Pharmacology for Nurses Padmaja Udaykumar
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart and t refer to table, respectively.
A
Abacavir 278
Abatacept 183
Abciximab 126, 127
Abortion 338
habitual 332
threatened 332
Acamprosate 148
Acarbose 345, 347, 348
Acarus scabiei 295
Acebutolol 75, 76
Aceclofenac 172, 181
Acetaminophen 177
Acetazolamide 77, 86
Acetic acid 51
derivatives 172, 178
solution of 411
Acetyl salicylic acid 162
Acetylation 21
Acetylcholine 47, 47f, 49, 51f
actions of 49, 50t
synthesis of 48
Acetylcholinesterase enzyme 51
Acetylcysteine 209, 298
Acid 162, 307, 374
base
balance 173
imbalance 99
resistant penicillins 241, 244
stable 258
Acidosis
correction of 148, 364
metabolic 360
Acne 251, 381
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 277
Acriflavine 311
Actinomycin D 298, 300
Actinomycosis 243
Acute coronary syndrome 103
Acyclovir 276
mechanism of action of 276f
Adalimumab 183
Adapalene 382
Addison's disease 378
Addisonian pernicious anemia 119, 376
Adefovir 277
Adenosine 103
Adenylyl cyclase 161
Adipose tissue 20, 66
Adrenal corticosteroids, secretion of 321f
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital 327
Adrenal insufficiency
acute 326
chronic 327
Adrenal medulla 48
Adrenal steroids, synthesis of 322fc
Adrenaline 21, 65, 66, 68t, 77, 127, 205, 206
uses of 67
Adrenergic
agonists 77
antagonists 72
blockers 72
drugs 64, 65, 78, 205
nerve terminals 64
neuron blockers 111
Adrenergic receptor
blockers 109, 111
characteristics of 66t
Adriamycin 302
Adverse drug reactions 31, 31fc
Airway, breathing, circulation 358
Albendazole 292, 293
Alcohol 146, 307
dependence, treatment of 147
dilutions 410
withdrawal 77
Alcoholic intoxication, acute 147, 364
Alcoholism, chronic 147, 351
Aldehydes 307, 308
Aldosterone 86f
Aldosteronism
primary 86
secondary 86
Alendronate 353
Aliskiren 91
Alkaloids
cholinomimetic 49, 50
natural 55
Alkalosis, metabolic 83, 84, 87
Allergic diseases 327
Allergic reactions 32, 83, 85, 175, 203, 236, 298
types of 33
Allergy 343
history of 242
Alligation method 411
Allopurinol 184, 185, 290
inhibits xanthine oxidase 22
mechanism of action of 185fc
Alopecia 122, 297, 298, 372
Alpha adrenergic blockers 72, 77
Alpha chymotrypsin 369
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors 345
Alprazolam 143, 191
Alteplase 125, 126
Aluminum hydroxide 4, 214
Alzheimer's disease 52, 53
Amantadine 37, 158, 275277
Ambenonium 49, 51
Amebiasis 287289
drugs used in 287
Amenorrhea 298, 335
Amicin 254
Amifostine 298
Amikacin 253255, 260, 263, 266
Amiloride 37, 85, 86, 93, 109
Amino acids 117
Aminoglutethimide 302, 332
Aminoglycosides 34, 230232, 253, 254, 254t, 260
mechanism of action of 253f
Aminopenicillins 241, 244
Aminophylline 205
Amiodarone 23, 34, 37, 101
Amisulpride 188, 191
Amlodipine 37, 94, 95, 109
Ammonia, solution of 411
Ammonium chloride 88
Amnesia 142
Amodiaquine 285
Amoxicillin 36, 230233 241, 243245, 260
Amphetamine 65, 66, 69, 71
stimulates respiration 69
Amphotericin B 271, 290
Ampicillin 231, 232, 243245, 260
Amrinone 96
Amyl nitrite 366
Amylin analog 345, 348
Anabolic steroid 339, 340
preparations of 340t
Anaerobic infections 243, 251, 258, 288
Analgesia 107, 160, 161, 168, 173, 176
epidural 169
obstetric 169
stage of 133
Ancylostoma duodenale 293
Androgen 298, 301, 315, 329, 331, 339
synthesis, inhibitors of 340
Anemia 372, 374, 376
megaloblastic 119, 151, 374
Anesthesia 134, 142, 145, 146
dissociative 133
epidural 140
general 144, 155
infiltration 139
regional 140
spinal 140
surface 138
surgical 133
Aneurine 375
Angina 107
classical 103
exertional 103, 105, 106
pectoris 76, 95, 103, 104t
pharmacotherapy of 106
stable 103, 127
unstable 103, 105, 107, 125
vasospastic 105, 107
Angioneurotic edema 92
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 91, 96, 109, 110
Angiotensin receptor blockers 92, 93, 110
Anistreplase 126
Anorectics 66
agents 71
Anorexia 85, 236, 372, 374
Antabuse reaction 147
Antacids 240
Antagonism, types of 27fc
Antagonists 161, 204
Anthelmintics 292
Anthracis 242
Anthrax 240, 257
Antiamebic drugs 287, 289
sites of action of 287f
Antiandrogen 298, 302, 340
Antianginal drugs 103, 187, 191
Antiarrhythmic 108
drugs 99
Antibacterial agent 4
selection of 230
Antibacterial spectrum 228, 235, 236, 238, 242, 244, 248, 249, 251, 253, 256
Antibiotics 227, 234, 260, 298
misuse of 234
monoclonal 14, 298, 302
Antibody fragments, digoxin specific 361
Anticancer drugs 23, 297, 298t
Anticholinergic 137, 158, 205, 206, 217
actions 203
drugs 45, 54, 54fc, 137
side effects 193
Anticholinesterases 49, 51, 60
irreversible 53
Anticoagulant 108, 121
classification 121
therapy 125
uses of 124
Anticonvulsant 143, 379
effects 142
Antidepressants 191, 192
atypical 192, 194
drugs 187
uses of 194
Antidiarrheal drugs 222
Antidiuretic 81, 87
Antidote 148, 360, 364
Antiemetics 108, 137, 203, 204, 218
Antiepileptic 146, 149, 196, 204
drugs, therapeutic dose of 151t
mechanism of action of 150f
Antiestrogens 302, 331
Antifibrinolytics 126
uses of 126
Antifungal antibiotics 271
Antifungal drugs 271
sites of action of 271f
topical 381
Antifungal spectrum 271, 273
Anti-hepatitis agents 277
Anti-herpes virus agents 275, 276
Antihistamines 56, 113, 137, 202, 202t, 208
nonsedative 202
Antihypertensive drugs 108
sites of action of 109f
Anti-inflammatory drugs 206
Anti-influenza virus agents 275, 277
Antilymphocyte antibodies 305
Antimetabolites 272, 298, 299
Antimicrobial 381
agents 228, 260
Antimony compounds 290
Antimotility drugs 222
Antimotion sickness effects 203
Antimuscarinics 219
Antiparkinsonian
agents 55
drugs 57
effect 156, 203
Antiplatelet drugs 108, 126
uses of 127
Antiprogestins 332
Antiproliferative drugs 383
Antipseudomonal penicillins 242, 245
Antipsychotics 56, 187, 188, 190t
atypical 190
Antirabies serum 373
Antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis 280
Antisecretory agents 55
Antiseizure drugs, choice of 155t
Antiseptic 147, 307, 320
Antisnake venom polyvalent 373
Antispasmodic 55, 56, 222
Antithymocyte 305
globulin 304
Antithyroid drugs 318
dosage of 320t
Antitubercular drugs 264t, 265t
sites of action of 263f
Antiviral agents 277
Antiviral drugs 275, 276t
sites of action of 272
topical 381
Anxiety 77, 141, 143
Anxiolytics 191
Apnea 164, 197
Apomorphine 218
Apothecaries system 405
Appetite
stimulant 147, 204
suppression of 69
Apraclonidine 77
Aqueous humor, drainage of 50f
Argatroban 123
Aripiprazole 191
Arnica montana 389
Aromatase inhibitors 298, 302, 332
Arrhythmias 95, 283
cardiac 61, 76, 99, 379
types of 99
Arsenic 361
Arteether 284, 285
Artemether 284, 285
Artemisinin 282, 284286
Artemisinin-based combination therapy 284
Arteriolar dilators 96, 109
Artery disease, coronary 92
Artesunate 284, 285
Arthralgia 266
Arthritis 63
rheumatoid 172, 177, 182, 327
Ascariasis 295
Ascaris lumbricoides 293, 294
Ascorbic acid 88, 377
Asparaginase 298
Aspartame 403
Aspergillus 271
flavus 367
Aspirin 34, 106, 107, 127, 172, 176
Asthma
acute 206, 208
chronic 206, 207
mild 208
moderate 208
severe 208
treatment of 208
Astringents 128
Atazanavir 280
Atenolol 66, 75, 76, 93, 109
Atomoxetine 65
Atonic seizures 150
Atorvastatin 129
Atovaquone 233, 286, 290
Atracurium 59
Atrial fibrillation 99, 127
Atropa belladonna 54, 55
Atropine 4, 55, 103, 361, 363
derivatives 56, 222
poisoning 363
substitutes 56, 57t
Attack
acute 106, 286
asthmatic 74
panic 194
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 70
Autacoids 201
Autoimmune disorders 304
Autonomic nervous system 45, 45f, 188
Avascular necrosis 326
Avoirdupois system 405
Ayurveda 387
Azapropazone 172
Azathioprine 182, 298, 304, 305, 383
Azelaic acid 381
Azelastine 202
Aziderm 382
Azidothymidine 278, 280
Azithromycin 232, 233, 256258, 260
Azlocillin 242, 245, 260
Azoles 271, 272
Aztreonam 232, 248, 260
B
Bacampicillin 241, 244
Bacillus
anthracis 231
cereus 367, 368
colistinus 259
polymyxa 259
subtilis 259
Bacitracin 259, 260
Backache, low 63
Baclofen 62
Bacteremia 231, 232
Bacteria 368t
Bacterial
proteins, denaturation of 307
protoplasm, oxidation of 307
Bacteriostatic 227
Balantidium coli 288
Barbiturate 141, 142, 145, 150, 363
poisoning, acute 146, 363
Barium sulfate contrast media 26
Basal ganglia 188
Beclomethasone 205
dipropionate 325
Bed wetting 69
Bedaquiline 263, 266
Bedsores 147
Belladonna alkaloids, uses of 56
Benazepril 92
Benserazide 158
Benzalkonium 307
chloride 309
Benzathine penicillin 241, 243
Benzhexol 55, 57
Benznidazole 289
Benzocaine 139
