Textbook of Kinesiology VD Bindal
INDEX
A
Abdominal muscles 149150
external oblique 150
internal oblique 150
rectus abdominis 150
Abduction 23
Abductor digity minimi 107
Abductor pollicis brevis 107
Abductor pollicis longus 107
Acetabular labrum 116
Acetabulum 116
Acromioclavicular joint 79
Adduction 2324
Adductor brevis 122
Adductor longus 122
Adductor magnus 122
Adductor pollicis 107
Agonists 43
All or None Law 27
Amphiarthrodial joints 2021
Anconeus 9798
Angle of pull 3940
Ankle 131142
joints of ankle & foot 131132
ligaments of ankle & foot 134135
movements of ankle & foot 133134
muscles of ankle & foot 137142
Antagonists 43
Anterior cruciate ligament 127
Anterior longitudinal ligament 144
Appendicular skeleton 1415
Arches of foot 136137
Axes 5253
Axial skeleton 1415
B
Ball-and-socket joints 20,86,116
Basal ganglia 45
Base of support 51
Biarticular muscles 40
Biceps brachii 90,96
Biceps femoris 121, 129
Biomechanical concepts 5076
Bones
of ankle and foot 131132
of elbow and radioulnar joints 94
flat bones 16
gross structure 1516
of hip 116
irregular bones 16
of knee 126
long bones 16
short bones 16
of shoulder 86
of spinal column 143
types 1617
of wrist and hand 100101
Bow Legs 170
Brachialis 96
Brachioradialis 96
Brain 45
basal ganglia 46
brain stem 46
cerebellum 46
cerebral cortex 46
C
Calcaneous 131
Calcaneocuboid joint 131
Capitate 101
Capitis 148
Cardinal planes 5455
Carpal joints 100
Carpal tunnel 109
Carpometacarpal joints 101
Carrying 195196
Cartilaginous joints 18
Catching 201202, 208
Center of gravity 5051
Central nervous system 4547
brain 45
components of 4546
spinal cord 4647
Cerebellum 46
Cerebral cortex 46
Cervical nerves 47
Cervicis 149
Cervical vertebrae 143
Circumduction 24
Coccyx 143
Collateral ligaments 127, 134
Concentric contraction 3435
Concurrent forces 6061
Condyloid joints 20
Coracoacromial ligament 86
Coracobrachialis 89
Coracoclavicular ligament 80
Coracohumeral ligament 86
Cranial nerves 45
Cruciate ligaments 127
Cuboid 131
Cuneiforms 132
Curvilinear motion 63
D
Daily life activities 192207
Deceleration 65
Deep posterior spinal muscles 152
Deltoid 89
Deltoid ligament 134
Depression 25, 80
Diagonal plane 55
Diarthrodial joints 2021
Direction of force 60
Dorsiflexion 24, 133
E
Eccentric contraction 34
Elbow joint 9499
movements of, 9495
Elbow muscles 9599
anconeus 9798
biceps brachii 90, 96
brachialis 96
brachioradialis 96
pronator teres 98
supinator 99
triceps brachii 80, 97
Elevation 25, 80
Equilibrium 5556
factors affecting stability 5658
neutral equilibrium 56
stable equilibrium 5556
unstable equilibrium 56
Erector spinae 150152
Eversion 25, 133
Extension 23
Extensor carpi radialis brevis 105
Extensor carpi radialis longus 105
Extensor carpi ulnaris 105
Extensor digiti minimi 107
Extensor digitorum 107
Extensor digitorum longus 138
Extensor hallucis lougus 138
Extensor indicis 107
External oblique 150
Extensor pollicis brevis 107
Extensor pollicis longus 107
External rotators of hip 123
F
Falling 202203
Facet joints 144
Fast twitch fibers 30
Femur 126
Fibrous joints 18
Fibula 131
Flat back 168
Flat bones 16
Flat foot 170
Flexion 23
Flexor carpi radialis 105
Flexor carpi ulnaris 105
Flexor digitorum profundus 105
Flexor digitorum superficialis 105
Flexor digiti minimi brevis 107
Flexor digitorum longus 140141
Flexor hallucis longus 141
Flexor pollicis longus 105
Foot 131142
bones of ankle and foot 131132
joints of ankle and foot 131132
ligaments of ankle and foot 134135
movements of ankle and foot 133134
muscles of 137142
Force 5862
definition of 58
direction of forces 60
internal and external forces 59
magnitude of 59
parallel forces 6162
point of application of 5960
resolution of forces 6062
Forward head 169
Friction 57
Frontal axis 53
Frontal plane 52, 54
Fusiform (spindle-shaped) muscle 3233
Fundamentals of human motion
anatomical and physiological 1449
Fundamental joint movements 2327
G
Gait 173185
common deviations 189191
determinants of 177178
individual variations in 183184
Gastrocnemius 139
Gemmellus superior and inferior 123
Glenoid labrum 86
Glenohumeral joint 86
Glenohumeral ligament 86
Gluteus maximus 120
Gluteus medius 121122
Gluteus minimus 122
Golgi tendon organ 49
Gracilis 123
Gravity 50
H
Hamstrings 120121
Hamate 101
Hand 100111
bones of 100101
joints of 100103
ligaments of 101
movements of hand 103
muscles of 105109
Handling an object overhead 196197
Hinge joints 19, 94, 126
Hip 116123
ligaments of 116
movements at 116117
Hip abductors 121122
Hip adductors 122
Hip extensors 120
Hip flexors 119
Hip joint muscles 117124
adductor brevis 122
adductor longus 122
adductor magnus 122
external ratators 123
gluteus maximus 120
gluteus medius 121122
gluteus minimus 122
gracilis 123
hamstrings 120
iliopsoas 119
pectineus 119
rectus femoris 119
sartorius 119
tensor fasciae latae 120
Humeroulnar joint 94
Humerus 86, 94
Hyperabduction 23
Hyperextension 23
Hyperflexion 23
I
Iliacus 119
Iliofemoral ligament 116
Iliopsoas 119
Iliotibial band 120, 128
Ilium 112, 116
Inertia 65
Infraspinatus 92
Injury prevention 208213
Intercarpal joint 100
Intermetacarpal joints 101
Intermetatarsal joints 132
Internal oblique 150
Interphalangeal joints 103, 132
Interossei 108, 141
Intervertebral discs 144
Intrinsic muscles
of foot 141
of hand 107109
Inversion 25, 133
Irregular bones 16
Irregular joints 19
Ischiofemoral ligament 116
Ischium 112, 116
Isokinetic contraction 35
J
Joints 1722
acromioclavicular joint 7980
ankle and foot joints 131133
ball-and-socket joints 20, 86, 116
carpal joints 100
carpometacarpal joints 101
cartilaginous joints 18
classification of 1822
condyloid joints 20
diarthrodial joints 2021
elbow joint 9499
fibrous joints 18
of fingers 101
hinge joints 19, 94, 126
hip 116
intercarpal joint 100
intermetacarpal joints 101
interphalangeal joints 103, 132
irregular joints 19
knee 126
ligamentous joints 21
metacarpophalangeal joints 103
metatarsophalangeal joints 132
midcarpal joint 100101
midtarsal joints 132
mobility of 22
pivot joints 19
radiocarpal joint 100
radiohumeral joint 94
radioulnar joints 9499
range of motion 2627
saddle joints 20
shoulder joint 86
of spinal column 144
stability of 22
sternoclavicular joint 7980
subtalar joint 131
synarthrodial joints 2021
synovial joints 18
talocalcaneal joint 131
of thumb 103
wrist joint 100101
Joint proprioceptors 4849
Jumping 200
K
Kinesiology
aims and objectives 911
application in selected daily
life activities and sports skills 190205
definition 3
introduction 313
major contributions 59
practical application 1112
role and importance 1213
