Allergy in a Nutshell: A Handbook Neeraj Gupta
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table
A
Abdominal pain 169
crampy 148
spasmodic 186
Acacia arabica 41, 61
Acacia auriculiformis 32
Acacia mangium 32
Acetaminophen 110
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 95
Acrodermatitis enteropathica 192
Actinia 7
Activate emergency medical system 153
Acupuncture 307
Acute asthma flare-up, management of 125
Adenoid hypertrophy 90, 281, 286f
Cohen and Konak classification of 287f
Adenopathy, regional 272
Adenophora 310f
Adrenaline 152, 350
dosages chart 152
Adverse drug reactions 228
management 235
types of 228
Aeroallergens 85
avoidance measures for 60
Aeroallergy 86
Aerobiology 31
Ageratum conyzoides 41, 43, 61
Ailanthus excelsa 41, 44, 61
Air
pollutants 190
pollution, components of 13
Airborne
particles 34
pollen 213
grains 31
Air-O-cell sampling 36
Airway 152
diseases, allergic 272
edema 149
extrinsic compression of 290f
Albizia lebbeck 44, 62
Albuterol 329
Allergen 12, 17, 18f, 28, 42, 80, 152
ailanthus 42
alnus 42
alternaria 43
argemone 42
artemisia 42
ascospores 43
aspergilli 43
avoidance 218
azadirachta 42
borassus 42
brassica 42
candida 43
cassia 42
casuarina 42
cedrus 42
chenopodium album 42
cladosporium 43
cocos 42
cross-reactive 171t
curvularia 43
cynodon 42
dodonaea 42
exposures 248
helminthosporium 43
holoptelea 42
identification of 255, 297
immunotherapy 29, 197, 303
indoor 298
inhalant 60
major 77
mallotus 42
morus 42
mucor 43
nigrospora 43
occupational 300
outdoor 298
parthenium 42
pennisetum 42
phoenix 42
phoma 43
prosopis 42
salvadora 42
smuts 43
sorghum 42
specific immunotherapy 218
specific therapy 176
syzygium 42
types of 220
uredospores 43
xanthium 42
Allergenic foods, major 297
Allergenic pathway, selection of 21
Allergic conditions, diagnosis of 280
Allergic conjunctivitis 90, 213
diagnosis of 216
treatment 218
types of 213
Allergic contact dermatitis 203f
Allergic dermatitis 203t
Allergic disease 1, 13, 78, 136, 213, 248
basis of 16
types of 318
Allergic disorders 3, 11, 77, 252, 257, 313, 314, 325, 335, 335, 337fc
diagnosis of 248
hypothesis for 4fc
quantum of 2
signs of 253
Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis 102
pathophysiology of 102f
Allergic hive 16
Allergic inflammation 23
Allergic manifestations 18, 335
Allergic march 250
Allergic reaction 25, 144, 145, 147, 226, 231, 234, 256, 313
adverse 10
IgE-mediated 219
inflammatory 77
severe 173
time course of 25f
various phases of 26f
Allergic rhinitis 16, 77, 78, 84, 89t, 91, 91fc, 94, 98, 101, 118, 122, 136, 190, 221, 251, 272, 303, 307
allergen avoidance 86
classification of 82, 83f
diagnosis 84
early versus late reaction 81
laboratory diagnosis 84
nasal clearance 86
pathophysiology 80
pharmacological treatment 86
prevalence of 2f
treatment 86
triggers of 80
Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis 348t
Allergic salute 254
Allergic shiners 84, 253
Allergic status 224
Allergic symptoms 248, 338fc
severity of 333
Allergic triggers 291
Allergoids 304
Allergology 17
Allergy 9, 10, 11f, 12f, 16, 17, 31, 213, 248, 308t, 314, 315, 333, 335
aggravate 330
and anaphylaxis over last century, prevalence of 10f
causes of 319, 331
complementary medicine in 306
current concept of 11f
diagnosis of 257, 270, 273, 295
gastrointestinal 160
history of 4, 250
immunology 16, 30f
immunotherapy 301
