Generic Recipes of Rural North Karnataka with Nutrient Values Manjunath S Somannavar
INDEX
A
Accredited Social Health Activists 1
Akki sandige 57
Amaranth (ragajira) bhaji 183, 184
nutritional composition of 184
Amboli 25
Anda burji 148
B
Badanekai yanagai 221
Bagar 59, 60
Bajra (sajje) roti 17
nutritional composition of 18
Beef biryani 154, 156
nutritional composition of 157
Beef gravy 158, 159
nutritional composition of 160
Beetroot bhaji 214, 216
nutritional composition of 216
Bele obbattu 78
Bengal gram dhal (kadle bele) bhaji 76, 77
nutritional composition of 77
Bengal gram dhal (kadle bele) holige 78, 79
nutritional composition of 79
Bengal gram dhal (kadle bele) sambar 80, 81
nutritional composition of 82
Bengal gram leaves bhaji 188, 189
nutritional composition of 189
Bhadang 21
Bhoondi 263, 264
nutritional composition of 264
Bhoplya chi bhaji 208
Bitter gourd (hagala kai) bhaji 217, 219
nutritional composition of 220
Black gram dhal papad 83, 84
nutritional composition of 84
Bobbatlu 78
Brinjal (badnekai) bhaji 221, 223
nutritional composition of 224
Broken wheat kheer 265
Butter milk (majjige) sambar or amra 127, 129
nutritional composition of 129
C
Cabbage bhaji 225, 226
nutritional composition of 226
Calcium 5
Capsicum bhaji 227, 229
nutritional composition of 230
Carbohydrate 5
Carrot bhaji 190, 191
nutritional composition of 191
Carrot sabzi 190
Cauliflower (gobi) bhaji 231, 232
nutritional composition of 232
Chakli 85, 86
nutritional composition of 86
Chapatti 19
nutritional composition of 20
Chavalekai bhaji 233
Chicken biryani 167, 168
nutritional composition of 169
Chicken gravy 161, 162
nutritional composition of 163
Chicken kabab 164, 165
nutritional composition of 166
Churmary oggarani or churmary chuda 21, 23
nutritional composition of 24
Cluster beans (gori koyi) bhaji 233, 234
nutritional composition of 234
Coconut chutney 87, 88
nutritional composition of 88
Cowpea (alsandi kal) bhaji 91, 92
nutritional composition of 92
Cowpea (alsandi kal) sambar 89, 90
nutritional composition of 90
Cowpea (alsandi kal) sandige93, 94
nutritional composition of 94
Cucumber (soutekai) bhaji 235, 236
nutritional composition of 236
D
Dodd menasinakai bhaji 227
Donne menasinakai enagai 227
Dosa 25
nutritional composition of 26
Dry bhel 21
E
Egg 148
Egg burji 148, 149
nutritional composition of 149
Egg curry 150, 151
nutritional composition of 151
Egg masala dry 148
Egg omelet 152, 153
nutritional composition of 153
Energy 5
F
Fat 5
Fatty acids 5
Fenugreek (methi) bhaji 192, 193
nutritional composition of 193
Fiber 5
Field beans (avrekal) bhaji 237, 238
nutritional composition of 238
Finger millet (ragi) ambli 132, 133
nutritional composition of 133
Fish fry 179, 180
Fish gravy 181, 182
nutritional composition of 182
Flesh foods 154
Food
and food groups 7
composition table, construction of 5
Foxtail millet (navane) holige 27
nutritional composition of 28
Fruits and vegetables 214
G
Gajarachi bhaji 190
Garam masala 279, 280
nutritional composition of 280
Garden cress seeds with milk 134, 135
nutritional composition of 135
Garlic (belloli) khara 194, 195
nutritional composition of 195
Gawar ki sabzi 233
Ghavne 25
Godhi huggi 265, 266
nutritional composition of 267
Gogu (pundi palle) bhaji 196, 197
nutritional composition of 197
Gongura bhaji 196
Green gram (hesaru bele) bhaji 95, 96
nutritional composition of 97
Green gram dhal (hesaru bele) sambar 98, 99
nutritional composition of 99
Groundnut (shenga) chutney powder 100, 101
nutritional composition of 101
Groundnut (shenga) holige 102, 103
nutritional composition of 103
Groundnut (shenga) undi 104, 105
nutritional composition of 105
Gunta ponganalu 45
H
Hoornada holige 78
Hurakki holige 27
I
Idli 29
nutritional composition of 30
Iron 5
J
Jeelebi 268, 269
nutritional composition of 269
Jowar (jola) mudde or kotra 31
nutritional composition of 32
Jowar (jola) nuchu 35
nutritional composition of 36
Jowar (jola) roti 33
nutritional composition of 34
Jowar ambli 138, 139
nutritional composition of 139
Junka 106, 108
nutritional composition of 109
Jwarichi bhakri 33
K
Kadalebeeja obbattu 102
Kadle puri 21
Kadli husali 110, 111
nutritional composition of 111
Kakadichi bhaji 235
Kardai bhaji 210
Karela sabzi 217
Karlyachi bhaji 217
Kayi chutney 87
Khara puri 21
Kosambri (pachidi) 239, 240
nutritional composition of 240
