Management of Common Gynecological Problems: A Guide for Practitioners Atul Kakar, Samiran Nundy, Kanwal Gujral
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box; f refer to figure; fc refer to flow chart; and t refer to table respectively.
A
Abdominal
adhesion 59
examination 55, 69, 125
Abortions
clinical care of 161
complications of 163
hemorrhage 163
incomplete abortion 163
infections 163
ongoing pregnancy 163
medical methods of 162, 162b
unsafe 156
Acanthosis nigricans 113
Actinomyces israelii 25
Actinomycete 100
Adenocarcinoma 212
cervix 210
Adenomyosis 44, 48
in uterus 50
uteri 51f
Adenosquamous carcinoma 213
Adhesions 59
removal of 136
Adipose cells 110
Adipose tissue
expandability theory 110
hypotrophy of 110
Adnexal mass 60
Adominal examination 94
Adrenal
androgens 2
disorders 112
hyperplasia, congenital 11
Adrenarche 4
stages of 5f
Aerobic organisms 25
gram-negative 25
gram-positive 25
Alpha-fetoprotein 93
Alzheimer's disease, prevention of 196
Amenorrhea 134
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice guidelines 98t
American College of Radiology Imaging Network 170
American Heart Association Guidelines 197
American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages 168
American Society for Reproductive Medicine 107, 198
American Society of Breast Surgeons 241
American Society of Clinical Oncology 240
Amitriptyline 64
Amphetamine analog 115
Ampicillin-sulbactam, combination of 103
Anaerobic organisms 25
gram-negative 26
gram-positive bacilli 25
gram-positive cocci 25
Anastrozole 247
Androgen Excess Society 107, 108
Androgen secreting tumors 11
Androstenedione, production of 2
Anorexia nervosa 6
Antara Program 146
Antifibrinolytics 40
Antimineralocorticoid action 141
Anti-Müllerian hormone 18
Antioxidants 137
Antiprogesterone drug 86
Antral follicle count 128, 129
Apolipoprotein A1 96
Apolipoprotein B levels 16
Asherman's syndrome 46
Assisted Reproductive Technology 128, 136, 138
Atrophic vaginitis 26
Atrophy 186, 191
Augmentation cystoplasty 75
Axillary lymph node 244
staging 240
dissection 240
negative tumors 242
positive tumors 243
Azithromycin 33, 104
Azoospermia 131, 133, 137, 138
B
Back pain, isolated 61f
Bacterial morphology, types of 30
Bacterial vaginosis 26, 28, 34, 99
risk factors 28
treatment regimen of 30b
Bacteroides 26, 30, 100
Bariatric surgery 115
Barrier contraception 149
Basal body temperature measurement 127
Behavioral therapy 65, 73
Benign breast tumors 145
Benign ovarian
cysts 90, 145
neoplasm 91
Benign pubertal variants 11
Beta-2 glycoprotein 96
Bicornuate uterus 51
Bifidobacterium 25
Biliopancreatic diversion 115
Biochemical markers 182
Biomarker, assessment of 246
Birth control 248
Bladder pain syndrome 67, 77, 79
diagnosis 77
treatment 77
Bladder syndrome 77
Bladder training 73
Bleeding
after menopause 186
causes of 186
anticoagulant therapy 189
atrophy 186
cancer 188
diseases in adjacent organs 189
endometrial hyperplasia 187
fibroid uterus 188
herbal and dietary supplements 189
infections 189
polyps 187
postmenopausal hormone therapy 188
postradiation therapy 189
loss, heavy 151
per vaginam 151, 189
Blood
borne metastasis 213
hormone concentrations 4t
pressure 143
sugar fasting 125
Body mass index 11, 37
Bone mineral density 151, 199
Botox injections 75
Botulinum toxin 64
Botulinum toxoid 64
BRCA-related breast cancers 178
Breast anatomy 165, 166f
Breast cancer 167, 177, 197
classification for 233
clinical examination 230
diagnosis of 179
evaluation of 230
frequency of 180
further clinical staging 232
genetic predisposition to 177
HER2 testing 232
histologic grade 236
histological, types of 168
histology 231
locally advanced 233, 244
management of 230
metastatic 233, 246, 248
molecular profiling assays 237
recurrent 246, 248
risk assessment tool 167
risk factors 177
screening 169, 178
by imaging 178
core needle biopsy 171
examination by clinician 178
fine-needle aspiration biopsy 171
guidelines for women 171t
magnetic resonance imaging 171
mammography 169
self and clinical assessment 169