importance of cofactors 250
management of 297
march 314
mediators 256
medical history 248
myths and beliefs about 313
ocular 216, 217t
original idea of 9f
outdoor 329
pets reduces 315
pharmacotherapy 300
phenomenon of 6
physical exercise reduce 331
pollution 330
prevention 297, 333
primary prevention 297
public health issue 1
rains reduces 315
respiratory 13, 77, 78, 330
secondary prevention 298
skin testing 259, 260t, 262, 263f
correlation of 266
factors influencing 264
lancets and multi-test devices for 264f
specific preventive measures 299
spectrum 11
tertiary prevention 298
testing 117, 255, 270, 272, 326, 328
basis of 255
different modalities of 255
functional assessment 274
laboratory tests 256
radiological assessment 280
structural assessment 272
Alnus nitida 44, 62
Alpha 1-adrenergic receptors 151
Alpha-lactalbumin 160
Alternaria 40
Amaranthus spinosus 41, 45, 62
American Academy of Pediatrics 175
American Thoracic Society 275
Aminoalkyl ethers 88
Aminophylline 352
Amoxicillin 100, 110
Analgesics 110
Anaphylactic reactions 148
severity of 174t
Anaphylaxis 6, 7, 16, 18, 130, 143, 145, 147f, 152t, 157, 158, 173, 252, 332, 346b
acute management 152
causes of 143
diagnostic criteria 148
differential diagnosis 149
emergency 157
immunoglobulin E
dependent 144
independent 144
immunological mechanisms of 144
long-term management 156
management 151
severe 248
Andersen 6-stage sampler 38f
Anemophilous 32, 46
Anesthetics, local 231
Angioedema 169, 184, 189fc, 221, 249, 252, 349t
ACE inhibitor-induced 186
acquired 186, 187
acute attacks of 184
classification 185
diagnosis 186
hereditary 182, 185, 187
histaminergic 185
management 187
pathophysiology 184
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 145, 189
inhibitors 251
Anogeissus pendula 41
Antiallergic 218
agents, multi-model 218
medications 328
Antibiotics 100t
Antibody 18, 24
dependent cellular cytotoxicity 22
isotypes 146
Anticholinergic
agents 87, 350
intranasal 348
Antigen 24
antibody immune complexes 24
presenting cells 21, 22
selection of 262
Antihistamines 28, 88, 88t, 197
intranasal 87
oral 87
second-generation 87
Antihistaminic agents 173
Antihistaminic medications 179
Anti-IgE antibody 89, 281, 354
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies 342
Anxiety 130
Aortic aneurysm 268
Apitherapy 307
Argemone mexicana 41, 45, 63
Arrhythmia 87
Artemisia
scoparia 41
vulgaris 45, 63
Arthritis, comorbid 132
Arthus reaction 24
Ascospores 40
Aspergilli-penicilli spores 40
Aspergillus 34, 40
Asphodelus tenuifolius 41, 46, 63
Aspirin 231
challenge 132
desensitization 236
exacerbated respiratory disease 114, 132, 236
diagnosis 236
management 236
Astemizole 88
Asthma 13, 78, 92, 103, 112, 114, 125, 126fc, 132, 133t, 135, 136, 138, 190, 221, 250252, 257, 272, 285, 308t, 314, 316, 350t
action plan 129
allergic 112, 117, 303
assessment 118
atypical 272
biomarker based 114
cessation of 131
childhood 2
complications of 129
control 114f
development of 160
diagnosis 273
differential diagnosis of 120t, 137
exacerbation 125t
features of 133t
late-onset 114
management 121, 130, 138, 140f
steps of 122f
managing comorbidities 130
nonallergic 112
nonpharmacological interventions 127
occupational 128, 131
perimenstrual 131
phenotypes 112, 114f
characteristics 115t
primary prevention of 141
related death 129
selected cohort of 236
severe 89
steps of 121
subtypes of 129
