Handbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine SK Jindal
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flow chart, and t refer to table
A
Abdomen and rib cage, expansion of 700
Abductor palsy, bilateral 257
Abortions 752
spontaneous 731
Acanthosis nigricans 400, 402
Acetaminophen 539
Acid maltase deficiency 699
Acid-base
abnormality 32, 34t, 36, 39
disorders 34, 36, 37
disorders, types of 34
pathophysiology, overview of 33
Acidemia 243
Acid-fast bacilli 56, 80, 97, 331, 644
Acidosis 37, 527
adverse effects of 37
metabolic 34, 37, 197
primary metabolic 35
respiratory 34, 38, 173
severe 37
metabolic 528
Acinar nodules 739f
Acinetobacter 124, 139
Aclidinium 231
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 41, 102, 283, 640, 670, 726
Acute asthma 715
attack 175t
exacerbations 171, 172b, 725
management 173
initial treatment of 725b
management of 724
severe 500
treatment of 724
Acute hypoxemia, severe 242
Acute interstitial pneumonia 267, 275, 282
diagnosis 282
prognosis 282
signs 282
symptoms 282
treatment 282
Acute kidney injury 528
clinical presentation 528
management 528
prevention 529
Acute lung injury 500, 577
transfusion-related 508, 527
Acute pancreatitis 508, 525, 707
pulmonary complications of 707b
severe 525
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 115, 296, 370, 455, 458, 500, 507, 508b, 511, 555, 577, 609, 669, 707, 708, 715, 727
cause of 507
clinical picture 508
etiology 507
management 509
pathophysiology 508
postoperative 374
prognosis 513
Acute respiratory syndrome, severe 729
Acute withdrawal syndrome, symptoms of 619
Adenocarcinoma 378, 385, 387, 392, 400
invasive 387
Adenopathy, mediastinal 692
Adenosine deaminase 642
enzyme activity 642
levels 642b
role of 75
Adenosine triphosphate 419
depletion of 37
Adenosquamous carcinoma 388
small group of 385
Adenovirus 151, 313
Adenyl cyclase activity, modulate 196
Adjunctive therapy 111
Adrenal insufficiency, acute 530
Adrenal metastases 395
Adult respiratory distress syndrome 568, 688, 691
Advanced mediastinal disease, treatment of 414
Adverse drug reactions 87, 417
Aerosolized trypsin 740
Afatinib 416
African-American populations 75
Air embolism 631
treatment of 631
Air flow obstruction, degree of 225
Air pollutants 172
Airborne droplet 44
Airflow limitation, chronic 164
Airflow obstruction 168
chronic 164
severe 567
Airway 120, 536, 598
artificial 144, 602
bypass stents 238
disease 164, 368
chronic obstructive 475
obstructive 563
types of 164
epithelial cells 155
epithelium 154
function, measurement of 156
hyperresponsiveness 30
inflammation 153, 167, 168
noninvasive markers of 160
injury 601
management 602, 605
muscle mass 153
obstruction 190, 681, 683
extrathoracic 706
major 392
mechanical 163
proximal 661
pressure
release ventilation 510, 565
generate 243
remodeling 164
resistance 30
responsiveness, measurement of 160
sensitization 151
smooth muscles 156
viral infection 240
Albumin 36, 188
Alcohol 538, 650
Aldehydes 367
Alkalemia 536
Alkaline phosphatase 405
Alkalosis 38, 742
metabolic 34, 38, 39, 527
primary metabolic 35
Alkalotic pleural fluid 652
Allen's maneuver 580
Allergen 151, 178
desensitization 177
indications 178
pregnancy 182
side effects and risks 181
environmental 172
immunotherapy 169, 177, 180, 182
duration of 180
mechanisms of 177
Allergic alveolitis 113
Allergic asthma 153, 178
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 113, 148, 149, 200, 295, 303
clinical features 202
diagnosis of 205b
diagnostic criteria 205
management 205
pathogenesis 201
pathology 201
Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis 200, 207
Allergic diseases 150
Allergic rhinitis 150, 153, 154, 178, 180, 215, 298
Allergic status 158
measures of 161
Allergy 190
Allopurinol 243
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency 253
Alternative airway techniques 607
Aluminum 291, 344, 345
Alveolar damage, diffuse 282, 464, 465
Alveolar proteinosis, secondary pulmonary 738b
Alveolitis, acute 287
Amebiasis 717, 719
Amenorrhea 82
American Thoracic Society 209, 246, 386
Amikacin 60, 86
Aminoglycosides 92, 135
Aminophylline 174, 231
Amiodarone 302, 313, 455, 463, 508
Ammonia 367, 524
Amniotic fluid embolism 734
Amoxicillin 88, 236, 543
Amphotericin B
colloidal dispersion 116
lipid
complex 116
formulations of 116
Ampicillin 124
Amyl nitrite 539
Amyloidosis 54, 305, 429, 741
diffuse pulmonary 687
laryngeal 306
nodular pulmonary 306
pulmonary 305, 742
Anaerobic bacteria, aspiration of 126
Anaerobic infections 127, 142, 650
pathognomonic of 144
Analgesia 610b
management of 612
protocols 617
Anaphylaxis 190, 198
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase 415, 418
inhibitors 418
translocations 383
Ancylostoma 295
Anderson-Fabry disease 307
Anemia 392, 414, 526, 712
Anesthesia 587
effect of 554
Aneurysm 486
Angina, unstable 178
Angioedema 190, 198
atopic dermatitis 178
hereditary 260
Angiography, pulmonary 478
Angiotensin
converting enzyme inhibitors 163
renin axis 543
Anidulafungin 117
Animal products 355
Anion gap 36
Anionic proteins 36
Ankylosing spondylitis 492, 684, 692
pulmonary manifestations of 692b
Ankylosing spondylosis 447, 450
Anorexia 84, 400, 402
Antiasthma drugs 187, 726
Antibiotics 146, 169, 175, 236, 242, 243, 375
agents 375t
and infection source control 518
factors 109
prophylaxis, role of 485
therapy 111, 121, 129
treatment 652
Antibody
monoclonal 191
therapy 376
Anticholinergics 231, 236, 538, 539
agents 167, 174, 198
clinical use 231
drugs 232
short-acting 174
side effects 232
Anticholinesterases 539
Anticoagulant therapy 479
Anticoagulation 471
therapy, duration of 480
Antifibrotic agents 272
Antiglomerular basement membrane disease 463
Anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibodies 191
Anti-inflammatory
agents 187
drugs 376
effect 233
therapy 168, 272
Antileukotrienes 168
Antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 124
Antimicrobial 119, 375
peptides 47
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody 310
Antinuclear
antibody 374
cytotoxic antibodies 298
factor 271, 310
Antioxidant 237, 272
response element 221
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, primary 455
Anti-Pseudomonas 123
agent 123, 124
Antiretroviral drugs 99
Antiretroviral therapy 72
active 99
combination of 100
Anti-snake venom 542
Antitubercular
drugs 63, 64, 87, 93, 94
therapy 75, 100
treatment 89, 94, 731
Antituberculosis
drugs, grading of activities of 65t
duration of 89
Anti-tumor necrosis factor 376
Antitussives 237
Antivenin 544
Anxiety 240
symptoms of 245
Anxiousness 190
Aorta, coarctation of 453
Aortic arch 436
Apical bullous disease 681, 684
Apnea 494
hypopnea index 495
Apoptosis 221
Arrhenius 33
Arrhythmia 30, 37, 226, 502, 601
Arsenic 368
Arterial blood 501
gas 32, 315, 574, 579, 724
analysis 108, 502, 585
interpretation of 32
Arterial dissection, pulmonary 306
Arterial hypoxemia 19
subclinical 708
Arterial oxygen
alveolar 501
partial pressure of 628
saturation 241, 588
Arteriovenous malformation 429
pulmonary 482, 483b
Arthralgia 190, 456
Arthritis 604
tuberculous 78
Asbestos 348, 368
fiber 350
inhalation, health risks of 348
pneumoconiosis 348
Asbestosis 290, 348, 349, 349b
Ascaris 295
Ascitic fluid 525
Aspergilloma 17, 200
formation 114
Aspergillosis 113, 291, 429
chronic pulmonary 203
invasive 114
pulmonary 113
Aspergillus 114, 126, 200, 204, 205, 255, 671, 729, 740
antigen 113, 205
fumigatus 133, 139, 200
antigens 202
hypersensitivity 200
sensitized asthma 200
skin test 202
Asphyxiation 632
Aspiration 141, 508
bronchiolitis, diffuse 313315
endocavitary 256
pneumonia 703, 705, 706
pneumonitis 686
simple 669
Aspirin 302
Assist-controlled mode, pressure tracing of 562f
Asteroid bodies 287
Asthma 18, 147, 148, 148b, 149, 150, 153, 154, 156, 157, 161, 164, 165, 169, 180, 184, 187, 189, 209, 215, 224, 255, 258, 261, 295, 299, 354, 368, 392, 456, 488, 491, 492, 555, 671
acute severe 175b, 724
aspirin exacerbated 148
care, essential components of 166
chronic severe 188
coexisting 234
control 165, 186
development of 181
diagnosis of 17, 158, 163, 164
difficult 156
education
contents of 186
primary aim of 184
programs 185
strategy of 185
episode of 171
exacerbation 171
moderate-to-severe 198
exercise induced 148
immunological occupational 355
in pregnancy 722
effect of 722
irritant-induced 369
workplace 148
knowledge of 185
management 165, 170, 229, 725
cornerstone of 187
during pregnancy, complications of 723b
objectives of 165
methods and settings 185
mild 156
monitoring 167
nocturnal 151, 491
symptoms of 491
nonimmunological occupational 355
persistent 167
pharmacotherapy 167, 723
presence of 158
prevalence of 149, 150
problems 186
risk factors of 149
severe 153, 200, 724
severity 185
symptoms 169
treatment 169, 192
global initiative for 147, 184
goals of 165
triggers 166
control of 165
uncontrolled 168
unstable 178
work-exacerbated 354
Asthmatic airway 156
Ataxia-telangiectasia 313
Atelectasis 25, 429, 556, 656, 707
Atomic mass unit 5
Atoms, types of 4
Atresia, bronchial 429
Atropine 538, 539
Attack, acute 171
Augmentin 236
Autoimmune
diseases 686
disorders 182, 338
Autonomic nervous system, tumors of 446
Aviation and space travel 322
Azathioprine 292, 302, 689
Azithromycin 105
Aztreonam 135
Azulfidine 375
Azygos vein 436
B
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination 70, 101, 286
Bacteria 59, 649
Bacterial infections, recurrent 131
Bacterial pneumonia 267, 650, 726
causes 726
diagnosis 726
incidence 726
management 727
prevention 728
Bacterial translocation 525
Bacteriology 650
Bacteroides fragilis 146
Bambuterol 195, 231
Barbiturate 189, 538
Barium 345
Barotrauma 243
Basal metabolic
profile 531
rate 592
Basophils 154
B-cell 301
deficient 49
Beclomethasone 302
Bedsore prevention 599
Bee sting allergy 180
Behçet disease 21, 462
Behçet syndrome 455, 461, 486
Benzodiazepines 534, 539, 614, 615, 756
Bernoulli's principle 10
Berylliosis 290, 340, 341
acute 340
types of 341
Beryllium 291, 340, 344, 345
disease 340, 341
exposure 341t
hypersensitivity 341
lymphocyte proliferation test 342
sensitization 341
Best supportive care 411
Beta agonists, short-acting 167, 187
Beta-2-agonists 232
and theophylline 236
side effects 232
Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin 443
Bevacizumab 678
Bicarbonate 32, 34
Bileveled positive airway
pressure 565
therapy 496
Bilirubin 422
Biogas 230
Biologic therapies 169
Biological drugs 191
Biomass fuel exposure 368
Birth weight, low 731
Bispectral index 612
Bladder transitional cell carcinoma 302
Blastomyces 126
Blastomycosis 291
Bleeding, intracranial 513
Bleomycin 302, 313, 374, 662, 677
Blood
brain barrier 80, 524
counts, complete 422
flow
bronchial 696
hepatic 37
pulmonary 2
gas
abnormalities 579
analysis 581
monitoring 579, 581
pressure 18, 29
elevated 193
elevation, substantial 30
increases 637
noninvasive 30
stream 142
sugar 422
vessels 681
Bloody gastric lavage 523
Body mass index 225, 451
Bone
fractures 475
marrow 313
transplantation 455
tuberculosis 76