self-breast examination 169
self-examination of 178
specimens 232
stage grouping 237
surgery 239
surveillance 165
symptoms 230
treatment 168
Breast changes 165, 166
Breast conservation surgery 238, 239
Breast imaging reporting and data system 170, 170t
Breast invasive cancer, adjuvant therapy in early 241
Breast malignancy
early stage 233
evaluation of 230
following surgery 245
Breast, pathologic lesions of 167
Breast, self-examination of 79f
Breast tenderness 86
Breast tissue 166
Breast tumor 231, 232
management of preinvasive 238
Bromocriptine 134
Bulking agents 74
Bullous edema 211
C
Cabergoline 134
Cancer antigen 125 182, 183, 225
breast 209
Cancer cervix
epidemiology of 209
types of 212
Cancer, family history of 38
Candida albicans 26
Candida with budding 30f
Candidal infection 33
Carcinogens mechanism of 209
Carcinoma 93
cervix uteri 211
cervix, features of 210
in breast parenchyma 234
invasive 211
ovary 205t
undifferentiated 204
Cardiovascular
disease 21, 22, 152
risk for 18
examination 69
system 199
Carnett's test 62f
Cefotaxime 104
Cefotetan 103
Cefoxitin 103
Ceftizoxime 104
Ceftriaxone 103
Celecoxib 56
Centchroman 146
Center for Disease Control and Prevention 105, 163
guidelines 104
Central Drug Standard Control Organization of India 86
Central nervous system 1, 17
lesion 10
Cerazette 144
Cervical
cancer 59, 175, 184, 209, 217, 217t
by stage, treatment of 218
during pregnancy 219
early-stage 216
recurrent 219
risk factors of 175
screening 176
frequency of 176
problems associated with sampling 176
caps 163
discharge 163
motion tenderness 100
polyps-cervical malignancy 26
screening 82
stenosis 51
stromal invasion 216
stump, cancer of 219
Chemoradiation 218
Chemotherapy
for advanced disease 218
use of 218
Chhaya 146
Chlamydia trachomatis 99, 100, 101, 209
Chlamydiasis 33
recommendation for treatment of 33b
Chlormadinone acetate 143
Cholinergic agonist 77
Chronic immune suppression 209
Clear cell carcinoma 204
Climacteric 20
Clindamycin 103
cream 30
Clomiphene citrate 118, 134
Clostridium 25
Clotrimazole cream 31, 33
Clue cells 29f
Coccobacillus 32
Coelomic epithelium 91
Cognitive behavioral therapy 226
Coital frequency 124
Colorectal carcinoma 145
Colposcopy 177f, 210
Combined oral contraceptive 141, 145, 153
pills 42, 141, 142
progestin, used in 143t
Comorbid depression 65
Condom 142
Congenital heart disease 195
Conjugated equine estrogens 199
Connective tissue atrophy 21, 22
Contraception
how to start 143t
in medical disorders 149
making right choices 141
methods of 148, 150t
Contraceptive
choices and efficacy 141
efficacy: 1st year of use 142t
in women with medical disorders 153t
methods 141
pills 142
constituents of 144t
emergency 145
use 152f
vaginal ring 142, 148
Copper intrauterine device 148, 149
Copper T 142
Cord stromal tumors 90
Cornual block 136
Coronary intervention 196
Cough-Stress test 70
Craniopharyngiomas 6
Cushing's syndrome 22, 108
Cyclic norethisterone 43
Cyclophosphamide 243
Cyproterone acetate 143
Cyst, functional 91f
Cystic breast lumps 231
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor 133
Cystoscopy 76
Cysts with clomiphene citrate 119
Cytochrome P450–17 109
Cytoreduction 222
Cytotoxic chemotherapy 248
D
Danazol 43
Decapeptyl 85
Deep endometriosis 59
Dehydroepiandrosterone 4, 114
sulfate 16, 114
Deoxyribo-nucleic acid defects 132
Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate 142, 151, 153
Depression 153
Dermoid cyst, cut section image of 92, 92f
Desmopressin 44
Detrusor
overactivity 75
sphincter dyssynergia 76
Diet 114
Digital mammography 170
Dilatation and curettage 16
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride 78
Diphtheroids 25
Disease in
bladder 189
bowel 186, 189
colon 186
control and prevention 103
urethra 186, 189
Disorders ovulation of 133
Distal block 136
DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 201
Docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide 243
Donor insemination 127
Dopamine
agonists 121
receptor agonist 134
Doxorubicin
and cyclophosphamide 243
