Modern Medical Toxicology VV Pillay
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abacavir 669
Abamectin 685
Abciximab 495
Abdomen, X-ray of 147
Abdominal cramps 28
Abdominal discomfort 699
Abdominal distension 28
Abdominal pain 292, 441, 698, 803, 807
Abdominal trauma 27
Abortion, spontaneous 874
Abraxane 769
Abrin 188
Abrupt withdrawal 716
Abruptio placentae 874
Abrus
fruit pods 187f
precatorius 187, 187f, 189
seeds 187f
Abuse
emerging substances of 858, 899
patterns of 713
substances of 857, 931
Acamprosate 282
Acarbose 723
Acaricide 560
Accident 538
Accoucher's hand 78, 78f
Accumulation, chronic 155
Acebutolol 441
Acecainide 454
Acetaminophen 619
Acetamiprid 601
Acetanilide 619
Acetazolamide 342, 429
administration of 430
Acetic acid 72
derivatives 628, 631
Acetonides 714
Acetorphan 700
Acetylsalicylic acid 7, 402, 613, 614
Aciclovir 665
Acid 7, 59, 931
Acid-base 532
abnormalities 335, 870
balance 732
disorders 20, 20t
causes of 21t
Acidic diuresis 406
Acidosis 14, 337, 363, 596, 872
base-deficit 799
correction of 193
non-gap 20
Aclarubicin 766, 769
Acne 713, 716
Aconite 7, 500
flower 501f
roots 501
Aconitine 501
Aconitum
ferox 500f
napellus 500
Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration 159
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 31
Acrodynia 130, 130f
Acrylic acid 132
Actinomycin D 764
Actinoplanes teichomyceticus 664
Activated charcoal 24, 27, 27f, 28t, 82, 259, 297, 435, 504, 618, 623
multiple-dose 27
Activated partial thromboplastin time 487
Active hemolysis 227
Acupuncture 338, 873
Acute atraumatic compartment syndrome 258
Acute extrapyramidal syndromes 385, 389
Acute interstitial
nephritis 658
pneumonia 461f
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 454, 564
Acyclovir 665
Addiction 858
Addison's disease 155, 430
Addison's syndrome 753
Addisonian crisis 716
Adefovir dipivoxil 671
Adenine analog 748
Adenosine 463
deaminase inhibitors 748
diphosphate 110
monophosphate 163, 463
reuptake inhibitors 495
triphosphate 93, 109, 464, 532, 615
Adenovirus 813
Adinazolam 298
Adjunctival antidotes 38t
Adjunctive therapy 299
Adonis vernalis 503
Adrenal insufficiency
acute 717
chronic 717
Adrenaline 646, 739, 739t, 741, 739t, 741, 866
accidental intra-arterial injection of 740
Adrenergic antagonists 433
Adrenergic neuron-blocking agents 433, 436
Adrenergic storm 279
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 688, 714
Adult botulism, infant type 812
Adult respiratory distress syndrome 96, 196, 817, 928
Advanced cardiac life support 462
Aflatoxicosis 831
Aflatoxins 830
African boomslang snakes 203
African garter snakes 203
Agaricus augustus 827
Agitated delirium syndrome 334, 869
Agitation 21, 22t, 239, 311, 311, 322, 325, 332, 336, 572, 582, 585, 761, 867, 871, 878, 895, 881, 901
Agkistrodon
millardi 203, 204, 213
rhodostoma 493
α-glucosidase inhibitor 720
Agranulocytosis 627, 684, 706
treatment of 392
Agrochemicals 931
Air
embolism 3133
hunger 512
Airway 11, 558
management 236
Akathisia 22, 385, 389
Alachlor 593
Alanine aminotransferase 481, 621, 623, 915
Albendazole 683
Albumin
bound paclitaxel 769
dialysis 627
Albuminuria 243
Albuterol 777
Alclometasone dipropionate 715
Alcohol 3, 19, 31, 270, 858
abusers, chronic 620
dehydrogenase pathway 271
influence of 284
ingestion, acute 620
poisoning, acute 275t
Alcoholic anonymous 282
Alcoholic hallucinosis 278
Alcoholic intoxication, differential diagnosis of 276t
Alcoholic pancreatitis, mechanism of chronic 277f
Alcoholism 276
medical complications of 277