Kosu bhaji 225
Kovai (tonde kai) bhaji 241, 242
nutritional composition of 242
Kumbala kai bhaji 208
Kuttida godhi payasa 265
L
Ladies finger (bende kai) bhaji 198, 199
nutritional composition of 199
Legumes and nuts 76
Lemon pickle 200, 201
nutritional composition of 201
Liquid foods, specific gravity of 286
M
Machh bhaja 179
Machher jhol 181
Madli 37
nutritional composition of 38
Maize roti 39
nutritional composition of 40
Makki ki roti 39
Mandakki churmuri 21
Mango pickle 202, 203
nutritional composition of 203
Mango shrikharani 204, 205
nutritional composition of 205
Manoli aajadina 241
Manoli aajatna 241
Masala puri 21
Masala rice or palav 41, 43
nutritional composition of 44
Mekki kai bhaji 243, 244
nutritional composition of 244
Mekki kai pickle 206, 207
nutritional composition of 207
Milk and dairy products 127
Milk coffee 130, 131
nutritional composition of 131
Milk horlicks 136, 137
nutritional composition of 137
Milk tea 144, 145
nutritional composition of 145
Mirchi baji 112, 113
nutritional composition of 113
Moth bean (madki kal) bhaji 114, 115
nutritional composition of 116
Murmura chivda 21
Murukku 85
Mutton biryani 170, 171
nutritional composition of 172
Mutton gravy 173, 174
nutritional composition of 175
Mutton sukka 176, 177
nutritional composition of 178
N
Namkeen sevai 73
Navanakki 27
Nelagadale undi 104
Nevedyam 57
Niger seed (gurellu) chutney powder 117, 118
nutritional composition of 118
O
Onion (khanda) baji 245, 246
nutritional composition of 246
Onion stalks bhaji 247, 248
nutritional composition of 248
P
Paddu 45
nutritional composition of 46
Paruppu poli 78
Peanut chutney 100
Peanut laddu 104
Peas (batani) bhaji 119, 120
nutritional composition of 120
Peda 140, 141
nutritional composition of 141
Phulka 19
Poha or avalakki 47, 49
nutritional composition of 50
Poppadoms 245
Potato (aloogadde) bhaji 249, 250
nutritional composition of 250
Protein 5
Pumpkin (kumbala kai) bhaji 208, 209
nutritional composition of 209
Puran poli 78
Puri 51, 52
nutritional composition of 52
R
Radish (mulangi) bhaji 251, 252
nutritional composition of 252
Rava laddu 270, 271
nutritional composition of 271
Red gram dhal (togari bele) bhaji 121, 122
nutritional composition of 122
Red gram dhal (togari bele) sambar 123, 124
nutritional composition of 124
Rice papad 55, 56
nutritional composition of 56
Rice sandige 57, 58
nutritional composition of 58
Rice, nutritional composition of 54
Ridge gourd (heeraikai) bhaji 253, 254
nutritional composition of 254
Roti 19
S
Sabbakki 59, 60
Safflower (kusume) leaves bhaji 210, 211
nutritional composition of 211
Sago sandige 61, 62
nutritional composition of 62
Sajka or sanja 272, 273
nutritional composition of 274
Scarlet runner beans bhaji 185, 186
nutritional composition of 187
Semiya payasam 146
Semiya pulao 73
Semiya upma 73
Shavige payasa 146
Sheer kurma 146
Shenga chutney 100
Shenga holige 102
Shenga undi 104
Shepu (sabsige) bhaji 212, 213
nutritional composition of 213
Shev 125, 126
nutritional composition of 126
Shev laddu 275, 276
nutritional composition of 276
Shimla mirch ki sabji 227
Shira 277, 278
nutritional composition of 278
Sorghum bread 33
Souti beeja payasa 142, 143
nutritional composition of 143
Starchy staples 17
Sukha bhel 21
Sweets, sugar, and syrups 263
T
Talipatti 63, 64
nutritional composition of 65
Tamarind (hunse) sambar 255, 256
nutritional composition of 256
Tomato bhaji 257, 258
nutritional composition of 258
Tomato chutney 259, 260
nutritional composition of 260
Tomato sambar 261, 262
nutritional composition of 262
U
Upma or upittu 66, 68
nutritional composition of 69
Uppittu 66
Usali 110
V
Vadi 70, 71
nutritional composition of 72
Vermicelli kheer 146
Vermicelli payasa 146, 147
nutritional composition of 147
Vermicelli pulao 73
Vermicelli upma 73, 74
nutritional composition of 75
Vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruits 183
W
World Food Programme 7
Z
Zinc 5
Zulbia 268
×
Chapter Notes

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MethodologyCHAPTER 1

Generic Recipes were collected from all the PHC areas (mostly rural population) and from different socio-economic groups. Generic recipe data was collected from Home Visit Research Assistants (HVRAs), Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and WF study participants in their home.