plus cisplatin 224
Doxycycline 33, 103
Drospirenone 141
Drug administration 225
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 19
Ductal carcinoma in situ 168, 233, 238
treatment of 238
Duloxetine chloride 73
Duodenal switch 115
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding 37
Dysmenorrhea 49
congestive 55
etiology 50
diagnosis 55
primary dysmenorrhea 50
secondary dysmenorrhea 50
symptoms 54
treatment 56
incidence of 147
membranous 57
prevalence 49
primary 56
secondary 57
treatment
medical management 56
surgical treatment 56
types of 49
Dyspareunia 196
Dysuria 80
E
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 248
Ectocervix 175
Ectopic pregnancy 99, 145, 147
Electromyography 72
Embryonal cell, types of 93
Endocervical
cancers 210
sample 62
smear 28
Endocrine disease 22
Endocrine therapy in
metastatic disease 247
recurrent disease 247
Endocrine umbrella 202
Endodermal
ablation 45
aspiration 38
biopsy 19, 126
carcinoma 17, 26, 59, 93, 113, 145, 183, 192, 221, 222
diagnosis of 222
epidemiology 221
histologic types of 221
histopathology 221
hysteroscopy of 189f
risk factors 222
staging and treatment 222
chemotherapy-related toxicities 225
follow-up post-treatment 224
pattern of recurrence 225
prognosis 227
surgical treatment 222
survivors 226
treatment for 227
changes 19
histopathology of 19
hyperplasia 19, 113, 186, 189, 192
laser interstitial thermal therapy 47
neoplasm 222
polyp in uterus 52f
protection 198
sampling 38
sinus tumors 93
thickness 19, 38, 196
Endometrioid tumors 92
Endometriomas 90
Endometriosis 50, 55, 77, 134, 181
Endometriotic lesion on peritoneum 50f
Endometrium 45, 199
carcinoma staging and treatment of 227
Endometroid carcinoma 204
Endomyometrial surface 46
Enterobacter 25
Enterobius vermicularis infestation 26
Enterococcus faecalis 25
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 28, 34
Epididymovasostomy 138
Epirubicin 243
Epithelial cell carcinoma 90
Epithelial ovarian cancer 204
chemotherapy in 207
prognostic variables for 206
Epithelial ovarian tumor, different types of 206t
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 62
Erythromycin ethylsuccinate 33
Escherichia coli 25, 100
Estradiol 128
level of 17, 201
progesterone 12
ratio of 137
valerate 144
Estrogen 196, 198
deficiency 186, 193
deprivation 77
metabolism 201
replacement therapy 226
newer developments 200
use of 196
Estrogen-progesterone therapy 196
Estrogen-progestin, combination of 200
Ethamsylate 40
Ethinylestradiol 147
Etonogestrel implant 142
Eubacterium 25
Exercise 115
Exogenous androgen intake 108
External-beam radiotherapy 238
Extraurethral incontinence 68
F
Fallopian tube 136
carcinoma in 26
Febrile morbidity 215
Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 222
Female
external genitalia 184
partner, evaluation of 124
sterilization, standards for 152
Ferriman-Gallwey scoring 37
Fertile period, knowledge of 124
Fertility 248
awareness-based method 142
preservation 227
Fetal genes 110
Fibristal 86
Fibrocystic disease of breast 145
Fibroids 8089
classification 81
close insight 80
diagnosis 81
hysteroscopy of 188f
in uterus, different sites of 51f
management of 82
asymptomatic 82
symptomatic 82
types of 88fc
risk factors 80
signs and symptoms 80
ultrasonography of 188
uterus 186
Fibroprist 86
Filling cystometry 72
Finasteride 117
Fine-needle aspiration cytology 231
Fistula 68
surgical treatment of 75
Fitz-Hugs-Curtis syndrome 100
Florid discharge 100
Fluorodeoxyglucose 246
Flutamide 117
Follicle-stimulating hormone 2, 4, 8, 16, 141
Food and Drug Administration 85t, 170, 196
guidelines for conservative procedures 46
Foreign body 26
Forniceal tenderness 60, 100
Fragile X syndrome 15, 130
Fulvestrant 247
Fungal infection 30
treatment of 31
treatment regimen of 31b
Fusobacterium 26
G
Gabapentine 64
Gait assessment 69
Galactorrhea 10, 113
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 64
Gardnerella vaginalis 30
Gastrointestinal carcinomas 90
Genetic
assessment 130
counseling 133
predisposition 109
testing 133
