IAP Recent Advances in Pediatrics P Ramachandran, Alok Gupta, Piyush Gupta, PSN Menon
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abatacept 299, 325, 334
Abdomen 474
ultrasonography of 466
Abdominal catastrophe 47
Abdominal distension 218
massive 465
Abdominal mass 464
palpable 464
Abdominal pain 464
Acanthosis 284
Accredited social
health activists 494
work activists 495
Acetaminophen 290
Acid base homeostasis, mechanisms of 250f
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 44
Acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome 146
Adalimumab 325, 327
Adenoma 318
secretory 318
Adenosine 176, 178
deaminase 290, 350
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy 364
Adenotonsillectomy 367, 371
Adenovirus 47
Adequate nutrition 384
Adrenal adenoma 318
Adrenal insufficiency 3, 197, 278
Agalsidase alpha 351
Agalsidase beta 351
Aggressive behavior 29
Airway 90
clearance therapy 201
colonization 200
management 428
Alanine aminotransferase 208, 231, 325
Aldosterone 318
Alemtuzumab 299
Alglucosidase alpha 351
Alkaline phosphatase 319
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 194, 205
Alphacoronavirus 41
Alpha-fetoprotein 307310
Alphaviruses 103
Amino acid formula 220, 223
Aminoaciduria 245, 259
Aminocaproic acid 206
Amiodarone 178
Amphotericin B
colloidal dispersion 59, 73
deoxycholate 56, 59, 73, 74
dosing of 75t
lipid
complex 76
formulations of 74
preparations 74
Anakinra 332
adverse effects of 332
Anaphylactic reactions 29
Anaphylaxis 217, 223
Androgens 318
Anemia 291
pernicious 278
Anganwadi workers 494, 495
Angelman syndrome 344
Angioedema 223
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 101, 147
Anidulafungin 59
Anorexia 45
Anti-B cell antibody 333
Antibiotic choices 91
Antibiotic therapy 203
Antibody
neutralizing 108
test 48
Anticardiolipin antibody 327
Antiepileptic drug 450
Antifungal
agents 59
susceptibility 60t
therapy, history of 56
Antigen presenting cell 44, 334
Antihuman trafficking units 490
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody 147, 325, 333
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis 142, 144b
Antinuclear antibody 147, 290, 301, 327
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome 290, 300, 325, 333
Anti-rheumatic drugs, disease-modifying 324
Antisense oligonucleotides 355, 357
Antistreptolysin-O 147
Antithymocyte globulin 296
Anti-thyroid peroxidase 277
Anti-TNF therapy 328
Antituberculous therapy 329, 330
Antiviral agents 50
Aortic aneurysm dissection 29
Apnea
central 369
mixed 369
Appendiceal mucocele 463
Appendicitis 47
acute 468
Apremilast 337
Arginine vasopressin 257f
Arrhythmia 29, 49, 177, 179
Arterial blood pressure 450
Arthritis 93
enthesitis-related 325
Ascitic fluid 307
Asfotase alpha 351
Aspartate aminotransferase 70, 208, 232, 325
Aspartate transaminase 295
Aspergillosis 58
Aspergillus fumigatus 205
Asphyxia 3
AstraZeneca vaccine 107, 108t
Ataxia 252
telangiectasia 309, 310
Atopic dermatitis 197
Atopy, severe 218
Atrial flutter 172, 177
Atrial tachycardia 177
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 26, 29, 400
Auditory brainstem responses 423
Auditory hazards 417
Autism spectrum disorders 346
Autoantibody, absence of 284
Autoimmune
cerebellar syndrome 141
diseases 290
encephalitis 138, 139, 140b, 141t, 142t, 147, 147f, 152f, 154, 155, 157
hepatitis 290
limbic encephalitis 144
lymphoproliferative syndrome 290, 291, 300
panel 455b
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia 289, 290, 292, 295, 295fc, 297, 297fc, 298, 305
classification of 289t
mixed 305
secondary 296
Automatic arrhythmias 177
Autonomic dysfunction 144
Autosomal dominant 344
Autosomal recessive 344
multisystem disorder 190
Auxiliary nurse midwives 494
Azathioprine 299, 337
Azithromycin therapy, long-term 204
Azole 62
drugs
dosing of 66t
properties of 64t
B
Baby-friendly hospital initiative 501
Bacterial colonization, eradication therapies for 204
Bacterial infections 146
Bacterial meningitis 88t
Baricitinib 336
Barium contrast enema 466
Bartter and Gitelman syndromes, treatment of 255
Bartter syndrome 254f, 255, 260
Basal bolus regimen 268
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome 344
Behavior audiometry evaluation 423
Behavioral change theories 401
Behçet's disease 337
Behçet's syndrome 332
Belimumab 334
Benzodiazepines 156, 444, 447
Betacoronavirus 41
Beta-D-glucan 57, 58
Beta-thalassemia 344
Bicarbonate 243
Bicarbonaturia 245
Bickerstaff encephalitis 141
Biliary obstruction 309
Biosimilars 337
Biotinidase levels 164
Birth asphyxia, severe 14
Bladder tumor 29
Blood 307
cultures 87
gas analysis 7
glucose 270, 271
control, targets of 275t
premeal 270b
self-monitoring of 269, 272, 275
in stools 464
investigations 465
pressure 2, 5, 5t, 9, 11
normal 247
tests 150
transfusion 298
Blood-brain barrier 81
Bloody mucus per rectum, passage of 464
Body mass index 25, 230, 236
Body surface area 428
Bonded labor 489
Bonded Labor System Act 492
Bone
alkaline phosphatase 317
mineralization, defective 27
tumor 316
angiogenesis markers 317
Bradycardia 173f
Brain 2
deep 456
development 393
injury, traumatic 446
magnetic resonance imaging of 145, 164
malformation, congenital 446
positron emission tomography 150
tissue staining 148
tumors 29
Brainstem
auditory evoked response 423
encephalitis 141
Breathing 90
exercises 202
Bronchoalveolar lavage 47, 58, 59
Brugada syndrome 183, 184f, 185
Bruises 480
Bull's eye sign 466
Burkholderia cepacia 195
Burn 428, 430, 438, 481
chemical 430
electrical 430
hypermetabolic phase after 439
injuries, types of 430
management of 428
patient, care of 434
specific pain anxiety scale monitors pain 436
surface area calculation 429f
transfusion in 438
wound
assessment 435
care, advances in 435
C
Calcipenic rickets 258
Calcium 243, 450
Canakinumab 333
Candida cystitis 76
Candidiasis 58
Cannabinoids 457
Capillary refill time 2, 11
delayed 5
Carbohydrate
antigen 308, 312
higher consumption of 26
Carbon dioxide monitoring 368
Carcinoembryonic antigen 308, 317
Carcinoid syndrome, symptoms of 316
Carcinoid tumors 316, 318
Carcinoma 318
Cardiac arrhythmias 169, 181f
common 171, 177t
Cardiac output 8
Cardiac resynchronization therapy 181
Cardiac systolic functions, assessment of 8
Cardiology 169
Cardiometabolic biomarkers 29
abnormal 25
Cardiomyopathy 29
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 446
Cardiovascular disorders 419, 420
Cardiovascular dysfunction 6
Caspofungin 59, 72
Castleman disease 300
Catecholamine
catabolism 314f
role of 313, 315
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 183, 185
Catechol-o-methyl transferase 314
Celiac disease 218, 277, 463
Central nervous system 70, 71, 83, 146, 351
infections 86, 443, 446
manifestations 27
Central venous
access 9
pressure 8, 9, 90, 450
Cephalosporins 290
Cerebellitis 141
Cerebral edema 29
Cerebral vasospasm 29
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 110
Cerebrospinal fluid 7, 10, 58, 65, 79, 88, 88f, 93, 140, 144, 145, 147, 164, 307, 455
analysis 148
Cerliponase alpha 351
Certolizumab pegol 328
