Neurological Drugs Vikas Dhikav
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table
A
Absorption 26, 229
Acetaminophen 184
Acetic acid 29
Acetylcholine 67
hemicholinium synthesis of 18f
muscarinic receptors 23
receptor 68
Acetylcholinesterase 92
Acid-fast bacillus 172
Activated partial thromboplastin time 102
Acyclovir 248
Adenosine triphosphate 27
Adenoviruses 173
Adrenergic receptors 18f
Adverse drug reactions 225, 226, 232
classification of 226, 227t
reporting 228
Akathisia 73, 85, 249
Albendazole 177
Alcohol 6, 90, 215
Alemtuzumab 128, 133
Algodystrophy 198
Algoneurodystrophy 198
Alkylators 246
Allergic reaction 63
Allergy 189
Allodynia 114
Allosteric antagonists 21
Almotriptan 55
Alopecia 239
Alpha-2 delta blockers 116, 154
Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid 6, 22
Alprazolam 75
Alzheimer's disease 12, 88, 89, 89f, 91, 94, 185, 195
Amantadine 84
Amebiasis 42
American Association of Family Physicians 85
American Heart Society 100f
American Spinal Injury Association 143
American Stroke Association 100f, 102
Amino acid 238
Amiodarone 247
Amitriptyline 57, 63, 97, 116, 118, 119, 154
Amnesia, post-traumatic 137
Amphetamines stimulate brain 37
Amphotericin 248
Ampicillin 42
Amygdala 18f
Amyloid 113
plaque 11
Analgesics
combination 59
topical 117
Anaphylaxis, penicillin induced 227
Androgens 241
Angelman syndrome 81
Angiospasm, traumatic 198
Angiotensin converting enzyme 58, 189, 226
Ankylosing spondylitis 151, 182, 186
Antibacterial therapy 166
Antibiotics, penetration of 166b
Antibody fragments 245
Anticancer 242, 248, 250
drug 237
resistance 239
Anticholinergics 74, 83
Anticholinesterase inhibitors 68
Anticonvulsants 57, 58, 116, 117, 140
Antidepressants 33, 58, 92, 117, 118, 154, 204
common side effects of 119b
safety of 119
Antiepileptics 79, 204, 247, 248
drugs 6, 63, 249
Antiestrogen 241
Antimigraine drugs, acute 53t
Antipsychotics 76, 227
Antistreptolysin O 79
Anxiety 160
Apomorphine 84
Arboviruses 173
Arms, weakness of 151
Arteriovenous malformation 108
Arthritis 79
inflammatory 182
psoriatic 182
rheumatoid 151, 182
Arylacetic acid 185
Aspirin 53, 60, 103, 107
contraindications of 183
poisoning 188
Asthma 184, 195
Astrocytoma 5
Ataxia 212
frontal 95
Atenolol 57
Atherosclerotic disease 101
Athetosis 73, 77
Atrial fibrillation 107
Atrophy, spinal muscular 88
Atropine 28
Auditory disturbances 52
Autism 81
Autoimmune demyelinating disease 12
Autonomic dysfunction 200, 201
Autonomic nervous system, drugs of 17f
Axon reflex 200
Axonal injury, diffuse 135
Azathioprine 216, 217
B
Babinski's reflex 149
Back pain 156
chronic 159
low 122, 159, 194
Backache 45, 185
Baclofen 63, 74, 116, 131, 204
Bactericidal therapy 166
Barbiturate 140
withdrawal 6
Basal ganglia 9, 18f, 82
Bell's palsy 237
Benzodiazepines 37, 74, 90, 106, 248
withdrawal 248
Betaferon 130
Beta-lactam antibiotic 227, 247
Betaseron 130
Biliary colic 195
Bladder control of 141, 151
Bleeding
active 103
diathesis 165, 184
ulcers 103
Blepharospasm 74
Blindness, hereditary 223
Blood
arterial 139
brain barrier 166b, 242
cell count 163
pressure 104, 105
situations warranting aggressive lowering of 105b
sugar 111fc
Body cell 223
Body temperature, regulation of 141
Bone
acute atrophy of 198
marrow depression 217
pain, metastatic 182
Botulinum toxin 74, 77, 211
Bout, acute attack of 186
Bowel
and bladder 141
functions 127
control of 141
Brachial plexus
injury 151
neuritis 240
Bradycardia 57, 75, 142
Bradykinesia 73
Brain 191, 236b, 251
abscess 136, 163, 171
treatment 171
attack 99
biopsy 174
chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of 12f
computed tomography of 94
infections 162
ischemic 100f
magnetic resonance imaging of 93
scan 174
tumor 235
benign 5
Brainstem 5, 236
glioma, tumors like 5
Breast 236, 239
carcinoma 236, 237
Breath, shortness of 189
Bretylium 204
Bromocriptine 19, 84