Genital
causes 186
examination 130
organs, changes in 4
Gentamycin 103
Germ cell tumors 90, 92, 95
Germline mutations 178
Gestrinone 43
Glandular
cells, atypical 177
component 165
tissue 165
Glassy cell carcinoma 213
Gonadal
sex steroids 2
stroma 91
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2, 63, 66
agonists 13, 43, 45, 85, 135, 248
releasing neurons 110
Gonadotropins 12, 120, 134
Gonorrhea 62
Gram staining 28
Granulosa cell tumors 10, 94
Granulosa cells of growing follicles 129
Growth hormone 3
Gynecologic Oncology Group 218, 224
Gynecological cancer
different types of 174
screening of 174
Gynecological screening 18
Gynecology Oncology Center 96
Gynecology outpatient department 24
H
Haemophilus 100
Hepatitis B virus 104
HER2-targeted therapy metastatic breast cancer 248
Herbal and dietary supplements 186
Hereditary nonpolyposis
colon cancer 38
colorectal cancer 227
Herpes simplex virus 28
Hirsutism
case of 37
management of 116
Hormonal
analysis 132
pills, use of 97
Hormonal therapy 43
women on 18
Hormone replacement therapy 38
increased risk of 18
menopause 193
Hormones 56
Hot flushes, development of 20
Human
chorionic gonadotropin 137
epidermal growth factor 232
receptor 2 168
epididymis 95
protein 4 182
immunodeficiency virus 101
evaluation of 125
menopausal gonadotropin 120, 135
papillomavirus 104, 175
Hydrodistention 78
Hydrogen peroxide 26
Hydronephrosis 60
Hydrosalpinx 136
Hyperandrogenic chronic anovulation 107
Hyperestrogenic status 80
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism 6
Hyperparathyroidism 22
Hyperplasia
hysteroscopy of 188f
ultrasonography of 188f
Hyperprolactinemia 134
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 6, 112, 135, 137
Hypomenorrhea 111
Hypothalamic amenorrhea, severe 6
Hypothalamic-pituitary axis matures 36
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal 109
Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian 1, 2, 2fc, 109
Hypothyroidism 126
Hysterectomy 214
Hysterosalpingography 54f
Hysteroscopy-guided sampling 38
Hysteroscopic myomectomy 83
I
Ibuprofen 56
Immunohistochemical investigations 231
Imperforate hymen 51
In vitro fertilization 126
Incontinence quality of life 69
Infection with human papillomavirus 209
Infertile couple
clinical history 124
hormonal evaluations 129
investigations 125
for female partner 128
management of 124139
physical examination 125, 130
postcoital test 129
surgical management 137
treatment of
ejaculatory disorders 138
male factor infertility 136
specific disorders 133
tubal factor infertility 136
Infertile male partner, investigations for 132
Infertility management of 117
Infertility unexplained 139
Infiltrating lobular carcinoma 231
Inflammatory
bowel disease 59
breast cancer 231, 244
Infraumbilical pain 61f
Inhibin levels 12
Injectable progesterone 41
Inoperable breast cancers 244
Inositols function 121
Internal orifice 49
International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 36, 81, 205, 210
International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Classification of leiomyomas 81b, 81f
International Ovarian Tumor Analysis 96, 96t
International Pelvic Pain Society 60
Interstitial cystitis 59, 60, 77
Intracavitary lesions 128
Intrauterine adhesions 51
Intrauterine conditioning 110
Intrauterine contraception device 26, 55, 66, 146, 149
use of 28
Intrauterine device 51, 142, 143, 151, 154
hormone releasing 145
Intrauterine fetal programming 109
Intrauterine insemination 126
Intrauterine malnutrition 110
Intrauterine system 153
Invasive breast cancer: early stage, treatment of 239
Invasive cancer of cervix 213
management of 213, 214t
Invasive ductal carcinoma 239
Irritable bowel syndrome 59
Isolated premature
adrenarche 11
menarche 11
thelarche 11
K
Kallmann syndrome 6, 135
Karyotyping 133
King's health questionnaire 69
Klebsiella 25, 100
Krukenberg's tumor 94
L
Lactate dehydrogenase 95
Lactic acid 26
Lactobacilli 21, 25, 100
Lactobacillus 24, 30
Lactobacillus species 99
Lamotrigine 64
Langerhans cell 6
Laparoscopic