treatment of 79
Bordetella pertussis 132
Borrelia burgdorferi 286
Bovine cough 393
Bowel disease, inflammatory 708
Bowel sounds, role of 597
Boyle's law 8, 322
Bradycardia 502, 519
Bradypnea 18
Brain
activity 612
function 612
injury, hypoxic 601
metastases 395
natriuretic peptide 477, 550
Brass chills 371
Brazier's disease 371
Breast cancer 655
metastatic 742
Breastfeeding 726, 732
Breath
cycling of 556
shortness of 163
triggering of 556
Breathing 1, 536, 598
altered control of 622
awareness of 16
pattern 18
trials, spontaneous 625
Breathlessness 51, 163, 164, 263, 392, 656
severity of 241
British Thoracic Society Rules 109
Bromide 538
Bronchi, conducting 603
Bronchial asthma 200, 205, 320, 576, 706
epidemiology 147
pharmacotherapy of 187
Bronchiectasis 17, 103, 131, 254, 429, 681, 684686, 706
central 205
complications 136
cystic 131
diagnosis 133
etiology 132, 132b
long-term management of stable disease 135
microbiology 134
pathology 131
physiology 132
prognosis 136
proximal 201
signs 132
symptoms 132
treatment 134
Bronchiolar disorders 314t
diagnosis of 315
general features of 312
Bronchiolar luminal impaction 314
Bronchiolar wall thickening 314
Bronchiole, respiratory 218, 312
Bronchiolectasis 314
Bronchiolitis 190, 312, 315fc, 368, 681
clinical classification of 313b
constrictive 312, 315
drug induced 313
eosinophilic 313
infectious 313, 314
lymphocytic 313
obliterans 281, 295, 312, 315, 370, 375
organizing 681
obliterative 683
respiratory 275, 313, 315
Bronchitis 327, 344, 368, 706
Bronchoalveolar lavage 56, 127, 270, 275, 276, 290, 337, 342, 364, 377, 420, 457, 738
bronchoscopic 122
development of 330
fluid 685
Bronchodilators 105, 192, 231t, 242
inhaled 242
short-acting 174
Bronchoprovocation tests 158
Bronchopulmonary sequestration 482, 486
Bronchoscopic techniques 262
Bronchoscopy 128, 259, 457, 583
electromagnetic navigational 435
Bronchospasm, acute severe 197
Brucella 291
Brucellosis 295, 642
Bullae 27
causes of 253b
Bullous disease, idiopathic 253
Bullous lung diseases 252
clinical presentation 254
complications 255
etiology 253
natural history 255
pathogenesis 252
radiologic features 254
treatment 255
Bungarus caeruleus 541
Burkholderia cepacia 671
complex 138, 139
Busulfan 313, 374
therapy, chronic 742
C
Cachexia 400, 402, 414
Cadmium 344, 368
Caffeine 197
Calcification 432, 681
metastatic 741
Calcinosis 269
Calcium 36, 422, 593
channel blocker 539
chloride 539
metabolism, abnormalities of 289
oxalate crystals 287
Calcospherite 743
Calorie requirements 595
Cancer 178
chemotherapy 374, 374t
agents 373
therapeutic strategy for 374f
esophageal 264
treatment of 632
Candida 729
infection, high risk of 115
pneumonia, diagnosis of 115
Candidal bronchopneumonia, primary 115
Capillaritis, pulmonary 455
Capillary membrane, alveolar 509
Caplan's syndrome 329, 338, 339, 681683
Capnography, cutaneous 585
Capreomycin 60, 86, 88
Carbamazepine 189, 302, 536
Carbapenems 123
Carbohydrate antigens 659
Carbon dioxide 34, 492
arterial 698
partial pressure of 32
monitoring 588
partial pressure of 501, 555, 585
Carbon monoxide 27, 538, 632, 704
inhalation 372
poisoning 631, 632
Carcinoid syndrome 402
Carcinoid tumor, atypical 388
Carcinoma 429
bronchogenic 400, 486
in situ 385
sarcomatoid 385
Cardiac arrest 631
Cardiac arrhythmias 233, 529, 631, 632
risk of 233
Cardiac catheterization 583
Cardiac cycle 485
Cardiac disease 461
Cardiac failure 226, 502, 743
congestive 475, 656
Cardiomyopathy
congenital 467
peripartum 734, 735
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing 28, 29, 589
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 547, 672
basic 547
Cardiovascular diseases 695
Cardiovascular drugs 374
Carmustine 313
Caspofungin 117
Castleman disease 426
Catamenial pneumothorax 666, 671
Cathelicidin 47
Catheter embolectomy 481
Cathode 581
Cavitation 432
Cavity formation 114
Cefaclor 236
Ceftazidime 135
Ceftriaxone 124
Cell
carcinoma, alveolar 685
mediated immunity, antigen-specific 345
Central airways obstruction 257
Central nervous system 196
infection 534
tuberculosis 74, 79
Central sleep apnea 488, 493, 494, 497, 697
syndrome 497
Central venous pressure 550, 551
Centriacinar emphysema 218
Centrilobular nodules 314, 315
Cephalosporin 236
Cerebellar hematoma 533
Cerebral
abscess, chances of 485
activity 612
air embolism 631
edema 243
metabolic activity 545
state index 612
Cerebrovascular
accidents 484, 532
disease 490
Cervical
disk abnormalities 604
lymphangiomas 445
ribs 452
Cervix, squamous cell carcinomas of 302
Charcot-Leyden crystal protein 294
Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome 492
Charles’ law 8
Chemokines 48, 592
Chemotherapy 63, 409412, 660, 677
adjuvant 411
combination adjuvant 677
complications of 414
duration of 63
first-line 410, 412
induction 678
maintenance 410, 412
neoadjuvant 411
second-line 411, 412, 678
Chest
and upper extremities 484
computed tomography test 438
contrast-enhanced computed tomography of 432f
discomfort 262
drain 662
examination of 19
imaging 456, 459
pain 16, 190, 392, 656, 667, 689, 713, 733
nonpleuritic 676
physiotherapy 139
radiograph 128, 349, 430, 482, 731
conventional 437
lateral 316
radiographic abnormalities 716
radiography 116, 158, 270, 468
radiology 55
skiagram, examination of 21
tightness 163
ultrasonogram of 651f
wall 2, 447, 697
diseases of 447
disorders of 16
hernias 453
nonmuscular diseases of 447b
tumors of 453
X-ray 276, 313, 315, 700
Cheyne-Stokes breathing 490
Chills 728
Chinese hamster ovary cells 191
Chlamydia 151
pneumoniae 169, 286, 642, 726
Chlorambucil 374
Chlorhexidine 119
Chloride, concentrations of 36
Cholesterol
crystals 681
pneumonia 309
Chondroma 78, 429
Chromium 344
Chronic asthma 216
management of 723
Chronic beryllium
disease 291, 340, 341, 344
exposure 341
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, idiopathic 297, 303
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 17, 23, 103, 107, 114, 156, 159, 208, 209, 211, 213, 215, 216, 218, 220, 221, 223, 230f, 231t, 239, 245, 255, 258, 273, 320, 322, 368, 369, 414, 466, 467, 488, 491, 499, 500, 555, 568, 573, 575, 624, 671, 753
acute exacerbation of 239, 500
anticholinergics 231
bronchodilators 230
burden of 208
causes of 240
economic burden of 211
environmental risk factors 229
exacerbation 239
management of 240, 242
pathogenesis 223
pharmacotherapy 230
prevalence of 209
prevention 229
primary care 240
risk factors 229
symptoms of 240
systemic manifestations of 224, 225b
treatment of 229
wasting and weight loss 225
Churg-Strauss syndrome 148, 168, 190, 192, 271, 295, 298
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary 103
Cilomilast 196
Ciprofloxacin 94, 243
Circulation 598
Cirrhosis 290
Cisapride 597
Cisplatin 677
Clarithromycin 105, 243
Clavulanic acid 236
Clenbuterol 195
Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score 121
Clofazimine 88
Clofibrate 302
Clubbing 402
Coagulation disorders 455, 465
Coal dust 368
exposure, clinical features of 327
lung disease 327
Coal workers pneumoconiosis 327, 741
pathology of 329
Co-amoxiclav 139
Cobalt 344, 345
asthma 345
Cobb's angle 448, 448f
Cocaine 302, 313, 538
Coccidioidomycosis 291, 295, 429, 642
Codeine 756
Coinfection 240
Colchicine 686
Cold abscess 75
Coliforms 134
Colistin 135, 375
Collagen vascular diseases 313, 468, 680
Coma 537, 555
cocktail 537
Comet tail sign 431
Community-acquired pneumonia 106, 144
diagnostic testing 108
prognosis 109
severe 727b
treatment 110
Complex airways diseases, management of 601
Compliance, rate, oxygenation, pressure index 624
Compression ultrasonography 477
Computed tomography 405, 422, 431, 433, 437
contrast-enhanced 422
pulmonary arteriography 477
scan 297
Computer-aided diagnosis techniques 434
Confusion 727
Conjunctivitis 459
Connective tissue 436
diseases 267, 295, 313, 315, 338, 467, 486, 666, 680
disorders 267
related lung diseases, treatment of 694b
Consciousness, levels of 241
Constipation 757
Constrictive pericarditis, effusive 84
Continuous positive airway pressure 261, 321, 496, 504, 563, 564f, 570, 595, 624, 626, 702
Contraceptive pills, oral 475
Copper 344, 345
sulphate 345
Cor pulmonale 330
chronic 226, 338, 341, 743
signs of 449
Coronary artery disease, severe 178
Corticosteroids 174, 187, 233, 242, 520, 694
inhaled 167, 206, 226, 723
oral 169, 206, 724
role of 646
side effects 234
therapy 227
Costochondritis 452
Cotton dust 368
Cough 15, 51, 237, 262, 341, 363, 392, 630, 667, 713, 728, 730, 756
chronic 706
nonproductive 689
drug-induced 163
hygiene 69
nonproductive 275
variant asthma 162
Crack cocaine inhalation 455
Creatinine 422
Crest syndrome 685
Cricothyroidotomy 608
Critical care, nonpulmonary 522
Critical flow rate 12
Crusty rhinitis 456
Cryoglobulinemia 455
Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis 462
Cryptococcosis 291, 429
pulmonary 115
Cryptococcus 729
neoformans 740
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia 267, 272, 275, 282, 313, 688, 690
diagnosis 281
etiology 281
prognosis 281
signs 281
symptoms 281
treatment 281
Cryptosporidium 56
Crystalline silica 334, 368
Cuff pressure 120
Cushing's syndrome 396, 402
Cutis laca 253
Cyanide 538, 539
Cyanosis 19
Cyclophosphamide 374, 459
infusion 311
oral 459
Cycloserine 88, 99
crosses placenta 91
Cysts
bronchogenic 429, 444
enterogenous 445
infected 254
large clusters of 131
mediastinal 444
neuroenteric 445
pericardial 445
Cystic adenomatoid malformation, congenital 486
Cystic fibrosis, atypical 137
Cytokine 48, 161, 592
levels 592
mediators, number of 224
storm 515
Cytomegalovirus 670
Cytotoxic drug 292
therapy 455
D
Dacomitinib 416
Dalton's law 7
Danders 166
Dantrolene 302
Dapsone 302, 536
Daytime sleepiness, excessive 489
Decompression sickness 629, 630
Deep coma 538
Deep venous thrombosis 414, 473
formation of 474fc
prophylaxis 599
testing 477
Defensin 3, 47
Delirium
management of 620
prevention of 620
treatment of 620
Dendritic cells 44, 48
Dengue 464, 718
fever 717, 718
hemorrhagic fever 719
viral nonstructural protein-1 719
virus 719
Deoxyribonucleic acid 373
Depression 190, 240, 414
symptoms of 245
Dermatitis
atrial 150
exfoliative 400, 402
Dermatomyositis 267, 313, 400, 680, 691, 691b
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia 267, 269, 272, 275
diagnosis 280
etiology 279
signs 279
symptoms 279
treatment 280
Dexmedetomidine 613, 616, 617
Dextrose 539
Diabetes 113, 114
and lung function 704
and tuberculosis 704
mellitus 290, 599, 604, 650, 703, 712
pulmonary complications of 703b
type 1 704
type 2 704
Diabetic foot 631
Diabetic ketoacidosis 531
management 531
Diaphragm dysfunction, severe 702
Diaphragm imaging 701
Diaphragm paralysis
bilateral 700t
unilateral 700t, 701
Diaphragmatic paralysis 492, 699
etiology of 699t
Diarrhea 97, 234, 418, 598
Diazepam 613, 756
Diet 169
Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid 271
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage 310, 454, 455, 463, 464
causes of 455b
syndromes 454
Diffusion 2, 13, 14
Digital clubbing 399
Digoxin 471, 539