Bronchi 193
Bronchospasm 57, 75, 195
Bulbar involvement, severe 68
Bull's eye maculopathy 28
Buprenorphine 19
Bupropion 122, 247
C
Caffeine 59
Calcitonin 204
gene-related peptide 54, 200
Calcium channel blockers 57
Cancer 4
chemotherapy 246
neurological 243
ovarian 239
pain 193
Capsaicin 117
Carbamazepine 29, 63, 79, 117
Carbon dioxide 139
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor 57
Carcinoma
ovarian 237
prostatic 237
Carditis 79
Carmustine 239, 240
Carotid artery disease 107
Carpal tunnel syndrome 160
Catecholamine 201
Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor 83
Cauda equina 144
Causalgia 197
Cefotaxime 167, 171
Ceftazidime 167
Ceftriaxone 42, 167
Celecoxib 188
Cellular hyperpolarization 192f
Cellulitis 202
Central nervous system 35, 124, 126f, 200, 201, 220, 240
bacterial infections 163b
infections 162, 163, 178
drug treatment of 162
Central sensitization, reducing 116
Cephalosporins 166, 169
Cerebellar
disease 75
manifestations 127
Cerebellopontine
angle tumor 81
meningiomas 237
Cerebellum 18f
Cerebral
artery, middle 102
palsy 208, 209
ataxic 210
different types of 210
spastic 210
treatment of 208
types of 210t
venous sinus thrombosis 108
Cerebrospinal fluid 95, 136, 163, 164, 166t
examination 174
parameters 166
Cerebrovascular
accidents 4, 6
disease, drug induced 246
Cervical
artery dissection 101
myelopathy 148, 149, 156
radiculopathy 146, 147
spinal column 145
spondylitis 154t
clinical features of 151b
spondylosis 145, 146, 154
drug treatment of 145
sprain 151
vertebrae 145
Cetirizine 29
Chemical sympathectomy 205
Chemokines 24
Chemotherapeutic agents 130
Chemotherapy 243
Chest 193
Childhood movement disorders 74
Chloramphenicol 166, 171
Chloroquine 42, 215
Cholera 42
Cholinesterase inhibitors 90, 91
Chordoma 5
Chorea 73, 75, 76
Choreoathetosis 249
Choriomeningitis, lymphocytic 173
Cimetidine 247
Cisplatin 246, 248
Clonic seizures 13
Clonidine 18f, 116, 204
Codeine 191f, 194
Cognitive dysfunction 95
Cogwheel rigidity 81
Colchicine 215
Colon 236
carcinoma 236
Combiflam 40
Complete blood counts 102
Computed tomography 136, 150, 152, 171
Confusion 140
Consciousness time, loss of 138
Constipation 119
Copaxone 130
Cord stimulation 205
Corticosteroids 42, 130, 131, 133, 154, 215, 216, 247
Cotrimoxazole 171
Cramps 92
Craniopharyngioma 5
C-reactive protein 150
Creatine kinase 215
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 9, 89, 175
Cryptococcus neoformans 164, 173
Cubital tunnel syndrome 160
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 38
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate 38
Cyclooxygenase
enzymes 182fc
inhibitors 188
Cyclophosphamide 239
Cyclosporine 248
Cystitis, hemorrhagic 239
Cytarabine 238, 248
Cytokine 24
receptors 39
D
De Novo resistance 242
Deep brain stimulation, surgery like 77
Deep vein thrombosis 202
Degeneration 87, 150
Degenerative diseases 9
Degenerative disorders 4
Dementia 11, 17, 88, 89, 91, 92, 94, 95, 185, 248
common types of 89b
frontotemporal 89, 95, 96
treatment of 91
vascular 89, 93
Demyelinating diseases, drug treatment of 124
Deoxyribonucleic acid 130, 165, 220, 238
Depression 17, 89f, 90, 130
Dermatomyositis 216
Desipramine 63, 117119
Dexamethasone 177
Diabetes 89f, 108, 111f, 160
mellitus 113
Diarrhea 91, 92
Diclofenac 42, 53, 185
Digoxin 232
absorption of 230
overdose 245
Dihydroergotamine 56
Dihydrofolate reductase 238
Dimethyl fumarate 12, 128, 133
Diphenhydramine 247
Diplopia 68
Disease-modifying drugs 130
Diskitis 151
Divalproex sodium 79
Dizziness 91
Domperidone 53
Donepezil 92
Dopamine 82
agonists 74, 83, 84
metabolism, blockade of 36
synthesis, inhibition of 36
transporter block 36
Dorsal raphe nucleus 51f
Dose response curve 40, 41f
Doxepin 57, 120
Drug 77, 153, 159
discovery 42
interactions 228
mechanism of 229
therapy 128
Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940 43