hysterectomy 83
in infertility workup 127
myomectomy 83, 83f, 84f
nerve ablation 56
ovarian drilling 120, 134
radical hysterectomy 216
uterosacral nerve ablation 65
Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome 6
Leiomyomas 44, 80
Leptin 3
Lesion size 216
Lesions in breast, types of 167
nonproliferative lesions 167
proliferative changes 167
proliferative lesions with atypia 167
Letrozole 118, 119, 247
Leukocyte protease inhibitor 26
Leukocytospermia 132
Leuprolide 43
Levofloxacin 33, 103
Levonorgestrel 66, 86, 144, 153, 200
intrauterine contraceptive device 63, 143
Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device 145
Leydig cell tumors 10
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 39
Liquid-based cytology 18, 28, 176f
Lobular carcinoma in situ 166, 233, 238
history of 168
Lorcaserin 115
Low-density lipoprotein 16
Lower segment cesarean section 54, 154
Lumpectomy 168
Lupride 85
Luteinizing hormone 2, 4, 16, 111
pattern of 1
releasing hormone 247
Lymph nodes 217, 223
Lymphadenectomy 215
Lymphatic metastasis 213
Lymphedema 226
Lymph-vascular space invasion 216
Lynch syndrome 181, 184, 227
M
Magnetic resonance imaging 62, 231
guided high-intensity focused ultrasound 48
Male and female barrier methods 148
Male partner
clinical history 130
evaluation of 130
investigations 131
Malignancy 46, 59, 186
high risk of 96
Malignant cells 235
Malignant germ cell neoplasm, management of 208
Malignant germ cell tumor 93f
Malignant ovarian
masses 96
neoplasm 93
primary 90
secondary 90
Malignant tumors 182
Malodorous vaginal discharge 28
Mammaprint assay 238
Mammogram, diagnostic 231
Mastectomy 168
Maternal morbidity 156
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome 6
McCune-Albright syndrome 11
Medical abortion 156
general practitioner 156
use of antibiotic for 161
Medical termination of pregnancy 156
Act, 1971 157, 160
Medroxyprogesterone 63, 196
acetate 41, 146
Medullary carcinoma 231
Mefenamic acid 40, 56
Megestrol acetate 247
Menopausal hormone therapy 197, 198
crisis of 194
fifth crisis 195
first crisis 194
fourth crisis 195
second crisis 194
third crisis 194
low-dose 199
rationality of low-dose 198
Menopausal symptoms 199, 201, 226
Menopause 15
and symptomatology 20
consequences of 21
diagnosis of 15
evaluation of women 18
markers 19
myth of 193
physiology 15
physiology 15
prediction of 18
status 183
symptomatology 15
Menorrhagia 45
Menstrual
bleeding, heavy 43
cycle 111, 166
cycle 128
disorders management of 116
period 161
Mentally ill person 159
Metastases 234236
Metformin 121
Methylation 201
Metronidazole 30
Metrorrhagia 111
Micronized purified flavonoid fractions 40
Microsatellite instability testing 227
Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration 138
Microwave endometrial ablation 39
Midluteal serum progesterone measurement 126
Midsegment block 136
Mifepristone 45, 86, 162
Migraine headaches with aura 153
Million women study 195
Mirabegron 74
Mirena® IUD 142, 146f
Mixed germ cell tumors 93
Mixed incontinence 68
Mobiluncus 30
Molecular testing 28
Monophasic pill 143
Mood disorders 21
Morbidity
acute 218
chronic 218
Morphology index 182
Mucinous
carcinoma 231
cystadenocarcinoma 204
cystadenomas 90
Müllerian
anomalies 128
dysgenesis 6
Multilocular cysts 183
Musculoskeletal conditions 59
Mutation in
MLH1 181
BRCA2 180
Mycoplasma genitalium 100
Myocardial infarction 196
Myo-inositol 121
Myoma 89
closure of 84f
enucleation of 84f
incision on 83f
Myomectomy 45, 48, 83
N
Naproxen 56
National Cancer Institute 167
National Center for Health Statistics 163
National Institute of Health 107, 108
Needle biopsy 231
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 32, 50, 99
infection 26
recommendation for 33b
Neodymiumyttrium aluminum garnet 47
Neoplasm of hypothalamic 6
Nerve entrapment in wall 59
Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy 216
Nestorone 143
Neuroendocrine carcinoma 213
Neurogenic detrusor over activity 68
Neurological
diseases 76
examination 76
Neuromodulation 65, 75
Neuropathic pain 64