Benzodiazepines 20, 62, 133, 136, 141, 144, 148, 150, 154, 191, 361
Benzoic acid 271, 307
Benzonatate 208
Benztropine 55, 57
Benzyl benzoate 295
Benzyl penicillin 242, 260
Benzyl peroxide 380, 381
Beriberi 374
Beta-adrenergic blockers 77
Beta-lactamase inhibitors 245, 245t
Betamethasone 324, 325
Betaxolol 77
Bethanechol 49
Bezafibrate 129, 130
Bicalutamide 340
Biguanides 345347
Bile acid binding resins 129, 130
Biliary tract 55, 163
Bimatoprost 77
Biotin 374, 376
Biotransformation 20
Bipolar depression 192
Bisacodyl 220
Bismuth salts 217
Bisphosphonates 353
Bithionol 293, 295
Bivalirudin 123
Bladder 67
hypotonia of 50
Blastomyces dermatitidis 271
Blastomycosis 274
Bleaching powder 310
Bleeding 122, 247
disorders 125, 126
gums 374
Bleomycin 24, 298, 300, 302
Blood 117, 174
brain barrier 20
pressure 98
grading of 108t
schizonticides 282
vessels 49, 66
Bone 20, 239
disorders of 353
marrow depression 251, 297, 298
resorption 380
Boric acid 307, 408
Bortezomib 302
Botulinum
antitoxin 373
toxin 63
Bradycardia 74, 99, 378
Brain 86
tumors, malignant 299
Brainstem 188
Breast
cancer 331
development of 315
Bretylium 102
Brimonidine 77
British pharmaceutical codex 38
Broad-spectrum antibiotics 34, 249
Bromhexine 209
Bromocriptine 158
Bronchi 55, 67, 163
Bronchial asthma 56, 57, 69, 197, 327
acute 68
drugs used in 205
prophylaxis of 207
Bronchial smooth muscle 49
Bronchodilators 66, 205, 209
Bronchospasm 59
Brucellosis 232, 250, 254
Brugia malayi 293
Buclizine 202
Budesonide 205
Buffalo hump 321
Bumetanide 83, 85, 109
Bupivacaine 139
Buprenorphine 161, 164, 170
Bupropion 37, 194
Burkitt's lymphoma 300
Bursitis 63
Buspirone 37, 191, 204
Busulfan 34, 298, 299
Butoconazole 274
Butorphanol 161, 164, 170
Butoxamine 66
Butyrophenones 188
C
Caffeine 361
Calcipotriol 383
Calcitonin 353
Calcium 240, 350
carbonate 214, 215
channel antagonists inhibit 94
channel blockers 93, 97, 103, 106, 112, 339
deficiency 350
disodium edetate 361
metabolism 322
Camptothecins 298
Campylobacter
gastroenteritis 257
jejuni 232, 256
Cancer 297, 328, 330, 336
chemotherapy 297, 301
drugs used in 298t
endometrial 330
renal 300
treatment of 303
Candida albicans 234, 271
Cannabinoids 218, 219
Capreomycin 263, 266
Caproic acid 361
Captopril 92
Carbachol 49, 77
Carbamazepine 88, 150152, 155, 195, 196
Carbapenems 248, 260
Carbenicillin 230, 242, 245, 260
Carbenoxolone 215
Carbidopa 158
Carbimazole 318320
Carbocysteine 209
Carbohydrate 321
metabolism 342
Carbon monoxide 361
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 77, 78, 82, 86
actions of 86f
Carboxypenicillins 242, 245
Carcinoid tumors 204
Carcinoma
endometrial 332
prostate 330, 331
Cardiac diseases 29
Cardiac failure 93, 105
congestive 74, 76, 95, 99
Cardiac glycosides, mechanism of action of 98f, 98fc
Cardiomyopathy, obstructive 77
Cardiovascular system 34, 66, 91, 145, 163
Carmustin 298, 299
Carprofen 172
Carteolol 77
Carvedilol 77
Caspofungin 271
Cataract 326
Catechol nucleus 65
Catecholamine 65, 68
biosynthesis of 64fc
release of 64
reuptake inhibitors 65
Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors 65, 158
Cefaclor 246, 247, 260
Cefadroxil 246, 247
Cefamandole 246, 247
Cefazolin 246, 247
Cefepime 246, 260
Cefixime 247
Cefoperazone 246, 247
Cefotaxime 231, 246, 247
Cefoxitin 231, 246
Cefpirome 246, 247, 260
Ceftaroline 246
Ceftazidime 232, 246, 247, 260
Ceftibuten 247
Ceftizoxime 231, 246
Ceftobiprole 246
Ceftriaxone 231, 232, 246, 247, 260
Cefuroxime axetil 246, 247
Celecoxib 172, 181
Celiprolol 76
Cell membrane 227, 271
Cell wall, drugs acting on 271
Cellulitis 231
Centchroman 337
Central cough suppressants 208
Central Drugs Standard Control Organization 32
Central muscle relaxants 62
Central nervous system 161
stimulants 196
Cephalexin 34, 246, 247, 260
Cephalosporins 4, 232, 246, 247t, 260
fifth generation 247
first generation 246
fourth generation 246
second generation 246
third generation 246
uses of 247
Cephalothin 246, 247
Cephazolin 260
Cerebral
edema 84, 328
thrombosis 127
Cerebrovascular accident, history of 125
Cervical
ripening 333
root syndromes 63
Cervicitis 240
Cervix 332
Cetirizine 202
Cetrimide 307, 309
Cetylpyridinium chloride 307, 309
Cevimeline 50
Chancroid 232, 237, 239
Cheilosis 374
Chemical 368
antagonism 27
antidotes 360
classification 65
Chemoprophylaxis 233, 268, 270
Chemotherapy 4, 227, 267
Chickenpox 276
Chills 272
Chlamydia 235
pneumoniae 233, 250
psittaci 233
trachomatis 233
Chlorambucil 298, 299, 302, 304
Chloramine 307, 310
Chloramphenicol 20, 21, 23, 34, 231233, 251, 260
mechanism of action of 249f
Chlordiazepoxide 143, 191
Chlorhexidine 307309
Chlorine 307, 310
Chloroguanide 282, 286
Chloroquine 20, 34, 184, 270, 281, 282, 286, 287, 289
sensitive
falciparum malaria 283
vivax malaria 283
Chloroxylenol 307, 309
Chlorpheniramine 202
Chlorpromazine 21, 34, 56, 72, 188, 190, 218, 219
actions of 189fc
Chlorpropamide 88, 347
Chlortetracycline 249, 250
Chlorthalidone 85, 109
Cholera 232, 250, 371
Cholestyramine 129
Cholinergic 47
crisis 52
drugs 48, 77, 78
receptors 48
location of 48t
system 47
transmission 48f
Cholinesterase 48
reactivators 363
Chondrodendron tomentosum 58
Choriocarcinoma 300, 302
Chorionic gonadotropins 4
Chylomicrons 128
Chymotrypsin 369
Ciclopirox olamine 271
Cidofovir 275
Cimetidine 215
Cinchonism 284
Cinnarizine 202, 219
Cinoxacin 260
Ciprofibrate 129
Ciprofloxacin 36, 232, 233, 239, 260, 263
Circulation, airway and breathing 362
Cirrhosis 77
Cisplatin 34, 298, 299, 300, 302
Citric acid complex 118
Citrobacter 246
Cladribine 298
Clarithromycin 233, 256258, 260, 269
Clark's formula 412
Claviceps purpurea 203
Clavulanic acid 230, 232, 243, 245
inhibits 245
Clindamycin 231, 258, 260
Clobazam 151, 154
Clobetasol propionate 325
Clofazimine 269, 270
Clofibrate 20, 129
Clomiphene citrate 331
Clonazepam 150, 151, 154
Clonidine 66, 93, 109, 113, 148
Clopidogrel 126, 127
Clorazepate 150
Clostridia 242
Clostridium
botulinum 63, 367, 368
difficile 231, 234, 288
histolyticum 369
perfringens 231, 367
tetani 231
Clotrimazole 37, 234, 273
Cloxacillin 231, 234, 241, 243, 244, 260
Clozapine 188, 190
Cobra bite 53
Cocaine 196
Coccidioides 271
Coccidioidomycosis 274
Codeine 161, 164, 166, 208, 222
Cold extremities 74
Colesevelam 129
Colestipol 129
Colistin 260
Colitis, ulcerative 236
Collagen diseases 327
Collagenase 369
Colloidal silver compounds 311
Colloids 115
Colon
cancer, prevention of 177
carcinoma of 302
Combined pills, benefits of 337
Common cold 203
Competitive neuromuscular blockers 59t
Complex partial seizures 149, 155
Confusion 319, 374
Congestive cardiac failure, drugs used in 96
Conjugation 229
reactions 21
Conjunctivitis
allergic 207
inclusion 233, 236, 250
Conscious sedation 136
Constipation 118, 166
drug induced 221
Contraceptive 330, 332
Convulsions 193, 360
Copper 361
Cornea, vascularization of 374
Cortex 188
Corticosteroids 34, 270, 321, 324t, 326t
binding globulin 323
Corticotropin 315317
releasing hormone 315
Cortisone 324
Corynebacterium diphtheriae 231, 242, 256
Cotrimoxazole 37, 231233, 235, 236, 260, 290
intravenous 237
Cough 169, 203
drugs used in 208
Cretinism 318
Cromolyn sodium 207
Crotamiton 295
Cryptococcus neoformans 271, 272
Cryptosporidium 289
parvum 289
Crystalline penicillin 243
Crystalloids 115
Cushing's syndrome 325, 333
Cyanide 361, 366
poisoning 105
Cyanocobalamin 118, 119
Cyanopindolol 66
Cyclazocine 170
Cyclizine 219
Cyclooxygenase activity 181fc
Cyclopentolate 55, 57
Cyclophosphamide 182, 183, 298, 299, 302, 304, 305
Cycloserine 37, 260, 263, 266
Cyclosporine 34, 37, 183, 304
Cyproheptadine 204
Cyproterone 331
acetate 340
Cystitis 298
Cytarabine 298, 300, 302
Cytotoxic drugs 305
D
Dabigatran 124
Dacarbazine 298, 299
Dalfopristin 260
Danaparoid 123
Dangerous Drugs Act, 1930 39
Dantrolene 62
Dapagliflozin 345, 349
Dapsone 233, 269, 270
Daptomycin 261
Daunorubicin 298, 300, 302
Deciduous teeth 250
Deep vein thrombosis 126
Dehydration 83, 84
Dehydroemetine 287
Delavirdine 278
Delirium, stage of 133
Delusions 374
Demeclocycline 249, 260
Dementia 374
Deoxybarbiturate 150
Depress spinal polysynaptic reflexes 62
Depression 25, 192, 337
drugs used in 192
endogenous 192, 194
Dequalinium chloride 307, 309
Dermatitis 374, 376
herpetiformis 269
Desferrioxamine 361
Desflurane 134
Desirudin 123
Desmopressin 87, 88
Dexamethasone 219, 302, 324, 325
Dexfenfluramine 66, 71, 204
Dextrans 115
Dextromethorphan 166, 208
Dextropropoxyphene 161, 164, 168
Dextrose 358
Diabetes
insipidus 85, 88
mellitus 326, 342, 345
juvenile onset 342
treatment of 349