Dry mouth 57, 119
Ductus arteriosus, closure of 186
Duloxetine 117
Dyskinesia 2, 73, 74, 83
Dyslipidemia 108
Dysmenorrhea 182
Dysphagia 97
Dystonia 73, 74, 76, 249
types of 74
Dystrophy
post-traumatic 198
sympathetic 198
reflex
neurovascular 198
sympathetic 197
E
Ebstein's abnormality 42
Echocardiography 79
Edema 136, 200
chronic traumatic 198
pulmonary 193
Edrophonium 68
Egg cell 8
Electrocardiogram 79, 221
Electroencephalography 174
Electromyography 176
Eletriptan 55
Empirical therapy 167
Empyema, subdural 163
Enalaprilat 29
Encephalitis 79, 174
Encephalopathy 240, 247
hypertensive 105
Endocarditis 101, 171
Enterohepatic circulation 186
Enteroviruses 174
Entrapment syndrome 113
Enzymatic degradation 23
Enzyme replacement therapy 8
Ependymoma 5
Epilepsy 42
Epstein-Barr virus 174, 235
Erythema 200
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 150
Erythromelalgia 202
Erythromycin 232
Escherichia coli 165, 172
Estrogen receptor agonists 247
Everolimus 237
Extrapyramidal disorders 248
Eyelids, dropping of 68
F
Fabry's disease 113
Facial paresis 99
Factors affecting drug action 40
Fatal familial insomnia 9
Fatigue 57, 75
excessive 124
Fear 229
Fecal incontinence 152
Fenamates 187
Fenoprofen 180
Fentanyl 122
Fetopathy 42
Fever 6, 42, 106, 164, 181, 182, 182f, 183, 221
Fibrates 215
Fibromyalgia 160
Fibrosis 57
Finger escape sign 149
Fingolimod 12, 128, 129, 133
Fluorescent treponemal antibody test 178
Fluoroquinolone 169
Fluorouracil inhibits 238
Flurbiprofen 185
Focal neurological signs 164, 165
Foley's catheter 143
Folic acid
antagonist 238
structures of 240
Fracture 202
dislocation 151
osteoporotic 157
Fragile X-syndrome 81
Freezing 73
episodes, acute 84
Friedreich's ataxia 88
Frovatriptan 55
Functional disorders 4
Fungal meningitis 173
Furazolidone 42
Furosemide 106, 139
G
Gabapentin 58, 63, 116118, 122
Gait
apraxia 95
disturbance 95
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 6, 22, 116, 204
Ganglia
blockade, sympathetic 202
lumbar paravertebral 202
Gastrointestinal tract 236
Gene
mutations 9
therapy 222
Genetic 41
brain disorder 219
diseases 8, 223
treatment of 223
disorders 219
medicine 219
Gentamicin 232
Giardiasis 42
Glasgow coma scale score 107, 136, 138, 144
Glatiramer 128
acetate 12
Glial cells 5
Glioblastoma 243
Glioma 5
Glomerular filtration 31
Glucocorticoid 176, 241, 242
Glucose 106, 166
6-phosphate dehydrogenase 41
Glutamate 23, 96
receptor antagonists 92
Glutathione 29
Glycine 29
Gout 182, 183
G-protein coupled receptors 23, 38
Gram stain 166
Growth
factor 24
receptors 39
hormone 247
Guanethidine 203
Guillain-Barré syndrome 113, 175
Gynecologic tumors 236
H
Haemophilus 168
infection 168
influenzae 162, 167, 168
Hallucinations 2
Haloperidol 11
Harringtonines 238
Head injury 6, 103, 135, 136, 138, 138t, 195
closed 136
diagnosis 136
effects of 137
open 137
primary 135
secondary 136
severity of 138
types of 135
Head pain
episodic 51
progressive 51
Head trauma 49, 82, 135
Headache 4850, 51f, 59, 60, 91, 151, 164, 182, 194, 246
associated with papilledema 49
chronic 50, 59
daily 62
cluster 61, 64
diagnosis of 50
drug
induced 247, 248b
treatment of 48
episodic 50
medication overuse 59
onset of 55
primary 4, 49, 64
secondary 49, 49b, 64
sexuality-associated 186
syndromes 50
tension 50, 59, 64
thunderclap 49, 64
treatment, principles of 48
type, diagnose 50
warning signs in 49b
with vomiting 73
worst 64
Hearing 141
Heart 171
disease 93
valves, abnormal 42
Hematoma
chronic subdural 90
epidural 137, 141
intracerebral 138
intracranial 135
subdural 137, 141
Hemorrhage 48, 64
acute subarachnoid 136
intracerebral 101
intraventricular 141
subarachnoid 101, 141
Hemotympanum 136
Heparin 28
Hepatic dysfunction 90
Hepatitis 176
Herniation 101, 146, 148
Heroin 215
Herpes simplex 173, 174, 176
encephalitis 174
Hodgkin's disease 242
treatment of 240