specific antibodies 539
Dimorphic fungi 115
Diphenhydramine 538
Diphenylhydantoin 455
Diprophylline 197
Direct puncture technique 580
Directly observed treatment 89
Disability adjusted life years 211
Discoid lesions 21
Disease modifying antisarcoid drugs 292
Disorientation 727
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 676
Diuresis 233
Diuretics 471
Dizziness 193
Dobutamine 519, 552
Domiciliary oxygen 235
Dopamine 552
Doripenem 123
Dorsalis pedis 579
Doxofylline 233
Doxycycline 236, 677
D-penicillamine 313
Drowning 547
Drug 295
interactions 194
reactions 291
regimen 123
resistance, prevention of 63
resistant tuberculosis 86, 87
surgical management of 89
therapies 236
Dry cough 281, 604, 683
Dry mouth 190
Dry pericarditis 83
Dying, care of 754b
Dyspnea 16, 37, 133, 225, 248, 349, 363, 449, 484, 630, 667, 679, 683, 686, 689, 700, 713, 722, 733, 755
mechanisms of 696b
palliation of 755b
progressive 262, 275
psychogenic 16
treatment of 237
Dysrhythmias 543
Dystrophic calcification 741
E
Eaton-Lambert syndrome 398, 492
Echinococcosis 295
Echocardiogram 469
Echocardiography 550
Eczema 190
Edema 19
cardiac pulmonary 715
laryngeal 500
neurogenic pulmonary 508
peripheral 498
pulmonary 543, 712, 715, 734, 735
Egg shell calcification 337
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 253
Elastic recoil, balance of 635
Electrocardiogram 422, 468
Electrocardiography 476
Electromagnetic navigation systems 434
Embolectomy, surgical 481
Embolotherapy 485
Empey's index 258
Emphysema 27, 221, 253, 555, 692
diffuse nonbullous 254
severe 238
subcutaneous 665
Empyema 143, 642, 646, 648, 650, 681
diagnostic of 651
formation of 143
necessitans 647
Encephalomyelitis 398, 402
End-expiratory pressure, auto-positive 622
Endobronchial ultrasound 290
guided transbronchial needle aspiration 441
Endocarditis, subacute bacterial 455
Endocrine
diseases 703
disorder 226, 402, 703
syndromes 396
End-of-life care 753, 758
Endometriosis 429
Endoscopy 583
Endosonographic procedures 404
Endotracheal intubation 3, 505
confirmation of 606
Endotracheal tube 119, 606
cuff pressure 120
End-stage diseases 744
End-tidal carbon dioxide
monitoring 586
advantages 586
limitation 587
tension 585
Endurance shuttle walk test 247
Energy
conservation 249
requirements, estimation of 596
Entamoeba histolytica 719, 720
Enteral nutrition 594, 598
Enteric fever 717
Enterobacter 124, 134
Envenomation 535
Environmental tobacco smoke 210, 214, 368, 380
Enzyme 189, 356
acid sphingomyelinase 308
group of 196
linked immunosorbent assay 718
Eosinophil 154, 294
cationic protein 294
derived neurotoxin 294
Eosinophilia 294
peripheral 204
primary pulmonary 295
secondary pulmonary 295
Eosinophilic pneumonia, acute 295, 296, 303
Epidermal growth factor receptor 383, 415, 416t
gene mutations 383
Epiglottitis 260, 555
Epilepsy 243
Epinephrine 192, 519
Episcleritis 456, 459
Epistaxis 484
Epithelial cells 140, 155
alveolar 44
Epithelial injury 369
Epithelial tumors 386
Epstein-Barr virus 426
Epworth sleepiness scale 491
Erlotinib 416, 678
Eryptogenic organizing pneumonia 272
Erythema 192, 456
gyratum repens 400, 402
multiforme 400, 402
nodosum 21, 78
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 422, 682
Erythroderma 402
Erythromycin 597
Escherichia coli 126
Esophageal dysfunction 141, 269
Esophagitis, eosinophilic 190
Esophagomediastinal fistula 76
Esophagus 16, 26, 436
involvement of 394
Essential initial test 108
Ethambutol 65, 75, 88, 92, 99, 645
Ethanol 230, 538, 539
Ethionamide 88, 94, 99
Ethylene glycol 538, 539
European Respiratory Society 209, 246, 386
Exacerbation 250
acute severe 172b
management of 173
Excretion 34
Exercise 172, 249
testing 28, 583
basic modalities 28
Extracellular matrix deposition 153
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 506, 513
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis 55, 57, 64, 74, 75
diagnosis 74
Extrapyramidal syndrome 620
Extravascular lung water 696
Exudative effusion, diagnosis of 642b
Eyes 289, 680
F
Fabry's disease 253
Facemask 606
Facial
flushing 728
palsy 289
wrinkling 216
Fatal pulmonary hemorrhage 462
Fatigue 341, 449, 730
Fatty acid metabolism 43
Feeding
position of 597
tube 597
Fenoterol 195
Fentanyl 613, 614
Fetal
nephrotoxicity 91
ototoxicity 91
Fever 281, 364, 400, 402, 456, 728, 730
inhalation 368
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy 56, 434, 578
role of 56
Fibrinolytics, intrapleural 653
Fibrinopurulent stage 649
Fibrosis 314, 685
apical 692
cystic 3, 103, 131, 136138, 190, 200, 667, 671
diffuse pulmonary 682
interstitial 681
post-tubercular 253
pulmonary 341, 368
Fick's law 13
Fine-needle aspiration
biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided 441
cytology 76, 434
Finger clubbing 349
Fish proteins 356
Fistula, bronchopleural 647
Five factor score 299
Fixed airway obstruction 257
Flail chest 447, 452
treatment 452
Flattened thoracic cage 283
Flexible bronchoscopy 589, 607
Flock worker's lung 313
Flucloxacillin 139
Fluconazole 117
Fluid
management 512
strategy of 512
overload 554
status 550
Flumazenil 539
Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography 433f
Fluoroquinolone 92, 124, 146
resistant tuberculosis 110
Fluoroscopic sniff test 701
Fluoroscopy 700
Fluxes 357
Follicular bronchiolitis 314
Food
allergens 166
allergy 178
Forced vital capacity 278, 337, 700
Formaldehyde 538
Formoterol 195, 231
Foundry fever 371
Fracture, traumatic 78
Free silica 338
Fresh frozen plasma 523
Full cardiopulmonary exercise tests 247
Functional residual capacity 635, 685, 696
Fungal
ball 113
formation of 200
infections 291, 295, 429, 703
pneumonia 729
proteases 201
respiratory tract infection 113b
rhinosinusitis 113
allergic 113
eosinophil-related 113
invasive 114
sensitization 200
Fungi 514
Fungus ball 692
Funnel chest 450
Fusarium infections 115, 117
Fusidic acid 139
Fusobacterium necrophorum 143
G
Gallium scanning 290
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 614
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase 405
Gangrene, pulmonary 129
Gases
absorption 665
exchange 2, 563, 698
abnormalities 513, 712, 713
flow of 11
gangrene 631
laws 8
molecules 6
physical properties of 5
pressure 7
properties of 4
solution and tension 10
volumes, expression of 11
Gastric acid 196
Gastric retention 614
Gastroesophageal reflux 151, 233, 650
disease 163, 277, 706, 706b
Gastrointestinal
bleeding 509, 522, 523
decontamination 536
disease 522, 706
tract 169, 188
manifestations 299
tuberculosis of 81
tuberculosis 62
Gaucher's disease 290, 307, 308, 467
Gauge pressure 7
Gay-Lussac's law 9
Gefitinib 416, 678
Gemifloxacin 146
Genetic defects 3
Genitourinary
cancers 655
tuberculosis 62, 74, 82
Genome-wide association studies 285
Gentamicin 135, 375
Germ cell tumors 442
mediastinal 442
Gestational trophoblastic disease 734, 735
Giant cell
arteritis 461
granuloma 345
multinucleated 201
Glasgow coma score 518
Glaucoma 289
Globotriaosylceramide 307
Globulin 188
Glomerulonephritis 400
idiopathic 455
signs of 456
Glucagon 539, 592
Glucocorticoid receptor complex 168
Gluconeogenesis 592
Glucose control 520
Glutethimide 538
Glycogen storage disease 467
Glycolysis, anaerobic 37, 38
Glycopyrronium 231
Goiter, mediastinal 443
Gold salts 302
Goldenhar syndrome 604
Gonadal hormones 245
Good's syndrome 148
Goodpasture's syndrome 271, 455, 459
Graft-versus-host disease 190
Graham's law 9, 13
Grain dusts 313
Gram's staining 80, 121
Gram-negative bacilli 146
Granular immune complex 459
Granulocytosis 399
Granuloma
eosinophilic 267
formation 640
Granulomatosis 457
eosinophilic 298, 460
lymphomatoid 425
treatment of 459
Granulomatous
diseases 368
inflammation 286288, 290
vasculitis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated 455
Great vessels 16, 436
Ground-glass
attenuation 431
opacity 277
Growth
hormones 592
stimulatory pathways 383
Guillain-Barré syndrome 500, 699
Gut dialysis 536
Gynecomastia 402
H
Haemophilus influenzae 124, 132134, 138, 139, 236, 260, 650, 652, 726
Halo sign 116, 431
Haloperidol 620
Hamartoma 429
Hamazaki-Wesenberg bodies 287
Hand hygiene 119
Hard metal 345
lung disease 344
Headache 233, 234, 728
Headcheese sign 314
Healthcare-associated pneumonia 118, 726
Heart 16, 394, 436, 680
disease 38, 467, 753
congenital 467, 475
coronary 194
ischemic 712
failure 392, 455, 498, 695, 695b, 697, 727
chronic 500
congestive 163, 529
diffusion abnormalities 696
sleep abnormalities 697
ventilatory abnormalities 696
involvement 458
rate 29, 550, 552
rhythm 550
Heat stroke 546
Heavy metals 539
Heliox 13
therapy 175
Helium 4, 13
Hemagglutination inhibition 719
Hematochezia 523
Hematological disorders 467
Hematological syndromes 399
Hematology 633
Hematoma 429
Hemiazygos vein 436
Hemodialysis 93, 536
Hemoglobin 245
Hemolytic anemia
chronic 467
Coombs-positive 676
Hemoptysis 16, 51, 391, 730, 756
massive 756
mechanisms of 51
Hemorrhage
alveolar 454, 458, 463, 688
bland pulmonary 455
diffuse pulmonary 306
gastrointestinal 484
idiopathic pulmonary 455
intracerebral 532
pulmonary 306, 666, 690
subarachnoid 532
Hemorrhagic telangiectasias, hereditary 483
Hemosiderosis, idiopathic pulmonary 310, 465
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation 33, 34, 34t
Henoch-Schönlein purpura 455
Henry's law 9, 10
Heophylline 196
Heparin therapy, regimens of 479t
Hepatic disease 616
Hepatic disorders 709
Hepatic tuberculosis 84, 85
clinical diagnosis of 84
Hepatitis
acute 290
B surface antigen 422
C virus 422
drug induced 94
Hepatopulmonary syndrome 710, 710b, 711t
clinical features 710
diagnosis 710
treatment 711
Hepatotoxicity 93
drug induced 93
Herd immunity effects 111
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 308
Heroin exposure 302
Herpes zoster infection 97
High cuff pressure 264
High flow nasal cannula 504
High molecular weight compounds 355
High positive end expiratory pressures 439
High resolution computed tomography 276, 277, 364, 376
findings 314
imaging 290
scan 314, 349, 370
High-attenuation mucoid impaction 204f
High-resolution computed tomography 277t, 314t, 456, 682
abnormalities 692b
Hilar lymph nodes 336
Hip replacement 475
Histiocytosis, pulmonary 467
Histoplasma 126
capsulatum 303
Histoplasmosis 291, 295, 429, 642, 742
Hodgkin's disease 301
Hodgkin's lymphoma 420, 423, 444
nodular sclerosing type of 444
Hormone
adrenocorticotropic 591
replacement therapy 475
Horner's syndrome 19, 394, 667
Hospital-acquired pneumonia 118, 726
prevention of 119
Host's genome 140
Host's immune response 95, 594
Household air pollution 214, 381
Human disease 103
clinical features 103
diagnosis 104
treatment 105
Human immunodeficiency virus 41, 53, 74, 95, 96, 98, 125, 422, 467, 640, 726
disease, risk of 100
infection 6b, 9597, 117, 253, 338, 382, 645
treatment of 99
Human plasma 36
Humidity 10
Humoral immunity 49
Hydatidiform, benign 735
Hydralazine 302
Hydrochloric acid 39, 367
Hydrocortisone 188
Hydrogen 4
ions 33
peroxide 161
potential of 32, 34t, 241
Hydromorphone 613, 614
Hydrostatic equilibrium model 637
Hydrothorax, hepatic 709