Chaperone therapy 358
Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassays 48
Chemoprophylaxis 94
Chest
hyperinflation 193
physiotherapy 202
Child abuse 479
Child and Adolescent Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 492
Child labor
and exploitation 488
consequences of 491
prevention of 491
rehabilitation of 492
Child neglect 477, 478
Child Protection Committees 494
Child protection mechanisms 493
Child rights 477
Child sex workers 489
Child sexual abuse 482, 485b
diagnosis of 483
management of 482
prevention of 486
Child trafficking 490
Chloride 243
channel, calcium-dependent 191
Chlorpromazine 314
Chocolate agar culture plates 87f
Cholesterol ester storage disease 230
Choriocarcinoma 307, 312
Chromaffin tumors 315
Chromosomal breakage 29
Chromosomal disorders 343
Chromosomal microarray 345, 346, 347f
Ciprofloxacin 95, 203
Cirrhosis 309
Citrin deficiency 230
Citrullinemia 309
Claw sign 467
appearance 467f
Clotrimazole 62
Coagulation disorders 93
Coagulopathy 45
Coccidioides immitis 63
Cognitive impairment 419, 420
Coiled spring sign 467
Cold agglutinin disease 301
Cold agglutinin syndrome 301, 302, 302f
pathophysiology of 302
treatment of 303
Colitis 309
Combination therapy 153
Common tubular disorders, causes of 246
Communication 35
Comparative genomic hybridization 345, 345f, 346
Complete blood count 7, 48, 89, 290, 297, 302, 325, 450
Congestive cardiac failure 291
Conn syndrome 318
Consciousness, altered 218
Continuous glucose monitoring system 269, 272, 276, 285
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion 271
Coombs test 296b
direct 289, 294, 295
false positive direct 295
Coronary thrombosis, acute 29
Coronary vasospasm 29
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) 40, 41, 45, 46fc, 52, 52fc, 101, 104, 105, 111, 118, 118t, 119t, 331
epidemic 53
infection 44, 49, 111, 121
phases of 43f
pandemic 40, 332, 396, 405
pathogenesis of 43
pneumonia 48, 49, 50, 53
prevention of 107
signs of 46
structure of 42f
symptoms of 46
types of 40f
vaccine 102, 103, 106, 120, 121, 126
effectiveness of 127
equitable distribution of 120
inactivated 106
prioritization of 121
rapid development of 102
second-generation 129
Cortical dysplasia 145
Cortisol 318
Costimulatory pathway, inhibition of 334
Cotrimoxazole 203
Cough, chronic 193
Covaxin 106
Cow's milk 219
protein allergy 215, 216, 218, 218b, 219t, 221fc, 223, 226
diagnosis of 215
related symptom score 219
C-reactive protein 48, 52, 89
Creatine kinase-muscle brain 10
Creatinine phosphokinase 451
Crepitations 193
Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 492
Critical care 428, 442
pain observation tool 436
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome 332
Cryptococcal meningitis 76
Cryptococcosis 58
Cryptococcus neoformans 62
Curreri junior formula 437, 438t
Cushing's syndrome 318
Cutaneous microflora 500
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 337
Cyclophosphamide 155, 299
Cyclosporin 299
Cystic fibrosis 190, 193t, 194, 194t, 196fc, 344, 463
diagnosis of 196
newborn screening 198
nutritional management of 206
Cysts, duplication 463
Cytomegalovirus 47, 146, 290, 300
D
Daily sleep duration 398
Deafness 193
Dehydration 193, 208
Dehydroepiandrosterone 233
Delinquency 29
Delta variant 125
Deltacoronavirus 41
Demyelinating diseases 141
Dendritic cells 43, 44
Dengue 46, 86
fever 46
Dent disease 245, 246, 252, 260
Dental erosions 27, 29
Deoxyribonucleic acid 344, 345
antibodies 290
Depression 29
Dermatology 499
Dermatophytes 57
Dermis 499
Dexamethasone 255
Diabetes
center, monitoring at 276
Control and Complications Trial 265
education 282
insipidus 91, 258f
Diabetes mellitus 264, 266f, 284
clinical features of 264
cystic fibrosis related 208
diagnosis of 265, 265b
management of 264, 265
neonatal 284
type 1 264, 285
Diabetic ketoacidosis 47, 264, 269
Diaper care 503
Diarrhea 45, 464
persistent 218
watery 318
Diastolic functions, assessment of 8
Differential lymphocyte count 48
Digoxin 178
Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid 314
Disasters, neglect during 479
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 16
Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome 195, 205
Dobutamine 13
Donath Landsteiner antibody 304
Dopamine 13, 313
Doughnut sign 466
Down syndrome 231
Drowning 446
Drug interactions 72
Drug therapy 185
Dry powder inhalation 202
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 314, 344, 356
Dysgerminoma 312
Dyslipidemia 29
E
Early learning
opportunities for 385
promote 389
Early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome 46
Eating disorders 400
Echinocandins 62, 72
Echocardiography 49
Eczema 218
Elafibranor 238
Eleclazine 186
Electroconvulsive therapy 457
Electroencephalogram 144, 147, 150, 161, 165, 368
Electrolyte imbalances 446
Electromyogram 368
Electroretinogram 166
Elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, causes of 312t
Elevated urine catecholamine metabolites, causes of 314b
Elexacaftor 209
Embryonal carcinoma 312
Emollients, classification of 505b
Empyema 193
Encephalitis 446
causes of 138
Encephalomyelitis, acute disseminated 156
Encephalopathy, acute necrotizing 146
Endocarditis, infective 86
Endocrinology 264
Endothelial damage 93
Enema, delayed repeat 468, 471
Energy drinks 29
banning of 32
harmful effects of 26
reduce consumption of 31
Energy-dense low-nutrient density foods 20
Enteric fever 47
Enterocolitis syndrome, food protein-induced 216218
Enteroviruses 8, 47
Environment protection agency 417
Environmental noise pollution 425
health hazards of 416, 416t
Enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, lack of 313
Enzyme replacement therapy 350, 351, 351t
principle of 350
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 48, 109, 148, 290, 294
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal syndromes 218
Epilepsy 141, 252, 442, 445
surgery 457
syndrome 161
febrile infection-related 454
Epileptic spasms 161, 163, 166
Epinephrine 13, 15
Epithelial autografts, cultured 436
Epithelial sodium channels 191
Epstein-Barr virus 47, 146, 290, 300, 302
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 48, 93, 327
Erythromycin 290
Escherichia coli 88
Estrogens 318
Etanercept 325, 326
Eteplirsen, mechanism of action of 356f
Etripamil 176
European Medicines Agency 354
Evans syndrome 290, 299, 300b
treatment of 301
Exome sequencing 348
Extensively hydrolyzed formula 220, 222
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 11, 15, 49
Eye
congestion 47
problems 401
F
Fabry disease 351
Failure to thrive 193, 217, 218
Falling sickness 442
Familial polyposis 463
Family planning 491
Family welfare 491
Fanconi anemia 309, 311
Fanconi syndrome 243
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome 252
Fast food 19
in schools, regulation on consumption of 28
Fatigue 291
Fats, higher consumption of 26
Fatty liver indicator, ultrasonography 236
Feminization 318
Fetomaternal bleed 3
Fever 46, 47
Fibrinogen 48
Fibroblast growth factor 260
Fibrosis score 234
Flecainide 178
Flowcytometry 148