Kinesthetic sensations, role 4849
Knee 126130
ligaments of 127128
menisci 126
movements at 128
Knee joint muscles 128130
gastrocnemius 129,139
gracilis 123
hamstring group 120,129
popliteus 129
quadriceps femoris 128129
sartorius 119
Knock-knee 170
Kyphosis 167
Kypholordosis 169
L
Landing 200, 209
Lateral collateral ligament 127
Lateral flexion 26,145
Latissimus dorsi 90
Law of acceleration 6667
Law of inertia 6567
Law of reaction 67
Levator scapulae 84
Levers 6876
anatomical levers 6869
classification of 6972
definition of 68
first-class levers 6970
functions of 68
mechanical advantage of 76
principle of levers 7476
second-class levers 7071
in sports 76
third-class levers 7172
Lifting 193194
Ligamentous joints 21
Ligaments,
ankle and foot 134135
hip joint 116
knee 127128
shoulder joint 86
spinal column 144145
wrist and hand 101
Linear forces 60
Linear motion 63
Line of gravity 51
Line of pull of muscle 3839
Locomotion 171189
running 183187
walking 171183
Long bones 16
Longitudinal muscle 32
Lordosis 169
Lower extremities 112142
ankle and foot 131142
hip 116123
knee 126130
Lumbar vertebrae 143
Lumbricals 108, 141
Lumbosacral joint 113
Lumbosacral angle 113
Lunate 100
M
Magnitude of force 59
Marathon running 186
Mechanical advantage of levers 76
Medial collateral ligament 127
Menisci, knee 126
Metacarpophalangeal joints 102103
Metatarsals 131
Metatarsophalangeal joints 132
Midcarpal joints 100
Midtarsal joint 132
Momentum 66
in law of acceleration 6667
Motion 6267
angular or rotatory motion 6364
curvilinear motion 63
definition of 6263
factors modifying motion 65
rectilinear motion 63
translatory motion 63
types of motion 6364
Motor units 3637
Movement
abduction 23
adduction 2324
circumduction 24
extension 23
flexion 23
pronation 24
rotation 24
supination 24
Moving weights 196198
Multifidus 151
Multipenniform muscle, skeletal 33
Muscle belly 28
Muscle contraction,
gradation of 37
physiology of 36
types 3435
Muscle fiber 2830
fast twitch fibers 30
slow twitch fibers 30
Muscular system 2736
Muscle proprioceptors 4849
Muscular system 2736
functions 27
nomenclature 32
roles 43
skeletal 2728
structural classification 3233
types 27
Muscle spindles 49
Muscle tissue, properties of skeletal 28
N
Navicular 131
Nervous control of voluntary movements 4549
central nervous system 4547
motor units 3637, 48
nerves 47
peripheral nervous system 4748
Neutral equilibrium 56
Neuromuscular concepts 3645
Neutralizers, skeletal muscle 4445
Newton's laws of motion 6567
law of acceleration 6667
law of gravity's attraction 50
law of inertia 6566
law of reaction 67
O
Obturator externus and internus 123
Opponens digiti minimi 107
Opponens policis 107
Opposition 26, 102
Overhead striking 204
P
Palmar flextion 25
Palmaris longus 105
Parallel forces 6162
Patella 126127
Patellar ligament 128
Patello femoral joint 126
Pectineus 119
Pectoralis major 89
Pectoralis minor 8283
Pelvic girdle 112115
movements of 113114
muscles of 115
relationship to trunk/lower extremities 114
Piriformis 123
Peripheral nervous system 4748
Peroneus brevis 140
Peroneus longus 140
Pennate muscles 33
Peroneus tertius 138
Phalanges 101, 131
Pisiform 101
Pivot joint 19
Planes 5255
Plantaris 129, 139
Planterflexion 24, 133
Popliteus 129
Posterior cruciate ligament 127
Posterior longitudinal ligament 144
Posture 155170
definitions 155
defects 163170
evolution of erect posture 155156
good posture 159160
maintenance of 158159
poor posture 160
types of 156
Prevertebral muscles 148
Principle of levers 7476
Pronation 24, 133
Pronator quadratus 9899
Pronator teres 98
Proprioceptors 4849
Protraction 25, 81
Psoas 119
Pubis 112
Pubofemoral ligament 116
Pushing and pulling 198
Q
Quadrate (quadrilateral) muscle 32
Quadratus lumborum 152
Quadriceps femoris 128129
R
Radial deviation 26
Radial collateral ligament 101
Radial flexion 102
Radiocarpal joints 100
Radiohumeral joint 94
Radioulnar joint 9499
Radius 94, 100
Range of motion
of major joints 2627
Reciprocal inhibition 38
Rectilinear motion 63
Rectus abdominis 150
Rectus femoris 119, 129
Reposition 26
Retraction 25, 81
Rhomboids 84
Rotatory motion 6364
Rotation (lateral/medial) 24
Rotator cuff 86
Rotatores 151
Round shoulders 169
Running 183187
mechanical analysis 184185
mechanical principles 185186
muscular analysis 186
sprinting 188
support phase 183
swing phase 183184
S
Sacroiliac joint 112
Sacrum 112, 143
Saddle joints 20
Sagittal axis 52
Sagittal plane 5254
Sartorius 119
Scalenes 149
Scapula 79
Scaphoid 100, 131
Scapulohumeral rhythm 88
Scapulothoracic joint 80
Scoliosis 171
Semimembranosus 121, 129
Semitendinosus 121, 129
Serratus anterior 8182
Short bones 16
Shoulder girdle 7985
acromioclavicular joint 79
movements of 8081
muscles of 8185
sternoclavicular joint 80
Shoulder girdle muscles 8185
levator scapulae 84
pectoralis minor 8283
rhomboids 84
serratus anterior 8182
subclavius 83
trapezius 8384
Shoulder joint 86
ligaments of 86
movements of 8788
Shoulder joint muscles 8893
biceps brachii 90
coracobrachialis 89
deltoid 89
infraspinatus 92
latissimus dorsi 90
pectoralis major 89
subscapularis 92
supraspinatus 91
teres major 90
teres minor 92
triceps brachii 80
Sitting and rising 194
Skeletal muscle roles 4345
agonists/movers 43
antagonists 43
fixators 44
neutralizers 4445
synergists 44
Skeletal muscle structure 2832
fusiform (spindle-shaped) muscle 3233
longitudinal muscle 32
multipenniform muscle 33
muscle fiber 2830
muscular attachments 3132
muscular tissue, properties of 28
quadrate (quadrilateral) muscle 32
triangular (fan-shaped) muscle 33
unipenniform muscle 33
Skeleton
appendicular skeleton 1415
axial skeleton 1415
Skeletal muscles 2732
properties 28
gross and microscopic structure 2830
Skeletal system 1427
functions of skeleton 14
types, 1415
Slow twitch fibers 30
Soleus 139
Spine 143153
joints of 144
ligaments of, 144145
movements of 145147
Spinal muscles 147153
abdominal muscles 147149
capitis 147147
cervicis 147
deep posterior spinal muscles 150
erector spinae 150152
prevertebral muscles 148
quadratus lumborum 152
scalenes 149
semispinalis 151
splenius capitis 149
sternocleidomastoid 148
suboccipital muscles 149
transversospinalis 151152
Spinal nerves 47
Splenius capitis 149
Sports skills 200207
Sports injuries prevention 208213
Sprinting 188
Stability 5558
factors affecting 5658
Stabilizers, skeletal muscle 44
Stable equilibrium 5556
Stair climbing 192
Standing position 160162
Sternoclavicular joint 80
Sternocleidomastoid 148
Sternum 79
Striking 204
Stooping 192
Subclavius 83
Subscapularis 92
Subtalar joint 131
Supination 24, 133