Diabetic ketoacidosis, treatment of 349
Diacetylmonoxime 53
Diaformin 347
Diarrhea 83, 169, 239, 244, 247, 278, 297, 319, 374, 378
drugs used in 221
treatment solutions 223
Diazepam 20, 21, 62, 133, 143, 150, 154, 155, 191
Diazoxide 93, 109, 113, 114
Dibucaine 139
Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane 296
Diclofenac 36, 172, 180
diethyl ammonium 176
Dicloxacillin 231, 243
Dicoumarol 125
Dicyclomine 5557, 218, 219
Didanosine 278
Dietary deficiency 378
Diethylcarbamazine 293, 294
Diffuse toxic goiter 319
Diflunisal 176, 177
Digitalis 103, 361, 364
lanata 98
purpurea 98
Digitoxin 20, 34, 96, 98
Digoxin 4
Dihydrofolate reductase 237
Dihydrofolic acid 237
Dihydropyridine 94
Diloxanide furoate 287, 289
Diltiazem 94
Dimenhydrinate 202
Dimercaprol 361
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors 348
Diphenhydramine 56, 202, 218, 219
Diphenoxylate 161, 222
Diphtheria 231, 243, 257, 371, 373
antitoxin 373
Diphyllobothrium latum 293
Dipivefrine 77
Dipyridamole 106, 127
Directly observed treatment short course chemotherapy 267
treatment categories of 268t
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs 182
Disodium
cromoglycate 205
hydrogen citrate 88
Disopyramide 101
Distal convoluted tubule 81, 81f
Disulfiram 147, 247, 346
Diuretics 34, 81, 82, 87, 96, 97, 109
sites of action of 81f
Divalproex sodium 153
Dizziness 75, 83
Dobutamine 66, 69
Docusate sodium 220
Dofetilide 102
Dolasetron 218
Domperidone 218, 219
Donepezil 52
Dopamine 20, 6466, 68, 97
precursor 156
receptor agonists 158
Dopexamine 69
Doripenem 248
Dorzolamide 77
Doxacurium 59, 60
Doxapram 196
Doxazocin phenoxybenzamine 109
Doxepin 23
Doxorubicin 34, 298, 300302
vincristine 34
Doxycycline 34, 231233, 249, 250, 251, 260
D-penicillamine 34, 361
Dracunculus medinensis 293
Dronedarone 102
Droperidol 188
Drotaverine 222
Drug
allergy 32
compendia 4
dependence 33
dosage forms 14
factors 29, 230
formulary 4, 5
information sources 4
intolerance 33
laws 38
potency 27
schedules 40t
sources of 4
standards 38, 38t
synergism and antagonism 27
targeting 14
technical advisory board 39
Drugs and Cosmetics Act 37, 39
Drugs Technical Advisory Board 37
Dry beriberi 375
Dry cough, persistent 91
Duloxetine 65
Dyes 310
Dynorphins 161
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding 330
Dysgeusia 92
Dysmenorrhea 330
Dyspepsia 217
Dystonias, acute 189
E
Echinococcus granulosus 293
Echothiophate 77
Eclampsia 177
Econazole 274
Edema 83, 85, 86, 298, 343, 372
pulmonary 84, 84fc
Edrophonium 49, 51
Efalizumab 383
Efavirenz 278
Eflornithine 291
Elapid bite 367
Electroconvulsive therapy 62
Elixirs 15, 399
Emesis 162, 358
Emetics 218
Emetine 20, 287, 289
Empiric therapy 230
Emtricitabine 280
Emulsions 15, 400
Enalapril 20, 92
Enalaprilat 20
Encephalitis 372
Endocarditis 231
bacterial 125, 230, 244, 255
enterococcal 259
meningitis 231
subacute bacterial 254
Endocrine
disorders 34
disturbances 190
Endometriosis 330
Endorphins 161
Enema 13, 220, 400
Enflurane 134
Enfuvirtide 279
Enkephalins 161
Entamoeba histolytica 281, 287, 289, 367
Enteritis 232
Enterobius vermicularis 289, 293
Enterochromaffin cell 213
Enzymes 20
bacterial 368, 369
induction 21, 22
Eosinophilia, tropical 294
Ephedrine 65, 66, 69, 205, 206
Epidermophyton 272
Epilepsy 70, 87, 149, 326
treatment of 155
Epipodophyllotoxins 298, 300
Epithelial tissues 374
Epoprostenol 127
Epsilon aminocaproic acid 126
Eptifibatide 126, 127
Ergometrine 204, 338
Ergot alkaloids 73, 203, 204
Ergotamine 72, 204
Ertapenem 248, 260
Erysipelas 231
Erythromycin 231233, 256, 260
estolate 257
stearate 257
Erythropoietin 120
Escherichia coli 232, 234, 238, 244
Esmolol 76, 101, 109, 361
intravenous 114
Esomeprazole 216
Esophageal varices 77
Esophagits 297
Estrogen 301, 329331
receptors 329
synthesis inhibitors 332
synthetic 329
therapeutic uses of 330t
Eszopiclone 141, 145
Etanercept 183, 305, 383
Ethacrynic acid 83
Ethambutol 34, 263266
Ethamsylate 128
Ethanol 34, 307, 361
Ether 134
Ethinyl estradiol 335
Ethionamide 263, 266, 269
Ethoheptazine 164
Ethosuximide 23, 150, 151, 153, 155
Ethotoin 152
Ethyl alcohol 146, 148, 308, 364
Ethyl estrenol 340
Ethyl morphine 164
Ethyl stibamine 290
Ethylene glycol 361
Etidocaine 139
Etidronate 353
Etodolac 172
Etomidate 133, 135
Etoposide 298, 300, 302
Etoricoxib 172, 181, 182
Etretinate 55, 382
Eucatropine 57
Eudyna 382
Euphoria 162
Eusol 310
Everolimus 304, 305
Ewing's sarcoma 300
Exacerbation, acute 206
Exenatide 348
Expectorants 208, 209, 320
Extenatide 345
Extracellular fluid 223
Extraintestinal amebiasis 287
Extrapyramidal symptoms 189
Eye 49, 50, 55, 67, 74, 86, 392
diseases 327
infections 240, 252
Ezetimibe 129, 130
F
Famciclovir 275
Famotidine 215, 216
Fanconi syndrome 378
Faropenem 248, 260
Fasciola hepatica 293
infections 295
Fat metabolism 321
Fatigue 75, 83, 85, 374, 378
Febrile convulsions 155
Febuxostat 184, 185
Fecal softeners 220
Felbamate 150, 155
Felodipine 94, 95
Felypressin 87
Fenamates 172, 179
Fenfluramine 66, 71
Fenofibrate 129
Fenoldopam 69, 113
Fenoprofen 172
Fenoterol 66, 205
Fentanyl 133, 161, 164, 167
congeners of 168
Ferric ammonium citrate 117
Ferrous fumarate 117
Ferrous gluconate 117
Ferrous succinate 117
Ferrous sulfate 117
Fetal hydantoin syndrome 151
Fever 147, 177, 272, 319, 372
spotted 233
typhoid 232, 251
Fibrin 127
Fibrinogen 128
Fibrinolytics 125
Fibrosis, pulmonary 298
Fibrositis 63
Fidaxomicin 260, 261
Filaria 293
Filariasis 293, 294
lymphatic 295
Filgrastim 120
Finasteride 340
Fish mouth 321
Flavin adenine dinucleotide 375
Flavin mononucleotide 375
Flavoxate hydrochloride 57
Floxuridine 298
Fluconazole 273, 274
Flucytosine 271, 272, 274
Fludarabine 298
Fludrocortisone 324, 328
Fluid
and electrolyte imbalance, management of 360
large amounts of 298
Flu-like syndrome 265
Flumazenil 144, 361
Fluocinolone acetonide 325
Fluoroquinolones 230, 238, 239, 239t, 260, 266, 269
Fluorouracil 302
Flupenthixol 188, 190
Fluphenazine 188, 190
Flurbiprofen 172, 176
Flutamide 331, 340
Fluticasone 205
Fluvastatin 129
Folate antagonist 285, 298, 299
Folic acid 117119, 374, 376, 377
daily requirement of 119, 376t
synthesis 237fc, 285fc
Follicle stimulating hormone 315, 317, 329
Fomepizole 148, 361
Fomivirsen 275
Food poisoning 367
Forced acid diuresis 358
Forced alkaline diuresis 358
Formaldehyde 307, 308
Formoterol 66
Foscarnet 275, 276
Fosfomycin 260
Fosinopril 92
Fosphenytoin 152
Fospropofol 133, 135
Fried's formula 412
Frusemide 20, 34, 82, 83t, 84f, 109
Fulvestrant 332
Fungal infections 271
drugs used in 274t
Fungi 367
Furosemide 85
Furuncle 231
Fusidic acid 259
G
Gabapentin 150, 151, 154, 195
Gallamine 59, 60
Gallstones 336
Gametocidal drugs 282
Gamma benzene hexachloride 295
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 142
Ganciclovir 275, 276
Ganglia 47, 50
autonomic 48, 49, 59
Ganglion blockers 111
Garamycin 254
Gas gangrene 231, 243
antitoxin 373
Gastric
acid secretion 213
emptying time 18
glands 48
lavage 148, 364
secretion, regulation of 213f
Gastrin receptors 213
Gastritis 118, 216
Gastroenteritis, bacterial 237
Gastroesophageal reflux disease 218
Gastrointestinal
bleeding 126
diseases 328
disturbances 85, 251, 265
motility 18
system 34
drugs acting of 213
therapeutic system 14
tract 49, 163, 174
Gatifloxacin 239
Gelatin
foam 128
products 115
Gemcitabine 298, 300, 302
Gemfibrozil 129
Genital warts 276
Genitourinary smooth muscle 66
Gentamicin 230232, 253255, 260
Germicide 307
Giardia lamblia 281, 288, 292, 367
Giardiasis 288
Gingival hyperplasia 151
Gingivitis, ulcerative 288
Glands 48
Glaucoma 53, 68, 77, 87, 326
treatment of 72, 77
Glibenclamide 345347
Gliclazide 345347
Glimepiride 345347
Glipizide 345, 347
Glomerular filtration 22
Glomerulonephritis, acute 85
Glossitis 118, 237, 297, 374, 376
Glucagon 349
Glucocorticoids 52, 184, 205, 206, 218, 219, 298, 301, 304, 305, 321, 322, 381, 383
actions 321
adverse effects of 324, 325f
Glucose 221, 361
tolerance 337
Glucuronide conjugation 21
Glucuronyl transferase 146
Glutaraldehyde 307, 308
Glutathione conjugation 21
Glycerol 87
Glyciphage 347
Glycogenolysis 66
Glycopeptides 259
Glycopyrrolate 5557, 137
Glycosides, cardiac 9798
Goiter, nontoxic 318
Gonadal hormones, secretion of 329f
Gonadotropin 4, 317
releasing hormone 315, 316, 329
Gonorrhea 231, 239, 243, 248, 257
Gout 172
acute 184, 185, 327
chronic 184
pharmacotherapy of 184
Graafian follicle 315
Gramicidin 381
Grand mal epilepsy 150
Granisetron 218, 219
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor 120
Graves’ disease 319