Hydroxychloroquine 292
Hydroxyurea 374
Hyperbaric oxygen 629, 630, 633
beneficial effects of 629
complications 634
contraindications 633
indications 630
mechanism of action of 629
rationale of 628
therapy 628, 629, 634
Hypercalcemia 396, 538, 676
nonmetastatic 402
Hypercalcitonemia 402
Hypercapnia 19, 173, 227, 243
arterial 498
nocturnal 702
Hypercapnic respiratory failure 502, 575, 602
Hypercarbia 242, 700
Hypereosinophilic syndrome 296, 300, 303
idiopathic 295
Hypergammaglobulinemia 271
Hyperglycemia 197
Hyperkalemia 527, 528, 538
Hypermagnesemia 538
Hypernatremia 536
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state 531
Hyperparathyroidism
primary 742
secondary 742
Hyperplasia
atypical adenomatous 385
neuroendocrine 388
Hyperresponsiveness 168
bronchial 149, 164, 696
Hypersensitivity 243
disorders 362t
pneumonia 291, 295
pneumonitis 200, 267, 315, 361, 364b, 366, 368
clinical presentation 363
diagnosis 364
etiology 361
management and prevention 365
pathogenesis 362
pathology 363
prognosis 366
skin tests 161
Hypertension 194, 495, 601, 712
chronic thromboembolic 467, 469
portal 467
portopulmonary 711, 711t
progressive pulmonary 694
pulmonary venous 466, 553
severe 243
Hyperthermia 546
management 547
Hyperthyroidism 243, 402, 699
Hypertrichosis lanuginose, acquired 402
Hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, idiopathic 742
Hyperventilation 37
Hypervitaminosis D 742
Hypoalbuminemia, prevalence of 36
Hypoglycemia 38, 402, 527, 676
Hypokalemia 38, 197, 536
Hypomagnesemia 38, 197, 527
Hypopharyngeal misplacements 586
Hypophosphatemia 38
Hypopnea 490, 494
syndrome 493, 494
Hypotension 503, 543, 614, 716
arterial 515
sepsis induced 514, 519
Hypothermia 544, 727
epidemiology 545
pathophysiological changes 545
treatment 545
Hypothyroidism 699, 705
treatment of 705
Hypouricemia 400
Hypoventilation 490, 491, 498
diagnosis of 491
disorders, alveolar 467
nocturnal 488
Hypoxemia 227, 235, 331, 482, 484, 488, 492, 502, 506, 689, 700, 707, 713
acute reversible 688, 690
arterial 707, 713
syndromes 491
syndromes, diagnosis of 491
Hypoxemic failure 502
Hypoxemic respiratory failure 500, 576
primary mechanism of 501f
Hypoxia 18, 549, 554, 669, 697
mild 502
presence of 224
Hypoxic respiratory failure 602
I
Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia 267, 275, 278
diagnosis 279
etiology 278
prognosis 279
signs 279
symptoms 279
treatment 279
Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis 267, 275, 283
diagnosis 283
treatment 283
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 253, 267, 268, 275, 276, 295, 328, 375, 382, 455, 500, 706, 742
acute exacerbation of 273
diagnosis 277
epidemiology 276
etiology 276
prognosis 278
signs 277
symptoms 277
treatment 278
Idiopathic pulmonary ossification 742
Imatinib 678
Imipenem 123
Imipramine 302
Immune cells 155
activation of 155
Immune deficiency 133
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome 76, 100
Immune system 44
Immunity
adaptive 48
cell mediated 45, 48
innate 47, 48
Immunoglobulin
A nephropathy 313
E antibodies 153
Immunotherapy 409, 413
allergen specific 169, 177
contraindications of 178b
indications of 178b
subcutaneous 182
sublingual 182
Incremental shuttle walk test 247
Indacaterol 231
Indoor air pollutants 150
Indwelling central vein catheter 475
Indwelling pleural catheter 677
Infarction, pulmonary 429, 666, 707
Infections 151, 260, 267, 303, 464, 608, 691
bacterial 139, 240
chronic 649
prevention of 111
severity of 108
tuberculous 81
Inflammation 314
chronic 154
effector cells of 154
Inflammatory cells 196, 201, 509, 649
Inflammatory disease 153
Influenza 151, 728
A 464
clinical presentation of 728
diagnosis 728
effects on pregnancy 729
fetal effects 729
management 728
prevention 728
vaccination 111, 728
vaccine 237
virus 728
Inhalational bronchiolitis obliterans 370
Inhalational injury 313
clinical presentation of 368
determinants of 367
Inhalational therapy 187
Inhaled steroids, high doses of 188
Injuries
environmental 535, 544
inhalation 508
Innate lymphoid cells 156
Innominate veins 436
Insomnia 193, 489
Inspiratory positive airway pressure 572
Inspired oxygen, fraction of 175f
Intensive care unit 526, 542b, 548, 550, 552, 553, 578, 591, 758
costs of 621
management in 176
Intercellular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 219
Intercostal tube drainage 662
Interferon 678
gamma release assays 98
Interleukins 678
International Association for Study of Lung Cancer 386
International Classification of Radiographs 336
International Classification of Sleep Disorders 488
International Labour Organization 336
Interstitial lung disease 266, 275, 295, 312, 315, 321, 418, 467, 468, 500, 666, 682, 684, 691693
acute exacerbation of 273
causes of 267b
classification 266
diffuse 266
epidemiology 268
etiology 266
idiopathic group of 275
pathogenesis 268
pathology 268
primary 266
secondary 266
Interstitial pneumonia
chronic 291
major idiopathic 267
nonspecific 267, 278, 685
Interstitial pneumonitis, lymphocytic 687
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction 402
Intracellular leukocyte killing 631
Intrauterine death 731
Intravenous drug abuse 650
Iodopovidone 662
Ipratropium 174, 231
bromide 198
Iridocyclitis 456
Iron
deficiency anemia 484
overload 113
Ischemia 30
Isocyanate exposure 455
Isoniazid 42, 6365, 75, 93, 94, 99, 105, 302, 645
high dose 88
prophylaxis 732
Isoprostanes 161
J
Joint tuberculosis 74, 76
treatment of 79
Jugular venous pressure 553
K
Kanamycin 60, 88, 96, 99
Kaposi's sarcoma 21, 670
Keratitis 459
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca 686
Ketone production 592
Kidney 517
failure 113
Klebsiella 124, 134
pneumoniae 126
Knee replacement 475
Kussmaul respiration 37
Kyphoscoliosis 447, 448, 468, 492
L
Lactate dehydrogenase 422, 681, 739
levels of 530
low 649
Lactation 91
Lactic acidosis 173, 400
Lactoferrin 3
Lambda sign 290
Lambert-Beer law 582
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome 397, 402
Lane-Hamilton syndrome 311
Langerhans cell
granulomatosis 301
histiocytosis 253, 295
pulmonary 270
Large-cell carcinoma 385, 387, 392
Laryngeal edema, acute 260
Laryngeal nerve palsy, recurrent 393
Laryngitis 368
Laryngoscopy 605
direct 605
Larynx 19
Latest National Cancer Registry Programme 378
Legionella 108
pneumonia 703
pneumophila 726
Lemierre's syndrome 143
Leprosy 290
Leptospira 718
interrogans 717
Leptospirosis 464, 717
Leukemia, eosinophilic 300, 301
Leukopenia 190, 727
Leukotriene 189
antagonists 175
moderators 723
pathway modifiers 168
receptor antagonists 189
Levofloxacin 86, 124
Lieomyoma 429
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 699
Linear atelectasis 688
Linezolid 88
Lipid soluble drugs 188
Lipoid pneumonia 309, 368
Liposomal amphotericin B 116
Lipoteichoic acid 107
Lipoxygenase inhibitor 189
Liquefied petroleum gas 230
Lithium intoxication, acute 538
Liver
biopsy 672
cirrhosis of 113
disease 93
alcoholic 93
chronic 18, 114
preexisting 94
dysfunction 418
failure, acute 524
function parameters 615
Living donor lobar lung transplantation 273
Löffler's endocarditis 300
Löffler's syndrome 295, 296
Löfgren's syndrome 288, 290
Long-acting beta agonists 167, 232
Long-term oxygen therapy 241, 323, 756
assessment of 589
Lorazepam 613, 615
Low molecular weight
compounds 356
heparin 478, 479
Lower respiratory tract infections 215, 240
L-tryptophan 302
Ludwig's angina 143, 260
Lung 16, 302, 655, 680, 697, 704
abscess 125, 128, 129, 142, 144, 146, 429, 706
classification 125
clinical features 127
complications 128
computed tomography 128
epidemiology 125
etiology 126
hematological 127
laboratory diagnosis 127
metastatic 127
microbiological diagnosis 127
pathogenesis 126
pathology 126
percutaneous drainage 130
prognosis 130
signs 127
surgical care 129
symptoms 127
treatment 129
ultrasound examination 128
anaerobic bacterial infections of 141
biopsy 271
bullae 253
cancer 215, 344, 348, 353, 368, 378, 380b, 384, 391, 402b, 655, 684686
classification of 386
clinical manifestations 391
diagnosis of 401
epidemiology of 378
etiopathogenesis of 378
local manifestations 391
major histological types of 378
management of 407
metastatic 411
molecular biology of 383
risk factors 379
staging of 401
treatment of 407, 416t
carcinoma 21
collapse 25
diffusing capacity of 27
diseases 22, 55, 294, 295, 320, 327, 633, 665, 737
ankylosing spondylitis-related 692b
chronic obstructive 18
eosinophilic 301, 302b, 304
fibrosing 382
four types of 691b
laboratory tests 739
obstructive 666
progress and complications 740
radiology 739
restrictive 18
signs 738
structural 382
symptoms 738
treatment 740
disorders 295
entrapment 657, 663
fibrosis 26
function 167, 229, 686
aspects of 22
bedside measurement of 21
low 160
measurement of 159
tests 135, 162
gangrene 125
hematolymphoid neoplasm of 420
infections 138, 144, 392, 692
anaerobic 141, 142, 146
infiltrates, noncavitating 143
injury
causes of 513
ventilator induced 510
involvement 458
lymphoid neoplasm of 420
masses 428
mechanics 563
neuroendocrine lesions of 388
nodules, presence of 484
parenchyma 2, 106, 218, 252, 656
reexpansion 508
resection 25
sliding 667
stretch receptors, stimulation of 696
toxicity, chemotherapy-induced 392
transplantation 140, 278
advantages of 140
tumors
pathology of 385
staging of 389
volume 698
reduction surgery 238, 256
Lupus pernio 288
Lupus pneumonitis
acute 688, 689
chronic 688, 689
Lymph node 436
biopsy 422
disease 75
intrapulmonary 429
malignant 657
metastases 395
peripheral 290
tuberculosis 75
Lymphadenitis, tuberculous mediastinal 83
Lymphadenopathy 19
mediastinal 76, 306
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis 267, 270, 467
Lymphangiomas 445
Lymphangitis carcinomatosis 500
Lymphoblastic lymphoma 444
Lymphoid disorders 426
Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia 272, 275, 282
diagnosis 283
etiology 282
signs 283
symptoms 283
treatment 283
Lymphoma 78, 291, 293, 420, 421, 429, 655
Ann Arbor staging of 421b
mediastinal 444
pulmonary 424, 687
workup of 422b
Lysosomal storage disorders 307
Lysozyme 3
M
Macklin effect 665
Macrolide antibiotics 111
Macrophages 220
alveolar 330
Maculopapular eruptions 288
Magnesium 36
sulfate 175, 725
Magnetic resonance imaging 404, 405, 433, 437
Major histocompatibility complex 285
Malaise 728
Malaria 464, 714
important pulmonary complications of 715b
management 716
pulmonary symptoms of 716
Malignant pleural effusions 393, 655
and pleurodesis 655
diagnosis 657
etiology of 655
management 659
Malignant solitary pulmonary nodules 430t
Malnutrition 591, 592
in critical illness 591
epidemiology 591
prevalence 591
Mantoux test 85
Marfan syndrome 253, 450, 486
Marijuana smoking 253
Massive fibrosis, progressive 327, 335
Mast cell 154
stabilizers 191
Mastocytosis 190
Mastoiditis 457
Maximal expiratory pressure 31
Maximal inspiratory pressures 31
Maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure 700
Mean pulmonary artery pressure 548, 550
Measles 313
Mechanical ventilation 69, 263, 569t, 619, 621