 
PROCESS OF GENERIC RECIPE DATA COLLECTION
  • All the generic recipes commonly used in the study area were listed (114 total recipes).
  • Separate recipe form was used for each recipe.
  • Specific ‘generic’ name of the mixed dish/beverage entered at the top of the form
    • All ingredients recorded on separate lines, including the water added to the recipe in the first column.
    • Detailed description and cooking method was included in the second column.
    • Amount of raw ingredient used in the recipe was mentioned in the third column
    • In the last column weight of the raw ingredient in the recipe was recorded in grams.
  • 5–10 recipes were collected and recorded for each dish/beverage in separate recipe forms. Up to 10 recipes were collected if the dish/beverage is commonly consumed.
 
Recipe Form (Image 1.1)
Name of the Generic Recipe:
1
Ingredient
2
Description of ingredient and cooking method
3
Amount of raw ingredient in recipe (grams, mLs, spoons, cups, size, etc.)
4
Weight of raw ingredient in recipe (grams)
2  
Entry of Generic Recipe Data in Excel File
  • New Excel document was created for each generic recipe.
  • All the raw ingredients from all the recipes for each specific dish/drink were listed.
  • Gram weight for each raw ingredient for each recipe were entered in the corresponding row.
  • Proportion of each raw ingredient per 100 g for each recipe was calculated using the general formula = Grams of ingredient × 100/Sum total of all the ingredients in that specific recipe
  • Median amount of each ingredient contributed from all the recipes was calculated.
  • This value is adjusted to per 100 g for each ingredient using the formula:
    = Median ingredient amount × (100/median total of all ingredients)
 
Constructing the Generic Recipe of Ingredients in the Dish (Poha) from Generic Recipe Form
Image 1.2
Poha or Avalakki
Recipe 1
Recipe 2
Recipe 3
Recipe 4
Recipe 5
Recipe 6
Recipe 7
Recipe 8
Recipe 9
Recipe 10
Ingredients
Rice flakes
145
247
250
285
67
160
125
227
177
165
Cumin seeds
1
2
4
2
2
1
1
1
2
Mustard seeds
2
3
2
3
1
1
2
2
1
Soyabean oil
Sunflower oil
Groundnut oil
37
59
41
89
33
24
42
35
30
30
Onion (big)
98
142
73
65
18
108
48
56
75
65
Tomato (tender)
96
20
Chillies (green)
10
12
7
13
8
16
20
16
12
11
Groundnut (raw)
36
80
76
22
14
20
32
32
Coriander leaves
7
20
9
3
8
4
7
5
Sugar
13
4
10
6
5
11
Lemon
8.816
16.53
16.53
17.63
7.714
16.53
Salt (iodised)
3
4
4
4
2
3
3
4
3
3
Curry leaves
2
5
1
1
1
2
1
Bengal gram (roasted)
6
7
16
5
13
8
Water
325
90
3
Groundnut (roasted)
21
Coconut (dry)
32
14
Black gram dhal
Turmeric
2
1
1
1
1
15
1
0.5
394
534.8
503.53
579.53
490
408.63
308
484
357.71
343.03
 
Constructing the Generic Recipe of Ingredients in the Beverage (Tea) from Generic Recipe Form
Image 1.3
Tea
Recipe 1
Recipe 2
Recipe 3
Recipe 4
Recipe 5
Recipe 6
Recipe 7
Recipe 8
Recipe 9
Recipe 10
Ingredients
Milk
Water
230
100
350
400
150
200
180
Tea powder
28
7
6
8
6
4
7
Sugar
70
23
50
84
40
24
84
Milk (buffalo's)
128.87
103.1
206.2
288.68
92.79
92.79
82.48
Milk (cow's)
Cardamom
0.5
0.5
1
456.87
233.6
612.7
780.68
288.79
321.79
353.48
0
0
0
4  
Estimating Weight Equivalents (Adjusted/100 g) from Generic Recipe
Image 1.4
Poha or Avalakki
Recipe 1
Recipe 2
Recipe 3
Recipe 4
Recipe 5
Recipe 6
Recipe 7
Recipe 8
Recipe 9
Recipe 10
Median
Generic recipe (adjusted/100 g)
Poha or Avalakki
Rice flakes
36.80
46.18
49.65
49.18
13.67
39.16
40.58
46.90
49.48
48.10
46.54
52.29
Rice flakes
Cumin seeds
0.25
0.37
0.00
0.69
0.41
0.49
0.32
0.21
0.28
0.58
0.35
0.39
Cumin seeds
Mustard seeds
0.51
0.56
0.00
0.35
0.61
0.24
0.32
0.41
0.56
0.29
0.38
0.43
Mustard seeds
Soyabean oil
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Soyabean oil
Sunflower oil
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Sunflower oil
Groundnut oil
9.39
11.03
8.14
15.36
6.73
5.87
13.64
7.23
8.39
8.75
8.57
9.62
Groundnut oil
Onion (big)
24.87
26.55
14.50
11.22
3.67
26.43
15.58
11.57
20.97
18.95
17.27
19.40
Onion (big)
Tomato (tender)
24.37
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
6.49
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Tomato (tender)
Chillies (green)
2.54
2.24
1.39
2.24