Gray baby syndrome 251
Griseofulvin 271, 272
Growth
hormone releasing hormone 315, 316
stimulation 340
Guanethidine 111
Guinea worm 288, 293
H
Haemophilus ducreyi 232
Haemophilus influenzae 230, 232, 244, 258
Hair
follicle contract, pilomotor muscles of 67
loss of 297
Hairy cell leukemia 277
Halofantrine 282, 284
Halogens 309
Haloperidol 34, 188, 190, 218
Halothane 21, 34, 134
Head and neck, carcinoma of 302
Headache 197, 237, 372, 278
cluster 204
myelosuppression 278
Heart 48, 49, 66, 94
disease, coronary 129
electrophysiology of 95
failure, congestive 85
rate 98
valves, artificial 125
Heat regulation 163
Helicobacter pylori 214, 233, 258
infection 288
treatment of 217
Helminthiasis infection 293t
Hematemesis 128
Hematopoietic growth factors 120, 302
Hemodialysis 125, 148, 358, 364
Hemolysis 88, 175, 264
Hemoperfusion 358
Hemorrhage 374
control of 67
postpartum 128, 204, 338
subarachnoid 95
Hemostatics 127
Hemotapoietic growth factors 120
Henle's loop 81
ascending limb of 81f
Heparan sulfate 123
Heparin 4, 34, 107, 121, 125, 361, 365
antagonist 123
mechanism of action of 122fc
therapy 122
Heparinoids 121
Hepatic amebiasis 289
Hepatitis 264
A 371
B 276, 277, 372, 373
C 276, 277
Hepatotoxicity 34, 175, 250, 265, 266
Herniated disk syndromes 63
Heroin 166
Herpes
genitalis 276, 376
simplex virus 276
zoster 277
Hexachlorophene 307, 309
Hexobarbitone 141
Hiccough 190
Highly active antiretroviral therapy 278
Hirudin 123
Histamine 21, 202
blockade of actions of 202
Histoplasma capsulatum 271
Histoplasmosis 274
Hodgkin's disease 300, 302
Hodgkin's lymphoma 301
Homatropine 55, 57
Homeopathy 387, 389
cardinal principles of 389
Hookworms 293
Hormonal contraceptives 329, 334, 335t
combined 334
mechanism of action of 336, 336f
Hormone 298, 300, 301
adrenocorticotropic 316
antagonists 302
antidiuretic 82, 88
growth 315317
hypothalamic 315, 316
luteinizing 315, 329
parathyroid 351
replacement therapy 330, 332, 333
thyroid 315, 317
thyrotropin-releasing 315, 316
Hospital acquired infections 255
Human
albumin 115
cells 235
gammaglobulin 373
immunodeficiency virus 276278
insulins 344
Hydantoins 150
Hydatid disease 293
Hydralazine 35, 37, 93, 109, 112
Hydrochlorothiazide 83t, 85, 93
Hydrocortisone 324, 325
hemisuccinate 324
oral paste 325
Hydrogen peroxide 307, 310
Hydrolysis 21
Hydrophids 367
Hydroxocobalamin 119
Hydroxychloroquine 184
Hydroxydaunomycin 302
Hydroxyethyl starch 115
Hydroxyurea 298
Hydroxyzine 37
Hymenolepis nana 293
Hyoscine 218, 219
Hyoscyamus nigra 55
Hyosine 219
Hypercalcemia 85, 353
acute 84
chronic 351, 380
Hypercapnea 359
Hyperglycemia 83, 85, 325
Hyperkalemia 61, 84, 92, 360, 378
Hyperkeratosis 372
Hyperlipidemia 83, 85, 129
Hyperlipoproteinemias 128
Hypernatremia 360, 378
Hyperparathyroidism 351
Hyperphosphatemia 87, 351, 379, 380
Hypersensitivity 151, 242
reactions 122, 138, 180, 190, 247, 250, 251, 265
syndrome 278
Hypertension 35, 74, 76, 8486, 92, 93, 95, 108, 110112, 114, 204, 326, 336
severe 125, 126
treatment of 113
Hyperthermia, malignant 29, 61
Hyperthyroidism 318, 319
drugs used in 318
Hypertonic fluids 223
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 95
Hyperuricemia 83, 84, 184, 266, 278, 297
Hypervitaminosis A 372
Hypnosis 141, 142, 145, 146, 162
Hypnotics 143t
Hypnozoitocidal drugs 282
Hypoaldosteronism 122
Hypocalcemia 83, 360, 380
Hypochloremia 84
Hypodermoclysis 9
Hypoglycemia 284, 330, 343, 346
Hypogonadism, primary 330
Hypokalemia 83, 84, 99, 360
Hypolipidemic
choice of 129t
drugs 128
Hypomagnesemia 83, 84
Hyponatremia 83, 84, 360, 378
Hypoparathyroidism 353
Hypophosphatemia 351, 379
Hypoprothrombinemia 374
Hypotension 59, 69, 83, 92, 272, 378
postural 73
Hypothalamic hormones, uses of 316t
Hypothalamus 188
Hypothyroidism 318
Hypotonic fluids 223
Hypovolemia 83, 84
I
Iatrogenic diseases 33
Ibuprofen 21, 176, 178, 180
Ibuterol 205
Ibutilide 102
Idarucizumab 124
Idiosyncrasy 32
Idoxuridine 275, 276
Ifosfamide 298, 299
Imatinib 301, 302
Imidazoles 271, 272
Iminostilbene 150
Imipenem 232, 248, 260
Imipramine 56
Immunosuppressant 52, 182, 304, 383
antibodies 304, 305
Impetigo 231
In vitro fertilization 331
Indapamide 85, 109
Indomethacin 20, 172, 176, 178, 180
Infections 232, 326
Infertility 331
Inflammatory bowel disease 177
Infliximab 183, 305, 383
Influenza 372
A
prophylaxis of 277
treatment of 277
severe 276
Inhalational anesthetics 133
Injury 126
Insomnia 141, 143, 144, 278, 282
Insufflations 398
Insulin 4, 75, 342, 345, 361, 365
actions of 342
delivery devices 345
glargine 344
highly purified 343, 344
lispro 344
mechanism of action of 343f
preparations of 343, 344t
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors 279
Interferons 277, 306
International Association of Yoga Therapists 393
Intestinal amebiasis 287, 289
Intestines 163
Intradermal sensitivity test 242
Invasive aspergillosis 274
Iodides 318, 319
Iodine 20, 307, 309, 318
ointment 310
overdosage 366
uses of 310
Iodophores 307
Iodoquinol 287, 289
Iontophoresis 12
Ipecacuanha 218
Ipratropium 47
bromide 55, 57, 205, 206
Irinotecan 298, 301
Iron 4, 117, 240, 361, 365
calcium complex 117
daily requirement of 117
dextran 118
dietary sources of 117
poisoning, acute 118
preparations of 117
sorbitol 118
sucrose 118
Ischemic heart disease 103
drugs used in 103
Islets of Langerhans 342
Isoflurane 134
Isoniazid 21, 34, 263265
Isoprenaline 65, 66, 68, 206
Isopropyl alcohol 307, 308
Isosorbide
dinitrate 104
mononitrate 104
Isotonic fluids 223
Isotretinoin 382
Isoxsuprine 66, 71
Istaroxime 96, 97
Itraconazole 273, 274
Ivermectin 293, 294, 295
J
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction 242
Jaundice
cholestatic 336
neonatal 146
Jet injection 12
Jet lag 144
Joint 239
K
Kanamycin 253, 255, 263, 266
Kaposi's sarcoma 276, 277
Keratolytics 380
Kernicterus 236
Ketamine 133, 136
Ketanserin 204
Ketoacidosis, diabetic 351, 378
Ketoconazole 273, 274
Ketolides 258
Ketoprofen 172
Ketorolac 172
tromethamine 176
Ketotifen 205
Kidney 98, 189, 197, 323
diseases 125
Klebsiella pneumoniae 232
L
Labetalol 77
Labor, induction of 338, 339
Lacosamide 150, 154
Lactic acid 380
Lactobacillus 234
acidophilus 222
Lamivudine 37, 277, 278, 280
Lamotrigine 37, 150, 151, 154, 195
Lansoprazole 215, 216
Larva migrans, cutaneous 295
L-asparaginase 300, 301, 370
Latanoprost 77
Laxative abuse 221
Lead 20, 361
Leflunomide 182, 183, 304, 305
Leishmania donovani 290
Leishmaniasis 290
drugs used in 287
treatment of 290
Lepirudin 123
Lepra reaction 270
Leprosy 268, 269
drugs used in 269
treatment of 269
Leukemia 299, 300
Leuprolide 316
Levamisole 294, 305
Levetiracetam 150, 154
Levobunolol 77
Levodopa 20, 156, 157
Levofloxacin 239
Levosimendan 96, 97
Lignocaine 101, 139
Lilopristone 333
Linctuses 15, 399
Lindane 295
Linezolid 260, 266
Lipodystrophy 343
Lipolysis 66
Lipoproteins
high density 128
low density 128
very low density 128
Liposomes 14
Liraglutide 345, 348
Lisinopril 92
Lithium 195
Liver 66, 125
diseases 29, 328
Lixivaptan 87
Local muscle spasm, drugs used in 63
Lomefloxacin 239
Loop diuretics 81, 109
adverse effects of 83
mechanism of action of 82f
Loperamide 161, 222
Lopinavir 280
Loratadine 202
Lorazepam 133, 143, 150, 191, 219
Losartan 92, 93
Lovastatin 129
Low molecular weight heparins 123
Loxapine 190
Lozenges 15, 398
Lugol's iodine 320
Lumefantrine 285
Lung
carcinoma of 302
diseases 328
Lymphatic leukemia
acute 302
chronic 302
Lymphocytic leukemia, chronic 299
Lymphogranuloma venereum 236, 250
Lymphomas 299
Lypressin 87, 88
Lysol 309
M
Macrolide 256, 260
antibiotics 257t
mechanism of action of 256f
Magnesium
deficiency 379
hydroxide 214
salts 214
sulfate 4, 103, 339
trisilicate 214
Malabsorption 29
Malaria 236, 281, 283, 286
chemotherapy of 281
parasite, lifecycle of 282f
prophylaxis of 283t
Malassezia furfur 274
Malignant neuroleptic syndrome 190
Mammalian enzymes 368
Mammary gland 332, 338
Mandelic acid 88
Mandl's paint 310
Manganese 380
Mannitol 87
Mass
chemotherapy 295
units of 404
Mast cell stabilizers 205, 207
Materia medica 389
Mazindol 71
Mazotti reaction 295
Measles 276, 373
rubella 371
Mebendazole 292, 293
Meclizine 219
Meclofenamic acid 172
Medroxalol 77
Mefenamic acid 172
Mefenide 235, 236
Mefloquine 282, 284, 285
Megakaryocyte growth factors 120
Meglitinides 345347
Meglumine antimoniate 290
Melanocyte stimulating hormone 315
Melanoma 299, 300
malignant 299
Melarsoprol 291
Melatonin 141, 144
Melioidosis 237
Meloxicam 172, 179, 181
Melphalan 298, 299
Meningitis 231, 232, 244, 248, 255
bacterial 251
pneumococcal 265