Fluconazole 59, 62, 63, 64, 66, 71
Flucytosine 59, 62, 76
Fluid management 431
Fluid resuscitation 14, 90
Fluorescence in situ hybridization 343
Fluoroquinolone 203
Food 314
additive sensitivity 215
allergy 215
aversion 215
intolerance 215
labeling 23, 30
processing 21
ultra-processed 19
Food Safety and Standards Authority 21
Forensic evidence, collection of 484
Fractures 481
Fragile X syndrome 344
Fresh frozen plasma 15, 93
Frontline healthcare workers 121
Fungal infections 146
invasive 56
Fungi, classification of 57f
G
Galactomannan 59
Galactorrhea 318
Galactosemia 252
Galsulfase 351
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 443
receptors 444f
Gammacoronavirus 41
Gamma-glutamyl transferase 208, 236
Gangrene 93
Gastrin 318
Gastrinoma 318
Gastroenteritis 468
Gastroenterology 215
Gastrointestinal complications, management of 207
Gastrointestinal effects 83
Gastrointestinal losses 12
Gastrointestinal symptoms 45
Gastrointestinal tract 215
Gaucher disease 344, 351
Gene therapy 352
strategies 352fc
Genetic disorders
diagnosis of 343
treatment of 343
Genetic metabolic encephalopathies 146
Genome sequencing 348
Genotoxicity 29
Germ cell tumors 307, 310312
malignant 310
non-seminomatous 309
Germinoma, pure 312
Germline gene therapy 352
Gestational trophoblastic disease 312
Giant-cell hepatitis 300
Gibson and Cooke method 197
Giemsa stain 293f, 302f
Gigantism 318
Gitelman syndrome 254f
Glasgow coma scale 90
Glasgow meningococcal septicemia prognostic score 93, 94b
Glioma 145
Glucagon 318
Glucagonoma 318
Glucocorticoid 337
responsive circulatory collapse 14
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 292
Glucosuria 245
Glutamate 443
Glutamic acid decarboxylase 138, 141
antibody 147
Glycemic control 439
monitoring of 274
Glycemic index 279
Glycine receptor 141
Glycogen storage disorder 197
Glycogenosis, hepatic forms of 230
Glycosylated hemoglobin 52, 265, 275
Glycosylation, congenital disorders of 230
Golimumab 328
Gram stain 88
Granulosa cell tumor 318
Graves’ disease 278
Growth 376
factor, insulin-like 317
failure 252
hormone 318, 438, 439
Guselkumab 335
H
H1N1 120
Haemophilus influenzae 88, 195
Haemorrhage 162
Hallucinations 29
Hayfork sign 466
Headache 29
Health care
infrastructure 494
professionals 484
Hearing
organs of 412, 412f
protectors, use of 424
surveillance 425
Hearing loss 29, 414, 415
classification of 415, 415b
diagnosis of noise-induced 423
etiology of 415
hidden 417
noise-induced 411, 415, 417, 423
treatment of noise-induced 423
types of 415
Heart 2
block, complete 173, 173f, 177
disease, congenital 10, 11, 179
electrical activity of 183
Heart rate 13
abnormalities 4
calculation of 170
Helicobacter pylori 300
Hemangioma 463
infantile 309
Hematology, pediatric 289
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant 299, 306
Hemodynamic monitoring, signs of 6
Hemodynamic status 428
Hemoglobinemia 292
Hemoglobinuria 292
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome 463
Hemophagocytic histiocytosis 146
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 336
Hemophilia 463
Hemosiderinuria 292
Henoch-Schönlein purpura 463
Hepatic steatosis 231
Hepatic tumors 309, 312
Hepatitis
acute 309
C 290
virus 300
chronic 309
Hepatoblastoma 309, 318
Hepatocellular carcinoma 309
Hepatocellular malignant neoplasm 309
Hepatology 230
Hepatoma 318
Hereditary fructose intolerance 230
Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 197
Hereditary spherocytosis 292
Hereditary tyrosinemia 310
Herpes simplex
encephalitis 141, 157
virus 8, 139, 146
Herpes viruses 103
Heterozygosity, loss of 346
Histocompatibility complex, major 334
Holter evaluation 174
Homovanillic acid 313
Hormonal tumor 318
markers 318t
Hormone 308, 317
adrenocorticotropic 13, 165
antidiuretic 255
artificial pancreas, dual 274
follicle stimulating 311
high parathyroid 259
intramuscular adrenocorticotropic 164
luteinizing 311
parathyroid 259f, 318
serum thyroid stimulating 232
thyroid 317
thyroid-stimulating 277, 311
Human chorionic gonadotropin 311
beta fraction of 307, 311
Human coronaviruses 43
Human embryonic kidney 148
Human herpes virus 146
Human immunodeficiency virus 86, 146, 231, 290, 291, 300
infection 353
Human papillomavirus vaccine 338
Hutchinson maneuver, modified 472
Hybrid-closed loop pump 273
Hydrocortisone 16
Hydrolyzed formula 224
partially 224
Hydrostatic enema reduction 470
Hydrostatic reduction 468
Hydroxyindolacetic acid 316
Hyperactivity 29
Hyperaldosteronism 255
Hypercalciuria 248, 252
chronic 255
Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis 244246
Hyperekplexia 163
Hyperglycemia 318
history of 284
Hyperkalemia 245, 248
Hypermetabolism 438
Hypernatremia 91
Hyperparathyroidism 260
Hypersensitivity 29
reaction 274
Hypertension 25, 29, 144, 247, 248, 318
monogenic disorders of 253
Hyperthermia 144
Hyperthyroidism 260, 318
Hypertonic saline 201
Hypoallergenic formula 224
Hypocalcemia 91
severe 259
Hypoglycemia 7, 280, 281, 284, 318, 446
management of 280fc
severe 281
Hypokalemia 91, 244246, 252, 318
chronic 255
Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis 247
Hypomagnesemia 91, 248, 255, 260
Hyponatremia 91, 248, 446
Hypophosphatasia 351
Hypophosphatemia 91
Hypophosphatemic rickets 259
Hypopnea 368, 369
Hypotension 2, 4, 6, 16, 29, 218, 446
catecholamine-resistant 15
Hypothalamic diseases 231
Hypothermia 218, 456
Hypothyroidism 197, 231
Hypoventilation, sleep-related 369
Hypovolemia 3, 83
Hypoxia 45, 49, 54, 446
Hypoxic ischemic
encephalopathy 162
insult, acute 446
Hypsarrhythmia 164
I
Ibuprofen 290
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 463
Idursulfase
alpha 351
beta 351
Imidazoles 62
Imiglucerase 351
Immune
deficiency 218
hemolytic anemia, drug-induced 296
mediated disorders 146
responses, cell-mediated 105
Immunizations 101
Immunodeficiency
common variable 290, 300
disorders 290, 300
severe combined 300
Immunoglobulin
G 289
intravenous 52, 59, 93, 153, 296, 298, 299
M 289
profile 290
Immunohistochemistry 86
Immunomodulation 50
Immunoreactive trypsinogen 198
Immunotherapy 455b
Implantable cardiac devices 181
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators 181
Incontinentia pigmenti 344
Indigenous sweat collection system 197f
Infantile spams
diagnosis of 163
etiology of 163
pathogenesis of 161
Infection, chronic 296
Infectious bronchitis virus 40
Infectious diseases 40, 56, 79
Inflammatory disorders 146
Inflammatory inhaled nasal steroids 372
Infliximab 325, 327
Influenza vaccination 338
Inhalational injury 431
Inherited arrhythmias 183, 185
Inherited disorders 446
Insulin 318
adverse effects of 274
carbohydrate ratio 270b
conventional 267
delivery, modes of 271
dosing 269
edema 274
inhaled 284
injection technique 269
neuritis 274
newer 267
pump 271273
advantages of 273
set 271f
regimen 268
requirement, low 284
sensitivity factor 270b
therapy 266
principles of 268
types of 267t
Insulinoma 318
Integrated Child Development Services 391, 494
Integrated Child Protection Scheme 494
Intellectual disability 346
Intensive care units 50, 54, 122