Supinator 99
Supraspinatus 91
Sway back 168
Synarthrodial joints 2021
Synergists, skeletal muscle 44
T
Talocalcaneal joint 131
Talonavicular joint 131
Talotibial joint 131
Talus 131
Tarsals 131
Tarsal joints 131132
Tendon 28
Tensor fasciae latae 120
Teres femoris 116
Teres major 90
Teres minor 92
Thoracic vertebrae 143
Throwing 204
Thumb 101103
Tibia 126, 131
Tibialis anterior 137138
Tibialis posterior 139
Tibiofemoral joints 126
Tilt of scapula 81
Toes 132134
Translatory motion 63
Transverse acetabular ligament 116
Transverse ligament 116, 128
Transverse plane 54
Transverse tarsal joint 132
Transversospinalis 151152
Trapezius 8384
Trapezium 101
Trapezoid 101
Triangular (fan-shaped) muscle 33
Triceps brachii 80, 97
Triquetral 100
Two joint muscles 4043
U
Ulna 94, 100
Ulnar deviation 26
Ulnar collateral ligament 101
Ulnar flexion 102
Underhand throwing 203
Unipennate muscle 33
Unstable equilibrium 56
Upper extremities 86111
elbow and radioulnar joints 9499
shoulder 8693
wrist and hand 100111
V
Vastus intermedius 129
Vastus lateralis 129
Vastus medialis 129
Vertebrae 143
Vertical axis 53
Voluntary movements, nervous control 4549
W
Walking 173185
anatomical principles of 181
components of 173
energy cost of 184
gait, individual variations 181182
mechanical analysis 180181
mechanical principles in 181
neuromuscular considerations 178
stance phase 172173
swing phase 172174
arm swing 177, 179
Wrist 100111
carpal tunnel 109
ligaments of 101
midcarpal and intercarpal joints 100101
movements of 102
muscles of 105
Y
Y ligament 116
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Chapter Notes

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1Introduction and Fundamentals
  • Introduction to Kinesiology
  • Anatomical and Physiological Fundamentals of Human Motion
  • Basic Biomechanical Concepts2

Introduction to KinesiologyCHAPTER 1

 
DEFINITION
The term “Kinesiology” is a combination of two Greek verbs “Kinein”, meaning “to move”, and “logos” meaning “to discourse” or “to the study”. As such, kinesiology may be defined as a science which investigates and analyzes human motion.
The study of the human body as a machine for the performance of work has its foundations in three major areas of study namely, mechanics, anatomy, and physiology; more specifically, biomechanics, musculoskeletal anatomy, and neuromuscular physiology. The accumulated knowledge of these three fields forms the basis for the study of human movement.
Some authorities refer to kinesiology as a science in its own right; while there are others who claim that kinesiology is not a true science because the principles on which it is based are derived from basic sciences such as anatomy, physiology, and physics. In any event, the unique contribution of kinesiology is that it selects from many sciences those principles that are relevant to human motion and systematizes their application. As such, as a modern science, kinesiology not only must adapt the practices and standards, but must also make use of all those facts and principles gathered by other sciences which can contribute to a complete understanding of man's movements.
From the time we stretch and start to waken in the morning until we lie down again for sleep at night, practically everything we do is the result of changing muscular contractions. Even the thoughts of an inactive man produce changes in the muscular response. The period of rest and sleep is often thought of as one of the inactivity, but respiration must continue, heart action slows but never stops, and the body is rolled, turned, flexed, and extended during the sleeping period. These are all motor acts. When the individual opens his eyes or speaks, it is by motor acts. The muscular response stops to exist only upon the paralysis or death.
Movement is so generally observable in living organisms that it has attracted the attention of man ever since we have a record of his philosophic and scientific interests in himself and the world around him. Even the lower animals know that movement is a sign of life. They are always quick to detect any motion near them, especially if they are fearful of danger. Many will take a position of complete immobility when they are aware of danger. Or they will move very cautiously and slowly to prevent their movement from being clearly visible or remarkable.
Man seems to think in terms of movement. A study of the art of nearly all primitive people shows that it deals largely with active participants in war, sports, or routine occupations. We hardly find reclining, sitting or standing figures which are entirely passive in their attitude. The gods, in all the art forms, were usually taking part in man's activities. Man and animals, as depicted in carvings, sculptures, drawings and literature, are active creatures. From earliest times, motor skill and human movement had art, religious and militarily values.
It is obvious that how a machine can be used depends upon the way it is made; its structure, the material of which the parts are composed, and the way they are put together. It is also known that two machines may perform the similar function with different degrees of effort and efficiency. This too is the result of structural quality and arrangement. The human mechanism has many of the characteristics of other machines. Complete understanding of the human motion necessitates a knowledge of anatomy, both gross and microscopic.
Movement can take place only as normal body functioning proceeds. For example, muscle-contraction is not an isolated process, which occurs independently of 4the rest of the body. The nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and excretory systems all have their part to play in this phenomenon. As such, the science of physiology as a whole has basic contributions to make to kinesiology.
The field of mechanics is a logical source to kinesiology. One of the essential features of kinesiology is that it treats all motor acts as mechanical events. Man can be regarded as a machine, a device for transmitting energy. He takes in fuel, which can be converted to energy, and the energy can in turn be utilized to do work. Though the machine of man existed thousands of years before the man-made machines, understanding of mechanical principles was not derived from observation of human movement. Man observed the movement of external objects and means by which objects could be moved, and then formulated general laws and principles. These enabled him to construct simple and complex devices for doing work.
