Chest X-ray in Neonates and Children Swapan K Ray
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure.
Abdomen 1
Adeno virus 32
Airspace pneumonia 28
right upper lobe 32f
Airway pneumonia 28, 30f
Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 16f
Aspiration pneumonitis 42
Axillary fold, anterior 11f
Barium meal 55f
Barotrauma, sign of 60
Bat wing appearance 24f
Bochdalek hernia 54
Bone 1, 12
within bone appearance 16
Bony thorax 13
Bony trabeculae 15
Brock's right middle lobe syndrome 32
Bronchogenic carcinoma 34
Bronchopneumonia 28
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 59f
Bronchovascular markings 25
Caffey's disease 14
costal hyperostosis in 14f
Cardiac border
part of left 21
right 28f, 43f
Cardiac enlargement 16
Cardiac pathology 21
Cardiac shadow 54
Cardiac silhouette 18, 23
Cardiomegaly 21, 21f
Cardiomyopathy 21f
Cardiothoracic ratio 19, 19f
Central nervous system 45
Cervical rib on right side 13f
Chest 1
normal neonatal 46f
ultrasonography 45
Chest X-ray 2, 33f, 36f, 38f, 40f44f, 51f-52f, 53f, 57f
ABCS of interpreting 1
basics of pediatric 1
characteristics of newborn 45
in neonates 45
interpretation of 1
normal 8, 8f
prerequisites for proper 5
reading 2
Cleidocranial dysostosis 12
Community-acquired pneumonia, symptoms of 33
Cystic hygroma 11f
Dextrocardia with situs inversus 20, 20f
Emphysema, surgical 10f
Encysted pleural effusion, right sided 37f
Expiration 4f
Fallot's physiology 22
Fallot's tetralogy 22f
left side 29f
major 29
minor 29
right sided 29f
Foreign bodies 3
Frontal film 5f
Granulomas 41
Great arteries, transposition of 23, 23f
chambers of 18f
disease, congenital 25
hypoplasia, left 55
Hemithorax, right 36f
Hemolytic anemia, chronic 15f
Hemosiderosis 41
Hernia 55
Hyaline membrane disease 50
stages of 50f
Inspiration 4f
Intrathoracic causes 46
Jeune syndrome 16f
Klebsiella pneumonia 32
Leukemia 41
Lobar emphysema, congenital 57
Lobar pneumonia 28
Lobe, right upper 30f
abscess 35f
cyst, congenital 58f
fields appear oligemic 23
hypoplastic right 51
immaturity 55
sequestrated 43
volume 46
decreased 46
increased 46
normal 46
variable 46
Lymphoma 43
Marble bone disease 15f
Meconium aspiration syndrome 48, 59f
Mediastinal lymphadenopathy, superior 26, 26f
Mediastinal neurogenic tumor, posterior 44
Mediastinal shadows 31
superior 25
Metastasis 41
Miliary mottling 40
Miliary shadows 40
Mitral stenosis 41
Morgagni hernia 55f
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 32
Neonatal pulmonary diseases 46
Neuroblastoma 44
Neuroenteric cyst 43
Osteopetrosis 15f
Paralysis, type of 44
Paratracheal lymph node 17f
Patcy radio-opacities 59f
Pericardial effusion 22, 22f
Pneumatocele 32f
causes of 32
Pneumonia 28, 44, 46
complication of 35
infiltrative 28
interstitial 28, 34f
right middle lobe 31f
round 33f, 34
Pneumonitis, hypersensitivity 42
Pneumothorax 3
right sided 11f
Prominent air bronchogram 50
Pulmonary airway malformation, congenital 56f
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis 41, 41f
Pulmonary artery
left 18
right 18
Pulmonary bay 20
Pulmonary conditions 28
Pulmonary edema 24, 24f
Pulmonary hypertension, persistent 55
Pulmonary hypoplasia 17, 55
Pulmonary intersitial emphysema 60, 60f
Pulmonary plethora 20f, 21, 23, 25
Pulmonary space occupying lesion 43
Pulmonary trunk 18
Pulmonary valve 18
Radiation injury 45
Radiopacity in chest 11
Respiratory distress, causes of 45
Respiratory tract infection, lower 28
Skeletal abnormalities 45
Skiagram, adequacy of 3
inspiration 3
overexposure 7
penetration 5
rotation 7
underexposure 6
Soft tissue 1
inflammation 39
shadows 10
on left side 38f
Staphylococcus aureus 32
Streptococcus pneumoniae 32, 33
Thoracic dystrophy 13f
Thoracic wall, left inner 53f
Thymic enlargement 27
Thyroid, medullary carcinoma of 41f
Trachea, narrowing of 17f
Tracheal anomaly 17
Transient tachypnea of newborn 47f
Tricuspid valve 18
Upper motor neuron 44
Vena cava
inferior 18
superior 18
Chapter Notes

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Chest X-ray in Neonates and Children
Chest X-ray in Neonates and Children
Author Swapan K Ray MBBS DCH DNB MNAMS Professor Department of Pediatrics IQ City Medical College Durgapur, West Bengal, India
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Chest X-ray in Neonates and Children/Swapan K Ray
First Edition: 2019
Printed at
Department of Pediatrics
IQ City Medical College
Durgapur, West Bengal, India
Pediatric Radiology is a challenging subject. Understanding normal and abnormal findings are sometimes very difficult. Subjecting a neonate or a child to radiological examination is not only compromising but hazardous too. Contrary to the adults, children often are very much reluctant and apprehended to undergo radiological tests for fear and phobia of men and machine. So a proper, quick, and friendly approach is needed for a good yield in radiograph. A compassionate, affectionate and friendly attitude to these children often solves the problem. Interpretation of the X-rays is also not easy. In neonates, a transition from fetal life to neonatal life needs analytical mind before assigning abnormalities. An apparent abnormal finding may be normal for that particular age. As a whole pediatricians should be well trained to interpret Pediatric X-rays, most of which are chest X-rays. In this book, I have tried to make interpretation in a simpler and structured way, so that postgraduate trainees should not miss relevant findings. Even the practicing pediatricians will find ease in interpreting pediatric chest X-rays.
My experience in Pediatric Roentgenography in Radiology department of Institute of Child Health, Kolkata for 23 years and guidance of Late Professor Sisir K Bose, Professor Apurba Ghosh, Professor Sukanta Bhattachayya, Professor Debashish Mukhopadhyay and Professor Dipankar Das, helped me immensely to come up with this endeavor for benefit of budding and practicing pediatricians.
I will fail my duty if I forget to mention about Dr Jaydeep Choudhury, who ignited the spark to write this book and helped me a lot in editing it. I am also grateful to Dr Deepankar Banerjee, for helping me to build Radiology cabinet in ICH.
I will remain always indebted to Professor Dilip Mukherjee, Professor Nabendu Choudhury, Professor Asok Datta, Professor Subroto Chakrabartty, Professor Joydeb Roy, Professor Atul Gupta for their constant inspiration and nurturing. Inspiration also came rolling from my friends; Dr Atanu Bhadra, Dr Jaydeep Das, Dr Kripasindhu Chatterjee, and others for making it possible.
I will like to mention about my family members who constantly supported me and excused me for sacrificing family time.
Last but not the least, are all staff of Radiology department of ICH who provided us beautiful radiographs with their Golden Arms. I am really grateful to them, particularly Mr Biman Chakraborty.
I may have missed many others, but it's all about team ICH.
Despite my effort to include important conditions in chest radiography, may have missed few. I promise to include those in next edition if possible. Please give your feedback, even criticism is welcome at my mail (