Interferon gamma release assay 328, 329
Interferon genes, stimulators of 336
Interleukin inhibitors 331, 330, 335
International League Against Epilepsy Task Force 444
International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes 278
Intestinal polyps 463
Intoxication 446
Intracranial tension 29
raised 83, 92
Intussusception 460, 460f, 473f, 475
pathophysiology of 462f
transanal protrusion of 465f, 468
Invasive meningococcal disease 79, 85, 86
prevention of 94
prognosis of 93
Iron overload 292
Irritability 29
Isavuconazole 59, 62, 63, 65, 70, 72
Isosexual precocity 318
Isseminated intravascular coagulation 93
Itraconazole 59, 6264, 67, 71
Ivabradine 177
Ivacaftor 209
Ixekizumab 335
J
Janus kinase 52
signal transduction 335
Jaundice 291, 292
Junctional ectopic tachycardia, congenital 177
Junk food 19, 20
harmful effects of 25
reduce consumption of 28
Juvenile dermatomyositis 325, 331, 333
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 290, 325
pathogenesis of 324
systemic-onset 330
Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act 492
K
Kawasaki disease 46, 122, 325
Ketamine 437, 453
Ketoconazole 62
Ketogenic diet 454
Ketone testing 276
Klinefelter syndrome 284
L
Lacosamide 455
Lactate dehydrogenase 292, 297, 308, 317
Lactose intolerance 215, 218, 219t
Langerhans cells 499
Language dysfunction 143
Laparoscopy 473
Laparotomy 472
Laronidase 351
Latex agglutination test 87
Law on Child Sexual Abuse 487
L-dopa 314
Leber congenital amaurosis 353
Left atrial pressure 9
Lens culinaris hemagglutinin 308
Leptospirosis 46, 47, 86
Lethargy 218, 464
Leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 141
Leukemia 300, 463
acute 290
Leukodystrophy 148
Leukoencephalopathy, acute 146
Leukomalacia, periventricular 162
Levofloxacin 203
Levosimendan 13
Leydig cell tumor 318
Liddle syndrome 254, 255
Limb
ischemia 93
thick ascending 244
Limbic encephalitis 141
Lipid complex amphotericin B 59
Lipodystrophy 274
Lipoma 463
Lipo-oligosaccharide 82
Lipoprotein cholesterol
high-density 25, 29
low-density 25, 29
Liposomal amphotericin 59, 76
Liquid chromatography, high-performance 313
Live attenuated vaccines 103
Liver
biopsy 234
damage, drug-induced 309
disease 296
cystic fibrosis related 207
disorders, benign 309
fibrosis, enhanced 232, 236
function test 236, 327, 450
Loop of Henle 253f
Low birth weight 378, 379
extremely 3, 11
Low molecular weight
heparin 43
proteinuria 245
Lowe syndrome 243, 252
Lumacaftor 209
Lumbar puncture 87
Lund-Browder chart 429t
Lung injury, transfusion-associated acute 438
Lyme disease 86
Lymphangioma 463
Lymphocyte subset analysis 290
Lymphoma 29, 300, 463
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency 351
Lysosomal storage disorders 349, 350
M
Macrophage activation syndrome 332
Macrovascular disease 278
Magnesium 243, 450
fractional excretion of 262
Magnetic stimulation therapy 456
Maintenance therapy 155
Malabsorption 193
Malformations 162
Malnutrition 197
severe 193
Marfan syndrome 344
Mass palpable per rectum 465
Maternal mental health, support 389
Matrix metalloproteinases 332
Maturity-onset diabetes of young 284
Mean arterial pressure 5, 11
Mean corpuscular volume 302
Measles virus 103
Mechanical ventilation 49
Meckel's diverticulum 463
Meconium ileus 193, 207
equivalent 193, 207
Medical nutrition therapy 278
Medical therapy 372
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency 110
Medicolegal case 483
Medullary nephrocalcinosis 252
Medullary thyroid carcinoma 318
Melanocytes 499
Meningitis 84, 446
belt 80
Meningococcal
disease 79, 80, 95t
meningitis 84, 86
septicemia 84, 86
Meningococcemia 84, 85f
Mental health support 485
Mercuric nitrate 197f
Mesenchymal hamartoma 309
Metabolic abnormality 208
correction of 91
Metabolic acidosis 91
Metabolic alkalosis 195, 252, 254fc
Metabolic disease 230, 446
Metabolic disorders 148
Metabolic effects 25
Metabolism, inborn error of 349, 446
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 141
Metadrenaline, free 316
Metalloproteinase, tissue inhibitor of 234
Metered dose inhaler 201
Methotrexate 337
Methylprednisolone 299
Mexiletine 185
Micafungin 59, 73
Miconazole 62
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia 292
Microneutralization test 123
Microsporum 57
Microvascular injury 82
Midazolam 451
Middle east respiratory syndrome 40
Milrinone 13
Minimal nutritional value, foods of 20
Mitochondrial inheritance 344
Mixed venous oxygen saturation 8
Modern slavery 489
Molnupiravir 53
Monoamine oxidase 314
Monoclonal antibodies 51
Monogenic disorders 343, 347, 354t
Motor neuron, survival of 356
Movement disorder 141, 143
Mucopolysaccharidosis 197, 350, 351
Mucormycosis 58
Multifactorial disorders 343
Multifocal leukoencephalopathy, progressive 325
Multiple daily injections 268
Multiple food allergies 218
Multiple sclerosis 325
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome 46, 52, 332
Muscle activity increase 446
Mutation analysis 197
Mycophenolate mofetil 299
Mycoplasma
pneumonia 290, 300, 302
infection 303
serology 290
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 141, 147
antibody 147
Myelodysplasia 300
Myelodysplastic syndrome 290
Myeloid leukemia, chronic 290
Myoclonic epilepsy, progressive 446
Myopericarditis 113
Myotonic dystrophy 344
N
Nasal oxygen, high-flow 49
Nasal polyposis 193
Nasal potential difference 196, 198
Nasal swabs 47
Nasogastric suction 472
Nasogastric tube 207
National Centre for Disease Control 96
National Charter for Children 477
National Early Childhood Care and Education 391
National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program 265
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 415
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 90, 501
National Institute of Health 21, 102
National Nutrition Policy 391
National Plan of Action for Children 391
National Policy for Children 477
National Policy for Education 391
National Regulatory Agencies 106
National Regulatory Authority 106
Nausea 45
Near infrared spectroscopy 8
Neisseria meningitides, colonies of 87f
Neisseria meningitidis 79
Neonatal intensive care units 1
Neonatal Resuscitation Program 11
Neonatal skin condition score 505, 506b
Neonatology 1
Neoplasm 148
Neoplastic disorders 146
Neoplastic tissue, proteins produced by 308
Nephritis 290
Nephrocalcinosis 248, 260
evaluation for 261b
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 257f
Nephrolithiasis 248, 260
evaluation for 261b
Nephrology 243
Nephronophthisis 255
Nephropathy 278
Neuroblastoma 307, 313, 318
Neurofibromatosis 344
Neurogenic tumors 316
Neurologic signs 6
Neurology 138, 161
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders 147
Neuron-specific enolase 313, 315
Neuropathy 278
Neuroplasticity 376
Neuropsychiatric symptoms 141
Neurosecretory proteins 315
Neutropenia 331
Neutrophil ratio 7
Newborn, massage of 502
Next generation sequencing 348
Nirmatrelvir 51
Nitric oxide, inhaled 13
N-methyl-d-aspartate 444
receptor 138, 141, 144
antibodies 147
Noise 414
annoyance 419
harmful effects of 424
monitoring 424
