THESIS Writing: The T,H,E,S,I,S Approach Tejinder Singh, Rajiv Mahajan
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abstract 96, 283, 311t, 315
evaluating the 97
preparation of 295
Academic journals 330b
Aim 80, 85, 86, 87
and objectives 77, 108, 110, 261
Alternate hypothesis 26, 70, 73, 74, 239
two-sided 70
Analysis 131
bivariate 214
efficacy 162
object of 41t
phase 21
preparing data for 31
qualitative 32
safety 162
variables in 131
Analytical cross-sectional study 46
Animal preclinical studies 57t
Annexures 263
Appendices 108, 114, 312
Article publication, stages of 319, 320fc
Article type 312
Audience, type of 294
Author's information 96
Authorship 314
B
Backward planning 184
major steps in 185b
Bar graphs 171
horizontal 168f
three-dimensional 168f
vertical 168f
Basic statistical tests 253
Basic statistics 208
bivariate analysis 214
multivariate analysis 214
post hoc tests 215
univariate analysis 213
Bee swarm plots 220
Belmont report 192
Beneficence 193
Bibliography 192t, 255b, 263
corrections 271
revision 273t
Biomedical research 9, 42
areas of 193
on human subjects 192
Bivariate analysis 214
Chi-square test, for 218
Mann–Whitney test, for 218
Boolean operators, use of 95
C
Case record form 264
Case reports 44, 57
Case series 44
Case-control study 47
design, framework of 47fc
example of 48t
Central tendency, measures of 213
Chi-square test 214, 248, 249f, 253
assumptions of 215b
Clinical drug trials 86
Clinical trials registry 265
certificate of 265
Cohort study 48
design, framework of 49fc
example of 49t
Commonly employed sampling strategies 28fc
Conclusion 298
Consent document, essential information in 196
Consent form 264
Consent process 196
Convenience sampling method 214
Conversion strategy 312
Copyright
concerns 310
holders 287
issues 313
Cross-over design 52fc
Cross-sectional study 44, 85
D
Data 129, 156
assessing distribution of 213
compile and analyze 255
demographic 164
dissemination of 36, 38
entry and cleaning 212
management 108, 113
manipulation 232
record form 264
statistical analysis of 261
types of 156, 211
Data analysis 156, 209, 213
and interpretation of 32, 36, 38
plan 208
preparation of 36, 38
quantitative 33fc
with estimation graphics 221
Data collection 30, 36, 38, 212
developing tools for 28
form 264
instruments 108
procedures 130
tools for 35, 38, 108, 113, 114
Data presentation 156
qualitative 164
Descriptive statistics 219, 231, 236, 238, 243
Descriptive studies 44
Design 299
poster 296
Diagnostic studies 57
Discussion 293, 298
Dissertation 309
by publication 280
Dissertation research
findings, dissemination forums for 330b
translate your 327
Dummy tables 219
Duplication and self-plagiarism 310
E
Educational research design 332
Efficient time management, techniques for 179b
Eisenhower principle 179
Else's work 201
E-poster 302
Ethical concerns 204, 205
Ethical considerations 36, 38
policy statement on 192
Ethical guidelines 206
Ethical research on human subjects, principles of 192
Ethics committee approval letter 318
Ethics statement 108, 113, 121
Exclusion criteria 108, 120
Experimental studies 49
Exploratory efficacy objective 87
Exploratory qualitative study 87
F
Formulating hypothesis 25
Friedman's test 218
G
Gantt chart 115f, 179, 181, 182, 182f, 187f, 188, 265, 269
for thesis activities 187
hand-drawn 183
preparation of 184fc, 183
timeline 183
type of 183
uses of 185
Garbage in syndrome 254
Garbage out syndrome 254
Good clinical practice 29
Good poster
appeal 305
clarity 305
concision 305
criteria of 305
readability 305
relevance 305
Good research
characteristics of 20b
question 67, 67t
Graphs
general tips for 167
list of 260
types of 219
Group statistics 242
H
Handling revision 270, 275
Handouts 304
Harmonogram 181
Health research
department of 10
overview of 41t
Hofstadter's law 177
Horizontal bar graph 168f
Hospital-based observational study 85
Hypothesis 62t, 68, 73, 74, 210, 221
testing 240
errors in 71, 71t
types of 70
writing 69, 70
I
Indian Council of Medical Research 3, 10, 265
Indian Medical Graduate 8
Inference, salient features of 159
Inferential statistical methods 253
Inferential statistics 239
Informed consent 195
document 200
parts of 195
form 108, 114
Interest form, conflict of 265
Interventional study 86
K
Knowledge-to-action cycle 328, 329fc
Kruskal-Wallis test 238
L
Layout 299
and format 303
of poster 304f
Levene's test 242
Line charts 171
different presentations of 169f
Literature
different sources of 93fc
relevance of review of 25b, 107, 117
review of 24, 90, 255, 261, 296
short review of 108, 111
writing review of 100, 100fc
Literature review 63, 280, 283
methodological papers 309
Literature search 35, 37, 92, 314
developing strategies for 94
Longitudinal study 45
M
Managing timeline 176
Mann-Whitney test 238
Manuscript
chapters, subsequent 283
preparation and submission guidelines 320
structure of 309
Manuscript-based thesis 279, 281, 282, 288, 289
benefits of 281b
planning of 282
Manuscript-style 280
thesis 287, 312
writing 288
Master's chart 264
Master's thesis 13
Median test 238
Medical evidence, hierarchy of 56, 56f
Medical test, studies of 52
Methodological conflict 64