1.63
3.92
6.49
3.31
3.35
3.21
2.87
3.23
Chillies (green)
Groundnut (raw)
0.00
6.73
15.89
13.11
0.00
5.38
4.55
4.13
8.95
9.33
6.06
6.81
Groundnut(raw)
Coriander leaves
0.00
1.31
3.97
1.55
0.61
0.00
2.60
0.83
1.96
1.46
1.38
1.55
Coriander leaves
Sugar
0.00
2.43
0.79
1.73
0.00
1.47
1.62
0.00
0.00
3.21
1.13
1.27
Sugar
Lemon
0.00
1.65
3.28
2.85
0.00
4.31
0.00
0.00
2.16
4.82
1.90
2.14
Lemon
Salt (iodised)
0.76
0.75
0.79
0.69
0.41
0.73
0.97
0.83
0.84
0.87
0.78
0.87
Salt (iodised)
Curry leaves
0.00
0.00
0.40
0.86
0.20
0.00
0.32
0.21
0.56
0.29
0.25
0.28
Curry leaves
Bengal gram (roasted)
0.00
0.00
1.19
0.00
1.43
3.92
1.62
2.69
2.24
0.00
1.31
1.47
Bengal gram (roasted)
Water
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
66.33
0.00
0.00
18.60
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Water
Groundnut (roasted)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.29
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Groundnut (roasted)
Coconut (dry)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.83
4.55
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Coconut (dry)
Black gram dhal
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Black gram dhal
Turmeric
0.51
0.19
0.00
0.17
0.00
0.24
0.32
3.10
0.28
0.15
0.22
0.24
Turmeric
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
89.00
100.00
5  
Estimating Weight equivalents (Adjusted/100g) from Generic Recipe
Image 1.5
Ingredients Adjusted/ 100 g
Recipe 1
Recipe 2
Recipe 3
Recipe 4
Recipe 5
Recipe 6
Recipe 7
Median
Generic Recipe (Adjusted/100 g)
Tea
Water
50.34
42.81
57.12
51.24
51.94
62.15
50.92
51.24
53.31
Water
Tea Powder-Bateli
6.13
3.00
0.98
1.02
2.08
1.24
1.98
1.98
2.06
Tea Powder-Bateli
Sugar
15.32
9.85
8.16
10.76
13.85
7.46
23.76
10.76
11.20
Sugar
Milk, Buffalo's
28.21
44.14
33.65
36.98
32.13
28.84
23.33
32.13
33.43
Milk, Buffalo's
Cardamom
0.00
0.21
0.08
0.00
0.00
0.31
0.00
0.00
0.00
Cardamom
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
96.11
100.00
 
CONSTRUCTION OF FOOD COMPOSITION TABLE (FCT)
Indian site-specific Excel FCT was constructed using nationally validated FCT (Nutrition values of Indian Foods) data and augmenting it with other validated FCT data, wherever necessary.
Excel columns were named for:
  • Food code, specific to food/generic recipe
  • Food name(s) in the local language
  • Food name and description in English
  • Food Groups. e.g. legumes and nuts mentioned as Food group 2
  • Factors and nutrient values (with units), with one Column for each of—Water (% moisture), Energy (kcal), Protein (g), Total lipid (Fat) (g), Carbohydrate (g), Fiber (g), Fatty Acids, total saturated (g), Fatty Acids, total monounsaturated (g), Fatty Acids, total polyunsaturated (PUFA) (g), Calcium (mg), Iron (mg), Zinc (mg), Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) (mg), Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) (mg), Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal phosphate, PLP) (mg), Dietary folate equivalent (DFE) (μg), Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) (μg), Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) (mg), Vitamin A, RAE (μg), Total Choline (mg), Betaine (mg), Phytate (mg).
  • Comments section for recording the details of where specific data for that food was collected, e.g. source of the FCT values and specific detailed description of that particular food/beverage.6
Image 1.6: Excel FCT columns
Food code
Food name (Local)
Food name (English)
Food groups
Moisture (%)
Energy (kcal)
Protein (g)
Total lipid (Fat) (g)
CHO (g)
Fiber (g)
Fatty acids total saturated (g)
Fatty acids total monounsaturated (g)
Fatty acids total polyunsaturated (PUFA)(g)
Ca (mg)
Iron (mg)
Zinc (mg)
Vit B1 (Thiamine) (mg)
Vit B2 (Riboflavin) (mg)
Vit B6 (Pyridoxal phosphate PLP)(mg)
Dietary folate equivalent (DFE)(µg)
Vit B12 (Cobalamin) (µg)
Vit C (Ascorbic acid) (mg)
Vit A RAE
μg
Total choline (mg)
Betaine (mg)
Phytate (mg)
Comments
7  
FOODS AND FOOD GROUPS
List of all commonly consumed foods in the selected Primary Health Centers areas was prepared. All the single foods and mixed dishes (with ingredients) were included in the list. Only water was omitted in the FCT.