Neurophysiologic tests 72
Nexplanon radiopaque 147
Nocturia 74
Nocturnal enuresis 74
Nodal disease 245
Nomegestrol 143
Noncontraceptive reproductive benefits 145t
Nonepithelial ovarian cancer 207
Nongenital causes 186
Nonhysteroscopy procedures 47
Nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drug 63, 45, 47, 56, 66, 87
aromatase inhibitors 247
Noradrenaline 64
Norethisterone 41
Nortriptyline 64
Nucleic acid amplification test 101
O
Obese males with low testosterone 137
Obstetrics and gynecology, progress of 195
Ofloxacin 33
Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, case of severe 127
Oligomenorrhea 111, 134
common cause of 126
Oligozoospermia, severe 131
Omentum 223
Onco type Dx assay 237
Operable disease 244
Opioidergic 64
Opioids 64
Oral contraceptive 66
Oral contraceptive pill 116, 145
Oral glucose tolerance test 114
Oral progesterones 41
Orlistat 115
Osteoclast function, activator of 247
Osteoporosis 21, 198, 199
effects of ultra-low transdermal estradiol 199
low-dose estrogen patch for 199
risk factors for the development of 22
Osteoprotection 197
Ovarian
cancer 145, 180, 198, 204
classification 204
epithelial ovarian tumor 205
global incidence of 198
high-risk factors 205, 206
histological, types of 204t
incidence of 204
management of 207
risk factors 180
statistics and screening of 181
surgical procedures for ovarian 207
cysts 10, 59, 61f, 147
approach to patient 94
case of 9098
conservative management for 97
functional 90
cystectomy 154
diagnosis of 135
dysmetabolic syndrome 107
endometrioma 50
failure
fibroma 92
function 20
hyperstimulation syndrome 120
malignancy 93
markers 95
mass, types of 90t
neoplasm histological classification of 91t
sequelae of 20
tumors 10
Ovaries 4
Ovulation, confirm 126
Ovulatory
disturbance 108
function 134
problem 126
Oxybutynin 74
P
Pad tests 70
Paget's disease 233
Palbociclib 247
Pap smear 18, 176f
Para-aortic lymph node
evaluation 215
metastasis 211, 215t
Paracervical block 47
Parametrial spread 217
Paraovarian cysts 90
Pelvic abscess 104
Pelvic congestion 59
Pelvic examination 69, 76, 125, 181
bimanual 100
Pelvic inflammatory disease 46, 99, 105, 145, 147
acute 50, 99
clinical diagnosis 100
endometrial biopsy 102
follow-up 104
imaging 101
inpatient therapy 103
inpatient treatment versus outpatient treatment 104
laboratory diagnosis 101
laparoscopy 102
pathogenesis and microbiology 99
surgical intervention 104
treatment of 102
chronic 50, 59
long-term sequelae of 105
risk factors for 99
Pelvic lymph node metastasis 211
Pelvic lymphadenectomy 215
Pelvic pain 63, 163
Pelvic pain
chronic 5866, 99, 105
algorithm to manage 66fc
causes of 59, 59t
diagnostic test 62
management of 6364
physical examination 60, 60t
recurrence of 63
syndrome, chronic 63f
Peptostreptococcus 25, 100
Per speculum examination 210
Perifimbrial adhesions 136
Perimenopause 36
Peripheral vascular disease 152
Peritubal adhesions 136
Pertuzumab 245
Pervaginal examination 55
pH of vaginal discharge 28
Phentermine extended release topiramate 115
Phentermine-topiramate 115
Pill chhaya 147
Pinworm 26
Pituitary
adenomas 6
gonadotropin 10
Polycystic ovarian
disease 107, 181
morphology 108
syndrome 38, 80, 107121, 126, 133
age-wise manifestation of 112f
clinical features 111
criteria for defining 108b
criteria in adolescence 108
diagnosis in adolescence 109b
different criteria 108
enigma of 107
etiology 109
etiopathogenesis of 111fc
examination in 113b, 114b
management, lifestyle modification 114
pathogenesis 110
prevalence 109
role of medicines 121
ultrasound in 114b
Polymenorrhea 111
Polymerase chain reaction 34
Polyp 48, 51, 186, 191
Polyurethane female condoms 149
Positron emission tomography scan 231
Postabortion care 163
Postcoital bleed 60
Postejaculation urine analysis 133
Postlumpectomy radiation therapy 241, 242
Postmenopausal
age group 26
bleeding, management of 189
examination 190
investigations 190
treatment 191
hormone therapy 186, 191
woman 97
Postpartum hemorrhage, severe 135
Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices 148