Aldehydes 342
Aldolase 221
Aldosterone 714
Aldrich-Mees lines 110, 111f
Aldrin 576
Alemtuzumab 771
Alfentanil 265, 366
Alfuzosin 441
Aliphatic hydrocarbon 545
gases 511, 513
uses of 545t
Alkali 931
burns 81t
flame detector 920
Alkaline
barium compounds, soluble 145
diuresis 28, 29, 297, 554, 596, 721
phosphatase 353
levels 707
Alkalis 59, 81
Alkaloid 309
Alkenes 545
Alkoxylated fatty amine surfactant 596
Alkyl
mercaptan 513
sulfonates 748, 752
Alkylating agents 745, 748
Allergens 584
Allergic reaction 234, 235, 368, 585
acute 642
Allergic skin reactions, drugs related 642t
Allergy 715
Allodermanyssus sanguineus 245
Allylamines 672
Almasilate aloglutamol 688
Almotriptan 415
Alopecia 164, 164f, 165, 347, 699, 745
substances producing 164t
Alosetron 636
Alpha-adrenergic
antagonists 433, 436, 441
receptor agonist 434
Alpha-amino-beta-methyl aminopropionic acid 836
Alpha-blockers 433, 441
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 723
Alpha-ketoglutaric acid 536
Alpha-lipoic acid 819
Alpha-naphthylthiourea 586
Alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone 906
Alprazolam 298
Alseroxylon 437
Aluminium, salt of 688
Aluminum 688
acetoacetate 688
carbonate 688, 689
glycinate 688
hydroxide 688
phosphate 7, 91, 98, 688, 605, 607
poisoning 100f
tablets 98f
Alveolitis, acute 588
Alzheimer's disease 383, 416, 690
drugs used in 416
Amanita
muscaria 823, 824, 824f
pantherina 824, 825f
phalloides 816, 816f, 817, 819, 916
rubescens 825f
virosa 817f
Amanitin 817
Amantadine 355, 669, 872
Amatoxin 916
Amblyopia 277
Amcinonide 715
Amebiasis 814
Amebicides, mixed 681
Amenorrhea 278
Amethocaine 360, 367
Amethopterin 754
Amfepramone 329, 887
Amikacin 650
Amiloride 432
Amino acid, excitatory 272
Aminoglycosides 640, 648
Aminolevulinic acid 118
Amino-methyl phosphonic acid 596
Aminopenicillins 644
Aminophylline 730
Aminosalicylic acid 614
Aminotransferases 221
Amiodarone 68, 379, 416, 460
toxicity 461f
Amisulpride 383
Amitriptyline 394
Ammonia 81, 511, 513
fume test for 82
gas 81
Ammoniosteroids 371, 374
Ammonium
hydroxide 81
urate renal calculi 698
Amnesia 278, 310
Amnesic shellfish poisoning 840, 848
Amnestic syndrome 519
Amobarbitone 296, 360
Amodiaquine 678
toxicity 678
Amotivational syndrome 316, 877
Amoxapine 383, 387
Amoxicillin 644, 692
Amphetamines 13, 31, 321, 321b, 322, 324, 328, 330, 858, 879, 880, 880b, 886, 887
chronic users of 324
substituted 321, 329
therapeutic uses of 322t, 880t
Amphotericin B 672
cholesteryl sulfate complex 672
lipid complex 672
liposome 672
Ampicillin 644
Amrinone 475
Amycolatopsis orientalis 663
Amygdalin 834
containing plants 834
Amyl nitrite 534
Amylocaine 367
Amyloid reaction 916
Anabasine 859
Anabolic steroids 328, 711, 887
Anaconda 203
Anal irritation 28
Analgesic 182, 236
antipyretics 613, 685
nephropathy 619, 629
Analgin 613
Analytical toxicological investigation, phases of 914t
Anamalai viper 204
Anandamide 315, 876
Anaphylactoid reaction 472, 694, 779, 781
Anaphylaxis 33, 234, 645
grades of 645
Anatabine 859
Ancillary tests 85
Ancrod 493
Ancylostoma duodenale 683
Andaman cobra 204, 206
Androgen 711
inhibitors 748, 769
Anemia 278, 746, 752, 838
Anesthesia, dissociative 364
Anesthetics 253, 360, 370
deaths, causes of 370b
drugs 931
inhalational 360, 362
Anginal symptoms 476
Angiography 779
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 154
inhibitors 433, 448
dialysability of 450t
Angiotensin-modulating agents 467
Angiotensin-receptor
antagonists 433, 450, 467
blockers 450