supportive tests 117
symptom 118
treatment
long-term 281t
stepping down 127
stepping up 127
with fixed airflow limitation 114
with obesity 114
Astringents 99
Atopic dermatitis 136, 160, 181, 188, 191, 199fc, 343fc
diagnosis of 191
differential diagnosis 192
pathophysiology of 188, 190f
Atopic diseases 250, 251, 345
Atopic patch test 266
Atopy 17, 314, 315
Atrophic rhinitis 79
Azadirachta indica 46, 64
Azatadine 88
Azelastine 87, 88
eye drop 348
puff 348
Azithromycin 100, 110
B
Balsam of Peru 206
Basophils 89
Bauhinia variegata 41
Beclomethasone 348
dipropionate 87, 123, 139, 351
Beta 1-adrenergic receptors 151
Beta agonists, long-acting 122
Beta-lactoglobulin 160
Betula utilis 46, 64
Bharband 45
Bhojpatra 46
Blood
allergy 326
tests 327
eosinophilia 291
Body's allergenic tendency 300
Bony erosion 103
Borassus flabellifer 47, 64
Bothriochloa pertusa 41
Bowel disease, inflammatory 7, 8, 292
Bradykinin 28, 184
mediated reactions 185
release 187
Brahmadandi 45
Brain 24
Brassica campestris 47, 65
Breast-fed infant 161
Breath, shortness of 136
Brompheniramine 88
Bronchial challenge test 268
Bronchitis, eosinophilic 117
Bronchoconstriction, exercise induced 114
Bronchoscopy 273
Bronchospasm 148
Bryan's test 268, 293, 294
Budesonide 123, 329, 348, 351
formoterol 351
nebulized 139
Bullous pemphigoid 181
Burden of allergic diseases over last five decades 1f
Burkard spore trap 36f
C
Cannabis sativa 41, 47, 65
Carbinoxamine 88
Carbohydrate determinant, cross-reactive 171
Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity 275, 277
Carcinoid syndrome 149, 232
Carica papaya 33
Cassia fistula 48, 65
Cassia occidentalis 41
Cassia siamea 41
Casuarina equisetifolia 41, 48, 66
Catamenial asthma 131
CD4+ T helper cell differentiation 21f
Cedrus deodara 32, 41, 49, 66
Cefdinir 110
Cefixime 100
Cefpodoxime 100, 110
Ceftriaxone 110
Cefuroxime 100, 110
Celiac disease 332
Cenchrus ciliaris 41, 48, 66
Cetirizine 88, 353
Challenge test 223
Charcot-Leyden crystals 103
Chemokine ligand 26
Chemosis 214f
Chenopodium album 41, 67
Chenopodium murale 41
Children outgrow food allergy 323
Chlorofluorocarbon propellant 123
Chlorpheniramine 88, 353
Choanal atresia 80
Choline 231
Chromones 281
local 87
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 128, 133t, 135t
Churg-Strauss syndrome 95
Ciclesonide 123, 139, 348, 351
Ciprofloxacin 100, 110, 231
Cladosporium 40
Clarithromycin 100, 110
Clavulanate 110
Clemastine 88
Clindamycin 100, 110
Cobalt dichloride 206
Cobblestone-like appearance 215f
Cocos nucifera 41, 49, 67
Cohen and Konak classification 287f
Collapse, causes of 149
Colophony 206
Complementary medicine 306, 311, 311t
Complete blood count 126, 342
Component resolved diagnostic tests 259
Computed tomography 105
Conjunctiva, swollen 84
Conjunctival challenge test 216
Conjunctival inflammation, types of 214
Conjunctivitis 257, 314
medicamentosa 218
perennial allergic 213
vernal 215f
Contact allergy 216
Contact dermatitis 192, 200, 219
acute irritant 201
allergic 201, 202
chronic 201
common causes 208
diagnostic tests 205
irritant 201, 203t
management 209
patch testing 205
pathophysiology 201
photoaggravated 201
photoallergic 201
phototoxic 201
prevention 211
prognosis 211
protein 201
subjective irritancy 201
systemic 201
types 201
Contact urticaria 221
Coriandrum sativum 50, 67
Corticosteroids 218, 281
inhaled 122, 123t, 139t, 140, 351