Postradiation therapy 186
Postvoid residual volume 70
Potassium hydroxide 34
smear 28
Pouch of Douglas 100, 101
Preabortion care 161
Precocious puberty 9
causes of 10
diagnosis of 11
laboratory diagnose 11
physical examination 11
treatment 12
Pregabalin 64
Pregnancy 24, 46
of gestational age 162
on dopamine receptor 134
with fibroids 81
Pregnant women 157
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 133
Premarin 43
Premature ovarian failure 15, 135
diagnosis of 23
Premenopausal women 243
Premenstrual
phase of cycle 25
syndrome 147
Prenatal androgen exposure 110
Prepubertal girls 26
Presacral neurectomy 56
Progesterones 41
Progestin 196, 198
Progestin-only pill 142, 143, 144, 152154
Progestogen-only implant 147
Program for Approved Technology in Health 149
Progynova 200
Prolactin 129
Prophylactic mastectomy 246
Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors 40
Proteus 25, 100
Pseudomonas species 25
Pubertal staging 11
Puberty 6, 25
Puberty
abnormal 1
changes of 3fc
endocrinology in 2
factors determining onset of 1
mechanism 1
normal 1
precocious 10
Pubovaginal sling 74
Pudendal nerve
stimulation 65
terminal motor latency 72
Pulmonary
disease, chronic 69
embolus 215
tuberculosis 100
Pyospermia 132
Q
Qlaira, advantages of 144
Quality of life measures 69
Quantity of intraductal component 232
R
Radiation
cystitis 59
exposure 166
related gastrointestinal toxicity 226
therapy 213
primary 217
Radical
hysterectomy 214
complications of 215
mastectomy, modified 239, 240
surgery 192
trachelectomy 214
Radiofrequency ablation 39
Radiographic density 165
Regional lymph node 234, 235
Registered Medical Practitioner 157
Reproductive age 36
Retrograde ejaculation 138
Retropubic urethropexy 74
Rh immunization 161
Rh typing 125
Rheumatoid arthritis 153
Risk malignancy index 96t
Rotterdam's European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology 107
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass 115
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 58
guidelines 97
Rudimentary horns 53
S
Sacral nerve blocks 65
Sacral nerve 65
Saline hysterosonography 128
Saline infusion sonohysterography 38
Salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral 94
Sarcoma 213
of uterus 188
Sclerosis, multiple 76
Sclerotic polycystic ovary syndrome 107
Scrotal ultrasound 132
Secrete human chorionic gonadotropin 93
Selective estrogen receptor modulators 43, 167
Selective progesterone receptor modulators 45, 88, 85
Semen
analysis 131
sample 131
Seminal fructose 132
Sentinel lymph node 240
biopsy 238, 240
evaluation 216
Septate uterus 51, 53
Serology of syphilis 101
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 64, 73
Serous cystadenocarcinoma 204
Serous cystadenomas 90
Sertoli cell 10
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor 94
Sertraline 64
Serum
androgen measurement 129
anti-Müllerian hormone 128
follicle stimulating hormone 128
prolactin 134
transaminases 86
Sex cord stromal tumor 92
Sex steroids, action of 110
Sex-hormone-binding globulin gene 109, 111
Sexual
abuse 26
arousal 24
dysfunction 21, 124, 213, 226
history 124
partners, multiple 99, 209
precocity 12
Sexually transmitted disease 26, 77, 99, 148
Sexually transmitted infection 100, 151
Sheehan's syndrome 135
Shigellosis 26
Sign of pelvic abscess 100
Single cell gel electrophoresis assay 133
Sleep 199
Society for Gynecologic Oncologists 224
Solid ovarian tumor 92
Solid tumors 92
Solifenacin succinate 74
Sonomammogram 231
Sperm
chromatin structure assay 133
concentration 131
DNA fragmentation tests 133
morphology 132
motility 132
vitality 132
Spermatogenesis either injection 137
Spermatozoa, absence of 131
Spinal cord stimulation 65
Spironolactone 117
Squamous cell cancer 212
Staphylococci 100
Staphylococcus aureus 25
Staphylococcus epidermidis 25
Stein-Leventhal syndrome 107
Sterilization permanent 152
Steroids 12
Stool examination 28
Streptococci 100
Streptococcus group 25
Stress incontinence 73
Stress incontinence surgical treatment for 74