List of foods/ingredients were entered by food group, with one item/row and following the alphabetical order while enlisting in each of the following 13 food groups.
The following 13 food groups were included in the FCT:
01 = Starchy staples, e.g. Wheat, Rice, Maize, Roti, Chapatis, etc.
02 = Legumes and Nuts
03 = Milk and Dairy products
04 = Organ meats, e.g. liver, kidney, etc.
05 = Eggs
06 = Flesh foods (e.g. meat or poultry)
07 = Fish and miscellaneous small animal protein
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits (i.e. 60 or more RAE/100 g)
09 = Other fruits and vegetables
10 = Fats and Oils
11 = Sweets, sugar, and syrups (also included are sweet snacks, cakes, etc.)
12 = Beverages (e.g. Coffee, Tea, Carbonated drinks)
13 = Miscellaneous (e.g. Spices, Fast foods)
 
COMPILING THE FCT
  • Nutrient values for the specific foods were carefully entered into the Excel FCT from the nationally available FCT- Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. For missing foods in National FCT, nutrient data was imputed from another FCT (mostly Bangladesh FCT, World Food Programme (WFP).
  • Units for the nutrients in the national FCT were checked and appropriate conversions were made when they did not match.
    For example:
  • Retinol activity equivalent (RAE) units (μg) was used for vitamin A activity in foods as per recommendations from IOM (2001) and following formula was used.
    RAE (μg) = Retinol (μg) + (β-carotene (μg)/12.0) + (other provitamin A carotenoids (μg)/24.0)
  • Dietary folate equivalent (DFE) units (μg) was calculated by this formula.
    DFE (μg) = Food folate (μg/100 g) + (1.7 × μg synthetic folic acid)
  • FCTs were checked for nutrient values for cooked foods (or ‘foods as consumed’) and if available they were used as they are already adjusted for nutrient retention factors and yield factors.
    • If the nutrient values of cooked foods are available from the national or other FCT and are consumed in the local diet cooked, these nutrient values were listed on a separate new row in the Excel FCT, labeled as “ingredient name, specifying cooking method”. For example: for “rice, white, raw”; a new food item labeled, as “rice, white, boiled”8
  • Nutrient values recorded on the Excel FCT were checked again and ensured that they are:
    • Specific for that food and form (raw or cooked)
    • The unit as specified for that nutrient (e.g., mg, g, RAE, etc.)
    • The exact value (with decimal place) entered correctly
 
Calculations for Imputing Missing FCT Nutrient Values
In order to calculate all the energy and nutrient values correctly, every cell was checked to ensure that it contain a value on the FCT. If the nutrient is not present in any detectable amount in that food, then a zero value “0” was entered in that cell.
If the food is missing from the national FCT, then the identical food was found on another FCT, mostly Bangladesh FCT was used as it is from within the region. Sometimes, the USDA (2012), or the World Food Program were used (Bunch & Murphy 1997).
For a missing food, all factors, including moisture, energy and nutrients were directly imputed. Any ‘blank’ cell or missing nutrient values were replaced with an imputed nutrient value for the same or similar food from another validated FCT.
Specific nutrient value imputed from a borrowed FCT was adjusted for the difference in the moisture content of the food in the Excel FCT.
The general formula for calculating the missing nutrient value used is:
Available nutrient value from borrowed FCT × (100 – moisture content of food from Excel
FCT)/(100 – moisture content of the food from the borrowed FCT)
For Choline and Betaine: The USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods, Release 2, 2008 was used wherever Choline and Betaine values were not available on the national FCT.
 
Conversion of Nutrient Values from Raw Foods to Cooked Foods
The nutrient values of foods included in Indian FCT are raw food values. The nutrient values for cooked foods was calculated from data on raw food.
These ‘cooked’ values were adjusted for changes due to cooking including:
  1. Yield factors, i.e. losses or gains in the weight of the food as a result of cooking (Bergström 1994, Bognár 2002). For example, yield factors are used to account for the increased absorption of water cooking dry beans or rice.
  2. Nutrient retention factors, which account for changes in the nutrient content of foods based on the cooking method (USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6, 2007).
    Using the specific nutrient content for the raw food from the borrowed FCT, recording the yield factor (Food-specific yield factor) and recording the average nutrient retention factor (USDA table of Nutrient Retention), nutrient content of 100 g for the specific cooked food was calculated as:
    = Specific nutrient content of raw food × nutrient retention factor (%)/yield factor (%)
 
Inclusion of Generic Recipes on the Excel FCT
All the ingredients from the generic recipes, except water, were included on the Excel FCT in the form (e.g. raw or cooked) in which the recipe is consumed.9
 
Calculating the Energy and Nutrient Values for Each Generic Recipe (per 100 g)
For each generic recipe:
  • Specific generic recipe food name was entered in the local language description provided in English.
