Lipocrinology: The Relationship between Lipids and Endocrine Function Sanjay Kalra, Gagan Priya
INDEX
Page numbers followed by, b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Acanthosis nigricans 110
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 44
Acromegaly 6, 15, 64, 66, 126
Adenosine
monophosphate-activated protein kinase 21, 22, 153
triphosphate 33, 40, 163
Adipocyte 34, 87, 98
dysfunction 91f
Adipocytokines 73
Adipogenesis 22
Adipokines 77, 79f
physiological function 77t
Adiponectin 77, 98
Adipose deposits, types of 73
Adipose tissue 5, 6, 73, 109
depots, perivascular 74
distribution 6, 51, 89
abnormal 6
endocrine role of 84t
involvement 6
paradigm of 85
perivascular 76
role of 8082
Adipsin 77
Adrenal
adenomas 53
androgens
effect of 26
secretes 20
glands, physiology 20
hormones 180
precursor of 20
insufficiency 26
lipid content of 27
medulla 27
myelolipomas 53
tumors, imaging of 27
Airway disease, obstructive 125
Alcoholism 124
Alirocumab 175, 177
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 155
American Diabetes Association 143
Amiodarone 125
Amphetamine-regulated transcript 80
Anabolic steroid 125
misuse 6
Androgen 6, 155
deprivation therapy 6, 156
Andropause 35, 36, 56
Androstenedione 20
Angiotensinogen 77
Antipsychotics 125
Apolipoprotein 12, 14, 36, 122, 123
Appetite 116
Aromatase 79
Arrhythmia 110
Artery disease, coronary 62, 99, 102, 102t
Asian lipophenotype 97, 98
implications of 106b
role of 100
Atherogenesis 61
Atherogenic dyslipidemia 47, 98
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease 51, 6062, 65, 67, 103, 104, 172
risk 62, 63, 104fc, 105
Atrial fibrillation 66
Atypical antipsychotic drugs 124
Autoimmune
diabetes 52
disorders 124, 125
Autosomal dominant 114
B
Barraquer-Simons syndrome 111
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 114
Berardinelli-Seip syndrome 111
Beta-blockers 124, 125
Bile acid 12
sequestrants 124, 143, 169
Birth weight 98
Blood pressure, high 103
Body frame 98
Body mass index 23, 51, 97, 98
Bone
effects, clinical evidence of 166
health 138
marrow 74
adipose tissue 76
metabolism 166
mineral density 7, 142, 166
morphometric protein 2 167
Bromocriptine 6
Brown adipose tissue 74, 75
distribution of 76f
C
Cabergoline 6
Calcium 163
channel blockers 165
Carbohydrate
intake, high 41
metabolism and diabetes 178
Carcinoma, hepatocellular 110
Cardiomyopathy 110
Cardiovascular disease 9, 65, 98, 100, 102, 104, 116, 160, 172
premature 41
Cardiovascular risk 24, 102
stratification 7, 55
Carotid intima media thickness 66, 148
Catecholamines 27
Cholesterol 123
acyltransferase 11
total 12, 14, 15, 52, 102, 122
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein 10, 11, 102, 149
Cholestyramine 7, 139, 140
role of 140t
Chylomicronemia, familial 41
Chylomicrons 61
Clofibrate 7, 140, 169
Clopidogrel 105
Clozapine 124
Co-existing disorders 164
Colchicine 165
Computed tomography 27, 53
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography 130
Cushing's syndrome 6, 7, 2325, 28, 50, 51, 53, 64, 66, 67, 115, 126, 130, 131
management of 28, 152
Cushingoid habitus 6
Cyclophosphamide 124
Cyclosporine 124, 125, 165
D
Danazol 125
Dehydroepiandrosterone 20, 21, 32, 156
sulfate 21, 130
supplementation 156
Depomedroxyprogesterone 6
Diabetes 6, 7, 51, 53, 67, 83, 88, 125, 126, 128, 161
insipidus 7, 140
medications 153
mellitus 40, 74, 78, 87, 88, 98, 124, 142, 143
gestational 54
new-onset 161
pathogenesis of 87
risk of 178
Diacylglycerol 91
Diet and nutritional therapy 117
Dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate 141
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 7, 79, 83, 142, 154
inhibitor 7, 154
Dopamine agonists 148
Drug therapy 105
concurrent 165
Dunnigan syndrome 111
Dysbetalipoproteinemia, familial 41, 123
Dysglycemia, combination of 98