Fundamental to the understanding of man's movements is the realization that he is a living organism and that his structure and behavior have been shaped by his anthropologic ancestors. His backbone is credited to him by the fish family, who developed that structure when the surface of the earth was covered with water. When part of the earth's surface was raised above the water, the animal life, to survive on land, had to develop new structural forms for locomotion. The body needed to be lifted above the earth's surface and yet maintain some contact with it; fins were gradually shaped into legs and feet. Because air does not support the body mass, as does water, the backbone and the newly developed legs needed material to better resist gravitational pull, and thus the cartilaginous tissue changed to bone. To escape enemies and to secure food, rapid locomotion was needed, and primitive legs lengthened to the thighs and legs of present quadrupeds.
In these changes and in those that followed is seen the capacity of living organisms to adapt structure and behavior to the demands of the environment. The demand of environment, as quadruped walking changed to biped walking, resulted in structural modifications in pelvic, leg and toe bones, and in gluteal muscles, to meet out the functional requirements.
With the growth of plants and trees on the land, some animal forms escaped ground enemies by choosing an arboreal or tree–like life. Here a new means of locomotion developed, that of grasping branches and swinging the suspended body from limb to limb. This type of life modified body structure, the distal ends of the forelimbs were shaped into hands, and the proximal end of the forelimb developed a joint capable of great movement. Gravitational force pulled the torso or the trunk and lower limbs downward, providing a relationship of body segments that would enable descendents to stand on two rather than four feet.
When some of the tree-dwelling animals returned to ground life and found bipedal locomotion profitable, the human foot was developed. The heels developed and lengthened, providing a rear for the base of support. The forepart of the foot developed to provide the front of the base. According to many experts, the foot in human is one such peculiar structure that differentiates man from other animals. The bony structures between the heel and ball of foot are compactly fitted together, enabling them to bear the weight of the body and transmit it to the ball of the foot or the toes. This compactness enables man to rotate his weight about the metatarsophalangeal joints, an action that is impossible in animals such as the ape.
As the foot took over the weight-bearing function, the forelimbs were freed for manipulation of external objects. In such manipulative skills, man exceeds all animals, and according to many experts, the hand and the opposable thumb in man are his unique structural features. The primates that still live in trees have five digits at the distal ends of the limb, and the first of these digits can close against the other four digits as a branch of tree is clasped. Man inherited his hand but developed his foot.
Each species inherits a basic design that will be modified by its mode of maintaining life. As man's ancestors developed the ability to balance on two feet, they also modified their forms of locomotion, i.e. walking, running, leaping, and jumping. The free forelimbs developed the ability to throw and strike, to pull and push, and to lift. The practice of these skills further modified the structure, without a change in its basic design.
Apart from the changes and modifications in the bony structures, those parts of the body involved in movement, primarily the muscular and nervous systems, were also modified. Since structure and function develop simultaneously, they are interrelated to each other. Man does not choose his structure, that is inherited from species that preceded him. Similarly, he does not choose his basic movement patterns, as they too, are inherited. However, within limits, structure can be modified by environment, exercise, and nutrition. His movements also have limitations imposed by inheritance of structure of bones and joints, of muscles, and of nerve patterns. These can be modified to some extents, but not changed basically.
Motor skill must be studied with the realization that it is not the result of experiences of a single life span. From birth to maturity, each individual will have at his command motor responses that will to some degree meet the needs 5of each growth stage. Such responses are man's heritage, gifts from ancestors who inherited to their descendants bone, muscle, and nerve structures and patterns of motor behavior that they have found to be valuable. Each heritage is made with a wise condition; the successor must use and exercise the gift to bring to fulfillment its potential value.
Kinesiology is not an isolated science, sufficient in itself in methods, knowledge, or contribution. It is a composite of several of the sciences. It requires wide information and it offers opportunity for application of principles and laws.
Man designs the machine, he builds as best he can for the purpose he desires. We inherit our biological and physical make-up. But our human machinery is designed cleverly enough, for the demands we make upon it. However, if the demands continue beyond the scope of this human machine, nature makes every effort possible to make the necessary adaptations.
 
MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS: PAST AND CURRENT
The origin and development of kinesiology are briefly traced chronologically and logically. The mention of the history of kinesiology may be found in treatises and medical histories. Kinesiology reaches back to the first scientific concepts of movement that man was able to comprehend, although some of the basic ideas had been known and used from olden times. Its roots are certainly deep in the beginnings of medical history.
 
Ancient Era
The Greeks were among the first to practice so-called scientific thinking, as opposed to thinking based on emotional and spiritual ideas. The Greek philosophers believed in the unity of body and mind. Their interpretation of man's activity was mechanistic, in accordance with their materialistic interpretation of the universe.
  • Hippocrates (460–370 BC) advocated the concept that man should base observations on and draw conclusions from only what he perceived through his senses (particularly the senses of touch, sight, hearing, and smell) without recourse to the supernatural. He recognized the physiological effect of a common place activity such as walking. For example, he wrote that walking should be rapid in winter and slow in summer; unless it be under a burning heat; that fleshy people should walk faster, thin people slower.
     Hippocrates, and Aristotle a Century or so later, devised certain empirical theories of anatomical structure and human mechanics. Though there was much of truth in their ideas, but the beginnings of the scientific approach came much later.
  • Aristotle (384–322 BC) is usually given the title “father of kinesiology”. About three centuries before Christ, Aristotle wrote, “the animal that moves makes its change of position by pressing against that which is beneath it. Hence, athletes jump further if they have the weights in their hands than if they have not, and runners run faster if they swing their arms, for in extension of the arms there is a kind of leaning upon the hands and wrists.” Hart said, “from the point of view of mechanics, we may regard Aristotle's work as the starting point of a chain of thought which played an important part in the evolution of the subject.
     Aristotle was the first to analyze and describe the complex process of walking, in which rotatory motion is transformed into translatory motion. Aristotle's treatise, Parts of Animals, Movements of Animals and Progression of Animals, described for the first time the actions of the muscles and subjected them to geometrical analysis. The ideas expressed by Aristotle were the forerunners of the ideas of Newton, Borelli and others. His concepts of leverage, gravity, and laws of motion were remarkably accurate.
  • Another Greek, Archimedes (287–212 BC), a renowned mathematician, determined hydrostatic principles governing floating bodies which are still accepted as valid in the kinesiology of swimming. The broad scope of Archimedes inquires included the laws of leverage and problems related to determining the center of gravity. Principles originally developed by Archimedes are still used in determinations of body composition.
  • The Romans, who did not hesitate to recognizing and utilizing the best from the culture of the nations they conquered, brought to Rome concepts of Greek medicine. Claudius Galen (131–201 AD), a Roman physician brought the science of anatomy to Rome. His discoveries and forthright attitude made him the outstanding anatomist and physiologist until the fifteenth century. In his essay “De Motu Musculorum” he distinguished between motor and sensory nerves, and between agonist and antagonist muscles, described tonus, and introduced terms such as diarthrosis and synarthrosis which even today are of major importance in the terminology of arthrology. The idea that muscles were contractile seems to have originated with Galen. He taught that muscular contraction resulted from the passage of “animal spirits’ from the brain through the nerves to the muscles.
 
Renaissance
Following Galen's muscle studies, kinesiology like other fields of science did not develop for over a thousand years 6due to the then prevailing neglect of physical exercise and bodily development. During the Renaissance, German, English, French, and Italian physiologists and physicists attacked the problem of analyzing animal and human movements. These studies form the real beginning of our modern understanding of the problem.