pollution 421
areas of 416
sensitivity 419
sources of 416
Nonaccidental injuries 480
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 230, 236
clinical diagnosis of 231
diagnosis of 231
metabolic signature of 233
microbiome signature of 233
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis 230, 231
Non-auditory hazards 418
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 290
Noninvasive management 373
Noninvasive ventilation 49
Nonrespiratory therapy 206
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 437
Noradrenaline 13
Norepinephrine 313
Normetadrenaline, free 316
Nucleic acid
amplification testing 47, 53, 108
vaccines 104
Nucleocapsid protein 124
Numerous gastrointestinal pathogens 461
Nurturing care framework 381, 393
Nusinersen, mechanism of action of 356f
Nutrient profiling 23
Nutrition 19, 437
O
Obesity 29, 284, 400
Obeticholic acid 238
Obstructed sleep disordered breathing, spectrum of 363f
Obstructive apnea 369
hypopnea index 369
score 370t
Obstructive sleep apnea 361, 364
Ofloxacin 203
Oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 138
Oliguria 83
Omicron variant 51, 126
emergence of 51
Omphalitis 504
Oncology 307
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome 141
Oral food challenge 220, 222
test 215
Oral glucose tolerance test 209, 265
Oral rehydrating solution 208, 432
Oropharyngeal swab 47
Osteoporosis 29
Otoacoustic emissions 423
Otorhinolaryngology 361
Ovarian teratoma 150
Oximetry score 367
Oxygen 49
saturations 367
P
Packed cell volume 11
Pain 464
management 436
relief, paracetamol for 430
Pancreas, artificial 273
Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy 206
Pancreatitis 47
Pandemic speed vaccines 102
Paracetamol 314, 437
Paraganglioma 315
Parathyroid hyperplasia 318
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria 292, 295, 304
treatment of 304
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia 172, 176178
Partial thromboplastin time 48
Parvovirus B19 290, 300
Patent ductus arteriosus 2, 3, 14
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns 104
Pediatric arrhythmias, pharmacologic therapy of 176
Pediatric autoimmune
encephalitis 146t
neuropsychiatric disorders 146
Pediatric cardiac arrhythmias, diagnosis of 169
Pediatric emergency departments 169
Pediatric intensive care unit 430, 434, 434t, 450
Pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome 46
Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
fibrosis index 234, 236
histological score 235
Pediatric surgery 460
Penicillins 290
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury 446
Personal audio device 415, 418
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome 463
Peyer's patches 462
pH 243
Phenobarbitone, high-dose 453
Pheochromocytoma 315, 318
Phosphate 243
Phosphaturia 245
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors 337
Phosphorus 450
Physical violence 479
Physician's responsibility 485
Piperacillin 290
Plaque reduction neutralization test 123, 123t
Plasma
catecholamines 313
exchange 153
glucose 265
Plasmapheresis 153
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 83, 238
Pneumatic enema reduction 469
Pneumatic reduction 468
Pneumococcal vaccination 338
Pneumocystis jirovecii 57
infection 155
Pneumonia 44, 45
persistent 193
Pneumoperitoneum 465
Pneumothorax 193, 206
Poisoning 446
Polyamines, free 317
Polychromatic cells 293f
Polyenes 62, 73
Polymerase chain reaction 57, 58
tests 8
Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 185f
Polysomnogram 365
Polysomnography 365
Polysymptomatic encephalopathy 141
Polyuria 248, 255, 256
Pompe disease 350, 351
Posaconazole 59, 62, 63, 65, 69, 71
Positive airway pressure 370
therapy 372
Positive expiratory pressure 202
devices 202
Post-infectious encephalopathy 146
Poststatus epilepticus 145
Post-stem cell transplantation 300
Post-traumatic stress disorder 485
Potassium 243
Poxviruses 103
Prader-Willi syndrome 344, 362
Prandial insulin 270b
Precocious puberty 318
Prednisolone 299
Propofol 451
Propranolol 178
Prostaglandin 11
E1 11
Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 484, 487
Prothrombin time 48, 450
Prothromboplastin time, active 50
Proton
density fat fraction 235
pump inhibitors 65
secretion of 243
Proximal tubule 244
Pseudo-kidney 466
sign 467f
Pseudomonas 191, 203
aeruginosa 195, 204
infection 203
Psoriatic arthritis 325
Psychiatric disorders 146
Psychiatric disturbances 27
Psychological behaviour, abnormal 26
Psychological disorders 29, 401
Psychosocial aspects 283
Public education 424
Pulmonary complications 205
Pulmonary effects 83
Pulmonary exacerbations
management of 202
prevention of 204
Pulmonary hypertension, persistent 13, 14
Pulmonary involvement 45
Pulmonology 190
Pulse oximetry 366
Purpura fulminans 85f
Q
QRS complex 170
QT prolongation 29
QT syndrome, long 185
Quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction 345
R
Radiofrequency ablation 179
Radioimmunoassay 148
Rag picking 489
Randomized control trial 50
Rapid antigen test 47, 53
Rapid maxillary expansion 371
Rash 46
Rashtriya Bal Surakhsha Karyakram 392
Reactions, systemic 218
Receptor-binding domain 101
Rectal prolapse 193, 468
Red blood cell 289
Red currant jelly stool 462
Red flag signs 218b
Refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia 298
Refractory rickets 258
Relapses 156
Remdesivir 53
Renal carcinoma 318
Renal diseases 255
Renal disorders 296
Renal dysplasia 255
Renal impairment 83
Renal signs 6
Renal tubular
acidosis 244, 250f, 251, 259f
disorders 243
Respiratory effort-related arousal 369
Respiratory inductance plethysmography 368
Respiratory management 201
Respiratory signs 6
Responsive caregiving 386, 389
Resuscitation, endpoints of 432
Reticulocytopenia 295
Reticulocytosis 304
Retinopathy 278
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction 47, 52, 53
Rhesus 289
Rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine 461
Rheumatic disorders, pediatric 324, 325t
Rheumatoid arthritis 300
Rheumatological disorders 300
Rheumatology 324
Rhinosinusitis 362
Ribonucleic acid 355
aptamers 355
messenger 356, 357
small interfering 355
therapeutics 355
vaccines 104
Rice-based feeds 224
Rickettsiosis 86
Right iliac fossa, emptiness of 464
Right to Education Act 480
Rilonacept 333
Ringer's lactate 90
Risdiplam 358
Ritonavir 51
Rituximab 154, 155, 299, 303, 325, 333
Rotavirus 461
Rubella 290
Rule of Nines 429
Russell-Silver syndrome 344
Ruxolitinib 336
S
Salicylate 215
Salt craving 193
Salty taste 193
Sawtooth appearance 173f
Scalp, care of 504
Scarlet fever 46
Scleroderma 331
Sclerosing cholangitis, primary 290
Sclerosing panencephalitis, subacute 150
Scrub typhus 46
Sebelipase alpha 351
Secukinumab 335
Seizures 29, 92, 143, 155
Selonsertib 238
Seminoma 312
Sensor augmented pump 273
Sensorineural deafness 252
Sensorineural hearing loss 417
Sensorium, altered 29
Septicemia 84
Sertoli cell tumor 318
Sertoli-Leydig cell 318
tumors 309
Serum
and urinary catecholamines 307
creatine phosphokinase 232
sodium 243
uric acid 232
Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome 40, 101
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus
infection 40, 45
structure 42f
vaccine 101, 112
variants 125f
Sexual abuse 483
Sexually transmitted disease 484
Shields technique 469
Shigella dysentery 218
Shock 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 47, 84, 89
compensated 9
in transitional circulation 12
neonatal 1, 9t, 10t
pathophysiology of neonatal 3t
septic 3, 6, 14, 47
septicemia with 86
septicemia without 83
time sensitive management of 11fc
types of 10
Shunts, intracardiac 3
Sick day management
education 283
guidelines 283b
Sigmoidoscopy 220
Signe-de-dance sign 464
Single nucleotide polymorphism 345, 346
chromosomal microarray 346f
Sinus
bradycardia 173
rhythm 171
Sinusitis, recurrent 193
Sirolimus 299
Skin
care 499, 506
neonatal 501
cleansing, neonatal 502
composition 500
function 500
prick test 219
rashes 193
structure 500
Sleep 400
disordered breathing 361
disturbance 143
and insomnia 419
endoscopy, drug-induced 370
pattern, disturbed 29
Small bowel intussusceptions 465
Small molecule therapy 358
Snorers, primary 363
Social cognitive theory 401
Sodium
and chloride ions, absorption of 253f
bicarbonate cotransporter 250
channels, voltage-gated 455
Somatic gene therapy 352
Sotalol 178
Sotrovimab 51
Sound 411
assessment of 411
frequencies 413
Soy protein formula 224
Spasms, infantile 161, 162, 166
Spirometry 200
Splenectomy 299
Split mix regimen 268
Sporothrix schenckii 74
Sputnik light 114
Staphylococcus 191
aureus 195, 205
Status epilepticus 141, 445, 450, 457
febrile infection-related 146
generalized 442
management of 442
nonconvulsive 443, 451
refractory 143, 442, 445, 450, 454
super-refractory 445, 450
Steatohepatitis 231
Stem cell transplant 58
Steroids 15, 49, 92, 153, 469
inhaled 202
Stratum corneum 499
Street children 489
Streptococcal infections 146
Streptococcus pneumoniae 88
Streptomyces nodosus 73
Stroke 29, 148, 162
Substrate reduction therapy 358
Subunit vaccines 104
Sudden cardiac death 29
Sudden infant death syndrome 184
Sugar-sweetened beverages 30
Suicidal tendencies 29
Supraventricular tachycardia 175f
Sweat chloride estimation 196
Symptomatic disease 130
Symptomatic status epilepticus, acute 446
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion 156
Syndromic epilepsies 446
Systemic antifungal
agents 59
therapy 56
Systemic autoimmune disorders 146
Systemic disorders 45
Systemic fungal infections 57
diagnosis of 57, 58t
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome 10
Systemic lupus erythematosus 47, 141, 146, 296, 300, 302, 325, 327
Systemic mycoses 57f
Systemic sclerosis 325
Systemic vascular resistance 4, 9, 13
T
Tachycardia 4, 29, 144, 172f
Taliglucerase alpha 351
Target sign 466
Teratoma 309, 312
benign 312
Testis 318
Testosterone 438
Tetracycline 290
Tezacaftor 209
Theophylline 314
Therapeutic drug monitoring 70
Therapeutic plasma exchange 153
Thrombotic thrombocytopenia, vaccine induced 109
Thyrocalcitonin 318
Thyroid
adenoma 318
peroxidase antibodies 147
Thyroiditis 290
Tinnitus 417
Tissue
hypoxia, measurement of 8
perfusion, inadequate 2
transglutaminase antibodies 147
Tocilizumab 154, 325, 330
Tofacitinib 336
Topiramate 456
Toxic encephalopathies 146
Toxic shock syndrome 46
Toxicity 75, 76
Tranexamic acid 206
Transaminitis 331
Transcription activator-like effector nuclease 353
Transcription inhibitors, activation of 335
Transepidermal water loss 499
Transepithelial sodium chloride absorption 253f
Trans-fatty acids 20
Trauma 446
Tremors 29
Triazoles 62
Triglycerides 25
Triiodothyronine 317
Triplet repeat disorders 344
Troponin 48
Tubercular meningitis 86
Tuberculin skin test 328, 329
Tuberculosis 325, 328, 329
Tuberous sclerosis complex 162
Tubular disorders 243, 261
Tubular dysfunction, patterns of 244
Tubular reabsorption 243
Tubulopathy 252
Tumbler test 86
Tumor 318
markers 307, 308, 317
necrosis factor 317, 324, 329, 438
screening 150
tissue 307
Turner syndrome 231, 284
Tyrosinemia 252, 309
U
Umbilical cord, care of 504
Upper airway resistance syndrome 363
Urinary catecholamines 313
Urine organic acids 164
Ursodeoxycholic acid 208, 237
Urticaria 29, 223
Ustekinumab 335
V
Vaccine
efficacy 117
inactivated 103
platforms 103
Vagal nerve stimulation 456
Valsalva maneuver 176
Valvular pulmonic stenosis, severe 173f
Vanillylmandelic acid 313
Varicella 290
Vascular endothelial growth factor 317, 357
Vasculitis 93, 325, 333
Vasoactive intestinal
peptide 318
polypeptide 316
Vasopressin 13
Velaglucerase alpha 351
Vena cava
inferior 8
superior 14
Verapamil 178
Vernix caseosa 501
Vesicular stomatitis virus 103
Vestronidase 351
Viable epidermis 499
Vigabatrin 166
Violence, forms of 479b
Vipoma 318
Viral infection 146, 204
Viral myocarditis 47, 173f
Viral prodrome 141
Viral transmission 42
Viral vectored vaccines 103
Vitamin
D 223
deficiency 193
dependent rickets 258
excess 260
deficiency 193
Vitiligo 278
Volume resuscitation 11
Vomiting 45, 464
Voriconazole 59, 6264, 67, 71
W
Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia 292, 293f, 299b
treatment of 296
West syndrome 161
Wheezing, recurrent 193
White blood cell 93
Whole exome sequencing 164, 348
Whole genome sequencing 348
Wilms tumor 309, 310, 316, 318
Wilson disease 252
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome 174, 174f, 178
Wound management 434
X
X-linked dominant 344
X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets 344
Y
Y-aminobutyric acid-B receptor 141
Yolk sac tumor 309, 310
Z
Zero fluoroscopy procedures 180
Zinc-finger nuclease 353
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome 318
Z-score 193
×
Chapter Notes

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IAP Recent Advances in PEDIATRICS
IAP Recent Advances in PEDIATRICS
Editor-in-Chief PSN Menon MD MNANS FIAP FIMSA Consultant and Head Department of Pediatrics Jaber Al-Ahmed Armed Forces Hospital Kuwait Former Professor of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India Executive Editor Alok Gupta MD FIAP Pediatrician, Counselor and Environmentalist Pediatric Specialties Clinic, Jaipur Former Assistant Professor in Pediatric Medicine Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Academic Editors Piyush Gupta MD FAMS FIAP Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India P Ramachandran MD DNB Professor of Pediatrics and Associate Dean (PG studies) Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (SRIHER) Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Forewords Remesh Kumar R Bakul Jayant Parekh Upendra Kinjawadekar
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Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com
IAP Recent Advances in Pediatrics
Volume 1: 2020
Volume 2 : 2022
9789354656132
Printed at
Prof Alagirisamy Parthasarathy
MD DCH FIAP
DSc (Honoris Causa): The Tamil Nadu Dr MGR Medical University
Chennai, India
National President 1997, Indian Academy of Pediatrics
Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics
The Tamil Nadu Dr MGR Medical University
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