Dyslipidemia 57, 19, 23, 24, 51, 56, 57, 60, 63, 66t, 98, 100, 103, 121, 122, 128t
combined 53, 122
diabetic 6
management of 25
secondary 124
types of 122, 124t
Dysphoria 37
Dysplasia, mandibuloacral 111
E
Endocrine
complications, management of 117
disease 7, 19, 54, 57, 63, 64, 64t, 66, 66t
diagnosis of 51
presence of 52
disorders 6, 7, 9, 56, 65, 121, 126t, 158
treatment of 7
drugs
effect of 6
lipid-lowering effects of 132
use of 6
dysfunction, mild 56
organ, secretes 6
vigilance 131
Endocrinology 1, 6, 50, 51, 53, 60
Endocrinopathy
diagnosis of 7
management of 137
Endoplasmic reticulum 90, 90f, 92
Endothelial dysfunction 91f
Energy homeostasis, regulator of 6
Enzymes 79t
Erectile dysfunction 7, 35, 55, 168
Erythromycin 165
Estrogen 6, 32, 41, 157
receptor 167
replacement therapy 35
treatment 157
Evolocumab 176, 177
Exocrine pancreas 39
Extracellular signal regulated kinase 166, 167
Ezetimibe 142
F
Farnesyl pyrophosphate 162, 167
Fasting plasma
glucose 7
triglyceride, abnormal 39
Fat distribution 6
Fatty acid
nonesterified 63
oxidation 44
synthase 44
Fatty liver disease 93
non-alcoholic 6, 7, 51, 73, 84, 116
Fenofibrate 138, 143, 169
Fibrates 125
Fibroblast growth factor 79, 84
Fluperlapine 124
Follicle-stimulating hormone 130
Framingham study 88
Frank obesity 98
Fredrickson's classification 123f
Free fatty acids 13, 36, 40, 43, 44, 75, 88, 90, 90f, 91, 92, 146
effect of 92f
receptor-1 92
secretion, elevated 91f
G
Gallstone disease, absence of 41
Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate 162, 167
Glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative 114, 116
Glucagon, effect of 44
Glucagon-like peptide-1 154
receptor agonists 7, 154
Glucocorticoids 6, 28, 41, 124, 125, 151
chronic 23
effect of 20, 21fc
excess states 6
increase lipolysis 63
receptor 22
reduce uncoupling protein 1 22
regulate adipose tissue 21
role of 25
therapy 152
Glucose
homeostasis 81, 116
lowering drugs, effect of 179
metabolism 178
stimulated insulin secretion 45, 91
transporter-4 43, 81, 163
Glycemic
control 7
response 98
Glycerol phosphate 43
Gonadal development 33
Gonadal hormones 180
effect of 32
Gonadopause 34
G-protein coupled receptor 40 91
Graves' disease 140, 140t
Growth 116
factor, insulin-like 15, 66, 78, 130, 147
hormone 6, 14, 16, 54, 63, 64, 66, 130, 146
axis 146
deficiency 6, 7, 16, 51, 57, 126, 129
replacement therapy 148
H
Heart
disease, coronary 10, 101, 122, 176
failure 110
protection study 142
Helsinki heart study 62
Hemorrhage, gastrointestinal 110
Hepatic
insulin resistance 93
lipase 149
steatosis, metreleptin reduced 118
Hepatitis C virus 165
High triglyceride 124
levels 62
High-density lipoprotein 7, 10, 11, 21, 23, 32, 36, 61, 64, 116, 125, 147, 149
cholesterol 3, 7, 1215, 24, 32, 47, 52, 102, 104, 122, 126, 139
lower 62
reduced 53, 99
Highly active antiretroviral therapy 110, 112
Hormonal therapy 37
Hormone 32, 146
adrenocorticotropic 20, 130
based therapies, lipid effects of 147t
deficiency 6
effect of 63
luteinizing 130
pancreatic 43f
parathyroid 13
regulate adipose tissue distribution and function 6
regulate lipid metabolism 6
replacement therapy 57
sensitive lipase 44, 79
Human immunodeficiency virus 110, 114, 165
associated lipodystrophy syndrome 112
infection 124, 125
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 21, 79, 84
Hypercholesterolemia 172
familial 6, 53, 123, 176
Hyperchylomicronemia, familial 123
Hyperglycemia, chronic 87
Hyperlipidemia 123t
familial combined 41, 53, 123
Hyperlipoproteinemia 123
Hyperparathyroidism 55
primary 14
secondary 14
Hyperprolactinemia 53, 126, 129
Hypertension 83, 116
Hyperthyroidism 7, 14, 64, 66, 126, 128, 139
effect of 13, 14t
treatment of 151
Hypertriglyceridemia 39, 41, 53, 110, 125
familial 41, 123
induced acute pancreatitis 41t
management of 41t
mild-to-moderate 41
moderate-to-severe 41
severe 125
Hypogonadism 6, 7, 36, 53, 64, 66, 67, 126, 130