intranasal 87
systemic 351
topical 195
Cosmetics and skin care products 209
Cough 136
chronic 272
persistent 169
Cow's milk 167
protein allergy 160, 162, 164, 165, 165fc, 166
signs of 162t
symptoms of 162t
Cromoglycate 349
Cromolyn 329
sodium 28
Crude allergen
extracts 258
testing 292
Culprit allergen 250
Curvularia 40
Cyclizines 88
Cyclosporine 354
Cylindrica 52
Cynodon dactylon 41, 50, 68
Cyproheptadine 88, 353
Cystic fibrosis 94, 137
Cytokines 28
Cytomegalovirus 313
Cytotoxic food testing 268, 293
D
Dapsone 354
Daytime somnolence 91
Decongestants
intranasal 349
oral 348
Dendritic cells 26, 203, 301, 301f
Dennie-Morgan lines 254
Depression 91, 130
Dermal reaction 241
Dermatitis 257
irritant 219
Dexchlorpheniramine 88
Diabetes 92
Dibenzocycloheptenes 88
Dichanthium annulatum 41
Dietary antioxidants 280
Differential blood count 342
Di-George syndrome 313
Diphenhydramine 88, 353
Distress, respiratory 169
Dodonaea viscosa 50, 68
Dolichandrone platycalyx 33
Double-blind placebo control food challenge 163
Down syndrome 107
Doxepin 354
Drechslera 40
Drug 80
allergy 233, 331
differential diagnosis of 232
IgE-mediated 232
class 89
desensitization 235
interactions 228
provocation test 235
rash with eosinophilia and systemic
signs 233
symptoms 230
reaction 192, 229
immunologic 230t
Dry powder inhaler 123
Dysbiotic microflora 8f
Dyskinesia, primary ciliary 137
Dysplasia, bronchopulmonary 137
Dyspnea 148, 153
E
Earache 272
Edema, angioneurotic 184
Electrodermal/vega testing 269, 295
Electronic air cleaners 319
End-organ dysfunction, symptoms of 148
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test 270
Eosinophil
chemotactic factor-a 27
count 291
Eosinophilia 103, 116, 291
causes of 292
hereditary 292
primary neoplastic 292
secondary reactive 291
syndrome 79
Eosinophilic inflammation, diagnosis of 280t
Eosinophilic mucin containing fungus 103
Eosinophils 89, 116, 214
proliferation of 80
Ephedrine 348
Epicoccum 40
Epicutaneous allergy skin testing, technique of 261
Epidermis 260
Epiglottis, swollen 287f
Epiglottitis 287f
Epinephrine 152, 152t, 173b, 349
infusion 155
intramuscular 155f, 333
Epistaxis 272
Epstein-Barr virus 182, 231, 257, 313
Eragrostis tenella 41
Erythema 169
multiforme 181
Erythromycin 100
Esophagitis, eosinophilic 11
Ethanolamines 88
Ethylenediamine 88
dihydrochloride 206
Eustachian tube dysfunction 90
Exanthematous pustulosis, acute generalized 230
Eye 1, 24
allergic disease of 213
chronic inflammation of 214
Eyelid skin, sandpaper-like texture of 216f
F
Facemask, types of 330
Facial pain 272
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 181
Fatigue 91
Fexofenadine 88, 354
Filaria 291
Filtration technique 34
Fingertip units 194
Fixed drug eruptions 181
Flexible rhinolaryngoscopy 257
Flu shot 323
Flunisolide 87, 348
Fluorescence in situ hybridization 342
Flushing syndromes 149
Fluticasone
furoate 123, 348
propionate 87, 123, 139, 348, 351
Food allergen 2, 60, 60t
components 293t
Food allergy 130, 160, 167, 257, 311t, 332
alternative medicine in 311
component-resolved diagnostics 171
diagnosis of 169, 223
emerging therapeutics 176
epidemiology 168
prevention 175
retesting 174
treatment 172
Food challenge 267
test 163
Food molecules
high-risk 171t
low-risk 171t
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome 162
Forced expiratory flow 115, 279, 282
Forced oscillation technique 279