It was not until the time that the scientific awakening known as the Renaissance was perhaps initiated, and further advanced in the field of kinesiology by one of the world's greatest scientists in the history, Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519). He was an artist, engineer and scientist who is given credit for developing modern science of anatomy. He studied the structure of man, especially noting the relation of the center of gravity to balance and motion during different movements. He made these observations while developing a treatise on painting.
Da Vinci's ability to draw the action of muscles when the human body was performing a dynamic act was of great value to medical students and to the science of kinesiology. He described the mechanics of the body in standing, walking up and down hill, in rising from a sitting position and in jumping. Da Vinci was probably the first to record scientific data on human gait.
  • Since scientific contributions of Da Vinci were hidden from the world almost for 200–300 years after his death and which have only recently been discovered and published, it was left to others to add to man's knowledge in this area. Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564), considered to be the developer of the modern concept of anatomy, was one of them. His drawings, which portray muscles in action in a living, moving human being, are in keeping with the spirit of the Renaissance.
  • Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was a noted mathematician and astronomer. Although he is known as one of the experts of natural law and made accessible to man two instruments, the telescope and microscope, his contributions to the field of kinesiology are enormous. He is credited with “laying firm foundation of mechanics.” Galileo's alleged experiments on the rate of acceleration of falling bodies from the leaning Tower of Pisa in 1590 or 1591 laid the basis for our present concept of the rate of falling objects in sports and athletics. He demonstrated that the acceleration of a falling body is not proportional to its weight and that the relationship of space, time and velocity is the most important factor in the study of motion. Galileo also proved that the trajectory of a projectile through a resistance-free medium is a parabola. His work gave impetus to the study of mechanical events in mathematical terms, which in turn provided a basis for the emergence of kinesiology as a science.
  • Francis Glisson (1597–1677) demonstrated through phelthysmographic experiments that muscles do contract, and that viable tissue had the capacity to react to certain stimuli.
  • Alfonso Borelli (1608–1679), an Italian physicist and one of the pupils of Galileo, combined the sciences of mathematics, physics, and anatomy in first treatise on kinesiology, “De Motu Animalium”, published in 1630 or 1631. Borelli applied Galileo's mathematical principles to movement and sought to demonstrate that animals are machines. One expert Steindler regards Borelli as the father of modern biomechanics of the locomotor system. Borelli recognized that bones serve as levers and are moved by muscles in accordance with mathematical laws. He also believed that the movements of animals are affected by other forces, such as air and water resistance, and poor or good mechanical position. Because of these beliefs, Hirt called Borelli the father of modern kinesiology. Borelli has even been given credit for discovering the reciprocal action of muscles, a concept which Sherrington is thought to have conceived much later.
  • Isaac Newton (1642–1727) laid the foundation of modern dynamics. Particularly important to the future of kinesiology was his formulation of the three laws of motion which express the relationships between forces and their effects and are in use today. Newton is also credited with the first correct general statement of the parallelogram of force, based on his observation that a moving body affected by two independent forces acting simultaneously moved along a diagonal equal to the vector sum of the forces acting independently. And thus basis for the mechanical analysis of movement was established. Since two or more muscles may pull on a common point of insertion, each at a different angle and with different force, the resolution of vectors of this type is a matter of considerable importance in the solution of academic problems in kinesiology.
  • James Keill (1674–1719), in his studies of muscular contraction, calculated the number of fibers in certain muscles, and assumed that on contraction, each muscle fiber became spherical and shortened. He also established the amount of tension developed by each fiber to lift a given weight.
  • Albrecht Haller (1708–1777), a great Swiss physiologist of the eighteenth century brought into clear focus the concept of independent irritability and excitability of muscle tissue. The idea that contractility is an innate property of the muscle was first established by Haller.
  • Luigi Galvani (1737–1798), a professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, Italy, made the discovery 7that was the forerunner of the concept of irritability of muscles. During experiments on muscle and nerve preparations, he noted the contraction of muscle when the leg of a frog contacted metal and devised an arc of two metals with which muscle contractions could be induced.
  • In Lecture series on muscle motion, John Hunter (1728–1793), a great anatomist, described the structure and muscular function in considerable detail, including the origin, insertion, and shape of muscles, the mechanical arrangement of their fibers, the two joint problem, contraction and relaxation, strength, hypertrophy, and many other aspects of the subject. The lectures of Hunter are regarded as summarizing all that was known about kinesiology at the end of the eighteenth century.
 
Nineteenth Century Onwards
The nineteenth century saw still greater contributions. The basic facts of neuromuscular functioning were revealed by the work of such men as the Weber brothers, Sherrington, and Helmholtz. Additional experimental evidence through following decades re-affirms many theories of nervous stimulation and inhibition, and muscular reaction. Scientists such as Braune, Fischer, Duchenne, Marey, and many others studied the problems of muscle mechanics, of body balance, and of locomotion. It was in these years that the science of kinesiology was really founded.
  • Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne (1806–1875) was a great investigator, who devoted much of his time and effort to discovering the function of isolated muscles by stimulating them electrically. He initiated to classify the functions of individual muscles in relation to body movements. Duchenne's book “Physiologie des movements” published in 1865 has been claimed to be one of the greatest books of all times.
  • Adolf Eugen Fick (1829–1901) made important contributions to our knowledge of the mechanics of muscular movement and evolved the terms, isotonic and isometric. The present theory of resistive exercises is also based on his contributions.
  • The Weber brothers, Ernst Heinrich (1795–1878), Wilhelm Eduard (1804–1891), and Eduard Friedrick Wilhelm (1806–1871) investigated the influence of gravity on limb movements in walking and running. And that the gravity is often the force that propels a walker forward, causing him to fall unless balance is reestablished. They were also among the first scholars to study the path of the center of gravity during movement. They also believed that the body was maintained in the erect position primarily by tension of ligaments, with little or no muscular exertion. The publication of “Die Mechanik der menschlichen Gerverkzeuge” published by the Webers in 1836 still stands as the classical work, which firmly established the mechanism of muscular action on a scientific basis.
  • Jues Amar is perhaps one of the greatest contributors to the field of kinesiology in the area of efficiency of work and body mechanics. His book, “The Human Motor” published in 1914, and translated into English in 1920, was an attempt to bring in one volume all the known physiologic and kinesiological principles involved in industrial work and in the performance of certain sports movements.
  • John Hughlings Jackson (1834–1911), the father of modern neurology, made definite contributions to knowledge pertaining to the control of muscular movement by the brain. Jackson is given credit for the famous expression “nervous centers know nothing of muscles; they only know of movements.”
  • Charles Edward Beevor (1854–1908), after careful study of the muscular actions involved in the movements of certain joints, proposed that the muscles be classified as prime movers, synergic muscles, fixators, or antagonists. He was of the opinion that the antagonistic muscles always relaxed in strong resistive movements. In this respect, Beevor was influenced by the work of charles Sherrington (1857–1952), who advanced the theory of the reciprocal innervation and antagonistic muscles in a number of papers published near the end of the Nineteenth Century.