Hodgkin's lymphoma 237
Hoffmann's elimination 30
Hoffmann's reflex 149
Hormones 39
Human glucocerebrosidase 222
Human immunodeficiency virus 30, 49, 113, 117, 122, 173, 176, 251
Huntington's disease 10, 79, 88, 89
Hydrocephalus 177
Hydroxyurea 237
Hydroxyzine 29
Hygroma, subdural 141
Hyperalgesia 114
Hypercalcemia 90
Hypercoagulable state 101
Hypernephroma 236
Hypertension 42, 89f, 105, 106, 108
intracranial 177
treatment of 18f
uncontrolled 103
Hyperthermia 200
Hyperventilation 139
Hypoglycemia 227
Hyponatremia 90
Hypotension 142, 195
orthostatic 119
Hypothalamus 18f
Hypothermia 144
Hypothesis 200
Hypothyroidism 85, 160
Hypoxia 136
I
Ibuprofen 53, 154, 180, 185
Ifosfamide 246, 248
Imatinib 237
Imipramine 120
Immunoglobulin, intravenous 79, 205
Immunosuppressive therapy 131
Impotence 75
Indian Academy of Neurology Guidelines of Multiple Sclerosis 132
Indian Academy of Pediatrics 208
Indoleacetic acid 186
Indomethacin 53, 186
Infections 48, 49, 64, 111f, 124
congenital 176
secondary 93
viral 235
Inflammation 49
neurogenic 200
Infusion, intravenous 46
Injury
physical 124
primary 142
secondary 142
Inositol phosphate 23
Insane, general paresis of 178
Insulin 28
injection 227
Interferon beta 128, 130, 132
International Association for Study of Pain 112, 198
Diagnostic Criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 201
International Headache Society Criteria for Tension Headache 60
International Society of Study of Pain 198
Intervertebral disk, degener–ation of 146, 148
Intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 247
Intrauterine growth retardation 42
Ischemia 136
Itraconazole 230
J
Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription pathways 39
Japanese B encephalitis 174
John Cunningham virus 129
Joint pain 160, 181
K
Kayser-Fleischer rings 80
Ketamine 116, 120, 204, 205
Ketanserin 204
Ketoconazole 230
Ketoprofen 180, 185
Ketorolac 187
Kidney 236
L
Labetalol 106
Lamotrigine 57, 63, 117
Legs, weakness of 151
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 222
Lethargy 229
Leukemia
acute lymphoblastic 241
chronic lymphocytic 239
Leukodystrophies 81, 219
Levetiracetam 57, 63, 122
Levodopa 29, 34, 42, 74, 76, 82, 95
Lewy body 9, 82, 95
dementia 89
Lhermitte's sign 149
Lidocaine 121
patch 117
Ligand-gated channels 39
Lignocaine 115
Lip 42
Listeria 169, 173
monocytogenes 169
Lithium 42, 232, 245, 247, 250
Lomustine 239
Lorazepam 75
Lumbar puncture 165
contraindications of 165b
Lungs 171, 193, 236
Lymphedema 202
Lymphocyte antigen 128
Lymphoma 5, 240
M
Magnetic resonance imaging 128, 136, 150, 152, 171, 209
Malaria 42
Malignant disorders 4
Malnutrition 93
Mass lesion 165
Medulloblastoma 5
Mefenamic acid 187
Melanoma 223
malignant 236
Melatonin 62
Melphalan 240
Memory 140
deficits 91
Meninges 5, 172
Meningioma 5, 236, 243
Meningitis 136, 178
bacterial 163, 166t
clinical features of 164b
meningococcal 169
neonatal 172
parasitic 170
tubercular 171
viral 170, 173
Meningoencephalitis 163
Mental status 164
Metabolic disorders 8, 49, 81
Metabolic storage disease 8
Methadone 116, 194
Methotrexate 217, 230, 238, 240, 248
structures of 240
Methyldopa 18f, 29, 42
Methylprednisolone 130
Methysergide 57
Metoprolol 57
Microcephaly 42
Microdiskectomy 158
Mifepristone 237
Migraine 50, 51, 52, 56, 64, 182, 187
acute 53b
chronic 52
drug for prophylaxis of 57b
management of 52, 54f
pain 51f
pathophysiology of 51f
prevention of 56
prophylaxis 57t
treatment, principles of 52
types 52
Mitoxantrone 130, 132, 133
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 18f, 57, 84
Mononeuropathy, diabetic 113
Morphine 190, 191f, 247
Motor fluctuations 2
Motor neuron disease 96
Motor performance, abnormal 209
Movement disorders 9
benign 78
drug treatment of 72
Mumps 174
Muscle
biopsy 216
cramps 91
function, progressive loss of 152
magnetic resonance imaging of 216
relaxant 63, 131, 154