Hypoleptinemia 110
Hypoplasia, mandibular 116
Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid 151
Hypothyroidism 6, 7, 10, 12, 51, 53, 64, 66, 124126, 128, 150
effect of 12b, 12t
subclinical 12, 6466, 150
I
Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study 3, 122
Infection 125
Inflammation 82, 125
Insulin 6, 155
effect of 43, 43f, 44
receptor substrate 45
resistance 7, 45, 91f, 98
role of 44t
secretion 91
sensitivity 98, 116
Intracellular cholesterol transporter 13
Intramyocellular lipids 93
Ischemic disease 142
Isotretinoin 41, 125
K
Ketoconazole 6, 25, 132
Kidney
disease, chronic 14, 53, 124, 125
failure 110
Klinefelter's syndrome 36
L
Lactescent 41
L-asparaginase 124
Lawrence syndrome 111
Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase 11, 13, 24, 64, 149, 151
Leptin 77
deficiency 84
receptors 80
Levothyroxine 150
Lipemia retinalis 41
Lipid
abnormalities 10, 12, 42, 127t
alteration 36, 64t
disorders, management of 6
metabolism 4, 61
parameter 26, 64, 116
serum 12, 14, 15
profile, serum 52
role of 31
vigilance 7
Lipid-lowering
agents 137
drugs 7, 137, 161, 163, 164t, 166, 168
endocrine effects of 7, 160, 161
therapies 169, 172
Lipocalin 2 77
Lipocrinology 6, 7, 39, 43, 135
definition and domains 3
domains and scope 6b
step toward newer insights 5
Lipodystrophy 7, 111, 114, 115, 115b, 118
acquired generalized 111, 114, 114t, 116
congenital generalized 111, 114, 116
diagnosis of 115
endocrine effects 109
familial partial 111, 114, 116, 117
HAART-induced 112
hormonal and other manifestations of 116t
inherited 110
insulin-induced 111
management of 116
syndromes 110
types 110
Lipogenesis 22
Lipo-health and endocrine system 9, 19, 30, 38
Lipolysis 22
Lipoprotein 7, 12, 14, 15, 61, 63, 122
A 64
cholesterol 89
elevated 99
intermediate-density 11, 13, 61, 123, 149
lipase 11, 36, 44, 79
metabolism 149f
Lipotoxicity 7, 46, 87, 90, 91, 93
Lipotropic considerations 146, 148
Liver
disease 110
obstructive 125
failure 110
Low fat intake 125
Low-density lipoprotein 7, 11, 21, 32, 44, 36, 61, 64, 113, 123, 125, 147, 149, 163, 174
cholesterol 3, 7, 12, 14, 15, 23, 52, 105, 122, 126, 172
elevated 53, 62, 99
hepatic 146
oxidized 11, 149
receptor 10, 44, 162, 175
M
Macrolide antibiotics 165
Macroscopic fat 53
Magnetic resonance imaging 27, 53
Maturity-onset diabetes 52
Menarche, early 35
Menopause 34, 36, 125
Metabolic syndrome 6, 53, 56, 67, 82, 124, 142
Metformin 6, 117, 153
Metreleptin 118
Metyrapone 25
Mineralocorticoid
effect of 26
receptor 152
Mitogen activated protein kinase 167
Mitotane 25
Monitor endocrine therapy 7
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 75
Muscle
insulin resistance 93
syndromes 164t
volume 98
Myalgia 164
Myocardial infarction 110
Myonecrosis 164
Myopathy 163165
Myositis 164
N
Nasojejunal enteral feeding 40
National Cholesterol Education Program 98, 123
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 100
National Lipid Association Statin Muscle Safety Task Force 164t
Nephrotic syndrome 124, 125
Neuropathy, diabetic peripheral 143
Niacin 169
Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 173
Nitric oxide 163
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 113, 114
O
Obesity 6, 7, 25, 67, 82, 88, 125
central 74
visceral 6
Octreotide 6
Olanzapine 124
Omentin 78
Oral contraceptives 6
Oral estrogens 124
Organ, endocrine 5, 73
Osteoblast 166
apoptosis 166
Osteoclastogenesis 166
Osteogenesis 166
Osteoprotegerin 167
Ovarian
failure, premature 55
insufficiency, premature 64, 66
P
Pancreas 38, 47
endocrine 43
Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy 42
Pancreatitis 116
acute 39, 41, 110
chronic 42
Paraproteinemias 125
Parathyroidectomy 14
Parenteral nutrition, total 40
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor 84
alpha 4, 109, 138
gamma 75, 80, 94, 153
Phosphatase 31