assist-controlled 560f
basic aspects of 556
complications of 568
controlled 558, 558f
discontinuation of 621
general principles 555
indications of 555
initiating 567
invasive 509
modern 557
modes of 555, 557
newer modes of 565
Mediastinal
abscess 707
compartments, contents of 436t
large cell lymphoma, primary 425
masses, anterior 442
staging 404
Mediastinitis 439
acute 440
chronic 440
fibrosing 467
Mediastinoscopy 404
Mediastinum
cysts of 441
diseases of 438
imaging of 437
tumors of 441
Mediterranean fever 642
Melanoma, metastatic 742
Melena 523
Melphalan 302, 374
Memory T cells, role of 49
Meningitis, tuberculous 62, 74, 80
Menorrhagia 82
Mepolizumab 192
Meropenem 123, 135
Mesothelial cells 636, 641, 658, 666, 675
Mesothelioma 642, 674
malignant 352, 657, 676
pleural 674
Metabolic disorders 467
Metabolic syndrome 495
Metabolism 189
Metal-fume fever 344, 371
treatment of 347
Metal-induced asthma 344
diagnosis of 346
Metal-induced lung disease 344, 345
approach 346
clinical presentation 345
epidemiology 344
pathogenesis 345
treatment 347
types 344, 345, 346, 347
Metallic stents 265
Metastasis 78, 429
component 390
extrathoracic 394
hepatic 395
pathogenesis of 656
staging 405
Metastatic
brain lesion, signs of 21
disease, treatment of 414
malignancy, clinical pointers of 405t
stage, sign of 655
Metered-dose inhaler 231
use of 120
Methacholine challenge 160
Methanol 538
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus 134
Methotrexate 292, 302, 374
Methylphenidate 302
Methylprednisolone 188
Methylxanthines 196, 243
Metoclopramide 597
Metronidazole 543, 720
Micafungin 117
Microalbuminuria 704
Midazolam 613, 615, 756
infusions 615
Middle mediastinum, tumors of 444
Miliary tuberculosis 52
Milrinone 552
Mineral dusts 313
Mineralocorticoid activity 188
Minimal persistent inflammation 156
Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma 387
Minocycline 302, 313, 375
Miscarriages 92
Mites 166
Mitogen-activated protein 675
Mitomycin-C 374
Mitral stenosis 455, 742
Mixed connective tissue
disease 269, 693, 699
disorder 455
Monday morning fever 371
Monitor carbon dioxide 587
Monocyte chemotactic factors 636
Monod's sign 114
Mononeuritis 456
multiplex 402
Mononuclear cell infiltrate 682
Mononucleosis, infectious 642
Montelukast 189, 190
Moraxella catarrhalis 134, 236
Morning dry mouth 489
Morning headache 449, 489, 498
Morphine 613, 756
Mosquito coil smoke 215
Motor neuron disease 500
Moxifloxacin 86, 88, 124, 146
Mucin stains 387
Mucolytics 236
Mucormycosis 114
Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue 314, 420
lymphoma 424, 424f
Mucosal disease, stress-related 599
Mucosal ulceration, stress-related 599
Mucous glands, bronchial 153
Mucus, production of 3
Multidetector computed tomography 482, 523
Multidrug resistant 67, 123
gram-negative bacilli 124
pathogens 123
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis 73, 86, 97, 645
adverse drug reactions 89
diagnosis 87
diagnostic modalities 87
management 87
new drug delivery system 88
pretreatment evaluation 87
treatment 87
Multilobular infiltrates 727
Multineuritis 456
Multiparameter nutritional indices 593
Multiple organ dysfunction 518
score 516
Multisystem organ failure 516
Muscle
cramps 193
intercostal 2
load indices 624
paralysis 543
weakness 681
Musculoskeletal symptoms 456
Mustard gas 368
Myalgia 456, 728
Myasthenia gravis 455, 492, 500
Mycobacteria 40, 50, 53, 97, 100, 102, 132, 740
atypical 41, 291
environmental 102
nontuberculous 41, 102
pathogenic 42
species identification of 59
Mycobacterial cultures 56
Mycobacterial disease 105
nontuberculous 102
Mycobacterial drug resistance 43
Mycobacterial identification 42
Mycobacterial infection 47, 286
Mycobacterium 41, 286
abscessus 41
complex 42
africanum 41
avium 41, 42, 102, 104
complex 41, 103, 105
intracellulare 139
bolletii 41
bovis 41
chelonae 41, 102, 105
fortuitum 41, 102
gordonae 103
infections, nontuberculous 104
intracellulare 41, 102, 104
kansasii 41, 102, 103, 105, 139
leprae 41
marinum 41, 103
massiliense 41
scrofulaceum 41, 102
smegmatis 102
terrae complex 41
tuberculosis 4044, 52, 54, 55, 58, 59, 70, 95, 96, 102, 110, 335, 641
complex 41
infection 44, 46, 48, 49, 96
ulcerans 103
xenopi 41, 103
Mycophenolate 689
Mycoplasma 151, 291
pneumoniae 169, 236, 313, 642, 726
Mycotic infection 78
Myelofibrosis 311
Myeloid leukemia, chronic 309
Myeloma, multiple 78, 455
Myeloperoxidase 155
Myeloproliferative disorders 467
Myocardial dysfunction 735
Myocardial infarction 475, 547
Myoclonus 399
Myopathic disorders 492, 699
Myxedema coma 530
clinical and diagnostic features 530
management 530
N
N-acetylcysteine 272, 539
Naja naja 541
Naloxone 539
Naproxen 302
Narcotic 535, 555
Narcotrend index 612
Nasal
cannula 606
cavity 19
lesion, discharging 19
polyposis 150, 298
septum, perforation of 368
sinuses 19
symptoms 172, 456
Nasogastric tube 119
Nasojejunal feeding 597
Nasopharynx 19, 302
Nasotracheal intubation 606
Natural killer cells 47
Natural ventilation 69
Nausea 193, 233, 234, 630, 757
Near-drowning 547
Neck swelling 143
Necrobiotic nodules 682
intrapulmonary 682
Necrotizing fasciitis 631
Necrotizing infections 631
Necrotizing myelopathy 402
Nedocromil sodium 191
Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum garnet laser 422
Neomycin 375
Neonatal intensive care unit 588
Neoplasia 78
Neoplasm 486
Neoplastic disorders 295, 301
Nephrotic syndrome 400
Nerves
intercostal 436
peripheral 680
sheath tumors 445
Nervous system 458, 517
Neuraminidase, inhibitors of 237
Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, diffuse idiopathic 385
Neurofibromatosis 253, 311
Neurological disorders 531, 555, 699
Neurological syndromes 397, 402
Neuromuscular diseases 697, 702
Neuromuscular disorders 492, 500, 698
Neuropathy, peripheral 414
Neuropsychiatric derangements 227
Neurosarcoidosis 289
Neurotoxins 524
Neutrophil 155, 219, 640
role of 219
Nickel 344
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor 382
Niemann-Pick disease 308
Nimesulide 302
Nitric oxide 161
exhaled 161
inhaled 512
Nitrofurantoin 302, 313, 375, 455
Nitrosoaminoketone, nicotine-derived 379
Nitrosourea 374
Nocardia 56
Nocturia 489
Nodular opacities 370
Nodule
location of 431
metastatic 21
necrotizing 338
subcutaneous 288, 456
Non-Aspergillus fumigatus fungi 207
Non-bullous lung 252
Noncaseating granulomatous inflammation 201
Nonchromogens 41
Non-Hodgkin's disease 301
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 420, 423, 446
high-grade 425
Noninvasive methods 404
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation 243, 571573, 573b, 574, 575, 577
application 578
location of 573
volume targeted 572
Noninvasive ventilation 175, 504, 505, 505b, 507, 511, 570, 577, 588, 626
application of 626
indications of 449b
role of 626
technical aspect of 570
types of 570
use of 511
Nonmetabolizable ions 37
Nonmetastatic disease, treatment of 414
Non-small cell
carcinoma 386
combined 389
lung cancer 379, 391, 408fc, 415
staging of 403
Nonspecific bronchial
hyperresponsiveness 354
inhalation challenge 358
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 260, 292, 302, 522, 681
Norepinephrine 552
Nosocomial pneumonia 118, 119
diagnosis 121
pathogenesis 119
response to therapy 122
treatment 123
Nucleic acid
amplification 58
cartridge-based 87
tests 61
use of 58
extraction of 61
Nucleotide excision repair gene 382
Nutrition 34, 245, 654
support
quantity of 595
volume of 595
timing of initiation of 594
Nystagmus 630
O
Obesity 447, 451, 492, 498, 556
hypoventilation syndrome 451, 494, 498, 500
morbid 451
simple 451
Obstructive sleep apnea 488, 493, 494, 697
diagnosis 495
pathophysiology 494
symptoms 494
treatment 495
Occupational asthma 164, 354, 355
diagnosis of 164, 357
management 359
pathogenetic mechanisms of 357
prognosis 360
sensitizer-induced 354
Occupational exposure 333, 336, 381
Ocular disease 459
Odorless poisonous gas 631
Off-target sedation, consequences of 610b
Ofloxacin 86, 88, 99, 105
Omalizumab 191
Opiates 508
Opioids 539, 540
analgesics 613
mechanism of action of 613
side effects of 614
Opportunistic infections 98
Opsoclonus 399
Optic neuritis 459
Optical plethysmography 582
Optimal tuberculosis test 62
Oral anticoagulants
monitoring of 480
newer 480
Oral azathioprine 459
Oral azoles 206
Oral beta agonists 195, 233
Oral cavity 484
Orciprenaline 194
Organ restricted eosinophilic syndromes 296
Organic dust 313
toxic syndrome 365, 371
Organophosphate 538
Oropharynx 19, 126
Orotracheal intubation 606
Orthodeoxia 484
Orthopedics trauma 632
Orthopnea 700
Oseltamivir 237
Osler-Weber-Rendu disease 21
Osmosis 14
Ossification syndromes 740
Osteoarthropathy, hypertrophic 399, 402
Osteogenic sarcoma, pulmonary metastases of 742
Osteomyelitis 631
Osteonecrosis, bisphosphonates-associated 633
Osteoporosis 227
Otitis
chronic 457
subacute 457
Otorhinolaryngology 633
Outdoor air pollutants 150, 215, 381
Out-of-center sleep testing 488, 490
Overlap syndrome 164, 227, 491
management of 491
Oxidative stress 221, 524
role of 220
Oximetry 582
Oxitropium 231
Oxygen 4, 250, 506
administration 174
analysis 580
arterial partial pressure of 241, 288
carrying capacity 550
delivery, types of 504
mixture of 13
partial pressure of 555, 581, 665
saturation 504
therapy 243, 249, 471, 496, 504
toxicity 634
Oxygenation
abnormalities 32
assessment of 108
Oxytocin 725
P
Packed red blood cell 526
Pain 754
assessment 610, 611
methods 611
neuropathic 679
risk profile 611
substernal 630
Palisading epithelioid cells 682
Palliative therapy 678
Palpitations 489
Panbronchiolitis, diffuse 313315
Pancoast's syndrome 393, 394
Pancoast's tumor 394
Pandemic influenza infections 106
Panton-valentine leukocidin 464
Papillary dermatosis 400
Para-aminosalicylic acid 88, 92, 302
Paradoxical embolism 482
Paragonimiasis 295, 642
Paragonimus 126
Parainfluenza 151, 313
virus 260
Paralysis, bilateral diaphragmatic 702
Paralytic ileus 198
Paraneoplastic
cerebellar degeneration 398
syndromes 396, 401, 402b
Paraplegia 77
Parapneumonic effusion 648
Parasitic
abscesses 126
infections 741
infestations 295
Parathyroid glands, substernal extensions of 436
Parenchyma 263
necrobiotic nodules 681
peribronchial 201
Parenchymal lung diseases, diffuse 25, 268, 344
Parietal pleura 635, 637
fibrosis of 351
histology of 636
Partial pressure arterial oxygen 175f
Patient state index 612
Peak airway pressure 558
Peak expiratory flow 25, 159
Peak inspiratory negative pressure 570
Pectus carinatum 447, 450
Pectus excavatum 447, 450
Pediatric tracheomalacia 261
Pelvic surgery 475
Penicillamine 302, 376, 455
Penicillin 302
allergy 260
Percutaneous catheter drainage 146
Peribronchiolar alveolar sacs 312
Pericardial fat 436
Pericardiocentesis 84
Pericarditis
constrictive 83
effusive 83
Pericardium 394, 436, 674
Periodic acid-Schiff stain 738
Peripheral blood
eosinophilia 205
inflammatory 224
Peripheral capillary oxygen saturation 175f
Peripheral neuropathy, risk of 93
Peritoneal cavities 636, 674
Peritonitis, spontaneous bacterial 525
Persistent air leak 669