Forced vital capacity 275, 279, 282
Fresh frozen plasma 349
Fungal allergens 43t
localized distribution of 40
Fungal flora
indoor 40
outdoor 40
Fungus, culture positive for 103
G
Gastroesophageal reflux 137
disease 79, 205, 130
Gastrointestinal symptoms, persistent 148
Gastrointestinal system 257
Gastrointestinal tract 24
Gene-host influences 145
Genetic
and immune-mediated disorders 28
polymorphisms, role of 228
Giant papillary conjunctivitis 213
Global Economic Burden of Asthma and Rhinitis 3t
Global initiative for asthma guidelines 272
Glomerulonephritis 24
Glove use test 223
Glucagon 155
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 229
Graft-versus-host disease, acute 233
Group of medical and healthcare system 306
Gynandropsis gynandra 51, 69
H
Haemophilus influenza 93, 107
Hair analysis 270, 295
Halotherapy 307
Harboring food allergy 169
Hay fever 16, 259
Headache 272
Heart disease
congenital 137
coronary 92
Heart failure, congestive 277
Heiner syndrome 160
Helicobacter pylori 5, 182
Helminthosporium 40
Heparin 27
Hepatitis
A 5, 233
B 233
C 233
C virus 182
Heptanes 88
Herbs
allium cepa (onion) 308
atropa belladonna 308
caffeine 308
chaipo-tang (Chinese) 309
chamazulene (chamomile) 308
coleus forskohlii 308
datura stramonium (jimson weed) 308
echinacea 308
eucalyptus 308
goldenseal (hydrazine) 308
hi chun (Korean) 308
jisil (Korean) 309
kutki/kuuro (Indian) 309
licorice 309
ma huang (ephedra) 309
menthol (mint) 309
minor blue dragon 309
peppermint oil (mint) 309
saiboku-to (Japanese) 309
sho-seiryu-to (Japanese) 309
tylophora indica (India) 309
urtica dioica (nettle) 309
Heropogon contortus 41
Hevea brasiliensis tree 218
Histamine 27, 150, 184
challenge test 268
Hitchhiker's thumb 287f
Hoarse voice 169
Hodgkin's disease 313
Holoptelea integrifolia 41, 51, 69
Hormones, role of 147
Horner syndrome 98
Horner-Trantas dots 215f
Host-allergen interaction 20
House dust mite 262, 299
Human immunodeficiency virus 231, 313, 342
Hydrocortisone 110, 351
intravenous 332
Hydrofluoroalkane propellant 123, 139
Hydroxyzine 88, 353
Hymenoptera venoms 244
Hyperemia 218
Hypereosinophilia 292, 342fc
Hypereosinophilic syndrome 291
Hyper-IgE syndrome 292, 313
Hyperresponsiveness 82
Hypersensitive disorders 5
Hypersensitivity 11f, 17, 219
diagnosis of 256
reactions 11, 21, 23f
types of 21, 22f
syndrome, drug induced 229, 230
Hypertrophy
mild-to-moderate 287f
severe 287f
Hypothermia 145
Hypotonia 148
I
Ibuprofen 110
Ichthyosis vulgaris 192
Immotile cilia syndrome 94
Immune
reactions 161t
system 6, 28
Immunity
adaptive 204, 204t
innate 204t
Immunoglobulin 18, 26, 78
E 22, 23, 122, 165, 230
mediated allergic reaction, classification of severity of 249t
serum 190
G 230
intravenous 354
M 230
Immunologic disorders 292
Immunologic drug reactions, types of 235
Immunology 9
Immunotherapy 90, 341fc
age limit for 303
delivery 303t
failure of 302
future of 304
oral 176
specific 301
subcutaneous 90, 302304
sublingual 90, 302, 303
Impaction technique 34
Imperata cylindrica 41, 70
Impulse oscillometry system 278, 279
In vitro test 257
In vivo test 85, 259
Infections 345
bacterial 280
parasitic 313
secondary 93
severe 101
Inflammation
eosinophilic 114
neurogenic 82
Inflammatory disorder 104
Influenza virus 280
Innate immune system 19
Insect
bites 233
habits of 240t
hypersensitivity 241, 242fc, 344fc
identification of 238