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase 90
Pituitary-growth hormone 179
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 75, 79, 82
Polycystic ovary
disease 124, 125
syndrome 6, 36, 51, 6466, 73, 84, 110, 116, 126, 129, 138, 141
Polypeptide, pancreatic 38
Progesterone 32, 157
Progestin 125
Progranulin 78
Prolactin 16, 64, 148
Prolactinoma 64, 66
Propofol 41
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 10, 11, 26, 64, 174, 175, 179
effect of 178
inhibitors 7, 172, 173, 175t, 178
endocrine effects of 177
mechanism of action of 174f
pharmacodynamics of 177
pharmacokinetics of 177
Protease inhibitors 41, 113, 124
Puberty 6, 33, 81, 116, 125
precocious 35, 36
R
Raloxifene 124
Reactant protein secretion, acute phase 90f
Reactive oxygen species 90
Renin-angiotensin system 77
Reproduction 32fc
Reproductive
disorders 35, 36t
dysfunction 116
hormones, physiological actions of 32t
physiology 31
system 30
Resistin 78
Retinoids 124
Retinol binding protein 4 78, 79, 82
Retinopathy 139
diabetic 7, 138
Rhabdomyolysis, clinical 164
Ritonavir 165
Rosiglitazone 124
S
Saroglitazar 6
Scavenger receptor b-1 36
Sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral 164
Several genome-wide association studies 99
Sex chromosomal disorders 36
Sexual differentiation, disorders of 33
Sirolimus 124
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors 154
Statin-associated myopathy 165t
Steatohepatitis, non-alcoholic 118
Steatorrhea 26
Steatosis, hepatic 110
Steroid
biosynthesis pathway 21fc
hormogenesis 168
sulfatase 79
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein 20
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 11, 149, 174
Subcutaneous fat 6
Sulfonylureas 155
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion 7
T
Tamoxifen 41, 124
Tensin homolog proteins 31
Testosterone 6, 32, 37
replacement therapy 156
Thermogenesis 80
Thiazide diuretics 124, 125
Thiazolidinedione 47, 125, 133, 153
Thyroid 149
disorders 65
hormone 6, 10, 11, 11f, 16, 149f, 179
effect of 149f
receptors 132
responsive elements 149
stimulating hormone 10, 66, 150
storm 140
Thyroidectomy 140
Thyromimetics 6, 150, 169
Thyroxine
replacement therapy 150
serum 10
Toll-like receptor 91
Transforming growth factor beta 166, 167b
Transsexual disorders 37
Triglycerides 1215, 23, 36, 123
elevated 99
Tri-iodothyronine 10
Tumor necrosis factor alpha 22, 78, 79, 80, 82, 84
Turner's syndrome 36
Typical lipid abnormalities 126t
U
Unstable angina 105
V
Valproic acid 41
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 78
Very low-density lipoprotein 11, 13, 21, 22, 36, 40, 44, 61, 64, 99, 1234, 146, 149
cholesterol 52, 122
Visceral adipose tissue 74, 75t, 78
Vitamin D deficiency 42, 132, 165
W
Waist circumference 51, 98, 98t
Waist-hip ratio 98
White adipose tissue 74, 78
X
Xanthomas, eruptive 41
Z
Zona fasciculata 20
Zona glomerulosa 20
Zona reticularis 20
×
Chapter Notes

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1Lipids in Endocrinology2

Lipocrinology: Definition and DomainsCHAPTER 1

Gagan Priya,
Sanjay Kalra

ABSTRACT

There exists a close synchrony between the endocrine system, adipose tissue, and lipid metabolism. The novel concept of lipocrinology describes “the study of the inter-relationship between lipid metabolism and endocrine function in health and disease”. Dyslipidemia is commonly seen in endocrine disorders and lipid abnormalities may point to underlying endocrine illness in general clinical practice. Since the prevalence of both lipid disorders and endocrine diseases is on the rise, it is prudent to understand the multifaceted relationship between lipid health and endocrine health. This chapter introduces the concept of lipocrinology, highlighting the myriad ways in which this inter-relationship between hormones and lipids is clinically relevant and important.