Stress urinary incontinence 67
Stroke 153
Stromal cell tumors 92
Stromal cells proliferation 4
Submucosal fibroid 82f
Subserosal fibroid 82f
Supreme Court 158
Surgical sperm retrieval 138
T
Tamoxifen 118, 119, 134, 243
Tamoxifen therapy 38
Tanner staging 4t, 11
Tension free vaginal tape 74
Testicular failure 133
Testicular sperm
aspiration 138
extraction 138
Testosterone 12
Thalassemia screen 125
Thelarche 4
stages of 5f
Thromboembolism 200
Thyroid
disorders 134
function tests 12
gland 3
profile 129
stimulating hormone 8, 114
swellings 113
Tibial nerve stimulation, posterior 65
Tinidazole 30
Tolteridine 74
Toremifene 247
Total cholesterol, higher levels of 16
Tranexamic acid 40, 87
Transcervical resection of endometrium 39, 45
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation 56
Transdermal delivery systems 147
Transient incontinence 68
Transrectal ultrasound 132
Transthyretin 96
Transvaginal scan 19, 38, 181
Transvaginal ultrasonography 94, 126, 128
Transverse vaginal septum 53
Trichomonas vaginalis 32f
Trichomonial infection 34
Trichomoniasis 26, 31
treatment regimen of 32f
Tricyclic antidepressants 64
Triiodothyronine 8
Tubal evaluation 127
hysterosalpingo-contrast- sonography 127
hysterosalpingography 127
Tubo-ovarian
adhesions 102f
complexes 90
mass, ultrasound of 101f
rupture of 100
Tumors
endometrioid histology of 221
markers 95, 181
nonendometrioid histology of 221
Turner's syndrome 6, 15, 130
U
Ulipristal acetate 45, 85, 145
Ultrasound score 183
Uniconuate uterus 53, 53f
United States National Comprehensive Cancer Network 224
Ureterovaginal fistula 215
Urethral
diverticula 77
function 72
mobility: Q-tip test 70
sphincter contracts 76
Urge urinary incontinence 68
Urinary
diversion 75
frequency 80
incontinence 67
approach to patient with 69
nonsurgical treatment 72
risk factors for 69
surgical treatment for 75
types of disorders 67
luteinizing hormone 126
problems in women 6779
retention 80
stones 77
symptoms in women 67
tract infection 77
Urine
analysis 62, 70
sediments 28
Urodynamic 70
evaluation of 76
Uroflowmetry 71
abnormal flow 71f
normal flow 71f
Urogenital atrophy 21, 77
Urogenital distress inventory 69
Urogynecology 197
Uterine
adenomyosis 59
artery embolization 47, 48, 8789
bleeding: abnormal 3548
approach to 36
etiology 35
incidence 35
investigations 38
management 38
medical management of 39fc
surgical management of 39fc
bleeding, case of true 35
body 4
cancer 193
cavity abnormalities 124
fibroids 88
leiomyomas 50
polyps
hysteroscopy of 187f
ultrasonography of 187f
tenderness 163
tumors 188
Uterovesical nodularity 60
Uterus
bicornuate 52f
didelphous 53
evaluation of 128
normal 51f
recanalization/abnormalities of 52f
V
Vagina 6
fecal contamination of 26
flora normally present in 25
natural defense mechanism of 25
organisms normally present in 25
pH of 24
Vaginal
atrophy 196
hysteroscopy of 187f
ultrasonography of 187f
bleeding 163
candidiasis 26
cells with Lactobacillus 29f
colonization 21
cream
butoconazole 31
terconazole 31
devices 73
discharge 24, 27, 33
abnormal 24, 26
causes of 26
common causes of 33
normal 24
dryness 196
ecosystems 26
hysterectomy 83
infections, characteristics of 33, 34t
pessaries 26
skin 25
suppository terconazole 31
vault cytology 225
Varicocele 137
Vascular
insufficiency 69
invasion 232
Vasomotor symptoms 20
Vasovasostomy 138
Venous thromboembolism 151
Vesicovaginal fistulas 68, 69, 215
Vitamin D 87
Voiding diary 70
Voiding dysfunction 67, 76
causes 76
evaluation 76
treatment 77
Vulva 6, 184
Vulval disease 77
Vulvar cancer 184
Vulvovaginal candidiasis 113
Vulvovaginitis 35
W
Weight loss 72
Wet smear 28
Whiff test 28
White blood cells 34
Willi syndrome 6
Women's contraceptive choices 141
World Health Organization 19, 21, 113, 131, 131t, 156
medical eligibility criteria 149
safe abortion guidelines 2012 162b
Y
Yasmin 142
Y-chromosome microdeletion 133
Yeast 26
Yuzpe regimen 145
Z
Zerogen tablets 144
Zoladex implant 85
Zoledronic acid 246
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