrition.
Maj Gen MA Naik (Veteran)
Sena Medal and Arjuna Awardee
Ex-Commandant Army Sports Institute Pune, Maharashtra, IndiaForeword
Over the last few years, there has been a gradual but steady increase in the need for physical fitness and sports training within India. Today, more than ever before, professionals as well as amateurs seriously pursue physical fitness and seek professional guidance for sports training. However, nutrition continues to be one of the most neglected aspects of sports training in the Indian scenario. There are a lot of myths and misinformation about nutrition, which not only affect the performance of sportspersons, but could at times cause serious harm to them.
In such a scenario, Nutritional Guidelines for Sportspersons authored by Dr (Mrs) Geetanjali Bhide and Dr (Mrs) Subhadra Mandalika is a much required textbook in the field of sports nutrition and is extremely relevant to the Indian sports nutritionist and sports coaches. Since I have personally known and interacted with both the authors, I can guarantee that this textbook is a useful handbook based on actual work experience with sportspersons and not just a theoretical book written within the confines of an air-conditioned office.
Each chapter of this textbook succinctly covers all aspects related to a particular sport and provides, in great detail the corresponding physiological requirement, training aspect and nutritional guidelines for that sport, as the energy requirements for each sport vary. Case studies and questions provided at the end of each chapter are an excellent method to study a chapter thoroughly as well as help in preparing for examinations. I am particularly happy that the authors have included weight management in the chapter of weight category sportspersons, as in the Indian scenario, I have personally experienced sportsmen adopting all sorts of incorrect methods to lose/gain weight for an event with disastrous results at times.
The book also provides information on how nutrition is important for preventing injuries while training as it is one of the three important factors for injury prevention post-training besides the other two hydration and sleep.
The Introduction of the book covers the neglected aspect of fitness in the Indian population, which is indeed a reflection on an overall poor sporting performance in the world arena of sports. The chapter on Body composition directly co-relates to performance. It reflects on how the Indian athlete's diet should suit their body composition and nutritional pattern. The chapter on Nutritional supplements is an important chapter as many a sportsperson uses these incorrectly at times, thus knowingly and unknowingly becoming a victim of Banned substances or performing below par.
All elite sportspersons and teams across the world selected to perform at the level of international and Olympic championships follow a very scientific method of nutrition and hydration. This textbook, therefore, is the need of the hour for our sportspersons and teams who aspire to represent the Nation and excel at such international platforms. I sincerely hope, this book will be part of the teaching and coaching curriculum for nutritionists, coaches, sportspersons and sports administrators as well.
Lastly, I wish the authors success in this important endeavor on the much neglected subject of Nutrition and dietary guidelines for sportspersons.
Dr (Col) Rana K Chengappa
Sports M edicine S pecialistPreface
The present book titled Nutritional Guidelines for Sportspersons equips a nutritionist, student, coach, fitness trainer, and an athlete with all the information needed to devise a diet plan that helps to train, sustain, perform and excel in sports. It is a comprehensive book divided into two sections.
Section I: Concepts in Sports Nutrition
This section begins with an introduction of the reader to the basics of nutrition, exercise, physical activity and also gives a broad classification of different sports (endurance, power/strength, team, weight class, racket sports). The second and third chapters explain bioenergetics of exercise and fuel utilization, body composition assessment, its need, methods used and factors influencing the same. Classification, functions in relation to exercise or sport, requirements, metabolism, factors influencing use in exercise and sources of macronutrients are broadly discussed in three chapters four, five and six. The seventh chapter includes all about micronutrients—classification, types and sources. The role of micronutrients in energy metabolism, blood formation, bone health, oxidative stress is well explained in the same chapter. Fluid and electrolyte balance, the chapter eight discusses the functions of water and hydration guidelines for athletes.
Section II: Sports Specific Nutrition and Dietary Guidelines
The second section focuses on the practical aspects of nutrition and begins with the essentials of dietary planning for athletes in the ninth chapter. Subsequently, comprehensive assessment of athletes’ body composition and biochemical assessment, periodized training (general, special, competition and off season), and nutrition periodization is explained. Chapters ten to fifteen include dietary guidelines for various sportspersons—endurance sports, strength/power sports, team sports, weight class sports and racket sports. Each chapter explains the characteristics of sports, physiology and body composition, nutritional requirements in different phases of training, weight management, nutritional concerns and list of beneficial nutritional supplements. The chapters also include case studies for every type of sport with a sample diet plan. However, it is to be noted that the sample diet plans are only meant for explaining/demonstrating the application of theoretical principles in practical situations but not for true translation or direct implementation. The last chapter is on nutritional supplements wherein, the need, dosage, effects, efficacy and safety/adverse effects and regulations are explained.
In both the sections of the book, a special feature—‘nutrition spotlight’ gives recent advances, guidelines and research studies related to the chapter.
The present book will definitely be an important resource of reference for academicians, students from nutrition and sports related fields; coaches and sportspersons; and all those who seek to be aware of the current scientific concepts in sports nutrition.
We express our immense gratitude to the almighty ‘the sole author of knowledge and wisdom’ for blessing us with the successful conceptualization and compilation of information; and enabling us to realize our dream of publishing this book.
We greatly appreciate and acknowledge the Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh (SAAP) for recognizing our efforts and rendering their support towards the publication of this book. SAAP is an apex body for promotion of sports in the state. It implements sports development programs of the Government of India/Sports Authority of India (SAI) such as construction of stadiums, establishment of sports academies and other sports-related activities.
We express our heartfelt gratitude to Dr PS Prasad MD MPh PhD; Professor and Program Director, School of Health Sciences and Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU), Kakinada, for his constant encouragement and motivation to publish our work without which our association with SAAP would not have materialized.
We are very thankful to Dr G Subbulakshmi, an eminent Nutritionist and Retired Professor of Nutrition, SNDT Women's University, Mumbai; Maj Gen MA Naik (Veteran), Sena Medal and Arjun Awardee and Ex-Commandant, Army Sports Institute, Pune and Dr (Col) Rana K Chengappa (Retd), an eminent expert in sports medicine for expressing their honest opinion about the contents of our book through the highly inspiring forewords.
The valuable professional contribution of various scientists has been duly acknowledged both in the text as well as in the references given towards the end of each chapter. The copyright of the sources of information remains with the original authors. However, if reference to any author/s is missing in the book, it is purely unintentional and inadvertent; and deeply regretted. We are also thankful to all the web search engines for providing us access to the required information without which this venture would have been impossible.