 
INTRODUCTION
The concept of “lipocrinology” was proposed by us to describe “the study of the inter-relationship between lipid metabolism and endocrine function in health and disease”.1 There exists a close synchrony between the endocrine system and lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and this is reflected in both normal physiology and pathophysiological states.
Dyslipidemia is a common occurrence in clinical practice and accounts for greater than half the global burden of cardiovascular disease and has been attributed to cause over 4 million deaths per annum as per World Health Organization (WHO) 2002 report.2 The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was estimated to range from 3 to 53% in men and 4 to 40% in women in the WHO MONICA project that collected data from across 32 populations in 19 countries.4 As per the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB), there was a disturbingly high prevalence of dyslipidemia in individuals more than or equal to 20 years age in both rural and urban regions, with hypercholesterolemia in 13.9%, hypertriglyceridemia in 29.5%, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 72.3%, and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 11.8%. As high as 79% individuals had abnormalities in at least one of the lipid parameters studied.3
4
Understandably, a significant amount of medical research and literature has been dedicated to the management of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis and the reduction of cardiovascular risk. Statins have revolutionized the management of lipid disorders and several other classes of lipid-lowering drugs including fibrates, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists have been added to the armamentarium. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are another novel class of lipid-lowering drugs which hold great promise for the future. Many of these drugs, including the currently available lipid-lowering drugs, have pleiotropic effects that include endocrine effects as well.
However, despite clear evidence that dyslipidemia is a major driver for comorbidity and mortality related to noncommunicable diseases, it remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated anomaly in both developed and developing countries. The awareness regarding hypercholesterolemia was seen in only 0–33% men and women in the WHO MONICA project. Moreover, only 50% of individuals who were receiving lipid-lowering drugs had attained target cholesterol levels.4 Similar alarming data was gathered between 1998 and 2007 from eight high- and middle-income countries. The percentage of individuals with undiagnosed high cholesterol varied from 16% in United States to 78% in Thailand. Of those who were being treated, the percentage of individuals achieving target levels ranged from 4% in Germany to 58% in Mexico.5 Several factors contribute to this—clinical inertia in diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia, suboptimal dosing, drug intolerance, and poor drug adherence. At the same time, inability to diagnose and address other conditions such as endocrine disorders that contribute to abnormal lipoprotein homeostasis may result in suboptimal control.
In recent times, the prevalence of both dyslipidemia and endocrine disorders is increasing due to genetic as well as environmental factors. This is likely to create greater challenges in the clinical management of lipid disorders as well as endocrinopathies. But at the same time, this is also expected to create new opportunities in furthering our understanding of the interface between endocrinology and metabolism and development of new therapeutic possibilities. Several newer drugs that have effects on lipid and glucose metabolism as well hormonal milieu are in development.
In such a scenario, there is a clear need to improve our understanding of endocrine system and lipid metabolism and how these work in tandem in the causation of noncommunicable diseases. Hence, the novel field of lipocrinology is not only relevant, but also the need of the hour.