skeletal 186
spasms 185
tone 209
weakness, acute severe 68
Myasthenia gravis 13, 66, 67, 69
clinical classification of 68
pathophysiology of 67f
Mycoplasma 175
Myectomy 74
Myelin sheath 124
Myelography 150
Myeloradiculopathy 148
Myelosuppression 239, 240
Myocardial infarction 105, 188
Myoclonus 73, 78, 250
Myokymia 73
Myopathy 214
inflammatory 215
statin-induced 214
Myositis
drug treatment of 214
inclusion body 215
N
Nadolol 57
Nafcillin 171
Nalidixic acid 247
Naloxone 121, 195
Naltrexone 121, 194
Naproxen 53, 180
sodium 180
Naratriptan 55
Nasal spray 56
Nasal steroids 72
Natalizumab 128, 129, 132, 133
National Institutes of Clinical Excellence 52
National Institutes of Health Score 104, 104t
Natural messenger 19f, 20
Nausea 83, 91, 92, 239
Neck
pain 145, 151, 152
stiffness 151
Neisseria meningitides 162, 164, 165, 169, 167, 170
Neoplasm 49, 48, 64
Nephropathy 105
Nerve
blocks 212
root pain 157
trigeminal 50
Neural tube defects 41
Neuralgia
postherpetic 113, 117
post-traumatic 113
spreading 198
trigeminal 62, 113, 117
Neuroblastoma 80, 237
Neurocutaneous syndromes 81
Neurocysticercosis 176
Neurodegeneration 87
Neurodegenerative disease 87, 88b
drug treatment of 87
Neurological diseases 13
broad category of 4b
Neurological disorders 4, 50, 214
drug induced 245
neural basis of 4
Neurological drugs 1
Neurology 247b
Neurolytic techniques 121
Neuroma, acoustic 5
Neuromediators 23
Neuromuscular junction 67f
Neuropathic pain
pharmacological treatment of 111f
syndromes 113b
Neuropathy 250
causes of 110
diabetic 111fc, 117
drug treatment of 110
ischemic 113
painful diabetic 111fc, 117
peripheral diabetic 117
types of 111fc
Neurosyphilis 177
paretic 178
Neurotransmitter 23
action 22, 23
synthesis 18f
Neutrophils, percentage of 166
Nitrates 248
Nitroglycerin 105, 106
Nitroprusside 106
N-methyl-D-aspartate 6, 22
receptor antagonist 116
Nondrug therapy, failure of 159
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas 239
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 52, 53, 53b, 59, 153, 154, 180, 181, 183, 184f, 189, 195, 204, 232, 247
combination of 53
induced ulcers 227
management of 190
mechanism of 182fc
overuse 248
poisonings 188
therapy, long-term side effects of 188
topical 183
uses of 181, 182b
Noradrenergic receptors 18f
Norepinephrine 17f, 18
Normal pressure hydrocephalus 89, 90, 95
Nortriptyline 63, 117119
Nuchal rigidity 164
Nucleus caudalis, trigeminal 51f
Numerous drug interactions 57
Nutrition 132
Nutritional deficiencies 111f
Nystagmus 250
O
Occupational therapy 210
Ocrelizumab 128
Octreotide 237
Oculogyric crisis 249
Olanzapine 93, 96
Olfactory disturbances 52
Oligodendroglioma 5
Ophthalmoplegia 68
Opiates 248
Opioids 59, 61, 116, 117, 120, 154, 190, 191
receptors, types of 192f
Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome 80
Optic nerve glioma 5
Oral anticoagulants 247
Oral prednisolone 154
Osteoarthritis 122, 182
Osteomyelitis 151
Osteoporosis
glucocorticoid-induced 227
post-traumatic 198
Oxcarbazepine 29, 63, 115, 117
Oxicams 187
Oxycodone 116, 117, 122
P
Pain 42, 110, 141, 182f, 183, 198
acute neuropathic 113t
arthritic 160
central
causes of 113b
post-stroke 117
chronic 112, 114, 141
neuropathic 113t
duration 113
mild to moderate 180
musculoskeletal 159
neuropathic 110, 112, 112b, 112b, 114, 115, 117b, 119
postoperative 182
relief, mechanism of 181
Pancoast tumor 151
Panencephalitis, subacute sclerosing 174
Papaverine 191f
Papilledema 165, 247
Para-aminophenols 184
Paracetamol 42, 53, 60, 61, 184
poisoning 188
Paralytic ileus 182
Paraneoplastic syndrome 237
causes of 237b
Paresthesia 57
Parkinson's disease 1, 9, 10, 16, 37, 75, 81, 82, 88, 89, 92, 94, 113, 185, 249
symptoms of 10b
Penicillamine 80
Penicillin 166
allergy 226
elimination 230
Pentazocine 19
Peptic ulcer 183, 184f
causes of 184f
Pergolide 84
Permanent nerve damage 158
Pethidine 194