stings 233
venom allergy 238
Interferon 26
Interleukin 26, 203, 301
Internal nose, anatomy of 93f
Intestinal microbiota 8f
Intradermal skin tests 261t
Ipratropium 329, 348
bromide 350
Iridology 269, 295
Isoniazid 231
Itch-flush 148
Itchy skin lesions 179
K
Kante bhaji 45
Kantewali chaulai 45
Kartagener syndrome 94, 95
Kasagaha 48
Kawasaki disease 233, 313
Keratoconjunctivitis
atopic 214
vernal 214
Ketotifen 28
Kinesiology 269, 295
L
Lactobacillus rhamnosus 309
Langerhans cell histiocytosis 277
Laser therapy 309
Latex allergens, types of 220
Latex allergy 218, 222fc, 223
clinical manifestations 221
diagnosis of 222
treatment 224
types of 219
unresolved issues 228
Latex-fruit allergy syndrome 221
diagnosis of 224fc
treatment of 224fc
Leprosy 24
Leukocytes 268
Leukotriene 28
receptor antagonist 86, 89, 122, 281, 352, 354
Levocetirizine 353
Levofloxacin 100
Levosalbutamol 350
Lipopolysaccharides 20
Lipoteichoic acid 20
Liver disease 313
Local tissue eosinophilia 291
Lolium perenne 52, 70
Loratadine 88, 353
Lung 24
disease
chronic obstructive 275
obstructive 134
function test 135
Lupus erythematosus, subacute cutaneous 181
Lymphocytes 19, 89
subset analysis 295
M
Magnesium sulfate 352
Major histocompatibility complex 26
Mallotus philippensis 41, 53, 70
Mangifera indica 53, 71
Mast cell 23, 29, 80, 179, 214
activation 158, 213
degranulation 234
mediators of 89
stabilizers 218
Mastocytosis, systemic 151, 181
Maxillary sinuses 284f
Maximum expiratory flow 282
Mediastinal mass 290f
Medicines
ayurveda 307
herbals 307
homeopathy 307
Melia azedarach 53, 71
Methacholine 268
Methdilazine 88
Methyl-prednisolone 351
Methylxanthines 281, 352
Metronidazole 100
Microflora hypothesis 5
Milk allergy 160, 300, 339fc
clinical presentation 161
diagnosis 161
investigations 162
pathophysiology 160
prevention 166
re-evaluation 166
treatment 164
Milk beverages 166
Mimosa invisa 32
Mini-allergen test 259
Minimum efficiency reporting value ratings 321t
Mometasone furoate 87, 123, 139, 348
Monocytes 89
Montelukast 236, 352, 354
Moraxella catarrhalis 94, 107
Morus alba 54, 71
Muckle-Wells syndrome 181
Mucociliary dysfunction 94
Mucocutaneous junction 249
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 182
Myelodysplastic syndromes 151
N
Naphazoline 349
Nasal
air sampler 37
congestion 169
crease 84
endoscopy 85, 272
eosinophilia 85
itching 79
mucosa 81
swelling of 84
obstruction 78, 84, 272
polyposis 90
provocation test 85, 268
pruritus 84
Nasopharyngitis 106
Nedocromil 349
sodium 123
Neomycin 110, 206
Neoplastic diseases 345
Nephrotic syndrome 313
Netherton syndrome 192
Neurological syndromes 149
Neurospora 40
Neutrophil 24, 214
chemotactic factor-A 27
Newer and alternate allergy tests 291
Nickel sulfate 206
Nigrospora 40
Nitric oxide, fractional exhaled 114, 117, 278
Nonallergic disorders 249
Non-breast-fed babies 164
Non-immunologic drug reactions, types of 235
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 128, 218, 229231, 250
Normal spirometry graph 282f
Nose 1, 24
Nutritional deficiencies 192
O
Obstructive lung disease, causes of 277t
Ofloxacin 110
Old friend hypothesis 5, 7fc
Olopatadine 218
nasal sprays 87
Omalizumab 29, 124, 144, 257, 281, 354
Omenn's syndrome 292
Open-patch testing 208
Opiates 231
Opioids 234
Oral corticosteroids, short course of 127
Oral food challenge 163, 172
Otitis media 104, 110t, 111, 112, 113fc, 257