 
LIPID METABOLISM: EFFECTS ON ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY
Lipids play an essential role in the development and functioning of key endocrine organs. Lipids are the precursor molecules in the enzyme pathways leading to steroid hormone synthesis in several endocrine tissues, including adrenals and gonads. Intracellular lipid metabolites such as inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol are essential second messengers involved in the cellular signaling pathways for a wide variety of hormones. Lipids are an important energy fuel for several energy-intensive processes including spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Additionally, several lipid-lowering drugs have been demonstrated to have endocrine effects other than lowering of lipid levels.
5
 
THE ADIPOSE TISSUE AS AN ENDOCRINE ORGAN
Adipose tissue, in its own merit, is now considered as a key endocrine organ that works in tandem with other endocrine organs such as the adrenals, gonads, pancreas, thyroid, and pituitary to regulate energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and endothelial functions. Adipose tissue dysfunction and lipotoxicity are increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to diabetes pathophysiology, including impairment of insulin secretion and insulin action. Lipotoxicity also forms the common link between diabetes and comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, genetic or acquired lipodystrophies are themselves associated with disturbances in endocrine functions.
 
THE ENDOCRINE EFFECTS ON LIPID METABOLISM
On the other end of the spectrum, all players of the endocrine system modulate the distribution and the differentiation of adipose tissue and regulate its functions. Diseases of the endocrine system, be they hormone deficiency states or hormone excess states, are associated with significant alterations in lipid metabolism that may manifest clinically as dyslipidemia. Indeed, detection of dyslipidemia in general practice merits detailed clinical assessment to exclude endocrinopathies as a secondary cause of dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia is also the main contributing factor causing increased cardiovascular risk seen in several endocrine disorders and while it may be amenable to correction by adequate treatment of the underlying endocrinopathy, it may need to be addressed separately. Likewise, several drugs used in the management of endocrine diseases can have clinically meaningful effects on lipid parameters and adipose tissue health.
 
LIPOCRINOLOGY: A STEP TOWARD NEWER INSIGHTS
The subject of lipocrinology covers these varied aspects of the complex and multifaceted interplay between the endocrine system, adipose tissue, and lipid metabolism. The framework, as outlined in box 1 provides an improved understanding of the physiological links between hormones and metabolism, particularly lipid metabolism and the pathophysiological changes in various endocrine disease states. An understanding of these inter-relationships can improve clinical decision-making and management by improving vigilance for lipid disorders in the practice of endocrinology and endocrine disorders in the practice of lipidology. The concept is relevant to not just practicing endocrinologists, but also general physicians, internists, and cardiologists. This novel discipline has the potential to further research in both lipidology and endocrinology.
This book is dedicated to these aspects of lipocrinology. In the first section “Lipocrinology in Endocrinology”, the contribution of various endocrine organs to lipid health and the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia in endocrine disease are discussed.6
The clinical utility of lipid parameters in diagnosis of endocrinopathies and their impact on the clinical course and prognosis of endocrinopathies is also considered. We also discuss the need for lipid vigilance in endocrine diseases. The second section “Endocrinology in Lipocrinology” is dedicated to the role of the adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, the role of lipotoxicity in diabetes, and the Asian lipophenotype, endocrine aspects of lipodystrophies, and endocrine vigilance in lipid disorders. The final section focuses on “Management Issues in Lipocrinology” and elaborates upon the effects of lipid-lowering drugs in management of endocrinopathies, lipotropic effects of drugs used in endocrinology and diabetes, and endocrine effects of lipid-lowering drugs including PCSK9 inhibitors.8
We hope this book sensitizes the readers to a greater understanding of lipocrinology and inspires further research.
REFERENCES
  1. Kalra S, Priya G. Lipocrinology – the relationship between lipids and endocrine function. Drugs Context. 2018;7:212514.
  1. World Health Organization. Quantifying selected major risks to health. The World Health Report 2002. Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: World Health Organization;  2002:47–97.
  1. Joshi SR, Anjana RM, Deepa M, et al. ICMR-INDIAB Collaborative Study Group. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in urban and rural India: the ICMR-INDIAB study. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e96808.
  1. Tolonen H, Keil U, Ferrario M, et al. WHO MONICA Project. Prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypercholesterolaemia in 32 populations: results from the WHO MONICA Project. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(1):181–92.
  1. Roth GA, Fihn SD, Mokdad AH, et al. High total serum cholesterol, medication coverage and therapeutic control: an analysis of national health examination survey data from eight countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89(2):92–101.