Phagocytic cells 40, 47
Pharyngitis, triad of 143
Phencyclidine 538
Phenothiazine 538
Phenylbutazone 302
Phenylephrine 552
Phenytoin 189, 243, 302, 313, 536, 538
Phosphate, inorganic 36
Phosphodiesterase 552
inhibitors 234
Phosphorus 422, 593
Photodynamic laser therapy 422
Phrenic nerve 436
paralysis 392, 393
stimulation 701
Phthisis 40
Physostigmine 539
Picture archiving and communication systems 434
Pierre Robin syndrome 604
Piperacillin 124, 146
Pirbuterol 194
Piroxicam 302
Pituitary function 226
Plain chest radiography 468
Plant proteins 356
Plasma
cell dyscrasias 426
proteins 188
Plasmodium
falciparum 714, 715
vivax 715
Platelet-activating factor, effects of 191
Plethora 498
Pleura 16, 635, 680
anaerobic bacterial infections of 141
anatomy of 635
effusion 681
histology of 636
physiology 635
Pleural biopsy 644, 658
Pleural canals 636
Pleural cavity 635, 636
Pleural cytology 658
Pleural disease 254, 306, 492, 686, 688, 712
Pleural effusion 53, 76, 348, 648, 655, 685, 688, 692, 693, 705, 707, 708, 713
chronic persistent 646
Pleural empyema 142
Pleural fluid
analysis 641, 652, 657
aspiration 651
culture and smear 644
lactate dehydrogenase 641
levels 659
nonpurulent 648
normal 637
normal volume and cellular contents 636
pressure of 635
small amount of 636
turnover
pathophysiology of 637
physiology of 637
Pleural glucose level 658
Pleural inflammation, chronic 641
Pleural involvement 640, 680
Pleural membranes, development of 636
Pleural mesothelioma 348
malignant 674
Pleural metastases 656
Pleural physiology 638
Pleural plaques 348, 351
Pleural porosity 666
Pleural pressures 701
Pleural space 350
infections of 649
Pleural thickening 646, 681, 685
Pleural ultrasound 639
Pleuritic chest pain 689
Pleurodesis 256, 660, 662, 669, 677
Pleuroscopy 659
Pneumococcal disease, invasive 111
Pneumococcal infections 109
Pneumococcus 106108
Pneumoconiosis 267, 291
environmental 334
Pneumocystis 291, 740
carinii 116
jirovecii 270, 286, 671, 692
infection 112
pneumonia 730
respiratory tract infection 116
Pneumolysin, detection of 108
Pneumomediastinum 438, 439
spontaneous 438
Pneumonia 25, 97, 109, 111, 114, 242, 243, 429, 500, 506, 508, 576, 656, 715, 726, 727
acute anaerobic 142
atypical 267
chronic eosinophilic 267, 295, 313
interstitial 682
necrotizing 125, 142, 146
organizing 281, 295, 315, 375, 429, 683
pneumococcal 111
postobstructive 392
postvaricella 741
risk of 109
Pneumonitis 142, 681, 707
acute anaerobic 144
chemical 341
chronic
anaerobic 143, 145
hypersensitivity 268
drug induced 691
Pneumothorax 20, 240, 283, 321, 500, 556, 608, 638, 664, 665, 667, 670, 681, 685, 692, 693
etiology 665
iatrogenic 671
open 664
pathophysiology 665
primary spontaneous 664, 667, 668, 668b
recurrence rates 668
recurrent 664
resolution of 665
secondary 665
spontaneous 666t, 670
spontaneous 254, 671
traumatic 664, 672
treatment 668
Poisoning 535
Poliomyelitis 699
Pollen grains 166
Polyangiitis 298, 457, 459, 460
microscopic 339, 455, 456, 460
Polyarteritis nodosa 460462
Polychondritis 262
relapsing 262
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 379
Polycythemia 484
vera 311
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome 455
Polymer fume fever 371
Polymerase chain reaction 59, 104, 644
Polymorphisms, genetic 95
Polymyalgia rheumatica 461
Polymyositis 267, 313, 400, 455, 680, 691
syndrome 691b
Polymyxin 124, 375
Polysomnography 495
nocturnal 490
Polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine 237
Polyvalent polysaccharide vaccine 111
Poncet's disease 78
Portable oxygen 236
Positive airway pressure 493
expiratory 572
therapy 495, 496
Positive beryllium lymphocyte transformation test 341
Positive end-expiratory pressure 175, 507, 510, 549, 559, 562, 562f, 570
advantages 562
complications 563
indications 563, 564
Positive pressure ventilation 554, 569, 571
Positron emission tomography 271, 291, 404, 405, 422, 433, 437
Posterior mediastinum, tumors of 445
Postextubation respiratory failure 577
Postintubation tracheal stenosis 257
Postlung transplant 295, 508
Post-polio syndrome 492
Post-tracheostomy tracheal stenosis 263
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders 426
Potassium 36, 593
Potato nodes 287
Pott's disease 76, 77
Pott's paraplegia 77
Precursor T-cell
leukemia 425
lymphoma 425
Prednisone 188
Predominate 498
Preeclampsia 734, 735
Pregnancy 91
on tuberculosis, effect of 730, 731
specific pulmonary problems 734b
termination of 92
Preinvasive lesions 385
Pressure 11
controlled ventilation 559
advantages 559
disadvantage 559
cycled ventilation 557
set ventilation 558
support ventilation 562, 624, 625
targeted noninvasive positive pressure ventilation 572
volume relationship curve 511f
Prevotella intermedia 144
Prima facie obligation 748
Primary lung involvement, overview of 421
Primidone 189
Procarbazine 374
Propionibacterium 286
Propofol 613, 616
infusion syndrome 616
Propylthiouracil 455
Prostaglandin 725
Protease inhibitors 99
Protein
major basic 294
requirements 596
Proteinosis, alveolar 338, 368
Proteolysis 592
Prothrombin complex concentrate 523
Proton pump inhibitors 120, 599
role of 120
Protozoa 514
Pruritus 400, 402
Pseudallescheria boydii 114, 115
Pseudoaneurysm 486
Pseudomonas 124, 136
aeruginosa 110, 124, 132, 134139, 671
infection 110
Psittacosis 642
Pulmonary adenocarcinoma, diagnosis of 387
Pulmonary airway malformation, congenital 482, 486
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis 742
clinical features 742
etiopathology 742
investigations 743
treatment 743
Pulmonary alveolar phospholipoproteinosis 737
etiology 737
pathology 738
pathophysiology 737
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis 309, 666, 737
chest roentgenograph of 739f
Pulmonary arterial hypertension 467, 468, 470, 548, 551, 553, 554, 685
management of 552
preexisting 551
Pulmonary artery 550
aneurysm 429, 486
congenital 482
catheterization 551
congenital 486
enlarged 686, 689
hypertension 18
pressure 466
pseudoaneurysm 482
sling 485
stenosis 485
congenital 482
wedge pressure 466
Pulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing 17, 114
Pulmonary calcification 712, 740
causes of 741b
Pulmonary diffusing capacity, measurement of 27
Pulmonary disease 21, 97, 103, 467, 492, 721
general 488
Pulmonary disorders 721
preexisting 742
Pulmonary edema
acute 500
cardiogenic 576, 735
photographic negative of 297
Pulmonary embolism 163, 243, 392, 473, 475, 475t, 508, 555, 656
acute 549
massive 478
pathophysiology of 474fc
Pulmonary eosinophilia 294
toxin induced 303
Pulmonary eosinophilic disorders 294, 295b, 296, 303fc
Pulmonary fibrosis, massive 338
Pulmonary function tests 22, 28, 158, 204, 254, 270, 276, 280, 301, 313, 315, 358, 365, 376, 451, 470, 503, 686, 698, 700
basic purpose of 24
Pulmonary fungal infections 112
types of 112
Pulmonary hypertension 226, 254, 306, 320, 338, 466, 467, 486, 548550, 552554, 681, 684, 685, 688, 694, 697
development of 272
evaluation of 469fc
Pulmonary infections 112
diagnosis of 116
Pulmonary mycoses 112
diagnosis of 116
therapy of 116
treatment of 117
Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, primary diffuse hyperplasia of 313
Pulmonary nodules, peripheral 434
Pulmonary ossification, causes of 742b
Pulmonary parenchyma, loss of 485
Pulmonary rehabilitation 245
program 250
core components of 248
role and definition of 245
Pulmonary stenosis, congenital 486
Pulmonary thromboembolic disorders 320
Pulmonary thromboembolism 414, 473, 476, 478, 732
diagnosis 476
management 478
pathophysiology 473
Pulmonary tuberculosis 46, 50, 51, 76, 81, 132, 216
physical examination 53
signs 51
symptoms 51
Pulmonary vascular endothelial activation 527
Pulmonary vascular malformations 482, 482b, 485
clinical features 484
diagnosis of 482
investigations 484
management 485
pathogenesis 483
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease 690
Pulsations, abnormal 18
Pulse oximeters 503, 582
Pupil size 538
Pupillary alterations 538t
Pure red cell aplasia 442
Purified protein derivative 54
Pyloric stenosis 742
Pyogenic osteomyelitis 78
Pyrazinamide 6365, 75, 88, 9294, 99, 105
Pyridoxine 91, 93
Pyrimethamine 302
Q
Quantitative sputum cell 160
Quiet eye 289
R
Racemic salbutamol 174
Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound 434
Radiation 295, 374, 381, 392, 660
pneumonitis 313
therapy 455
Radioisotope ventilation-perfusion scan 477
Radionuclide imaging 437
Radiotherapy 409, 410
Radon 381
progeny 368
Rapid eye movement 702
Rapid shallow breathing index 624
Rash 190, 198
Raynaud's phenomenon 269
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome 355, 369, 369b
Red blood cell 27
transfusion 526
Refeeding syndrome 593
Regulatory T cells, role of 49
Rehabilitation 245
team 250
Remifentanil 613, 614
Renal disease 290, 528, 616, 712, 753
Renal failure 37, 456, 712, 727
chronic 93, 467
pulmonary complications of 712b
Renal insufficiency 92
Renal replacement therapy 528
Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 483
Reperfusion injury 508
Respiration 34
disorders of 488
Respiratory acidosis, superadded 35
Respiratory alkalosis, 34, 38, 39
primary 36
Respiratory allergic syndrome, chronic 153
Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease 267, 280
diagnosis 280
signs 280
symptoms 280
treatment 280
Respiratory defenses 3
Respiratory depression 614
Respiratory disease 18, 184, 209, 491
advanced 755
chronic 209, 726
drug induced 373, 376
infectious 69
primary 246
Respiratory distress 143
Respiratory disturbances 705
Respiratory dysfunction 709
Respiratory failure 262, 330, 499, 537, 577, 707, 724
acute 499, 501fc, 505b, 621
causes of 500t
chest radiograph 503
chronic 338, 499
classification 499
clinical manifestations 502
diagnosis 502
management of 504
mechanisms 500
postoperative 577
symptoms of 51
treatment 503
Respiratory function 256
Respiratory infections 115, 133, 338
anaerobic 142
Respiratory muscle 2
distribution of 702
dysfunction 622
function 31
assessment of 698
integrated function of 698
strength assessment 699
weakness 622, 691693, 696
Respiratory quotient 592
Respiratory rate 18, 558
Respiratory regulatory system 2
Respiratory secretions 757
Respiratory sleep disorders 488, 493
classification 493, 494b
Respiratory stimulants 243
Respiratory symptoms, risk of 215
Respiratory syncytial virus 151, 313
Respiratory system 2, 35, 491, 714b
amyloidosis 306
function of 2, 697
Respiratory tract 2, 3
infections 172
Restlessness 193, 233
Restrictive pulmonary function tests 349
Reticulonodular opacities 370
Retinal
perivasculitis 289
scarring 289
vasculitis 456
Retinoic acid toxicity 455
Retinopathy, cancer associated 398, 402
Retrognathia 494
Retrograde intubation 607
Retro-orbital pseudotumor 459
Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program 88, 99
Rhabdomyolysis 197
Rheumatoid
arthritis 21, 114, 267, 268, 313, 455, 642, 680
pulmonary complications of 681b
factor test, positive 683
interstitial lung disease 682
lung nodules, types of 682
nodule 429, 682
pneumoconiosis 683