  • Exact ingredient from the Excel FCT were copied and pasted into the new row for the corresponding ingredient in the recipe.
  • Although, generic recipes contain the raw ingredients of the recipe, the cooked values were entered here whenever the dish or beverage is cooked for consumption, since the cooked foods account for the nutrient retention and yield factors.
  • Copying and pasting for each ingredient into a separate row from the Excel FCT was continued till all the ingredients were entered.
  • Water was the only ingredient that was omitted from the recipe.
  • For each of the ingredient, contribution per 100 g of that ingredient to the overall recipe was entered.
    • For example, from the generic recipe for 100 g of Tea, the ingredients are: 33.43 g Milk, boiled; 11.20 g Sugar; and 2.06 g Tea Powder.
    • In other words, values in the cells for the generic Tea ingredients, the contribution of Boiled Milk per 100 g is = 33.43; Sugar = 11.20; and Tea powder = 2.06
  • In the new row, the cumulative contribution for each macronutrient and micronutrient were calculated based on the energy or nutrient value per 100 g of each ingredient multiplied by the percentage contribution (i.e., contribution/100 g) of each ingredient to the recipe.
    The formula entered into the cell for the cumulative sum for energy:
    = (energy value per 100 g of the 1st ingredient × the percentage contribution of the 1st ingredient) + (energy value per 100 g of the 2nd ingredient × the percentage contribution of the 2nd ingredient) + (energy value per 100 g of the 3rd ingredient × percentage contribution of the 3rd ingredient), etc.
    For example, in order to calculate the cumulative sum for the energy value of Tea:
    • The energy content per 100 g of Boiled Milk (i.e. 104), for Sugar (i.e. 398), and for Tea Powder (i.e. 315) were entered.
    • The percentage contribution of Boiled Milk to the overall recipe = 0.3343
    • The percentage contribution of Sugar = 0.1120
    • The percentage contribution of Tea powder = 0.0206
Following equation was entered in the cumulative energy cell for Generic Recipe Tea:
= (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of Boiled Milk × 0.3343) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of Sugar × 0.1120) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of Tea powder × 0.0206)
= (104 × 0.3343) + (398 × 0.1120) + (315 × 0.0206) i.e. 85.83.
  • Calculations were double-checked for accuracy of the cumulative energy cell. The mouse was dragged from the bottom left-hand corner of the energy cell across the row to “instantly” calculate the cumulative values for all the nutrients in the recipe.
  • After calculating the cumulative values for the generic recipe for every nutrient, then the “cumulative” row was copied and pasted into a new inserted row in the Excel FCT in the appropriate food group. The most appropriate food group was based on the highest contributing food item (excluding water) to that generic recipe.
  • This process was repeated for each generic recipe.10
Image 1.7
Generic recipe names
Ingredients/100 g
Food group
Water (% moisture)
Energy
(kcal)
Protein (g)
Total lipid (Fat) (g)
CHO (g)
Fiber (g)
Fatty acids total saturated (g)
Fatty acids total monounsaturated (g)
Fatty acids total polyunsaturated
(PUFA)(g)
Buffalo Milk Tea
Milk, buffalo, cooked, boiled
33.43
03 = Milk and dairy products
104
4.3
7.1
6.2
0.0
4.3
2.0
0.2
Sugar, White
11.20
11 = Sweets, sugars and syrups
0.4
398
0.1
0.0
99.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Tea Powder-Bateli
2.06
12 = Beverages
5.1
315
20.2
0.0
58.7
8.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
Buffalo milk tea
86
1.9
2.4
14.4
0.2
1.4
0.7
0.1
Generic recipe names
Ingredients/
100 g
Food group
Ca (mg)
Iron (mg)
Zinc (mg)
Vit B1 (Thiamine) (mg)
Vit B2 (Riboflavin) (mg)
Vit B6 (Pyridoxal phosphate PLP)(mg)
Dietary folate equivalent (DFE)(µg)
Vit B12 (Cobalamin) (µg)
Vit C (Ascorbic acid) (mg)
Buffalo milk tea
Milk, buffalo, cooked, boiled
33.43
03 = Milk and dairy products
157
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.2
0.0
5.4
0.4
0.9
Sugar, White
11.20
11 = Sweets, sugars and syrups
12
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Tea Powder- Bateli
2.06
12 = Beverages
118
2.3
1.7
0.0
1.0
0.4
103.0
0.0
0.0
Buffalo milk tea
56
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.0
3.9
0.1
0.3
11
Image 1.8
Generic recipe names
Ingredients/100 g
Food group
Vit A RAE (µg)