  • Karl Culmann (1821–1881), a German engineer, developed a hypothesis that led to the trajectory theory of the architecture of bones. This led Julius Wolff (1836–1902) to develop his famous “Wolff's Law”, “Bones in their external and internal architecture conform with the intensity and direction of the stresses to which they are habitually subjected”. Wolff believed that the formation of bone results both from the force of muscular tensions and from the weight of the body coupled with gravitational pull, which is considered a major contribution on skeletal development.
  • Bassett has proposed a restatement of Wolff's law in modern terms: “The form of the bone being given, the bone elements place or displace themselves in the direction of the functional pressures and increase or decrease their mass to reflect the amount of functional pressure.
  • John C Koch, in his paper, “Laws of Bone Architecture” concluded that the compact spongy materials of bone 8are so composed as to produce maximum strength with a minimum of material and that in form and structure bones are designed to resist in the most economical manner the maximum compressive stresses normally produced by the body weight. Koch also commented that alterations in posture increase the stress in certain regions and decrease it in others, and that if postural alterations are maintained, the inner structure of the affected bones is altered.
  • F Pauwels attempted to demonstrate that muscles and ligaments act as traction braces to reduce the magnitude of stress in the bones. Though Pauwels work was criticized by F Gaynor Evans, nevertheless, the theory of functional adaptation to static stress remains a major hypothesis in the study of skeletal development. JH Scott has reviewed the material in the field in an effort to construct a working hypothesis of the developmental and functional relationships which exist between the skeletal system and the neuromuscular system.
  • Henry Pickering Bowditch (1814–1911), demonstrated the treppe phenomenon (1871), the “all or none” principle of muscle contraction (1871), and the indefatigability of the nerves (1890).
  • Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov (1829–1905), a famous Russian physiologist declared in 1863, “all the endless diversity of the external manifestations of the activity of the brain can be finally regarded as one phenomenon–that of muscular movement.”
  • Etienne Jules Marey (1830–1904), a French physiologist was so interested in human movement that he developed photographic means for use in biological research. Marey, and Robinson both were convinced that human movement was the important function of man and affected all his other activities.
  • Eadweard Muybridge (1831–1904), also through his photographic skill, brought a new tool to kinesiological investigation. Animal Locomotion (1887), an eleven volume work was one of the publications of Muybridge, and The Human Figure in Motion contains much of his original work. Using 24 fixed cameras and two portable batteries of 12 cameras each, he was able to take pictures of animals and people in action.
  • Angelo Mosso (1848–1910), a scientist of the Nineteenth century made an important contribution to the study of kinesiology, the invention of the ergograph in 1884. This instrument, now available in several specialized versions, has become a nearly indispensable tool for the study of muscular function in the human body.
  • The study of developmental mechanics was introduced by Wilhelm Roux (1850–1924) who stated that muscular hypertrophy develops only after a muscle is forced to work intensively, which was later demonstrated experimentally by Werner W Siebert.
  • B Morpurgo showed that increased strength and hypertrophy are a result of an increase in the diameter of the individual fibers of a muscle, not a result of an increase in the number of muscle-fibers.
  • The photographic techniques of Marey and Muybridge opened the way for two German scientists and anatomists, Christian Wilhelm Braune (1831–1892) and Otto-Fischer (1861–1917), to study the human gait by means of photographic devices. They also developed an experimental method to determine the center of gravity of the human body, and the report of which they published in 1889 became very famous. Today's concepts on posture appear to have had their origin in the experiments of Braune and Fischer.
  • Rudolf A Fick (1866–1939), a German who followed on the work of Braune and Fischer, eventually became one of the outstanding authorities in the field of mechanics of joint and muscular movement. Fick's contention that for people of different races and cultures, there is no one posture that is normal for all still holds true.
  • The late Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries were most productive of physiological studies closely related to kinesiology. L Ranvier, about 1880, discovered the difference in the speeds of contraction of red and white muscle, which according to Granit, brought functional aspects into the focus of subsequent research.
  • Wedenski demonstrated during 1880 the existence of action currents in human muscles, although practical use of this discovery had to await the invention of a more sensitive instrument, until W Einthoven developed the string galvanometer in 1906. The physiological aspects of electromyography were first discussed in a paper by H Piper, of Germany, during 1910–1912, however, interest in the subject did not become widespread in the English speaking countries until the publication of a report by ED Adrian in 1925. By utilizing electromyographic techniques, Adrian demonstrated for the first time that it was possible to determine the amount of activity in the human muscles at any stage of a movement. The development of the electromyograph represents one of the greatest advances in kinesiology.
  • In the study of the physiologic aspects of striated muscular activity, three names are very important. The brilliant studies of Archibald V Hill in the oxygen consumption of muscle, of Hugh E Huxley in the ultrastructure of striated muscle, and of Andrew F Huxley in the physiology of striated muscle distinguish 9them as the world's leading authorities in their respective fields.
  • Arthur Steindler (1878–1959)'s publications “Mechanics of Normal and Pathological Locomotion in Man”, in 1935, and later a larger and more complete Volume, “Kinesiology of the Human Body under Normal and Pathological Conditions” in 1955 have become classics in the field and an important contribution to our understanding of body mechanics. Goldthwaite also wrote on posture and body mechanics in connection with health and disease. The ideas of Steindler and Goldthwaite were later transmitted from a static to a dynamic concept. McCloy, Fenn Cureton, Elftman, Karpovich and others were very much interested in the mechanics of human movement and moved the field of kinesiology into a new era.
  • The interest in the subject of posture has declined among kinesiologists in the USA during few decades probably, partly due to the general acceptance of a saying that “the physiological benefits obtained from correction of common postural defects are mostly imaginary”, and partly due to the growing realization that individual differences almost prevent valid generalizations. Perhaps much of the effort in earlier times was devoted to the study of static posture, which is now being directed to research concerning dynamic locomotion. Wallace Fenn (1893–1971), Plato Schwartz, Verne Inman, Herbert Elftman, Dudley Morton, and Steindler are among the few scientists who have made important contributions to knowledge concerning this aspect of kinesiology.
  • The use of cinematography for kinesiological studies of athletes and industrial workers has become quite common. A relatively recent and important development in the study of human motion is the use of cineradiographic techniques. Advances in techniques, in future may make it possible to record the complete sequence of musculoskeletal movements rather than only a fraction of them. A fascinating new parameter was opened up with the invention of the Electronic Stroboscope by Harold Edgerton. This instrument which is capable of exposures as short as one-millionth of a second, can record in a series of instantaneous photographs, an entire sequence of movement. This apparatus seems particularly promising for analysis of the various sequences of skilled movements.
     Now, psychologists, psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, and other social scientists have become interested in investigating the psychosomatic aspects of kinesiology. The studies of JH Van Den Berg, Edwin Straus, and Temple Fay are some of the representative analyses which have significantly contributed to our knowledge concerning the “Why” of human movement.
     The modifications which a man makes in his environment cause a change in his structure. Alterations of structure affect the relationship between the various components and result in changes in function. Thus, man to some extent is his own architect.