Phantom limb 113
Pharmacokinetic 26, 181, 190
mechanisms 229
Pharmacotherapy 203, 211
Phenobarbitone 42, 75, 140
Phenol solution 212
Phenylketonuria 14, 219
Phenytoin 42, 63, 115, 117, 232
Phocomelia 41
Photophobia 164
Physiotherapy 77, 153, 204, 210
Pimozide 79
Plasma cell myeloma 240
Polymerase chain reaction 165, 166
Polymyositis 215, 216
Polyvalent vaccines 168
Pramipexole 84
Prednisolone 29, 79, 130, 144, 217
Prednisone 29, 62, 69, 204
Preeclampsia 105
Pregabalin 57, 63, 116118
Pregnancy 41, 103, 124, 133, 189
teratogenic drugs in 41
therapeutic drug in 42
Primidone 75
Prion diseases 175
Proenzyme 220
Progesterone antagonist 237
Prophylactic bowel regimen 120
Propofol 247
Propranolol 42, 57, 75
Prostaglandins 181
Prostate 236
benign enlargement of 195
Protease inhibitors 232
Protein 166
binding 28
Pseudoclaudication 157
Pseudodystrophy 198
Psychiatry 247b
Psychostimulants 37
Ptosis 68
Pyridostigmine 68
Pyrimidine antagonist 238
Pyrrolopyrrole 187
Q
Quetiapine 96
R
Rabies 174
Raccoon eyes 136
Raised intracranial pressure 136
Rapid eye movement 94
Raynaud's disease 202
Raynaud's phenomenon 216
Receptors
sensitization 21
types of 39b
Red blood cell 41
Regional pain syndrome
chronic 121
complex 197, 198, 198b, 199, 206
Reiter's syndrome 182
Relaxation therapy 115
Renal agenesis 42
Renal colic 182
Renal dysfunction 90
Respiratory symptom need management 97
Retinoids 247
Rett syndrome 80
Rhinitis, allergic 72
Ribonucleic acid 238
Ribosomes, interferes function of 238
Rifampicin 232
Rifampin 166
Riluzole 96
Risperidone 93
Rituximab 133, 217
Rivastigmine 92, 94
Rizatriptan 55
Rofecoxib 188
Ropinirole 19f, 84
Rotator cuff disease 151
Rufinamide 221
S
Salmonella 173
Schizophrenia 17, 17f
Sclerodactyly, postinfarctional 198
Sclerosis 126f
amyotrophic lateral 88
multiple 12, 12f, 17, 113, 124, 125, 126f, 128, 128b, 133, 241
primary progressive multiple 125
progressive relapsing multiple 125
relapsing-remitting multiple 125
secondary progressive multiple 125
Sedation 57, 119
Seizures 5, 106, 140, 164, 246, 247b
causes of 6b
disorders 4
drug-induced 246, 247b
febrile 6
generalized 6, 13
partial 6, 13
types of 6b
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 36, 58, 92
Semustine 239
Senile dementia 88
Sensations 114
loss of 151
Sensory 141
loss 140
manifestations 127
symptoms 114
Septic venous sinus 163
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 116
Sexual dysfunction 119, 127
Shock
neurogenic 142
spinal 142
Shoulder
abnormal sensations of 151
disorders 151
hand syndrome 198
Shyness 229
Sickle cell anemia 223
Sildenafil 230
Skeletal abnormalities 42
Skin 236
infection over site 165
Skull fracture 136
depressed 136
Sleep
disorders 141
disturbances 160
interruption 49
Small cell lung carcinoma 237
Smell 141
Sodium
channel activity, reducing 115
valproate 250
Soft tissue abscess 151
Somatostatin analogs 237
Speech
abnormal 99
therapy 210
Sperm 8
Sphincter of Oddi 193
Spinal cord 12f, 124, 251
injury 113, 135, 142
types of 143
tumor 165
Spinal stenosis 157, 158
Spondylitis 152b
common complications of 152b
Spondylosis 145
Spongiform encephalopathies, transmissible 9
Sprains 160, 185, 202
Spurling's test 148
Stamina, loss of 141
Staphylococcus 173
aureus meningitis 171
Status migrainosus 58
Stellate ganglion 202
Steroids 132, 170
Stimulants, uses of 120
Stomach, cell membrane of mucosa of 184f
Straight leg raising test 157
Streptococcus
agalactiae 172
pneumoniae 162, 164, 165, 167
Stress, emotional 124
Stroke 6, 99, 103b, 108, 113, 246
causes of 101t
drug treatment of 99
hemorrhagic 6, 8, 14, 101, 107
ischemic 100f, 101, 101f
major type of 100f
management of 101
prophylaxis of 107
recurrence of 100f
thrombotic 6, 8
types of 100
venous 108
Sudeck's dystrophy 198
Sulpiride 250
Sumatriptan 53, 55, 247
Supranuclear palsy, progressive 89
Surgery 155
Swelling 136