Meningococcal infections 243
Menopausal symptoms, drugs used in 333
Menorrhagia 128
Menstruation, postponement of 332
Mental
confusion 378
disturbances 326
Meperidine 166
Mephenesin 63
Mephentermine 66, 70
Mephenytoin 150, 152
Mephobarbitone 141, 150
Mepivacaine 139
Mercaptopurine 302
Meropenem 248, 260
Mesoridazine 188
Metallic salts 311
Metallic taste 118
Metamizol 180
Metaraminol 70
Metformin 345, 347, 348
Methacholine 49
Methacycline 249
Methadone 161, 164, 165, 168
Methamphetamine 70
Methandienone 340
Methanol 148, 361, 364
poisoning 147
Methantheline 57
Methenamine mandelate 261, 262
Methicillin 241, 244, 260
resistant staphylococcal infections 259
Methimazole 318320
Methohexitone 133
Methotrexate 34, 182, 298, 299, 302, 304, 305
Methoxamine 65, 66, 70
Methyl alcohol 148
Methylation 21
Methylcellulose 220
Methyldopa 34, 93, 109, 113
Methylprednisolone 324
acetate 324
Methylsalicylate 175, 176
Methylxanthines 82, 87, 196, 205, 206
Methysergide 204, 205
Metoclopramide 157, 218, 219
Metolazone 85
Metoprolol 66, 75, 76, 109
Metric system 404
Metrifonate 295
Metronidazole 233, 234, 287289, 293
Mexiletine 101
Mezlocillin 232, 242, 245
Mianserin 194
Micafungin anidulafungin 271
Miconazole 273
Micromonospora purpurea 255
Microsomal enzyme inhibitors 238
Microsporum 272
Midazolam 133, 143
Mifepristone 331, 332
actions and uses of 333
Miglitol 345, 347, 348
Migraine 95
acute attack of 204
drugs used in 204
prophylaxis of 77, 204
Milrinone 96
Miltefosine 290
Mineralocorticoid 34, 315, 328
action 323
effects 326
Minerals 377
Mini pill 334, 335
Minocycline 231, 249251, 260, 269
Minoxidil 109, 112
Miotic 53
Mirabegron 66
Mirtazapine 194
Misoprostol 215
Mivacurium 59
Mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections 248
Moclobemide 193
Monoamine oxidase 65
inhibitors 158, 192
Monobactams 248, 260
Monosulfiram 296
Mood
disorders 191
stabilizers 195, 196
Moon face 321
Moraxella catarrhalis 258
Morphine 4, 20, 21, 161, 162t, 164, 167t, 361, 362
poisoning, acute 165
uses of 168
Mosapride 218
Motion sickness 56, 203
Mountain sickness 87
Mouth washes 15, 399
Mucolytics 209
Mucormycosis 274
Multidrug resistant 284, 267
Mupirocin 259, 260
Muscarinic
actions 49
receptor 213
Muscle 20
cramps 83
pain 61
relaxant 63, 143
action 142
strains 63
tenderness 129
weakness 298, 378
Musculoskeletal
disorders 63
system 34
Mushrooms 367
Myalgias 63
Myasthenia gravis 52
Myasthenic crisis 52
Mycobacterium
avium complex 263, 268
tuberculosis 263
Mycolic acids, inhibits synthesis of 264
Mycophenolate mofetil 304, 305
Mycoplasma 239, 249, 256, 258
pneumoniae 233, 250, 257
Mydriasis 69
Mydriatics 55, 56
Myeloid growth factors 120
Myeloid leukemia
acute 302
chronic 299, 302
Myeloma, multiple 299, 302
Myocardial infarction 76, 92, 105, 127, 168
acute 126
drugs used in 107
Myopathy 129
Myxedema coma 318
N
Nabumatone 172, 179
N-acetylcysteine 178, 361
Nafcillin 241, 243, 244, 260
Nalbuphine 161, 164, 170
Nalidixic acid 23, 237, 260
Nalmefene 171
Nalorphine 161, 170
Naloxone 161, 170, 358, 361
Naltrexone 148, 161, 171
Nandrolone decanoate 340
Nandrolone phenylpropionate 340
Naphazoline 70
Naproxen 172, 176
Narcolepsy 69, 70
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 41
Nasal
decongestion 69
spray 324
Nateglinide 345347
Natural penicillins, disadvantages of 244
Nausea 83, 118, 151, 162, 190, 236, 237, 278, 319
Necator americanus 293
Nedocromil 205
Nefazodone 194
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 246
Neomycin 253, 255, 260
Neostigmine 49, 51, 52, 52t, 59, 361
Nephron 81f
Nephropathy, diabetic 92
Nephrotic syndrome 85, 378
Nephrotoxicity 34, 175, 247, 254
Nerve 48
block 139
Nervous system 45, 45fc
Netilmicin 253255, 260
Netromycin 254
Neuralgias 147
Neuritis, peripheral 264, 374, 376
Neurocysticercosis 293, 294
Neurokinin
antagonists 218
receptor antagonists 219
Neuroleptanalgesia 136, 167
Neuroleptics 187, 188, 218, 219
atypical 188
first generation 188
mechanism of action of 188f
Neurological system 34
Neuromuscular junction 48
Neuropathy
diabetic 111
peripheral 151, 278
Neuropsychiatric syndromes 190
Neuroses 187
Neurotoxicity 298
Neurotransmitters, sites of release of 47f
Nevirapine 278
Niacin flush 177
Nicardipine 94, 95, 109
Niclosamide 293, 294
Nicorandil 106
Nicotinamide 375
Nicotinic acid 129, 130, 374, 375
Nifedipine 93, 94, 107, 109
Night blindness 374
Nikethamide 196
Nimesulide 36, 172, 176, 181
Nimodipine 109
Nimorazole 289
Nitazoxanide 289
Nitrates 103, 105, 107
mechanism of action of 104f
Nitrazepam 143, 154
Nitrendipine 94, 95
Nitrites 361
Nitrofurantoin 23, 261
Nitroglycerin 104
Nitroimidazole 287
Nitrous oxide 133
Nizatidine 215
Nocardiosis 236
Nocturnal enuresis 69, 195
Nocturnal leg cramps 95
Noncatecholamines 65, 69
Non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxants 361
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 302
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 275, 278
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 172, 182, 185
Noradrenaline 65, 68, 68t
metabolism of 65
release of 65
storage of 65
synthesis of 65
Norepinephrine 64
Norfloxacin 232, 234, 239, 260
Noscapine 161, 166, 208
Nosocomial infections 248
Nucleoside 275
Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors 275, 278, 278t
Nystagmus 151
Nystatin 272
O
Obesity 70
Obidoxime 53
Obsessive compulsive disorders 194
Octreotide 316
Ocular toxicity 34
Ofloxacin 239, 260
Olanzapine 188, 190, 191
Omalizumab 207
Omeprazole 215, 216, 233
Onapristone 333
Onchocerca volvulus 293, 294
Onchocerciasis 295
Ondansetron 148, 204, 218, 219
Open angle glaucoma 77
Opioid 34, 137, 166
analgesic 133, 136, 160, 164t
antagonists 148, 170
maintenance 168
mechanism of action of 161f
peptides, endogenous 161
synthetic 161
withdrawal 111
Optic neuritis 266
Oral anticoagulant 123
activity 124t
toxicity 128
Oral antidiabetic 347, 347t
drugs 342, 345
status of 349
Oral contraceptives 34
Oral direct thrombin inhibitor 124
Oral hypoglycemics 347t
Oral ingestion 7
Oral iron
adverse effects of 118
preparations 117
Oral pills 334
Oral powders, advantages of 397
Oral rehydration salt, composition of 221t
Organ transplantation 304, 328
Organic mental disorders 187
Organic nitrates 97
Organophosphate 51, 361
toxicity, chronic 54
Organophosphorus
compounds 49
poisoning 53, 56, 362
treatment of 54fc
Ormeloxifene 331
Ornidazole 287, 288
Oropharyngeal candidiasis 206
Oseltamivir 275, 277
Osmotic
diuretics 81, 81f, 82, 87
pumps 14
purgative 220, 379
Osteoarthritis 177, 327
Osteomalacia 353, 374
Osteomyelitis 231, 255
Osteoporosis 122, 326, 330, 350, 353
senile 340, 353
Otitis 231
media 231
Ototoxicity 34, 83, 254, 298
Ovarian
suppression 332
tumors 299
Ovum, stimulates growth of 315
Oxacillin 241
Oxalinic acid 238
Oxamniquine 295
Oxandrolone 340
Oxazepam 20
Oxazolidinones 261
Oxethazaine 139
Oxicams 172, 180
Oxiconazole 274
Oxidation 21
Oxybutynin 55, 57
chloride 57
Oxygen 108, 134, 359, 361
Oxymetazoline 66, 70
Oxyphenonium 55, 57
Oxytetracycline 249, 260
Oxytocin 337
P
Paclitaxel 298, 301, 302
Paget's disease 353
Pain 160, 167, 247
abdominal 236
disorders of 195
epigastric 118
relief of 168
somatic 160
types of 160
visceral 160
Pamidronate 353
Pancreatitis 278, 298
Pancuronium 59
Pantoprazole 216, 217
Pantothenic acid 376
Papaver somniferum 160
Papilloma virus 277
Para-amino salicylic acid 263, 266
Para-aminobenzoic acid 235
Para-aminophenol derivatives 172, 177
Paracetamol 21, 34, 172, 177, 180, 361
poisoning 178, 362
Paracoccidioidomycosis 274
Paralysis
neuromuscular 378
respiratory 59, 378
Paramethasone 324
Parasympathetic nervous system 46fc
Paratyphoid 371
Parecoxib 172, 181, 182
Parkinsonism 57, 156, 189, 203, 277
Paromomycin 287
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia 99, 103
Passive tubular reabsorption 22
Patent ductus arteriosus 177
Pediculosis 292, 295, 296
drugs used in 295
Pediculus humanus 296
Pefloxacin 239
Pegloticase 186
Pellagra 374
Pelvic inflammatory disease 231
Penfluridol 188
Penicillamine 34
Penicillinase producing Staphylococcus aureus 36
Penicillinase resistant penicillins 244
Penicillins 231, 241, 243, 245t, 260, 408
binding proteins 241
G 231, 232, 241, 242
natural 242
resistant pneumococcal infections 259
route of administration of 243
semisynthetic 243, 244
Penicillium
chrysogenum 241
islandicum 367
notatum 227, 241
Pentamidine 290
Pentazocine 164, 169
Pentobarbitone 141
Pentostatin 298
Peptic ulcer 56, 57t, 215t, 216, 217, 233t, 326
drugs used in 213
Perbuterol 66
Perindopril 92
Peripheral nervous system 47f