  • The kinesiologists are no longer satisfied to deal merely with the mechanical analysis of human movement. The Society for Behavioral Kinesiology defines Behavioral Kinesiology as “the science of the structures and processes of human movement and their modification by inherent factors, by environmental events, and by therapeutic intervention”.
The kinesiology students of the future may be required to distinguish five subdivisions within the discipline; (1) Structural and Functional Kinesiology, dealing with the inter-relations between the structure and function of the body; (2) Exercise Physiology, or the correlation between kinesiology and basic sciences such as physiology and biochemistry; (3) Biomechanics, the investigation of human movement by means of the concepts of classical physics and their derivatives in the practical engineering; (4) Developmental Kinesiology, the relation of kinesiology to growth, physical development, nutrition, aging etc; and (5) Psychological Kinesiology, the study of the mutualities of movement with such topics as body image, self image, esthetic expression, personality, cultural communication, motivation etc.
Currently new devices for studying human movement are being used by many investigators which include cinematography, electronic stroboscope, force platforms, electromyography, electrogoniometer, etc. The researchers in kinesiology are sharing technical skills and equipment with anatomists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, physiologists, and psychologists, etc. in furthering and advancing the science.
 
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF KINESIOLOGY
Some of the important aims and objectives of kinesiology are described below:
  • To understand the human structure, and analyze the human movements, and their underlying principles: This is probably one of the most important aims and objectives of kinesiology. Kinesiology is the basic science in preparation of professionals of human motion, whether they are in physical education, physical therapy, athletic training or other related profession. It provides us the knowledge about various parts of the locomotor system. In kinesiology we get 10to learn what muscles, bones and joints are involved in a particular movement, and to what extent; what principles of mechanics are involved in the movements or the activities; what is the effect of gravity and other forces on the muscular system; and how the bones serve as the anatomic levers in the human body and how the muscles provide the necessary force to move the body levers. Kinesiology thus helps us to learn and analyze all these aspects and the movements of the human body and discover their underlying principles to improve performance.
  • It helps to organize, integrate, and make application of facts and principles of basic and contributing sciences such as anatomy, physiology and mechanics in the analysis of the human motion: Anatomy deals with the description of internal structure of muscles, bones and other tissues, however it is not analytical. Physiology tells us about the properties of the muscles and that all muscles possess a certain degree of tonus, but does not enable us to know the interrelationship of these and other facts to the problem of posture, to the alteration of postural habits, and to the effectiveness of all motor performances. Similarly, with the mechanics or the physics, we learn the law of gravity, the law of inertia and different types of levers etc., however they are mostly applied only to the nonliving objects. As such, the kinesiology is not an isolated science, rather it attempts to integrate all the relevant information from all the contributing fields for its direct application to the problems of the teachers of physical education, coaches and the therapists.
  • It contributes to successful participation in various physical activities: The knowledge of analysis of human motion helps how motor skills and techniques can be improved to ensure successful participation in various physical activities.
With the knowledge of kinesiology, a teacher learns the nature and effects of each physical activity so as to select intelligently the activity which will contribute to achieve the targeted aims for an individual. If the physical activities and skills are to be taught and poor performances corrected, then the teacher must be able to break the skill and activity down into the parts, analyze them, and finally the co-ordination of these parts will help in proper learning of the skills and ultimately the performance and participation is ensured. In order to understand the physiological, developmental, or therapeutic effects of an activity, it needs to be analyzed and compared with other activities, and the kinesiology thus helps in all these aspects.
  • To improve the human structure and fitness: This is also one of the important objectives and functions of the kinesiology to aid the improvement of human structure through the intelligent selection of activities and the efficient use of the body. The human structure improves with use provided it is used in accordance with the principles of kinesiology and efficient human motion.
     Kinesiology also helps to improve the general physical condition and fitness of the individuals through systematic exercise program.
  • To help understand the problems of movement efficiency and economy: Kinesiology contributes to help analyze the physiological cost, energy budgeting and muscular timing of the physical activity and movements. The structure and mechanics of human performance are not ignored in the economic world as well. Many industries employ an efficiency expert who is usually both a psychologist and an engineer, and whose responsibility includes determination of ways and means to secure the most efficient and economical performance of work by the employees. This includes working position, speed, load, and flow of movement as related to both production and fatigue.
     Kinesiology contributes in the design of furniture and automobiles in consideration of human anatomy and human comfort. However, unfortunately, the comfort does not always ensure the best effect on the body from the use of the article. For example, a big, easy and thoroughly comfortable chair, desirable for a period of rest and relaxation may not be suitable for constant use of anyone particularly a growing child due to the considerable flexion of the spine in these chairs.
     Thus, the kinesiology helps the manufacturers design the chairs which give support at the proper point in the back, improve and adjust the height of tables, sinks and wash basins, kitchen platform (for stove), telephones, and other appliances. The present day office furniture, cars, and the work equipment are also designed to satisfy anatomical and mechanical requirements of the human structure, which are also adjusted for individual differences. The kinesiology contributes in all these areas to make proper adjustment for efficiency, minimizing the fatigue and maintenance of good working postures.
  • To help recognize, and correct the irregular, awkward movement: The knowledge of kinesiology assists in recognizing and analyzing the quality of awkward and skillful movements and correct the 11irregular movements in accordance with the principles of kinesiology.
  • To analyze the posture and body mechanics: The knowledge of kinesiology is helpful in analyzing the posture and body mechanics. The faults of posture can be identified earlier and accordingly scientifically designed exercises and activity can be imparted for their correction.
  • To help understand the nature of common musculoskeletal athletic injuries, and thus help in their prevention and rehabilitation: With the knowledge of kinesiology, one can understand the nature and mechanism of most of the common musculoskeletal injuries. The appropriate preventive conditioning, and flexibility and muscle-strengthening exercises help in preventing the athletic injuries to some extent. The application of kinesiological principles to the acts of landing, falling, catching, etc. also, to some extent prevent the occurrence of injuries in the sports fields. Similarly, know how of the muscles will help in designing suitable activities and exercises for re-educating the weak muscles during the treatment and rehabilitation of the injuries.
  • It provides the educational experience to the students of physical education, physiotherapy and other related professions: The study of kinesiology is also an essential part of the educational experience of students of physical education, physiotherapy, athletic training, occupational therapy and other related professions. The students of orthopedics, recreation therapy etc. also study kinesiology as part of their professional training.
  • Kinesiology is useful in the daily life activities: The knowledge and principles of kinesiology help apply mechanically and economically efficient methods of using the body in various activities of daily life such as sitting, rising, stair climbing, lifting, carrying loads, pushing, pulling, etc. Not only the body can conserve energy but also the acts can be performed safely without strain, fatigue or injury.