acute 106, 109
chronic 272
suppurative 109
clinical features 108
complication 111
diagnosis 109
investigations 108
pathogenesis 107
predisposing factors 106
recurrent 109, 272
stages 108
treatment 109
with effusion 90
Oxymetazoline 99, 349
P
Palynology 31
Paraben mix 206
Paranasal sinuses, anatomical location of 92f
Parasites, gastrointestinal 233
Parasitic diseases 345
Parthenium hysterophorus 54, 72
Paspalum distichum 41
Patch test 223, 266
reaction scoring 208t
Peak expiratory flow 282
rate 257, 279
Pediatric allergy 13
Peeling skin disorder 192
Penicillin 323
Penicillium 34, 40
Pennisetum typhoides 41, 54, 72
Periodic fever syndromes 251
Phalaris minor 41
Phenindamine 88
Pheniramine 332
Phenothiazines 88
Phenylephrine 99, 349
Phoenix sylvestris 41, 55, 72
Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors 196
Photopatch testing 207
Phototherapy 197
Phthalazinone 88
Pinus
pollens of 32
strobus 55, 73
Piperazines 88
Piperidines 88
Plantago major 41
Plasma kallikrein, inhibitor of 187
Platelet-activating factors 27, 28
Poa annua 41, 55, 73
Pollen 60, 299
allergens 41
cross-reactive 59
calendar 36
grains 31
Polychondritis, relapsing 80
Polymyxin B 110
Polypogon monspeliensis 41
Positive bronchial challenge test 117
Positive exercise challenge test 117
Potassium
clavulanate 100
dichromate 206
Prednisolone 351, 354
Pressurized metered dose inhaler 139
Prick devices 262
types of 262
Prick-prick test 223, 224, 261
Principal collection methods 33
Probiotics 197, 309
Promethazine 88, 353
Prosopis juliflora 41, 56, 73
Prostaglandins 28
Protamine 231
Protease 27
activated receptor 20
Protective microbiota, loss of 6fc
Protein 18f
allergenic 292
allergens 259
eosinophilic cationic 116
Provocation neutralization 269, 294
Provocation test 266
Pruritic urticarial papules 181
Pruritus 169, 218
Pseudoallergic reactions 231, 231t
Pseudoephedrine 348
Pseudomonas 110
Psionic medicine 295
Psoriasis 233
infantile 192
Psychologic therapies 307
Pulse test 270
reflexology 295
Putranjiva roxburghii 41
Pyrilamine 88
Q
Quercus incana 41
Quincke's edema 184
Quinolones 234
R
Radioallergosorbent test 258
Radiocontrast media 231
Radionics 295
Ranitidine 354
Red flag signs 125
Red man syndrome 149
Reduces pollen allergy 315
Reflexology 270
Refractory anaphylaxis 156
Respiratory
infections, acute 13
syncytial virus 107, 280, 313
system 1, 257
tract 77
Restrictive lung disease, causes of 277t
Resuscitation, cardiopulmonary 152
Rheumatic disease 236
Rheumatoid arthritis 24, 257
Rhinitis 13, 106, 130, 250, 252, 272, 314
anatomic abnormalities causing 99
drug induced 79
evaluation of 251
exercise induced 79
gustatory 79
hormone-induced 79
infectious 79, 98
medicamentosa 98
mimic symptoms of 79
nonallergic 79, 94, 98
occupational 79
pattern of 83t
perennial nonallergic 79
reflux-induced 79
secondary 98
vasomotor 79
Rhinoconjunctivitis 13
Rhinorrhea
persistent 272
watery 78, 84
Rhinosinusitis 90, 281
acute bacterial 101
chronic 101
Rhinovirus 93, 107
Rhizopus 40
Ricinus communis 41, 56, 74
Rotorod sampler model 37f
Rubbing test 223
S
Saccharomyces 40
Salbutamol 153, 350
Salicylate intolerance 250
Salix caprea 57, 74
Salvadora persica 41
Samter's triad 236
Sarcoidosis 292
Satyanashi 45
Scabies 192
Scarring, conjunctival 214
Schistosoma 291
Schnitzler's syndrome 181
Scleral injection 84
Sclerosis, multiple 7