Rhinitis 190, 368, 728
Rhinorrhea 368
Rib 2
notching 453
Rickettsia helvetica 286
Rifabutin 105
Rifampicin 64, 65, 67, 75, 9294, 99, 105, 189, 645
regimen 65
resistance determining region 60
Rifampin 63, 64
drug-resistant isolates 42
Rosenberg-Patterson criteria 205
Rubella 313
Rubeola 313
Runyon classification 41
Ruptured emphysematous bulla 670
S
Saccharomyces boulardii 598
Salbutamol 193, 231, 724
Salicylates 508, 538
Saliva 166
Salivary gland tumors 385
Salmeterol 195, 231
Salmonella typhi 716, 717
Samter's triad 148
Saprophytic aspergillosis 114
Saprophytic fungal growth 114
Sarcoid
galaxy sign, appearance of 287
granulomatosis, necrotizing 291
Sarcoidosis 21, 78, 253, 263, 267, 285287, 289, 295, 429, 467, 500, 741, 742
chest radiographic staging of 288t
clinical features 287
clustering of 285
diagnosis of 289, 291b
etiology and risk factors 285
pathogenesis and immunology 286
pathology 286
prognosis of 293
treatment 291
Saturation point 11
Sauropus androgynus 370
Scar carcinoma 338
Scedosporium
apiospermum 115
infections 115, 117
Schaumann bodies 287
Schistosomiasis 295, 467
Schnitzler syndrome 148
Scleritis 459
Sclerodactyly 269
Scleroderma 400, 455, 604, 686
interstitial lung disease 382
lung disease 686
Sclerosant, choice of 661
Sclerosis 256
amyotrophic lateral 492, 699
multiple 699
tuberous 267, 666
Scorpion
bite 544
treatment 544
envenomation 543
sting 543
venom 543
Secondhand smoke 380
Sedation
daily interruption of 617, 618
protocols, analgesia based 618
Sedative drugs 614
Seminoma, mediastinal 443
Semisynthetic penicillins 146
Sensitive molecular tests 61
Sensory neuropathy 398
subacute 402
Sepsis 243, 508, 506, 514, 518t
clinical features and evaluation 515
goals of care 520
management 517
pathogenesis 514
prognosis 516
severe 517t
special considerations 521
Septal
amyloidosis, diffuse alveolar 306
erosions 456
thickening 738
Septic
embolic abscesses 127
embolus 429
shock 111, 517t, 521
Serous otitis 457
Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme 271, 290
Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase 422
Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase 422
Severe exacerbations, course of 173
Sézary syndrome 301
Shock 508
hemodynamic 632
hemorrhagic 526
Short-course chemotherapy 63
Sickle cell anemia 311
Silica, substantial amount of 336
Silicomycosis 338
Silicosis 290, 333, 334, 338b, 741
accelerated 335, 338
acute 335, 336, 338
chronic 334, 338
classic 334
forms of 334
simple chronic 335
Silicotic nodule 336
Silicotuberculosis 338
Simple weaning 621
Simplified acute physiology score 518
Single-agent adjuvant chemotherapy 677
Sinusitis 150, 298, 456
Six-minute walk test 247, 278, 470, 685
Sjögren's syndrome 267, 313, 680, 686
primary 687
pulmonary complications of 687b
Skeletal
disorders 402
metastases 395
muscle 222
dysfunction 225
function 245
tuberculosis 62
Skin 288, 302, 680
biopsy of 290
changes 456
decontamination of 536
manifestations 458
prick test 179
rashes 341, 418
test and serology 358
tuberculosis 83
Sleep
abnormalities 702
apnea 705, 706, 712
complex 497
severity of 488
syndrome 692, 693
disorder 493
breathing 190, 467
history 488
hygiene, components of 496b
laboratory 589
questionnaires 491
Small cell
carcinoma 385387, 389
large cell carcinoma, combined 389
lung cancer 378, 391, 409fc, 412
staging of 405
Small for gestational age neonates 731
Smallpox handler's lung 741
Smelter shakes 371
Smoke inhalation lung injury 372
Smoking, prevalence of 213
Smooth muscle contraction, bronchial 196
Snake envenomation 541
clinical features 541
treatment 542
Snake venom 541
Snakebite 542b
treatment 542b
Sneezing, excessive 172
Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure 31
Sodium 36
nitrite 539
thiosulfate 539
Solid organ tumors 295
Solitary pulmonary nodule 428, 432f
benign 430t
clinical evaluation 430
etiological causes of 429b
etiology 429
imaging studies 430
management 435
terminology 428
Space travel 325
Specific Aspergillus antigens, role of 204
Specific inhalation challenge testing 359
Spherocytosis, hereditary 311
Spinal cord
compression 395
injury 492
transection 699
Spinal tuberculosis 76, 78
Spirometry 22, 25, 159, 258
contraindications 22
indications 22
Splenectomy 467
Spores 166
Sputum 15, 730
cell counts 160
collection area 70
microscopy 55
Squamous cell carcinoma 378, 385, 386, 658
Squamous dysplasia 385
St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire 133, 248
Stable asthma
control of 165
management of 165
treatment of 167
Staphylococcus aureus 126, 127, 134, 138, 139, 464, 650
infection 260
Staphylococcus haemolyticus 650
Starling's forces and lymphatic drainage 636
Static lung volumes 26
Status epilepticus 534
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 139
Sterile water-filled syringe 673
Steroids 189, 513
fixed dose combinations of 189
Sting allergy 178
Stinging 192
Streptococcus 143
milleri 652, 653
pneumoniae 106, 110, 124, 126, 133, 134, 236, 650, 652, 726
Streptomycin 6365, 91, 92, 302, 375
Stridor 262, 757
Stroke 555
acute ischemic 531
thrombotic 531
Strongyloides 295
Strongyloidiasis, disseminated 295
Subepithelial fibrosis 153
Subglottic secretions, aspiration of 120
Subpleural, basal predominance 277
Sudden extrathoracic obstruction 163
Sulbactam 124
Sulfasalazine 313
Sulfate 36
Sulfonamides 302, 375
Sulfonylureas 302
Sulfur dioxide 367, 368
Superficial venous thrombosis 475
Superior vena cava 18, 436
syndrome 393, 440, 444, 446
symptoms of 393
Supraglottic airway
device 607
ventilation 601
Surfactant protein-A 740
Surfactant therapy 512
Surgery, abdominal 475
Surviving sepsis campaign 521
Sweating 730
Sweet's syndrome 400
Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation 560, 561f, 626
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone 397, 402
Synovitis 456
Syphilis 78
Systemetic vascular resistance 552
Systemic corticosteroids 174, 242
therapy 188
Systemic disease 295, 313, 463
part of 21
Systemic disorders 467
Systemic eosinophilia 190
Systemic febrile illness 716
Systemic glucocorticoid 311
therapy 206
Systemic hematopoietic disorders 426
Systemic immunosuppression 41
Systemic inflammation 227, 515
disease of 221
response syndrome 514, 529
Systemic lupus erythematosus 264, 267, 313, 335, 400, 455, 456, 463, 680, 687, 699
pulmonary manifestations of 688b
Systemic perfusion 550
Systemic sclerosis 267, 335, 680, 684
pulmonary complications of 685b
Systemic steroid 188
sparing effect 189
Systemic syndromes 402
Systemic vasculitides 267
Systemic vasculitis 339
T
T-lymphocytes 155
role of 219
Tabin asthma education programs 185t
Tachyarrhythmias
atrial 552
low-risk of 519
Tachycardia 193, 194, 198, 546, 601, 716, 728, 735
Tachypnea 18, 476, 716, 733
Takayasu's arteritis 461
Talc granulomatosis 743
Tap sign 543
Tazobactam 124, 135
T-cell
leukemia 301
lymphoma 425
Telangiectasia 21, 269
Temperature alteration 537
Tension pneumothorax 500, 664, 672
Teratoma 429, 442
Terbutaline 195, 231, 724
Tetracycline 236, 302, 677
Thalassemia 311
Thalidomide 678
Theophylline 168, 174, 196, 197, 231, 233, 243, 723
side effects 233
Therapeutic
drug monitoring 197
pleural puncture 664
thoracentesis 660
Thermal lung injuries 367
Thermoneutral water immersion 325
Thiacetazone 65
Thiazides 302
Thoracic
cage
involvement 684
tuberculosis of 453
cavity 2
duct 436
gas volume 26
muscle cage dyspnea 681
ultrasound 667
Thoracoplasty 447, 449
history of 492
Thoracoscopic bullapasty 256
Thoracoscopy 644, 670
medical 659
Thoracotomy, open 670
Thrombocytopenia 100, 527, 727
heparin-induced 479
Thrombocytosis 399, 676
Thromboembolism 399
Thrombolytic therapy 480
Thrombophlebitis, migratory 676
Thrombotic disorders 475
Thymoma 442
Thymus gland 436
Thyroid
disorders 467
dysfunction, pulmonary complications of 705b
function 226
glands, substernal extensions of 436
stimulating hormone 529
storm 529
management 529
Thyroiditis, chronic 313
Ticarcillin 146
Tidal volume 510
Tietze syndrome 452
Tinidazole 720
Tinnitus 630
Tiotropium 231
bromide 199
Tiredness 730
Tissue
injury 153
resident 295
sampling techniques 434
Titanium 291, 344, 345
T-lymphocyte functions 52
Tobacco
consumption 213
smoking 213, 214, 227, 253
Tobramycin 135
Tocolytic 508
pulmonary edema 734, 735
Tofimilast 196
Total lung capacity 255, 283, 685, 696
Total oxygen-carrying capacity 628
Toxic fumes 313
Toxic ingestion 535
Toxic inhalations 367
Toxicity 197
Toxicology screening 539
Toxin 295
ingestion 37
Trachea 436, 603
Tracheal ring fracture 608
Tracheal stenosis 259f, 263
Tracheal tumors, primary 264
Tracheobronchial amyloidosis 262, 305
Tracheobronchial aspergillosis 114
Tracheobronchial secretions 393
Tracheobronchitis, acute 341
Tracheobronchomalacia 261
Tracheomalacia 259, 261
Tracheopathia osteochondroplastica 262
Tracheostomy 3, 261, 608
percutaneous 608
role of 627
Traction bronchiectasis 277
Transbronchial lung
biopsy 56, 271, 276, 315
cryo-biopsy 275
Transbronchial needle aspiration 56, 290, 441
Transcutaneous carbon dioxide 590
Transcutaneous oxygen
measurement 584
tension 583
Transdiaphragmatic pressure 31
Transthoracic needle aspiration 403
Transtracheal jet ventilation 607
Trauma 492, 508
Treacher Collins syndrome 604
T-regulatory cells 48
Tremor 190
Trench mouth 144
Trichinella 295
Trigger asthma symptoms 163
Trimellitic anhydride 455
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia 295, 302
Trousseau's syndrome 399
Tube
placement, confirmation of 606
thoracostomy 669, 677
Tubercle bacilli 40, 44, 77, 79, 83, 102
Tubercular disease, site of 64
Tubercular pleural effusion 640
clinical features 641
complication of 646
diagnosis 641
management 645
medical management 645
pathology and pathogenesis 640
Tuberculin skin
reaction 101
test 54, 71, 75, 98, 290, 644, 731
positive 290
Tuberculoma 55
Tuberculosis 40, 46, 5053, 58, 74, 86, 95, 96b, 263, 291, 295, 429, 640, 642, 670, 703, 730, 730t, 741, 742
abdominal 81
characteristics of 338b
congenital 92
diagnosis of 54, 58
effects of 731b
endobronchial 263
irregular treatment of 17
management of 63
miliary 267
molecular diagnosis of 58
osteomyelitis 79
pathogenesis of 45
pericardial 83
pleural fluid 641
postprimary pulmonary 50
prevention of 68
primary prevention 68
secondary prevention 70
tertiary prevention 73
treatment of 63, 9193, 339, 731, 732
Tuberculous lymphadenitis 62
diagnosis of 76
Tumor
angiogenesis 383
architecture 387
benign 163
carcinoid 385, 429
diameter, measurement of 389
malignant 163
multinodularity of 389
multiple primary 390
necrosis factor 509, 719
neurogenic 445
oncogenes 383
size 389
staging, primary 403
Tungsten carbide 345
Tunica vaginalis 674
Tylosis 402
Typhoid 716
Typical carcinoid tumor 388
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors 415, 416t
U
Ulceration 368
Ulcerative colitis 313, 455
Ultrasonography, endobronchial 437
Ultrathin bronchoscopy 435
Upper airway 368, 489, 603
disease 683
obstruction 257, 683
acute 259, 508
chronic 261
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding 522
Upper lobe
cavities 692