Sydenham's chorea 79
Sympathalgia 198
Sympathectomy, surgical 205
Synapse 23, 36
Synergistic drug action 39
Syphilis 177
meningovascular 178
Systemic lupus erythematosus 79
T
Tabes dorsalis 178
Tachycardia 119
Tacrine 91
Tacrolimus 248
Taliglucerase alfa 222
Tamoxifen 241
Tardive dyskinesia 227, 249
Tarsal tunnel syndrome 160
Taste 141
Tay-Sachs disease 8, 14, 219
Tensilon test 68
Tension, causes of 59
Terfenadine 29
Teriflunomide 128, 129, 133
Tetrabenazine 77
Tetracyclines 247
absorption 230
Tetralogy of Fallot 194
Thalamotomy 74
Thalamus 18f
Thalidomide 41
Thebaine 191f
Theophylline 232
metabolism of 230
Therapeutic index 33, 33f
Therapy, physical 131
Thiocolchicoside 186
Throat infection, persistence of 227
Thromboangiitis obliterans 202
Thrombolysis 102, 103
indications of 104
Thrombolytic 247
agent 104
therapy 8
Thrombophlebitis 163
Thymidylate synthase inhibitors 238
Thymoma 69, 237
Thyroid 90
deficiency 91
gland 236
Tiagabine 63
Tics 73, 74
Tissue
plasminogen activator,
contraindications of 103b
storage 28
Togaviruses 174
Tolfenamic acid 53
Tonic seizures 13
Topiramate 57, 62, 63
Tourette syndrome 78
Toxins 111f
Toxoplasma 176
Tracheostomy 96
Tramadol 116, 117, 120, 247
withdrawal seizures 245
Transient ischemic attack 7, 106
Trauma 111f, 151
Traumatic head injury, drug treatment of 135
Triazole derivative 221
Trichinella 216
Tricyclic antidepressants 57, 63, 93, 116, 248
Trientine 80
Trigeminal neuralgia
drug in 63b
surgical treatment of 64
Trigeminovascular system 51f
Trihexyphenidyl 20, 74
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 247
combination 166
Triptans 54, 55, 55b, 59
Tuberculoma 171
Tubular necrosis, acute 189
Tumors 6, 151, 243
benign 236
metastatic 5
necrosis factor-alpha blockers 24
neuroectodermal 5
noncancerous 5
pituitary 5
secondary 235, 236b
Tunnel syndromes 160
Typhoid fever 42
U
Ulcer disease 190
Urinary
incontinence 95, 152
retention 119
V
Valdecoxib 188
Valproate 41, 57, 62
encephalopathy 245
Valproic acid 79
Vancomycin 168
Varicella zoster virus 173
Vascular
disease 49, 94
endothelial growth factor blocker 237
injury, diffuse 135
origin, acute neurological deficit of 99
Vasculitis 101
Vasospasm, traumatic 198, 202
Velaglucerase alfa 222
Venereal disease research laboratory 178
Venlafaxine 247
Verapamil 57
Vinca alkaloids 238, 246
Vision 141
blurred 119
Visual disturbance 52, 247
Vitamin 39
A 39
C 204
D 39
Voltage-gated channels 39
Vomiting 83, 91, 136, 239
von Recklinghausen disease 235
W
Warfarin 232
absorption of 230
White blood cell count 166
Wilson's disease 79, 80, 219, 221
Z
Zidovudine 215
Zinc acetate 221
Zolmitriptan 53, 55
Zonisamide 75
×
Chapter Notes

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Neurological Drugs
Neurological Drugs
Vikas Dhikav MBBS, MD (3 years, AIIMS), PhD (Neurology), DSc (Honorary) Fellowship in Cognitive Neurology Fellowship in Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology Honorary Professor International School of Medicine International University of Kyrgyzstan (ISM-IUK) Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Former Visiting Faculty Southern Medical University Jinan Medical University, Dali University Wuhan, Nanchang and Luzhou Universities People Republic of China Consultant Indian Council of Medical Research Department of Health Research Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India, New Delhi, India Forewords Professor (Dr) Balram Bhargava KS Anand
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
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© 2019, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
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Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. The CD/DVD-ROM (if any) provided in the sealed envelope with this book is complimentary and free of cost. Not meant for sale.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com