Peripheral vascular
disease 95
resistance 108
Peritonitis 255
Personality disorders 187
Pertussis 371
Pethidine 21, 161, 164, 166, 167t
derivatives of 167
Pharmacopeia 4, 5
Pharmacotherapy 327
Pharmacovigilance 4, 32
Pharyngeal demulcents 208, 209
Pharyngitis 231
Phenazopyridine 262
Phenelzine 193
Pheniramine maleate 202
Phenmetrazine 71
Phenobarbitone 20, 23, 141, 150152
Phenol 307, 309
derivatives 309
Phenolphthalein 220
Phenothiazines 23, 157, 188
Phenoxybenzamine 72, 73t
Phentolamine 72, 73, 107
Phenylbutazone 20, 34, 172, 180
Phenylephrine 65, 66, 70
dopamine 65
Phenytoin 20, 101, 150, 151, 155
Pheochromocytoma 74, 77
Pholcodeine 166
Phosphates 117
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors 96, 97, 126
Phosphorus 350, 379
deficiency 351, 380
Phototherapy 383
Phototoxicity 250
Physostigma venenosum 51, 52t
Physostigmine 4, 49, 51, 52, 52t, 77, 361
Phytates 117
Pills 398
Pilocarpine 4, 49, 50, 77
Pilocarpus microphyllus 50
Pimozide 190
Pinacidil 106
Pindolol 75
Pinworm 293
Pioglitazone 345, 347
Pipecuronium 59
Piperacillin 232, 242, 243, 245, 260
Piperazine 293
citrate 293
Piracetam 197
Pirenzepine 56, 57
Piroxicam 172, 176, 180
Pitavastatin 129
Pituitary gland 315
Pituitary hormone, anterior 315317
Pivampicillin 241
Pizotifen 204
Plague 232, 250, 254, 371
Plant enzymes 368, 370
Plasma calcium level, regulation of 351f
Plasma expanders 114
uses of 115
Plasma
half-life 23
lipid levels 129f
protein binding 19
Plasmodium
falciparum 235, 281, 286
knowlesi 281
malariae 281
ovale 281
vivax 281, 286
Platelets 66, 104
Pneumocandins 271, 274
Pneumococcal
infections 242
vaccine 371
Pneumocystis jiroveci 233, 258, 269, 290
infection 237, 258, 286, 290
pneumonia 230, 328
Pneumocystosis 290
treatment of 290
Pneumonia 231233, 255
atypical 233, 250, 257
Podophyllum resin 380
Poison, limit absorption of 357
Poliomyelitis 371
Polymer-based drug delivery system 14
Polymyxin 260
Polypeptide antibiotics 259
Polythiazide 85
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone 115
Posaconazole 274
Postcoital contraceptive 333336
Postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings 47
Postmenopausal syndrome 330
Postmyocardial infarction 177
Potassium 378
channel openers 103, 106
chloride 221
permanganate 310, 407, 410
sparing diuretics 82, 85
mechanism of action of 86f
Pralidoxime 53, 361
Pramlintide 345
Prasugrel 127
Pravastatin 129
Praziquantel 293, 294
Prazosin 66, 73, 73t, 93, 97
congeners of 73
Prebiotics 234
Prednisolone 20, 302, 324
Prednisone 20
Pregabalin 154
Pregnancy
ectopic 333
termination of 331, 333
Prehypertension 108
Premenstrual syndrome 195, 330
Prilocaine 139
Primaquine 282, 285
Primidone 20, 23, 150
Prinzmetal's angina 103
Probenecid 186
Probiotics 234
Probucol 129, 130
Procainamide 100
Procaine 21
penicillin 241, 243
Procarbazine 301
Prochlorperazine 218
Proflavine 311
Progestasert 14
Progesterone 331
Progestin 298, 301, 329, 332
disadvantages of 335
only contraceptives 334, 335
therapeutic uses of 330t
Proguanil 233
Prokinetic 218
agents 137, 218
Prolactin 317
Promethazine 202, 218, 219
chlortheophyllinate 202
Propantheline 55, 57
Proparacaine 139
Prophylaxis, chronic 107
Propionic acid derivatives 172, 178
Propiphenazone 180
Propiverine 55, 57
Propofol 133, 135
Propranolol 35, 75, 76, 101, 109
Propylene glycol 380
Propylthiouracil 318, 319t, 320
Prostaglandins 205, 217, 338
analogs 78
synthesis of 205fc
Prostatic hypertrophy, benign 74
Prostatitis, bacterial 240
Protamine sulphate 123, 361
Protease inhibitors 275, 279
Protein 321
metabolism 343
Proteus mirabilis 232
Prothrombin time 124
Protionamide 269
Proton pump inhibitors 216
Protozoal infections 251
Proximal tubule 81, 81f
Pseudocholinesterase, atypical 29
Pseudoephedrine 66
Pseudomembranous colitis 231, 259, 288
Pseudomonas 234
aeruginosa 232, 245, 246, 248
infections 230
Pseudomonic acid 259
Psittacosis 233
Psoralen ultraviolet A therapy 383
Psoriasis 305
drugs used in 382
Psychiatric disorders, drugs used in 187
Psychiatry 144
Psychomotor stimulants 196
Psychoses 187, 326
Psychosomatic disorders 195
Psychotropic drugs 187
Pulse 392
Pupils 162
Purine antagonist 298, 299
Purvarupa 388
Pyrantel 293
pamoate 293
Pyrazinamide 34, 263, 264266
Pyrazolone derivatives 172, 179
Pyridostigmine 49, 51
Pyridoxine 157, 219, 374, 375
Pyrimethamine 282, 285, 286
Pyrimidine
analogs 300
antagonist 298
Q
Q fever 233
Quinidine 100
Quinine 4, 34, 64, 282, 283, 286
Quiniodochlor 287, 289
Quinolones 235, 237, 260
Quinupristin 260
R
Rabeprazole 215217
Rabies 372, 373
immunoglobulin 373
Radioactive iodine 318, 320
Radioactive isotopes 4
Raised intracranial tension 379
Raloxifene 331, 353
Ramelteon 144
Ramipril 92
Ranitidine 215
Ranolazine 106
Rapacuronium 59
Rasagiline 158
Rasburicase 186
Rauwolfia serpentina 111
Ravuconazole 274
Raynaud's phenomenon 74
Reboxetine 65
Rececodotril 222
Redman syndrome 259
Reflex tachycardia 73
Remogliflozin 345, 349
Remoxipride 188
Renal dysfunction 29, 134, 298
Renal failure 238, 326
acute 83
chronic 85, 92
Renal
impairment 272
stones 85
toxicity 250
Renin angiotensin aldosterone system 91, 91fc, 109
Renin antagonists 91
Renin inhibitor 109, 110
Repaglinide 345347
Replacement therapy 318, 326, 330
Reserpine 34, 111
Respiration 69, 162, 173
Respiratory failure, management of 359
Respiratory syncytial virus 277, 373
Respiratory system 34, 145, 175, 201
Respiratory tract infections 237, 239, 244
Resuscitation, cardiopulmonary 362
Retapamulin 381
Reteplase 125, 126
Retina 20
Retinoids 382
Retinopathy, irreversible 283
Retroviruses 278
Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program 267
Reye's syndrome 175
Rheumatic carditis 327
Rheumatic fever 177, 243
Rhinitis, allergic 207
Ribavirin 275277, 374, 375
Rickets 374
nutritional 353
Rickettsiae 233
Rickettsial infections 250, 252
Rifabutin 263, 265
Rifampicin 230233, 263265, 269, 270
Rifapentine 263, 265
Rimantadine 275, 277
Rimonabant 148
Ringer's solution 223
Ringworm 273
Risedronate 353
Risperidone 188, 190, 191
Ritodrine 66, 339
Ritonavir 280
Rituximab 183, 302
Rivaroxaban 124
Rivastigmine 52
Rocky mountain 233
Rocuronium 59
Rofecoxib 176
Roflumilast 208
Ropivacaine 139
Rosiglitazone 345, 347
Rosuvastatin 129
Roundworm 293
Roxatidine 215, 216
Roxithromycin 257, 260
Rubella 373
S
Saccharin sodium 403
Saccharomyces boulardii 234
Salbutamol 65, 66, 205, 339
inhaler 26
Salicylates 20, 23, 172, 173
dosage of 176t
intoxication, acute 175
poisoning 362
Salicylic acid 175, 176, 271, 308, 380
Salicylism 175
Saliva 22
Salmeterol 66, 205, 206
Salmonella typhi 367
Sarcoma, osteogenic 302
Sarcoptes scabiei 295
Sargramostim 120
Satranidazole 287
Scabies 292, 295
drugs used in 295
Schistosoma haematobium 295
Schistosomes 293
Schistosomiasis 294
Schizophrenia 187
Scleroderma renal crisis 92
Scopolamine 55
Scurvy 374
Sea snakes 367
Secnidazole 287289
Secobarbitone 141
Secretory glands 49
Sedation 141, 145, 146, 162, 202
Seizures 149
myoclonic 149, 155
types of 149, 155
Selective
estrogen receptor modulators 331
serotonin reuptake inhibitors 192, 193
Selegiline 158
Selenium sulphide 271, 274
Septicemia 244, 247, 255
Sergliflozin 349
Serratiopeptidase 369
Sertindole 188, 190
Sevoflurane 134
Sex hormones, antagonists of 331t
Sexually transmitted diseases 251
Sheep liver fluke 293
Shock 327
anaphylactic 67, 68, 115
hypovolemic 115
neurogenic 115
pharmacotherapy of 114, 115
septic 115
treatment of 116
vardiogenic 115
Sialistic implants 9
Siddha system 387, 391
Sildenafil 96, 97, 105, 341
uses of 341
Silver sulfadiazine 235, 311
Similia similibus curantur 389
Simple partial seizures 149, 155
Simvastatin 129
Sinusitis 231, 232
Sirolimus 304, 305
Sisomicin 255, 260
Sitagliptin 345, 348
Skeletal muscle 47, 59, 60, 67, 197, 322, 378
paralysis 53
relaxants 61
classification of 58, 58fc
Skeleton 250
Skin
diseases 328
hyperkeratosis of 374
rashes 92, 244
allergic 237
ulcers 372
Sleeping sickness 290
Smooth muscle 4850, 66, 67, 94, 104, 138, 163, 197
Snake
bite, treatment of 366
venom 128
Sodium 378
bicarbonate 88, 214
borate 307
channel blockers 99, 100
chloride 221, 408
percentage of 408
citrate 221
fusidate 259, 260
nitrate 361
nitroprusside 93, 97, 109, 113
intravenous 114
penicillin G 243
salicylate 176
stibogluconate 290
thiosulfate 361
valproate 195, 196
Soft tissue 239
calcification of 380
Somatostatin 316
Sorbitol 403
Sore throat 206
Sorivudine 275
Sotalol 102
Sparfloxacin 239, 260
Sparisam 392
Spasmolytics 56
Spastic disorders 62
Special drug delivery systems 13