Methodology 107, 108, 111, 125
Monograph 280
Multiple logistic regression 218
Multivariate analysis 214, 222
N
Narrative description 304
Nonexploitation, principle of 194
Nonparametric statistical tests 239
Nonrandomized controlled trial 51
Null hypothesis 26, 70, 73, 74, 220, 239, 240
significance testing 220
Numeric expression box 234
O
Objectives 81, 85, 86, 87
Observational studies 57
Odds ratio, interpretation of 48
One-sample median test 250f
One-sided alternative hypothesis 70
One-way
analysis of variance 243, 244, 244f
ANOVA 244f, 245f
frequency distribution 231f
Ordinal scale 235
P
P values
limitations of 217
moving beyond 217, 222
Paper
conclusion and style of 99
critical analysis of 96
evaluating abstract of 97
publication of 308
Pareto principle 178
Participant information sheet 197t
Pearson's Chi-square test 249
Pie charts 170
three-dimensional 167f
two-dimensional 167f
Pilot study, conduct of 30, 36, 38
Plagiarism 200, 202, 203
check certificate 258, 345
checklist for avoiding 205, 205b
common examples of 201
Post hoc analysis 210
Post hoc test 215, 245f
application of 215
Poster 308
format 293
forms 293
handouts of 297
preparing and presenting of 292, 295f
presentation 301
produce 300
session 292
type of 302
subsections of 297
Postgraduate research, barriers to translation of 332b
Primary literature 93
Primary objective 83, 86
Primary research question 73, 74, 298
Professional competence, principle of 195
Prognostic studies 57
Protocol execution 129
Provocative exception 63
Q
Qualitative approach 35t
Quantitative approach 37t
R
Randomized controlled trial 50, 50fc, 86, 162
Research 4, 209, 271
advisory committee 11
aim 80
and practice 324
approach 42fc
article 293
basic concepts 18
bedside-to-community 325
beginning of 2
bench-to-bedside 325
dissertation-based 323
during conduct of 331
essentially, purpose of 208
hypothesis 35, 37, 80, 239
importance of 5
into standard practice, translation of 328
manuscripts, write 222
on human subjects 192
parts of 309
population 35, 37
process, phases of 21fc
project work 177
proposal, basic components of 108b
qualitative 20, 57
quantitative 20
related courses 282
results, bulk of 328
role of 79
scope 73
steps of 23, 23b
stretching out boundary of 15
translation 331
types of 20t
Research design 35, 37, 41, 79f
classification of 43fc
Research findings 294, 328
disseminating 32
Research objectives 80
types of 82
Research problem 35, 37, 62, 72, 74,
formulation of 23
importance of 63
Research question 35, 37, 62t, 65, 66t, 73, 74, 79f, 80, 108, 110, 117, 210
aim 107
formulation of 23
importance of 68
objectives 107
secondary 73, 74
types of 66
Response rate 162
Results 298
salient features of 157
Review process 319
Risk minimization, principle of 195
S
Safety objective 87
Salami slicing 314
Sample size 108, 139
appendix for 339
estimation 120
Sampling technique 108, 112
Scatter chart timeline 181
Scatter plots 170, 172
Secondary efficacy objective 86
Self-assessment checklist 268, 346
Self-plagiarism, charges of 310
Social responsibility, principle of 195
Spearman's correlation 247
Spurious statistical significance 245
Static timeline 180
Statistical analysis 108, 113, 121, 256
Statistical computations 219
Statistical methods 220
Statistical symbols, commonly used 158b
Statistical test 144, 242
appropriate 216t
correct and incorrect decisions of 240t
types of 249
Study
duration 108, 113
instrument 108, 113
population 108, 112, 128
procedure 120
proforma of 264
qualitative 156
quality improvement 57
quantitative 156
questionnaire-based 162
setting 108, 112, 119
subjects, method of selection of 108
Study design 108, 112, 120, 128
choosing 55fc
reporting guidelines for respective 57t
Study objectives 35, 37
determining 24
Synopsis, writing 105
T
Tertiary literature 93
Test hypothesis 239, 250
Thesis 5, 62t, 192, 271, 309311, 311t
and scientific journal publication 310
approval of 258
attributes of successful 256
component of 259
details 204
document, binding of 267
final draft of 269
handling revision of 277
plans for 177
publication-based 280
related activities 179
revision of 271
satisfactorily, completion of 179
submission, prerequisite for 312
tips for writing high-quality 14
title 203, 276
page of 267
transforming 308
writing 13, 255, 292
Thesis research 64fc, 192, 308, 309, 310
disseminating 292, 308
ethical issues in 190
paper from 312
Thesis section 272
bibliography 273
conclusions 273
discussion 273
hypothesis 272
introduction 272
material 272
methods 272
research question 272
results 273
review of literature 272
Thesis topic 281
examples of 286
Thesis work 263, 264, 269
compilation of 255, 342
Timeline
components of 181fc
types of 180, 181fc
Title 96, 107, 108, 296
Topic, identification of 295
Translation, phases of 326b
Translational education research 323, 325f, 333
Translational research 333, 334
Transparency and accountability, principle of 195
T-test 241, 244, 247
one-sample 241f
types of 242
Typical manuscript-based thesis 288
components of 289b
U
Univariate analysis 213, 229
V
Voluntariness, principle of 194
Vulnerable participants, examples of 194
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