fibrosis 692
Upper respiratory syndromes 143
Upper respiratory tract 19
colonization 115
diseases 368
history of 17
symptoms 17
Urea 422
Ureagenesis 592
Uremia 727
Uremic complications 528
Uric acid 422
Urinary nitrogen losses 592
Urticaria 190, 198, 400, 402
chronic idiopathic 178
Usual interstitial pneumonia 275
pattern 277t
Uveitis 289
nongranulomatous 288
V
Vaccines 237
Vagus nerves 436
Validated scales and tools, use of 611
Valproic acid 534
Valvular disease 467
Vanishing lung syndrome 255, 688, 689
Vapor pressure 10
Variceal hemorrhage, acute 524
Varicella pneumonia 729
Varicella syndrome, congenital 729
Various sedation scales 612b
Vascular endothelial growth factor
expression of 154
inhibitors 419, 719
overexpression of 399
Vasculitis 463, 486, 681
drug associated 463
Vasodilator therapy 472
Vasopressin 552, 592
Veins, fullness of 18
Veno-occlusive disease 688
Venous thromboembolism 475, 732
Ventilation 2, 587
adaptive support 496
assist-control mode of 559
biologically variable 566
failure, chronic 578
high frequency 511, 565
invasive 505
mode of 510, 572
perfusion 501
mismatch 696
relationships 2
scan 469
proportional assist, 565
pulmonary 2
volume controlled 558
Ventilator associated pneumonia 118, 119, 144, 577, 726
management 123fc
treatment of 124
Ventilatory disorders 321
Ventilatory pump failure 556
Ventilatory support 519
withdrawal of 621
Ventricular dysfunction 226
Vertigo 190
Video-assisted thoracic surgery 654
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery 434
technique 434
Videolaryngostroboscopy testing 163
Vincent's angina 144
Virchow's triad 473
Visceral larva migrans 295
Visceral pleura 637
fibrosis of 350
movement of 667
Vital capacity 288
Vitamin
A 599
C 599
D
administration, exogenous 741
deficiency 227
levels of 169
E 599
K 92
antagonists 480
Vocal cord 257
dysfunction 163, 261, 706
palsy, bilateral 264
Voice, hoarseness of 630
Volatile anesthetic sedation 617
Vomiting 233, 234, 630, 757
von Recklinghausen's disease 311, 666
Voriconazole 117
W
Weaning
index, simplified 623
outcome of 623
pathophysiology of 622
techniques of 624
Wegener's granulomatosis 19, 271, 291, 313, 425, 429, 456, 457, 666
Weight loss 341, 456
Welder's ague 371
Wheeze 163, 261, 263
White blood cells 527
Whole body plethysmography 26
Whooping cough 132
Wood dusts 356
World trade center lung 313
Worsening peripheral edema 241
Wounds, nonhealing 633
X
Xanthines 196, 198
Xerostomia 686
Z
Zafirlukast 168
Zanamivir 237
Ziehl-Neelsen staining 40
Zileuton 189, 190
Zinc chills 371
Zirconium 345
Zygomycetes 114
×
Chapter Notes

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Handbook of PULMONARY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
Handbook of PULMONARY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
Second Edition
Editor-in-Chief SK Jindal MD FAMS FNCCP FICS FCCP Emeritus Professor (Pulmonary Medicine) Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India Medical Director Jindal Clinics, Chandigarh Foreword Randeep Guleria
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
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© 2019, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
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Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
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Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com
Handbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
First Edition: 2012
Second Edition: 2019
9789352706150
Printed at
The memories of my parents who made a doctor out of me, Dr SK Malik who handed over the reins to me and Dr Dheeraj Gupta, a trusted colleague and friend who tirelessly helped in shaping this specialty.
Contributors Foreword
It is indeed a pleasure to write a foreword to this very useful Handbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (2nd edition) by Professor SK Jindal. In my mind, this is something that is needed not only for students but also for internists and specialists as well. Pulmonary and critical care medicine is a rapidly changing field of medicine and one of the fastest growing specialties. For everyone, this handbook is a ready reckoner and something which we all should have on our desks. Often a clinical or a busy student needs to have a readily available source to clarify problems or to help in being sure about the diagnosis or management strategy. This handbook is ideally suited for such a need. It has a wealth of up-to-date knowledge which is easy to access. It is concise and very user friendly. It covers multiple areas including pathophysiology, radiology and clinical management in an integrated manner and is therefore easy to read and refer to.
Being a teacher for now more than 30 years, I have seen how rapidly and radically pulmonary and critical care medicine has evolved. From being a tuberculosis driven specialty, it has become a specialty which has so much of internal medicine and has evolved with new areas like sleep medicine and interventional pulmonology, now considered an integral part of “pulmonary medicine”. Recognizing this, we now have a very active DM program in “pulmonary medicine” which is one of the most sought after program by postgraduates. Also, there has been an exponential increase in medical knowledge over the last 20 years. Some feel that this has led to an enormous accumulation of knowledge and multiple options being available, without a clarity as to what is ideal and what is best for the patient. It is important for both internists and specialists to stay in touch with the changing times. This book is therefore essential in today's time.
I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate the authors and Professor SK Jindal for coming out with this excellent handbook and greatly appreciate the hard work that has been put in writing this book.
Randeep Guleria
MD DM FAMS
Padma Shree and B C Roy Awardee (Eminent Medical Person)
Director and CEO
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
New Delhi, India
Preface to the Second Edition
‘No bubble is so iridescent or floats longer than that blown by the successful teacher’
William Osler, 1911
There have been rapid advances in the field of medicine in the last few years but the three most significant developments in India and several other countries relate to the fast expansion of drugs and devices for diagnosis and treatment of diseases as well in the numbers of medical manpower. This has been particularly so in case of the specialties such as Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. In India for example, there have been introduction of post-doctoral DM courses in the subject at the super-specialty level at several new centers. These developments have created, at least temporarily, a relative shortage of resources and lack of standardization. There also exists an imbalance between the demand for and availability of good teaching and learning resources. It is true that there is an enormous amount of knowledge available on the internet and various publications which have increased in an exponential fashion. Caught with contradictory and sometimes antagonistic information, a student finds it often confusing and sometimes misguiding. It is therefore important to maintain the credibility of the source of information.
In medicine, a textbook is usually the most credible source since it contains the distilled and critical information which has stood the test of time as well as the standards of practice. Moreover, a good textbook contains chapters contributed by eminent and experienced teachers of different subjects. Our Textbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine adequately fulfils those criteria. But it requires time and focussed attention to absorb the contents of the textbook which is not often feasible in a busy clinical practice when quick decisions are needed. Handbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine which contains the concise information on important subjects serves the purpose. It is a summarized version of the Textbook published last year. Some of the important chapters of the textbook had to be excluded from this abbreviated edition because of the limitation of total page requirement. I am sure that the students and medical practitioners including the pulmonary physicians will find it easy to carry as a ‘vade mecum’—it should serve as a pocket-reference in their day-to-day practice.
SK Jindal
Preface to the First Edition
“The physician ought to know literature…. To be able to understand or to explain what he reads”.
Isidore of Seville (570–636)
The specialty of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine has quickly grown in size and expanded in scope in a short span of time. So also has increased the need of a wider availability of reliable, authoritative and multidimensional educational resources in the subject. Today's pulmonologists are required to know a lot more about systemic illnesses and sister-specialties, besides the primary diseases of the lungs. Pulmonary critical care and invasive interventions have also become essential in pulmonary practice.
It is less than a year when the Textbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine edited by ourselves was first published. Since then, there has been a growing demand to come with an abridged version for convenience and easy readability. This handbook is an effort in that direction to enable the busy and ever on-the-run students and practitioners to quickly go through the contents. Needless to say that the postgraduates as well as the students need to consult the textbook for a more comprehensive and in-depth knowledge of the subject.
For purposes of brevity, it was not possible to include all the chapters in the handbook. For the same reason, the bibliography as well as a large number of figures and tables of the original chapters were excluded from the handbook. The handbook, however, not just serves the purpose of quick browsing of the contents but also provides an opportunity to read the carefully dissected factual information of the subjects. I do hope that the readers will find it useful and informative.
SK Jindal
Acknowledgments
I am thankful to Drs Suhail Raoof and PS Shankar as well as my departmental colleagues Drs D Behera, AN Aggarwal, Ritesh Agarwal, Navneet Singh, Sahajal Dhooria and Inderpaul Singh Sehgal who had contributed and edited the 2nd edition of Textbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine—the main source of this Handbook even though myself and my son, Dr Aditya Jindal take the onus of abridging. I am also obliged to a large number of friends and eminent authors from across the globe to spare their time with valuable contributions.
I greatly appreciate the help rendered my erstwhile secretary, Ms Manju Aggarwal in the preparation of the manuscript and M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India in taking the challenge of publication.