Spectinomycin 258
Spinal cord 48
Spironolactone 85, 109, 378
Sporotrichosis 274
Stabilizers 401
Stanozolol 340
Staphylococcal infections 243, 257, 258
Staphylococcus aureus 36, 231, 367
Status asthmaticus 206208
treatment of 208
Status epilepticus 62, 150, 155
Stavudine 278
Steroids 21
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 33, 236
Stimulating adrenergic receptors 65
Stokes Adam's syndrome 69
Stomach 163
carcinoma of 302
wash 359
Stomatitis 118, 237, 278, 297, 298, 374
Streptococcal infections 243, 257, 258
Streptococcus
campylobacter 368
pneumoniae 238, 247, 258
pyogenes 258
salivarius 234
viridans 243
Streptodornase 369
Streptogramins 260
Streptokinase 125, 361, 369
Streptomyces 253
avermitilis 294
griseus 254
hygroscopicus 305
mediterranei 264
nodosus 271
pristinaspiralis 260
roseosporus 261
tsukubaensis 304
Streptomycin 232, 253, 254, 260, 263266
Streptozocin 298
Stress disorders, post-traumatic 194
Stroke 126
Strongyloides stercoralis 293, 298
Strongyloidiasis 295
Strophanthus gratus 98
Substitution therapy 168
Succinimide 150
Succinylcholine 60, 60t
apnea 61
mechanism of action of 61fc
Sucralfate 215, 217
Sufentanil 164
Sugammadex 60
Sulbactam 232, 243, 245
Sulconazole 274
Sulfacetamide 235, 260
Sulfadiazine 235, 236, 260
Sulfadoxine 235, 286
pyrimethamine 285
Sulfamethoxazole 230, 235, 237, 260
Sulfamethoxypyridazine 235
Sulfasalazine 184, 235, 236, 260
Sulfate conjugation 21
Sulfisoxazole 235, 236, 260
Sulfonamides 20, 21, 34, 235, 236, 237, 260
preparations of 236t
Sulfones 269
Sulfonylureas 345347
Sulfur 4, 296, 380
Sulindac 179
Sulphasalazine 23
Sulphinpyrazone 186
Sumatriptan 204
Sunscreens 380
Superficial mycosis, drugs used in 273t
Supportive therapy 358, 367
Suramin sodium 291
Suxamethonium 60
Sweat 22
glands 47
Sympathetic nervous system 46fc, 64
Sympatholytics 109, 110, 113
Sympathomimetics 205
Syphilis 232, 243, 257
Systemic fungal infection 274
Systemic therapy 382
T
T cell activation, inhibitors of 182, 183
Tachycardia 319
Tachyphylaxis 30
Tacrolimus 304
Tadalafil 341
Taenia
saginata 293
solium 293
Talampicillin 241
Tamoxifen 331
Tansdermal adhesive unit 12f
Tapentadol 166
Tapeworms 294
Tardive dyskinesia 190
Targeted drug delivery systems 14
Taxanes 298, 301
Tazobactam 245
T-cell inhibitors 304
Teicoplanin 259, 260
Telenzepine 5557
Telithromycin 258
Temazepam 143
Tenecteplase 126
Teniposide 298, 300
Tenofovir 277, 280
Tenoxicam 172
Teratogenicity 34, 92, 151, 297, 330
Terazosin 109
Terbinafine 273, 274
Terbutaline 205, 66
Terconazole 274
Teriparatide 352
Terlipressin 87
Terozosin 66
Testicular failure 339
Testicular tumors 299, 300
Testis, carcinoma of 302
Tetanus 63, 231, 243, 257, 371, 373
antitoxin 373
immunoglobulin 373
Tetany 350
Tetmosol 296
Tetracaine 139
Tetracyclines 4, 20, 117, 232, 249251, 260, 287, 289
mechanism of action of 249f
teratogenic effects of 250t
Tetrahydrofolate, formation of 299
Tetrahydrofolic acid 237
Thalidomide 306
Theophylline 23, 205, 206, 361
Therapeutic index 27
Thiabendazole 293
Thiacetazone 263266
Thiamine 358, 374, 375
Thiazides 81f, 82, 84, 85, 88, 109
diuretics 87
mechanism of action of 84f
Thiazolidinediones 345, 347
Thioguanine 298
Thionamides 318
Thiopentone 141
sodium 20, 133, 135
Thioridazine 188, 190
Thiotepa 298
Thiothixene 188
Thioureylenes 318
Thioxanthenes 188
Throat paints 399
Thrombin 127
Thrombocytopenia 122, 125
Thrombolytics 107, 125
adverse effects of 126
therapy 126
Thrombophlebitis 272
Thrombopoietin 120
Thyroid 20
carcinoma 318
function 102
hormone secretion, regulation of 317f
stimulating hormone 316
storm 319, 328
Thyrotoxic crisis 319
Thyrotoxicosis 77, 99
Thyrotropin 315, 317
Tiagabine 150, 154
Tibolone 334
Ticarcillin 242, 243, 245, 260
Ticlopidine 126, 127, 249, 252, 260
Timolol 75, 77
Tincture iodine 310
Tinidazole 36, 287289
Tioconazole 274
Tiotropium 57
Tiotroprium bromide 55
Tirofiban 126, 127
Tissue
binding 20
plasminogen activator 125, 126
schizonticides 282
Tizanidine 63
Tobramycin 253255
Tocolytics, uses of 339
Tolazamide 345
Tolazoline 72, 73
Tolbutamide 20, 345, 347
Tolmetin 172
Tolnaftate 271
Tolterodine 55, 57
Tolvaptan 87
Tonic-clonic seizures 150, 155
Topical therapy 382
Topiramate 148, 150, 154
Topotecan 298, 301
Toremifene 331
Torsades de pointes 101, 103
Torsemide 83, 109
Toxic nodular goiter 319
Toxicity, treatment of 59, 99, 364
Toxicology 4
Toxoids 370
Toxoplasma gondii 235, 258
infection 286
Toxoplasmosis 236, 237, 286
Trachoma 233, 236, 250
Tramadol 161, 164, 166
Tranexemic acid 126
Tranquilizer 188
Transdermal contraceptive 334, 335
Transfer ribonucleic acid 249
Transient ischemic attacks 177
Tranylcypromine 193
Trastuzumab 302
Traveller's diarrhea 222, 251
Travoprost 77
Trazodone 194
Treponema pallidum 232
Triamcinolone 324, 325
Triamterene 85, 86, 109
Triazolam 143
Triazoles 271, 272
Trichinosis 293
Trichomonas vaginalis 288, 289, 292
Trichophyton 272
Trichuris trichiura 289, 293
Tricyclic antidepressants 56, 192, 205
mechanism of action of 192f
Trifluoperazine 188, 190
Trifluperidol 188, 190
Triflupromazine 188, 190
Trifluridine 276
Triglyceride 128
Trihexyphenidyl 55, 57
Trimetazidine 106
Trimethaphan 111
Trimethoprim 230, 233, 237, 260
Triple dye lotion 311
Tropicamide 5557
Tropisetron 218
Trovafloxacin 239, 260
Truncal rigidity 163
Trypanosomiasis 290
drugs used in 287
treatment of 291
Trypsin 369
Tuberculin syringe 11
Tuberculocidal agents 263
Tuberculosis 230, 240, 254, 255, 268
chemotherapy of 263
drugs used in 263
resistant 267
treatment of 267
Tuberculostatic agents 263
Tubocurarine 59, 60
molecules 59f
Tularemia 254
Tumors, pancreatic 300
Typhoid 237, 239, 244, 248, 371
Tyramine 65
U
Ulcers 297
Unani
medicine 392
system 387, 392
Urea 380
Ureidopenicillins 242, 245
Ureter 163
Urethritis 233
Uric acid
excretion 174
synthesis inhibitors 184
Uricosuric drugs 185, 186
Urinary
analgesic 262
bladder 49, 163
disorders 55, 57
retention 50, 53
tract infection 232, 236, 237, 239, 244
chemotherapy of 261
Urine 392
alkalinization of 87
formation, physiology of 81
Urokinase 125, 126
Uterine
fibroids 333
relaxants 339
stimulants 337
Uterus 67, 163, 332, 337, 338
V
Vaccine 370, 371
bacterial 371
Vagina 332
Vaginal ring 335, 336
Vaginitis, senile 330
Valdecoxib 181
Valproate 155
Valproic acid 150, 151, 153, 155
Valvular disease, rheumatic 125
Valvular heart diseases 243
Vancomycin 231, 234, 259, 260
Varicella 372
Vascular smooth muscle 66, 94
Vasodilators 96, 97, 101, 108, 109, 112
actions of 112fc
Vasopressin
analogs 88
antagonists 87, 88
receptors 88
Vasopressor 70
Venlafaxine 194
Ventilation 364
Venular dilators 96, 109
Verapamil 75, 94, 102, 109
Vermicidal 292
Vermifuge 292
Vertigo 203
Viagra 341
Vibrio cholerae 232, 367, 368
Vibrio parahaemolyticus 367, 368
Vigabatrin 150, 154
Vinblastine 298, 301
Vinca alkaloids 298, 301
Vinca rosea 301
Vincristine 298, 300302
Vinorelbine 298, 301
Viper bite 367
Viral vaccines 371
Viruses 275
Vitamin 370, 374
A 370, 374
B complex 374, 375
B1 375
B12 117119, 374, 376
daily requirement of 376t
sublingual 119
B2 375
B3 375
B6 375
C 117, 374, 377
D 352, 372, 374
deficiency 350, 351, 353
functions of 352f
E 374
fat soluble 370, 374
K 128, 372, 374
deficiency 128, 374
K1 128
K2 128
K3 128
water-soluble 374, 375
Voglibose 345, 348
Voice, hoarseness of 206
Vomiting 83, 118, 190, 237, 298, 319, 378
von Willebrand's disease 88
Voriconazole 274
W
Weil's disease 232
Wet beriberi 375
Whipworm 293
Whooping cough 257
Wilms’ tumor 300, 302
Worms 292, 293
Wound healing, delayed 326
Wuchereria bancrofti 292, 293
X
Xerophthalamia 374
Xerostomia 50
Xipamide 85
Xylometazoline 65, 66, 70
Y
Yellow fever 372
Yersinia pestis 232
Yoga 387, 393
Young's formula 28, 412
Z
Zalcitabine 278
Zaleplon 141, 143, 144
Zanamivir 275, 277
Zidovudine 276, 278, 280
Zinc 380
compounds 307
salts 311
Ziprasidone 188, 191
Zolpidem 141, 143, 144
Zonisamide 150, 155
Zopiclone 141, 143, 145
Zotepine 188
×
Chapter Notes

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1General Pharmacology
Section Outline
  • Introduction, Sources of Drugs and Drug Information Sources
  • Routes of Drug Administration
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Adverse Drug Reactions, Drug Interactions, Rational Drug Use and Drug Laws2

Introduction, Sources of Drugs and Drug Information SourcesCHAPTER 1

Pharmacology is the science that deals with the study of drugs and their interaction with the living systems. The word pharmacology is derived from Greek—‘Pharmacon’ to mean drug and ‘logos’ means study.