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis 213, 214f
Seborrheic dermatitis 192
Sensitivity 17
Sensitization 22
Serological tests 268
Serotonin 27
Serum tryptase 150
Sickness, serum 24
Sieve impactors 37
Single nucleotide polymorphisms 7fc
Sinus 1
contralateral 283f
paranasal 283f
Sinusitis 89, 9294, 100t, 105fc, 130, 257, 272
acute 93, 99, 284f
anatomy 92
chronic 94, 96, 99
complications of 97
diagnosis 95
diagnostic criteria 96
imaging 97
management 104
pathophysiology 93
physical examination 96
right maxillary 283f
subacute 96
treatment 99
Sjogren's syndrome 79
Skin 24
allergies 179
care 197
after flare maintenance therapy 198
bathing practices 197
dilute bleach baths 197
moisturizing agents 197
damage 202
diseases, occupational 200
inflammation, types of 200
irritation 202
lesions 203
prick test 85, 117, 170, 259, 261, 265f, 327, 328
interpretation of 262
number of 262
touch test 261, 265f, 327
interpretation of 262
Sneezing 79, 84
Sodium cromoglycate 123
Sorghum vulgare 41, 57, 74
Spirometry 257, 274
abnormality 276t
interpretation 276t
systematic interpretation of 275fc
Spore trap slit impactors 34
Sporotrichum 40
Stachybotrys 316
Staphylococcus aureus 94, 188
Stem cell factor 26
Steroids 28, 354
intranasal 348
long-term 265
topical 265
short-term 265
systemic 196
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 229, 233
Still's disease 233
Stinging insect, types of 238
Streptococcal infection 233
Streptococcus pneumoniae 93, 107
Stridor 148, 169
Strongyloidiasis 291
Suaeda fruticosa 41, 57, 75
Subglottic trachea, irregular narrowing of 289f
Sulfamethoxazole 100
Sulfisoxazole 100
Superficial skin layer 260
Swelling, conjunctival 214f
Swollen lips-tongue-uvula 148
Syncope 148
Systemic lupus erythematosus 24, 277
Systemic venom allergic reaction 246
Syzygium cumini 57, 75
T
T helper cells 301
T regulatory cells 301
Tacrolimus 354
Terbutaline 350
Tetanus vaccine 236
Tetrahydrozoline 349
Theophylline 352
Thiopurine methyltransferase 229
Thyroid autoantibodies 183
Tissue
growth factor 301
swelling 149
Topical calcineurin inhibitors 196
Topical steroid potency chart 195t, 352t
Toxic black molds 316
Toxic epidermal necrolysis 233
Toxocariasis 291
Toxoplasma gondii 5
Tracheitis, bacterial 289f
Tracheomalacia 137, 288f
Tranexamic acid 349
Triamcinolone 348
acetonide 87, 123, 139
Trimeprazine 88
Trimethoprim 100
Tripelennamine 88
Triprolidine 88
True food allergy 2
Tryptase 150
Tuberculosis 137, 277
Tumor necrosis factor 26, 203
U
Upper airways 273t
Upper respiratory infection 89
Uromyces 40
Urticaria 169, 179, 249, 252, 353t
acute 160, 180, 183
chronic 180, 183, 347, 347b
classification 180
diagnosis 186
diagnostic evaluation 181
differentials of 180
management 183
pathophysiology 179
treatment of 183
Ustilago 40
V
Vancomycin 231, 234
Vascular ring 137
Vasculitis 180
necrotizing 24
Venom hypersensitivity testing 244t
Venom immunotherapy 157
injections 245
Vilayati jhau 48
Vilayati mehndi 50
Vipomas 149
Viral infection 233, 313
Vomiting 169
W
Wegener's granulomatosis 80
Wheat allergy, types of 332
Wheeze 132, 136, 148, 169
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome 313
X
Xanthium strumarium 41, 58, 75
Xylometazoline 99, 349
Y
Young syndrome 95
Z
Zafirlukast 236
Zea mays 58, 76
Zileuton 236
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Chapter Notes

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