(August 08, 1938–May 15, 2021)
Prof Alagirisamy Parthasarathy National President 1997, Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP), was a multi-faceted person. Fondly called “Partha sir” by both his contemporaries and juniors and just “Dear Partha” by his seniors, he had an endearing quality that made him lovable to all. Like the “PARTHASARATHY” to Arjun, he motivated and helped many academicians to come up and shine in their chosen fields.
Prof Parthasarathy graduated from the prestigious Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, in the year 1964. He completed his postgraduate diploma (DCH) course in the year 1973 and degree (MD Pediatrics) in 1976 from Madras Medical College and Institute of Child Health, Chennai. He was also trained in Clinical Epidemiology at Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
He started taking keen interest in the activities of IAP and soon occupied various important positions to serve the organization. He was awarded the fellowship of IAP (FIAP) in 1989 for carrying out many flagship programs. He gained all-India recognition in IAP by his visionary ideas and successful implementation of many projects. He was elected as National President, IAP in the year 1997. He took up many path-breaking programs during his tenure and beyond in the field of vaccines and immunization. He served as the Regional Adviser, Association of Pediatric Societies of South-East Asia Region for three years (1997–1999).
Prof Parthasarathy worked in Tamil Nadu Health services in various positions. He retired as Senior Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Madras Medical College, Chennai, and Deputy Superintendent, Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. His seminal contribution was in the field of immunization services, and he was a pioneer in many successful programs in collaboration with the state health services and international organizations including UNICEF. He brought out many manuals for the healthcare workers involved in immunization activities.
Right from 90's, Prof Parthasarathy found his passion of bringing out textbooks. He was the Founder Editor-in-Chief of Indian Journal of Practical Pediatrics (IJPP), which was launched under the banner of IAP in 1993. He held this post for two years and nurtured the journal from gestation to its toddlerhood. During his presidentship, he conceptualized and brought out the IAP Textbook of Pediatrics which proved a boon to pediatric students and practitioners. The next three decades saw a flurry of publications from IAP under his editorship in the form of IAP Guidebook on Immunizations, IAP Immunization Card, IAP Color Atlas of Pediatrics (2011), Atlas of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (2012), Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (2012), IAP Textbook of Vaccines (2014), IAP Algorithms for Common Pediatric Illnesses (2015) and many more.
Besides IAP, in the past 20 years, under the banner of Partha's Series of Books for Pediatric and Adolescent Practitioners, he brought out eight books—Case Scenarios, Frequently Asked Questions, Management Protocols, 101 Clinical Pearls, Management Algorithms, Investigations and Interpretations, Comprehensive Manual, and Current Trends in Diagnosis and Management.
He was the Founder Editor-in-Chief of Partha's Immunization Digest (First Edition 2005 to Fourth Edition 2020), Handbook on Adolescent and Adult Immunization (2014), Fundamentals of Pediatrics, Selected Topics in Pediatrics for Practitioners, and Associate Editor of Atlas of Tropical Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009). Colleagues had to be up on toes to keep up with his speed of work and meticulousness for details.
Prof Parthasarathy was bestowed with numerous awards and orations in his lifetime. Indian Academy of Pediatrics proudly conferred him with Lifetime Achievement Award of IAP in 2021.
Prof Parthasarathy had the unique gift of drafting in an elegant, but simple language and was prompt in communication. He showed great affection towards his colleagues, junior and senior alike. He always appreciated and encouraged the initiative by any colleague towards child health activities. He had a great command of Tamil as well and had written many beautiful Tamil poems. He wrote his autobiography in Tamil titled “Kanne Pappa” (“Dear Child”) and this was released during the Chennai Book Exhibition, 2020.
Prof Parthasarathy was fortunate to have a very loving family. His wife, Mrs Nirmala Parthasarathy, is a gentle and kindhearted lady. Partha sir's children Mr Balaji and Dr (Mrs) Prathiba doted on their father. He was blessed with four grandchildren.
It was his brainchild to bring out a biennial treatise on “Recent Advances in Pediatrics” under IAP. We deem it a great honor to dedicate this second volume titled “IAP Recent Advances in Pediatrics, Volume 2” to this great soul. Thousands of us pediatricians, will always remember him day in and day out. Prof Parthasarathy was a very pious person, and we are sure he is blessing all of us to continue his good work in the service of children.
Contributors Reviewers Foreword
I am delighted to write the foreword for “IAP Recent Advances in Pediatrics, Volume 2 (IAPRAP2)”, which is modeled on the lines of IAPRAP1 and is considered to be its first sibling. This is an outstanding project and a worthy tribute to the memory of the doyen of Pediatrics, the Late Dr A Parthasarathy, who had initially conceived it and inspired the present team to strive hard to make it a reality. I congratulate all colleagues involved in designing and compiling this volume, which is certainly the product of a Herculean effort.
One of the chief impediments that we experience as doctors is the scattered nature of our knowledge resources. Ready reference materials regarding the latest academic advances as well as clinical updates are to be found in a sea of publications. A busy clinician will certainly be hard pressed to keep track of the different subjects, authors or publishers or to wade through the tomes in the bookshelves to find something that is urgently needed. Hence this project addresses the urgent need for a comprehensive source of authentic updated information on the multitude of subjects that govern clinical practice.
The books in this series are designed to serve like a “pediatric digest” spanning almost 510 pages and covering the most recent reviews in all major subspecialties. Furthermore the inputs provided by both academicians and clinicians are curated and peer-reviewed by reputed subject experts in the respective fields. Updated editions will be published every two years, giving this project a much needed encyclopedic feel, or a “go-to book”, quite reminiscent of the erstwhile Encyclopedia Britannica. I am sure the entire pediatric community of India will be grateful to the project leaders and the contributors for making their life easier along with the great difference it can make to patient care.