 
HISTORY
Man knew the useful and toxic effects of many plant and animal products even in ancient times.
In early days there was a close relationship between religion and treatment of diseases. The knowledge of the use of drugs often rested with the priest or holyman. Drugs were thought to be magical in their actions. Though medicine developed simultaneously in several countries, the spread of knowledge was limited because of poorly developed communication across the world.
Several cultures like the Chinese, Greek, Indian, Roman, Persian, European and many others contributed a great deal to the development of medicine in early times. The drug prescriptions included preparations from herbs, plants, animals and minerals. In the middle ages, many herbal gardens were cultivated particularly by the monasteries.
The earliest pharmacological writings are from the Indian ‘Vedas’ (3000 BC). An ancient Indian Physician Charaka and then Sushruta and Vagbhata described many herbal preparations included in ‘Ayurveda’ (meaning the science of life). Indians practiced vaccination as early as 550 BC.
The Egyptian Medical Papyrus (1600 BC) described several medical preparations. The largest of them, Ebers Papyrus (1550 BC) lists some 800 preparations.
Various other traditional systems of medicine were practiced in different parts of the world—like Homeopathy, Unani, Siddha system and Allopathy.
Allopathy means ‘the other suffering’. This word still being used for the modern system of medicine, is not correct (a misnomer). Homoeopathy meaning ‘similar suffering’ was introduced by Hannemann. The principles of this system are ‘like cures like’ and ‘dilution increases the potency of drugs’.
Thus several systems of medicine were tried but only a few survived. The basic reason for the failure of many systems is that man's knowledge of diseases were incorrect and baseless in those days. By the end of the 17th century the importance of experimentation and observation and scientific methods of study became clear. Francois Magendie and Claude Bernard popularized the use of animal experiments to understand the effects of drugs. Simultaneous development of other branches of science like botany, zoology, chemistry and physiology helped in the better understanding of pharmacology.4
The last century has seen a rapid growth of the subject with several new drugs, new concepts and techniques being introduced. We now know much more about receptors and molecular mechanisms of action of many drugs. Several diseases which were considered incurable and fatal can now be completely cured with just a few tablets.
 
DEFINITIONS
Drug (Drogue means a dry herb in French) is a substance used in the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a disease. WHO definition of drug: Drug is any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient.
Pharmacokinetics is the study of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs, i.e. what the body does to the drug (in Greek Kinesis = movement).
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the effects of the drugs on the body and their mechanisms of action, i.e. what the drug does to the body.
Therapeutics deals with the use of drugs in the prevention and treatment of disease.
Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of drugs and also the study of poisons, i.e detection, prevention and treatment of poisonings. (Toxicon = poison in Greek).
Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals for the treatment of infections. The term now also includes the use of chemical compounds to treat malignancies.
Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problems. It deals with the epidemiologic study of adverse drug effects.
Pharmacy is the science of identification, com-pounding and dispensing of drugs. It also includes collection, isolation, purification, synthesis and standardization of medicinal substances.
 
SOURCES OF DRUGS
The sources of drugs could be natural or synthetic.
Natural sources: Drugs can be obtained from:
  1. Plants, e.g. atropine, morphine, quinine, digoxin, pilocarpine, physostigmine.
  2. Animals, e.g. insulin, heparin, gonadotropins and antitoxic sera.
  3. Minerals, e.g. magnesium sulfate, aluminum hydroxide, iron, sulfur and radioactive isotopes.
  4. Microorganisms: Antibacterial agents are obtained from some bacteria and fungi. We thus have penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines and other antibiotics.
  5. Human: Some drugs are obtained from man, e.g. immunoglobulins from blood, growth hormone from anterior pituitary and chorionic gonadotropins from the urine of pregnant women.
Synthetic:
  • Most drugs are now synthesized, e.g. quinolones, omeprazole, sulfonamides, pancuronium, neostigmine.
  • Many drugs are obtained by cell cultures, e.g. urokinase from cultured human kidney cells.
  • Some are now produced by recombinant DNA technology, e.g. human insulin, tissue plasminogen activator and some drugs by Hybridoma Technique, e.g. monoclonal antibodies.
 
DRUG INFORMATION SOURCES
 
Drug Compendia
Books that are sources of information on drugs, i.e. Pharmacopeias and formularies are together known as Drug Compendia. Drug compendia are of two types.
  1. Official compendia
    • Pharmacopeia
    • Drug formulary
  2. Non-official compendia
    • Textbooks
    • Journals
    • Periodicals
  3. Medline
 
1 Official Compendia
Official compendia include information sources (or books) on drugs which are recognized by the government of that country as ‘legal standard’. Thus, Indian Pharmacopeia, National formulary, 5British Pharmacopeia, British Pharmaceutical codex, United States Pharmacopeia and such other Pharmacopoeias are official compendia.
Pharmacopeia: Pharmacopoeia is the official publication of a list of drugs and medicinal preparations. In Greek ‘Pharmacon’ means drug and ‘poeia’ is to make. It contains a list of drugs and related substances that are approved for use, their source, formulae and other information needed to prepare the drugs, their physical properties, tests for their identity, purity and potency. Each country may follow its own pharmacopeia. We thus have Indian Pharmacopeia, British Pharmacopeia, United States Pharmacopeia, USSR and Japanese Pharmacopeia. The European Pharmacopeia was published by the Public Health Committee and the European Pharmacopeia commission. The International Pharmacopeia is published by WHO in many languages like English, French, Spanish and Russian.
The first pharmacopeia of India was published in 1868. But later under the British rule, the British Pharmacopeia was followed. After independence, a committee was set up and Indian Pharmacopeia was released in 1955. Experts from pharmaceutical industry, drug control laboratories and research and teaching institutions helped the committee.
Pharmacopeia is revised at regular periods to delete old useless drugs and to include newly introduced ones.
Drug formulary also provides information on drugs. The National formulary is a smaller book that contains information on formulations which are used therapeutically. It is prepared by the National formulary committee set up by the ministry of health, Government of India. Expert opinion is also taken from medical associations, hospitals, teaching institutions and pharmaceutical industry in preparing this book.
 
2. Non-official Compendia
The books other than the official compendia which provide information on drugs are known as non-official drug compendia. These include the textbooks of pharmacology, journals and periodicals.
 
Textbooks
Textbooks like—the pharmacological basis of therapeutics by Goodman and Gilman, Merck Index, The United States Dispensary, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences and others are quite informative. Many Indian textbooks are also available.
 
Journals
Several journals are published by local, national and international medical organizations. They provide updated information on drugs with research and review articles.
Local: Several regional (e.g. Sourthern, northern) and state level medical societies release journals at regular intervals.
National: Indian pharmacological society, Indian society of clinical pharmacology and other similar national level organizations bring out journals at regular intervals.
Some National Journals
  1. Indian Journal of Pharmacology
  2. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  3. Indian journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  4. Journal of Association of Physicians of India
  5. Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy.
International: WHO and other international associations publish journals.
Some International Journals
  1. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
  2. Anti-Cancer Drugs
  3. British Medical Journal
  4. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  5. Drug Resistance updates
  6. International Clinical Psychopharmacology
  7. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
  8. International Journal of Drug Policy
  9. The Lancet
  10. Neuropsychopharmacology.
 
Periodicals
Periodicals are published at regular intervals like monthly or annually. Some of them are:
Indian Drug Review: It is a private publication released every 2 months.6
Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS, India): It is published every month. It is an independent professionally edited list of preparations available in India. It is updated every month. When full product information is required, it may be obtained from the editor of MIMS.
Current Index of Medical Specialties (CIMS): It is published every three months. It contains information on the list of drugs and medicinal preparations from different manufacturers and the information is updated every three months.
 
Medline
With the advancement of technology, we now have e-sources of information like the medline. Several books also provide soft copies or CDs for use on the computer.
Medline or medical literature analysis and retrieval system online is a literature data base of life sciences and biomedical information. Medline includes literature in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, health care and veternery medicine. It also includes literature in biology including molecular biology. Medline is compiled by the National library of medicine USA. It is freely available on the internet and can be searched via Pubmed.
The Medline contains database with more than 17 million records from 1950 onwards. For indexing, Medline uses medical subject headings (MeSH) to retrieve engines like Entrez to search medline. Medline includes about 5000 leading biomedical journals. There are thousands of references in the journals database.