Total Choline (mg)
Betaine (mg)
Phytate (mg)
Comments (source of FCT values, calculation procedure)
Buffalo Milk Tea
Milk, buffalo, cooked, boiled
33.43
03 = Milk and dairy products
64
13.5
0.6
0
USDA: Milk, heated approx 10 min_reten code_2151, pg 5
Sugar, White
11.20
11 = Sweets, sugars and syrups
0
0.0
0.0
0
NIN_439_pg 58
WFP sugar cane - row 1642
Choline - USDA_19335; Betaine - assumed 0
Tea Powder-Bateli
2.06
12 = Beverages
0
118.3
1.0
0
USDA_14366
WFP Tea - row 1693
Betaine - USDA_98015 (from 2008), adjusted moisture
Buffalo milk tea
21
7.0
0.2
0.0
12
Image 1.9 Poha or Avalakki
Generic recipe names
Ingredients/100 g
Food group
Water (% moisture)
Energy (kcal)
Protein (g)
Total lipid (Fat) (g)
CHO (g)
Fiber (g)
Fatty acids total saturated (g)
Fatty acids total monounsaturated (g)
Poha
Rice flakes, white grain, water soaked
52.29
01 = Starchy staples
73.2
105
2.0
2.4
23.0
0.9
0.6
0.9
Onions, yellow, sauteed
19.40
09 = Other fruits and vegetables
80.0
132
1.0
10.8
7.9
1.7
1.5
2.2
Groundnut Oil
9.62
10 = Fats and oils
0.0
884
0.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
16.9
46.2
Peanuts, all types, oil-roasted, with salt
6.81
02 = Legumes and nuts
1.5
599
28.0
52.5
15.3
9.4
8.7
26.0
Peppers, hot chilli, green, cooked, fried
3.23
09 = Other fruits and vegetables
46
2.3
0.2
10.9
1.7
0.0
0.0
Lemon
2.14
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
89.0
29
1.1
0.3
9.3
2.8
0.0
0.0
Coriander leaves, cooked, fried
1.55
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
24
2.3
0.6
3.9
3.0
0.0
0.3
Bengal Gram, whole, boiled (without salt)
1.47
02 = Legumes and nuts
60.2
164
8.9
2.6
27.4
7.6
0.3
0.6
Sugar, White
1.27
11 = Sweets, sugar and syrups
0.4
398
0.1
0.0
99.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
Salt
0.87
13 =Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Mustard seeds, roasted
0.43
13 =Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
541
24.5
45.9
17.8
13.8
8.7
14.3
Cumin seeds, roasted
0.39
13 =Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
375
17.8
22.3
44.2
10.5
1.5
14.0
Curry leaves, cooked, fried
0.28
08 =Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
115
6.5
3.1
19.9
7.8
0.2
0.4
Turmeric, ground
0.24
13 =Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
12.8
312
9.7
3.3
67.1
22.7
1.8
0.5
Poha
221
3.6
16.9
17.3
1.9
2.9
7.2
13
Image 1.10
Generic recipe names
Ingredients/100 g
Food group
Fatty acids total polyunsaturated (PUFA)(g)
Ca (mg)
Iron (mg)
Zinc (mg)
Vit B1 (Thiamine) (mg)
Vit B2 (Riboflavin) (mg)
Vit B6 (Pyridoxal phosphate PLP) (mg)
Dietary folate equivalent (DFE) (µg)
Poha
Rice flakes, white grain, water soaked
52.29
01 = Starchy staples
0.9
8
2.0
0.40
0.06
0.01
0.45
12
Onions, yellow, sauteed
19.40
09 = Other fruits and vegetables
5.5
20
0.3
0.21
0.05
0.41
0.21
2
Groundnut Oil
9.62
10 = Fats and oils
32.0
0
0.3
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
Peanuts, all types, oil-roasted, with salt
6.81
02 = Legumes and nuts
15.3
61
1.5
3.28
0.09
0.89
0.46
120
Peppers, hot chilli, green, cooked, fried
3.23
09 = Other fruits and vegetables
0.1
21
1.4
0.34
0.09
0.10
0.30
21
Lemon
2.14
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
0.1
26
0.6
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.08
11
Coriander leaves, cooked, fried
1.55
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
0.0
71
1.9
0.53
0.06
0.16
0.15
56
Bengal Gram, whole, boiled (without salt)
1.47
02 = Legumes and nuts
1.2
49
2.9
1.53
0.12
0.06
0.14
172
Sugar, White
1.27
11 = Sweets, sugar and syrups
0.0
12
0.2
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
Salt
0.87
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
0.0
45
0.1
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
Mustard seeds, roasted
0.43
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
20.9
43
15.0
7.50
0.18
0.30
0.21
46
Cumin seeds, roasted
0.39
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
3.3
931
66.4
4.80
0.53
0.31
0.41
8
Curry leaves, cooked, fried
0.28
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
1.9
883
1.0
0.21
0.08
0.21
0.72
85
Turmeric, ground
0.24
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
0.8
168
55.0
4.50
0.06
0.15
0.11
20
Poha
5.8
23
1.8
0.58
0.06
0.16
0.33
20
14
Image 1.11
Generic recipe names
Ingredients/100 g
Food group
Vit B12 (Cobalamin) (µg)
Vit C (Ascorbic acid) (mg)
Vit A RAE (µg)
Total Choline (mg)
Betaine (mg)
Phytate (mg)
Comments (source of FCT values, calculation procedure)
Rice flakes, white grain, water soaked