 
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF KINESIOLOGY: IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND PHYSICAL MEDICINE
Kinesiology finds its greatest practical applications in the professions of physical education and sports; and physical medicine. The experts of both of these professions are confronted to teaching the individuals to make the most effective use of their bodily machines. Whereas in the physical education and sports, with the study of the mechanical principles, movements and techniques of the body and of the implements, balls and other equipment, kinesiology helps to prepare physical educators and coaches to teach effective performance in both fundamental and specialized motor skills of the sports. On the other hand, in physical medicine which mainly comprise the physiotherapists and occupational therapists, the study of the kinesiology by these therapists helps them to evaluate and apply the effect of therapeutic exercises and their other techniques upon the human body, with the sole purpose of restoration of impaired function and application of methods of compensating the lost function of the patients. The therapists work with individuals having injuries, diseases or congenital defects affecting the motor mechanism. They must know the extent of the dysfunction, the reaction to expect from the muscles involved, what forces to oppose, how to provide substitute motions, and where and how to fit artificial supports. As such, in physiotherapy and occupational therapy, kinesiology aims to apply mechanical principles and movements for muscle-reeducation, postural corrections, gait abnormalities, for the use of tools and household implements, and to the modifications of vocational and home making activities caused due to the limitations in neuromuscular capacity and skeletal structure.
The goal of “effective performance” for the therapists does not refer so much to the “skillful performance” in sports activities as it does to the physical educators and coaches, rather it mainly focuses to the “adequate performance” in the activities associated with daily living.
Though the physical educators and coaches apply the knowledge of kinesiology mainly to the movements of the normal body; and the therapists are mainly concerned with the movements of a body which has suffered an impairment in function; the difference lies in the emphasis and methods used, rather than in the purpose. Both the physical educators and the therapists, however have one common application in studying kinesiology; they are both concerned with posture and body mechanics of daily life skills, and analyzing the anatomical and mechanical bases for training, and then to the intelligent selection of exercises, activities and other mechanically efficient methods, for using the body in daily life skills and sports as according to the individual need.
The knowledge of kinesiology has a three fold purpose both for the professionals of physical education and physical medicine for the analysis and modification of human movement. The kinesiology should enable them to help their students or clients perform with optimum “safety”, “effectiveness”, and “efficiency”. “Safety” should be a great concern for all the movement professionals to 12design or select the movements or activities in such a way as to avoid doing any harm to the body. Both the educators and the therapists should also set goals for “effective” performance, which is judged by success or failure in meeting the set goals. While producing an effective performance, the movement specialists should also focus to achieve their movement goals with the least amount of effort, as “efficiently” as possible.
The analysis of motion alone as an aim of kinesiology should not be an end in itself, rather it should be a means of learning new movement patterns and improving the safety, effectiveness and efficiency of old ones. Kinesiology serves only half its purpose when it provides information of value for learning or teaching motor skills. It must also serve to lay the foundation for perfecting, repairing, and keeping in good condition the human body, which is an incomparable machine.
 
ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF KINESIOLOGY IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS
Kinesiology is the basic science of the physical educator who deals with the motor performance as a means toward the development of the total individual. The development of total individual through physical activity, and skills is a unique contribution of physical education which perhaps no other branch of education aims to attain so much. Therefore, the physical education teacher must have thorough knowledge of, and ability to analyze the motor performance which kinesiology provides to him. Then only he will be able to guide toward the most effective learning, and provide the greatest benefit to the human body.
  • Kinesiology serves the dual purpose for physical educator; it perfects the performance in motor skills as well as perfects the performer: Kinesiology helps to prepare the physical educator to teach effective performance in both fundamental and specialized motor skills. Perfecting the performance refers to mastery and perfection in the technique, and to define the standards of a skill. On the other hand, perfecting the performer means that an individual sports person is made perfect in the act. The intelligent selection of the methods, skill, and activity will help perfect both the performer and performance.
  • Kinesiology helps the physical educator and coach to analyze the activity for better and easier teaching: The knowledge and application of kinesiological principles can contribute immensely in teaching various skills and techniques during sports coaching. It is however very important for the physical educator and coach to determine what kinesiological knowledge to select and how to apply it in a given teaching situation.
     The coach should be able to explain and demonstrate the desired performance to the learner, and also analyze the learner's performance so that he can focus on the factors responsible for errors and successes and thus provide a basis for subsequent and more successful attempts by the learner.
  • It is helpful in evaluating the effect and usefulness of activities: The physical educators or coaches, while they deal with physical development or motor skills, the knowledge and an understanding of kinesiological principles help them assess and evaluate the extent of effect produced by the exercise and movement to achieve the purpose for which these were prescribed.
  • Kinesiology assists the coach and physical educator to assess the kinesiological requirements of the activity: For successful performance, each separate motor skill demands its own combination of kinesiological abilities and characteristics. For example, considerable body mass is a necessity for inside line play in the football, but it is hindrance in gymnastics. Though both these activities require great strength, but it should be predominantly in the legs for football and, in the arms for the gymnastics.
     The knowledge that the motor skills can be learnt at highly effective levels by the performers and not merely through the academic knowledge, assists the coaches and physical educators in imparting the training and getting the desired performance.
  • Kinesiology helps the physical educator and coach to assess the activity aptitude of the performer: Since each performer be it a student or sports person has his own abilities and potentialities, the kinesiology helps the physical educator and coach to match the performer to the activity, and the activity to the performer. For example, a short, stocky boy would be much more appropriate to be a successful gymnast than he would prove to be a successful high jumper. Similarly, a basketball coach will like to select a team of predominantly tall, heavy, slow-moving men as his defensive system.
  • Kinesiology is also greatly helpful in the design and selection of sports clothings, equipment and other facilities: The designers of sports clothing and equipment are now more alert and keen to apply the knowledge of kinesiology so as to ensure the free action and movement of the sports persons during the execution of sports activity. The clothing which binds tightly through the arms and shoulders 13is more fatiguing and reduces speed of action. The clothings should be designed to provide freedom of movement, avoid strain, and avoid weight on shoulders and back. The quality of the material for the clothing, and sports equipment, for example for the bats and racquets, their size, shape, and design, etc. all employ the kinesiological considerations for the efficient and successful execution of sports skills and techniques by the sports persons. All these ultimately help in enhancing the sports performance safely and effectively.
  • Kinesiology aids in the prevention, first aid and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal athletic injuries: Since the athletic injuries are almost and invariably associated with intense physical and sports activities, and a physical educator or a coach generally would not be expected, by his limited knowledge in this area, to make a final diagnosis of an injury. He, however, needs to have an understanding of the nature of trauma. Kinesiological knowledge helps him anticipate, prepare and be alert for the type of an injury which may occur in a given situation.
     By ensuring proper conditioning and flexibility exercises, sports implements, and the knowledge of nature of operating forces, avoidance of fatigue all can assist a physical education teacher or coach prevent the injuries.
     Similarly, with his kinesiological knowledge he can also assist in the first aid and therapeutic exercise during the later phase of rehabilitation as guided or directed by the physician.
  • Kinesiology also plays an important role in following aspects related to physical education and sports:
    • Enables physical educator and coach to provide effective scientific training to the players and get the optimal performance of the sports skills and techniques.
    • Selection of exercises and preparation of activity programme on the basis of individual needs, age, sex, etc.
    • Helps to avoid unwanted movement, errors and faults of sports skills and techniques.
    • Identification of postural faults and correction through suitably designed therapeutic exercises and activity.