I am proud that this book is being released on the occasion of Pedicon 2022 at Noida and will perhaps be the first major publication to reach the hands of the readers during my Presidential term. I am proud to welcome this new baby into our fold, fathered by no less a visionary than the Late Dr A Parthasarathy and nurtured with befitting care and affection by the Editor-in-Chief, Dr PSN Menon, the Chief Academic Editors, Dr Piyush Gupta and Dr P Ramachandran and the Executive Editor, Dr Alok Gupta. The list of those who have contributed their efforts to this volume reads like a “Who's Who” of the world of Indian pediatrics. Their painstaking involvement in this project makes it all the more appreciable. I am elated to present this book to the readers and wish you a highly satisfactory outcome in treating this as your treasured reference resource at all times.
Remesh Kumar R
National President 2022
Indian Academy of Pediatrics
Foreword
Dear friends,
Greetings from Indian Academy of Pediatrics!
Another year has gone by and the Covid situation still looms large on our head. It was the first time that the world unitedly fought against this invisible threat. Covid has brought about a new way to think and process information. A need was felt to educate our members about the various subspecialty topics in Pediatrics. This was simply due to issues faced by several common pediatricians to diagnose diseases related to the subspecialties, in time. Not catching the disease at an early stage can lead to complications many a time. Keeping these thoughts in mind, IAPRAP was conceived. Basically, IAPRAP was a book that was launched with the latest data from the pediatric subspecialties under the IAP's umbrella. This task was conceptualized by our mentor and guru – late Dr A Parthasarathy – and was very well received. After all, to have all the data compiled in such a concise and lucid, easy-to-understand manner was nothing short of a miracle. Hats off to the team who could manage this with such ease and aplomb!
This book was supposed to be released every 2 years. Unfortunately, due to the pandemic situation, I thought that the second issue might be delayed. After all, such coordination and data gathering are not for the ones with faint heart. But, lo and behold, I was pleasantly surprised when I got a mail requesting for my message in this ambitious project. Seeing the contents of the book, I was astounded to realize that the team has not left any corners unturned in their endeavor for excellency in getting this book published. It is much more polished and better in every sense. I am truly proud of the team who has conquered this challenging task and seen it to completion without compromising on quality of the knowledge delivered. Not only is it probably one of the best books for a common pediatrician who wants to gain some of the knowledge in the subspecialty, but also for students who might be confused about which subspecialty field to take up post the completion of their graduation.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank the team who have truly burnt the midnight oil to bring about this gem of a masterpiece in your hands. Not only was it challenging to bring about the content of this book together, but also to have it peer-reviewed within the time frame given to them. Not to forget the pandemic situation prevailing throughout the world and I am certain that you will better understand and appreciate the efforts taken by them to complete this herculean task.
Given the myriad of topics discussed, I am certain that this book will find its place in all the pediatricians’ bookshelves. A hearty congratulation to one and all on achieving this milestone.
Bakul Jayant Parekh
National President 2020
Indian Academy of Pediatrics
President, IPA Congress 2023
Secretary General, SAPA
Global Academic Convenor, GAPIO
Foreword
I'm delighted to be writing a foreword for this wonderful book on “IAP Recent Advances in Pediatrics, Volume 2 (IAPRAP2)”
For every pediatrician – be it someone working in a PHC of a low-resource, rural part of the country, or one who serves at a tertiary hospital in a metro city – staying updated on various advances in the field is undeniably crucial. This book is perfectly curated to cater to pediatricians across the board. The topics are chosen with care, to be relevant to as wide an audience as possible. We must accept the fact that topics such as noise-induced hearing loss, rising rates of junk food consumption and hyperconsumption of audio-visual media have become extremely relevant in contemporary times, but are rarely discussed in any standard textbooks of pediatrics. Additionally, social phenomena of child neglect/abuse and child labor gravely affect the mental and physical development of children, and pediatricians should be amongst the first to recognize such instances. Most medical professionals have less than adequate exposure to such topics, and I am glad this book attempts to address this gap in our knowledge.
We are in the midst of an unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. It was natural for this book to include two chapters related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the vaccines. The advances in the field of medical genetics, role of biologicals and tumor markers and NAFLD are providing an insight into what lies in the future of medicine. An evidence-based review of these not commonly discussed topics is a great value addition to this book.
I would strongly recommend this book to any postgraduate/pediatrician who wants to keep themselves up to date. Similar to IAPRAP1, it should be an essential addition to every departmental and hospital library.
Upendra Kinjawadekar
National President Elect 2022
Indian Academy of Pediatrics
Preface
The book “IAP Recent Advances in Pediatrics, Volume 2 (IAPRAP2)”, the biennial treatise, once again brings to the readers, the recent scientific advances in the field of pediatrics across different spheres.
The idea conceptualized by Late Professor A Parthasarathy, a doyen of Pediatrics, was solemnized in 2020 with the release of the first volume. The IAP National President 2021, Prof Piyush Gupta, and the Central IAP Team 2021, approved to publish the second volume in 2022.
The second volume is being brought out as per the vision of team IAP to constantly update all the readers. Advances in the various fields of pediatrics starting from neonatology and extending to development, nutrition, immunization, infectious diseases, adolescence, critical care, and different organ systems are presented with scientific evidence from recent publications. Newer insights in the fields of environment (noise pollution), child rights, genetics, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are some additional highlights of this volume. The second volume includes 27 chapters with at least one topic covered under each subspecialty. The chapters have been carefully prepared by eminent pediatricians across the country as well as from abroad and peer-reviewed by equally illustrious colleagues.
This compendium is aimed to update the knowledge of pediatricians across a wide spectrum, from pediatric residents to senior faculty, researchers, and consultants.
PSN Menon
Alok Gupta
P Ramachandran
Piyush Gupta
Acknowledgments
The second volume of the book, “IAP Recent Advances in Pediatrics, Volume 2 (IAPRAP2)” is now in your hands, after being released during PEDICON-2022, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
We very sincerely thank all the authors and the reviewers for their contributions to IAPRAP2, without which this book would not have seen the light of the day.
The book is being published by M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India. We thank Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director), Mr MS Mani (Group President), Ms Chetna Malhotra Vohra (Associate Director–Content Strategy), Ms Pooja Bhandari (Production Head), Dr Rajul Jain (Senior Development Editor) and team of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, for burning the midnight oil in bringing out this tome in a very timely manner.
We are grateful to Indian Pediatrics as well as Central IAP for granting permissions to reproduce material for the Chapter 26 on “Child Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation” by Dr Rajendra Nath Srivastava, Chapter 21 on “Junk and Ultra-processed Foods” by Dr Sumaira Khalil and Dr Dheeraj Shah besides IAP consensus reports used in Chapter 11 “Cow's Milk Protein Allerby” by Dr John Matthai and Chapter 21 “Media Use” by Dr Nidhi Bedi and Piyush Gupta.
We are thankful to the office bearers and the exe cutive board members of Central IAP for the continuous support and encouragement at all stages in bringing out this volume.
The editorial services of Shri Shaji Jacob Ninan to the Editor-in-Chief is gratefully acknowledged.
We request all the readers to please give your feedback to enable us to plan future editions.