Neurological Drugs
First Edition: 2019
9789352709007
Printed at
Little angel daughters, Priyanshi and Princi
and beloved wife, Meenakshi Dhikav
Foreword
Professional information on drugs used in neurological disorders is limited in Indian context. Neurological Drugs is an attempt to update postgraduates and practicing doctors about the neurological drug therapy.
The author has attempted to include several topics in this small volume, yet the book may be concise but is comprehensive. The presentation is lucid and the language is simple.
The author needs to be congratulated for the excellent efforts in the direction of brining this book. I hope the book will be very useful for the intended audience and for anyone who is interested in the practice of neurology/psychiatry/neuropsychiatry.
(Balram Bhargava)
Foreword
Neurological drugs is a unique compilation of Neurology Drug Reference in India. In this small but comprehensive book, the author has been able to successfully combine the Art and Science used in treatment of Neurological Disorders. This book is the first of its kind for Indian subcontinent and will go a long way in providing first hand knowledge to budding physicians, neurologists and psychiatrists alike.
KS Anand
DM (Neuro) MNAMS (Neuro) FIAN FAMS FRCP (London)
FICP FIAMS FIMSA FIACM MBA
Fellowship in Movement Disorders (USA) and
Neurorehabilitation (VMMC)
Member, American Academy of Neurology
Professor of Neurology
Senior Consultant Neurologist and Head
Department of Neurology
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and
Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
New Delhi, India
Preface
Neurological Drugs is perceived as one of the most difficult topics during entire medical curriculum. In the MBBS, when the foundation for being the medical doctor is being laid; this topic is either not taught or is taught at a superficial level.
In MD, when the Master Degree training program is in full flow, not enough attention is given to this. Additionally, no lectures are held for MD students assuming this would have been done at MBBS level.
At DM level, when one is expected to have an astute understanding of neuropharmacology; clinical details and follow-up consume much of the time. Again this topic takes back seat, at the final time, when it should have been finally dealt. Hence, hardly any time is left for trainee to get hold of this valuable subject. The present book is aimed at fulfilling these gaps.
One of the challenges while writing this book was that the available information comes from the west which may not be relevant. For example, dose requirements may be different, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences may be prominent in some cases. Western patients may have faster metabolic speed leading to smaller blood levels at lower doses (which may be appropriate in Asian patients). Hence, it is important to have Indian reference dose range that our hardworking clinicians have been using since ages. Unfortunately, in the absence of published data, it becomes difficult to produce a unifying source for the same. However, the present book can be a starting point and with passage of time such details will emerge and the growth of the book can be proportional.
Vikas Dhikav
Acknowledgments
I wish to acknowledge the help of Memory Clinic, Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India for offering generous support in writing this book.
I would like to thank Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director), Ms Chetna Malhotra Vohra (Associate Director—Content Strategy), Ms Prerna Bajaj (Development Editor), and all the staff of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, for their efforts and input enabling timely publication of the book.
Vikas Dhikav
New Delhi, India