52.29
01 = Starchy staples
0.00
0.0
0
1.8
0.3
786
BanglFCT_01_0011
WFP: Rice flakes row 1462
Choline and Betaine USDA_20045, adjusted moisture
Onions, yellow, sauteed
19.40
09 = Other fruits and vegetables
0.00
1.8
0
6.5
0.1
0
USDA_11286
Groundnut Oil
9.62
10 = Fats and oils
0.00
0.0
0
0.1
0.0
0
USDA_04042
WFP: Peanut oil –
row 1303
Peanuts, all types, oil-roasted, with salt
6.81
02 = Legumes and nuts
0.00
0.8
0
65.3
0.4
1760
USDA_16089
Peppers, hot chilli, green, cooked, fried
3.23
09 = Other fruits and vegetables
0.00
236.9
61
11.5
0.2
40
USDA: VEG, OTHER, STIR FRY_reten code_3785, pg 10
Lemon
2.14
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
0.00
53.0
1
5.1
0.2
0
USDA_ 09150
WFP: Lemon - row 1016
USDA_09150; Betaine - USDA_09160; adjusted moisture
Coriander leaves, cooked, fried
1.55
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
0.00
24.4
323
13.6
0.4
74
USDA: VEG, GREENS, STIR FRY_reten code_3015, pg. 8
15
Bengal Gram, whole, boiled (without salt)
1.47
02 = Legumes and nuts
0.00
1.3
1
42.8
0.1
293
USDA_16057
WFP: Chickpea –
row 384
Betaine - USDA_16037; adjusted moisture
Sugar, White
1.27
11 = Sweets, sugar and syrups
0.00
0.0
0
0.0
0.0
0
NIN_439_pg 58
WFP sugar cane –
row 1642
Choline - USDA_19335; Betaine - assumed 0
Salt
0.87
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
0.00
0.0
0
0.0
0.0
0
WFP: Salt - row 1505
Choline and Betaine - assumed 0
Mustard seeds, roasted
0.43
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
0.00
1.6
30
122.7
1.9
2128
Cooked calculation
Cumin seeds, roasted
0.39
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
0.00
6.2
51
24.7
2.8
2580
USDA: NUTS, ROASTED_reten code_2203, pg 10
Curry leaves, cooked, fried
0.28
08 = Vitamin-A-rich vegetables and fruits
0.00
3.6
1152
55.3
1.9
37
USDA: VEG, GREENS, STIR FRY_reten code_3015
Turmeric, ground
0.24
13 = Miscellaneous (spices, fast foods)
0.00
0.7
0
49.2
9.7
97
USDA_02043
NIN_pg91
Poha
0.00
9.6
11
8.9
0.2
557
16
In order to calculate the cumulative sum for the energy value of poha:
  • The energy content per 100 g of Rice flakes (105), for onion (132), for groundnut oil (884), for peanuts (599), for peppers (46), for lemon (29), for coriander leaves (24), for Bengal gram (164), for sugar (398), for salt (0), for mustard seeds (541), for cumin seeds (375), for curry leaves (115) and for turmeric (312) were entered.
  • The percentage contribution of Rice flakes to the overall recipe = 0.522
  • The percentage contribution of onion = 0.194
  • The percentage contribution of groundnut oil = 0.096
  • The percentage contribution of peanuts = 0.068
  • The percentage contribution of peppers = 0.032
  • The percentage contribution of lemon = 0.021
  • The percentage contribution of coriander leaves = 0.015
  • The percentage contribution of Bengal gram = 0.014
  • The percentage contribution of sugar = 0.012
  • The percentage contribution of salt = 0.0087
  • The percentage contribution of mustard seeds = 0.0043
  • The percentage contribution of cumin seeds = 0.0039
  • The percentage contribution of curry leaves = 0.0028
  • The percentage contribution of turmeric = 0.0024
    The cumulative sum for the energy value of poha/Avalakki is
    = (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of rice flakes × 0.522) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of onion × 0.194) +(Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of groundnut oil × 0.096)+(Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of peanuts × 0.068) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of peppers × 0.032) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of lemon × 0.021) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of coriander leaves × 0.015) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of Bengal gram × 0.014) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of Sugar × 0.012) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of Salt × 0.0087) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of mustard seeds × 0.0043) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of cumin seeds × 0.0039) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of curry leaves × 0.0028) + (Corresponding energy value cell/100 g of turmeric × 0.0024)
    = (105 × 0.522) + (132 × 0.194) + (884 × 0.096) + (599 × 0.068) + (46 × 0.032) + (29 × 0.0214) + (24 × 0.015) + (164 × 0.014) + (398 × 0.0127) + (0 × 0.0087) + (541 × 0.0043) + (375 × 0.0039) + (115 × 0.0028) + (312 × 0.0024)
i.e. 220.67