Angurugu syndrome 159
Anilines 31
Anion gap 20, 155
acidosis 568, 617
Anisakiasis 815
Annulus 816
Anodic stripping voltametry 121
Anorexia 323, 393, 400, 699, 742, 882
Ansamycin 654
Antabuse mushrooms 824
Antacids 688
Antagonists 688
Anterior pituitary hormones 688, 704
Anthelmintics 682
Anthozoa 247
Anthracycline antibiotics 765
Anthraquinones 695
Antiamebic drugs 640, 681
Antiandrogens 713
Anti-anginal drugs 477
Antianxiety drugs 383
Antiarrhythmic drugs 367, 429, 451, 452, 455, 505, 931
Anti-arthritic drugs 73
Antiasthmatic drugs 726
Antibacterial drugs 640, 662
Antibiotics 31, 745
therapy 799
Antibody 742, 747, 922
bound tracer 922
directed 747
Anticancer drug overdoses 775
Anticholinergic agents 308t, 726, 736, 891
Anticholinergic class 633
Anticholinergic manifestations 633
Anticholinergic poisoning 736
Anticholinergic syndrome 308, 809
Anticoagulants 485, 491, 931
Anticonvulsants 1253, 342, 347, 685, 745
Anticytomegaloviral drugs 666
Antidepressants 19, 31, 394, 414, 685, 931
atypical 394, 408
toxicity rating of cyclic 397t
tricyclic 338, 394, 395, 572, 872
Antidiarrheal agents, nonspecific 793
Antidiarrheals 688, 699
Antidiuretic hormone 275
Antidotal
issues 39
therapy 290, 534, 623
treatment, indications for 471
Antidotes 36, 37, 195, 295, 301, 311, 479, 487, 491, 528, 536, 569, 657, 719, 729, 756, 776, 776t, 819, 823
administration 11, 35
specific 36t
Antiemetics 623, 688, 700
cocktail 776
Antiepileptics 342
hypersensitivity syndrome 346
Antiestrogens 709, 748, 770
Antifibrinolytics 485, 492
Antifreeze 293
Antifungal
agents 414, 745
drugs 640, 671
Antihelminthic agents 640, 682
Antiherpes virus drugs 640
Antiherpetic drugs 665
Antihistamines 31, 236, 613, 632, 633, 700
pharmacology of common 633t
Antihistaminic properties 632
Antihypertensives 429, 433, 441, 476, 451, 931
Anti-infective drug 640, 931
poisoning, forensic significance of 685
Anti-infective overdose deaths 685
Anti-inflammatory drugs 726, 737
Antileprotic drugs 640, 660
Antilymphocyte 747
Antimalarial drugs 640, 674, 679
Antimanic drugs 409
Antimetabolites 745, 748, 754
Antimicrobials 73, 282
agents 640
Anti-migraine drugs 413
Antimony 144
butter of 144
spots 145
Antineoplastic agents 726, 748, 777
Antioxidants 592, 849
Antiparkinsonian drugs 253, 342, 354
Anti-platelet drugs 485, 495
Antiprogestins 711
Antiprotozoal agents 640, 674
Antipsychotic 383, 390, 931
drugs, forensic significance of 394
first-generation 383
second-generation 383, 390
third-generation 383, 394
typical 383
Antirejection medications 741
Antiretroviral drugs 640, 667
Antiserum 922
Antispasmodics 253
Antisympathetic nervous system agents 452
Antithymocyte
antigens 747
globulin 747
Antithyroid drug 688, 705, 706
toxicokinetics of 706t
Antitubercular drugs 640, 655
Antitumor antibiotics 748, 763
Antiulcer agents 688, 690
Antivenin therapy 224
Antivenom 224,239, 243, 245
administration of 225
intramuscular injection of 226, 226f
reactions
prevention of 228
treatment of 227
storage of 227
therapy 224, 243
indications for 225t
Antiviral agents 669
Antiviral drugs 640, 665
Anton test 805
Anuria 184
Anxiety 332, 336, 383, 404, 703, 867, 871
acute onset of 443
disorders 299
syndrome 734
Anxiolytics 858
Aorta, aneurysm of 436
Aortic dissection 323, 333, 337, 872, 882
Apis mellifera 233, 233f
Aplastic anemia 653
Apnea 292, 362, 369
Apocynum cannabinum 503
Apomorphine 25
Apraclonidine 434, 435
Aprobarbitone 296
Aprotinin 492
Aqua toffana 4
ARA-C syndrome 760
Arachnida 232, 244
Argatroban 488
Argemone 839
mexicana 837, 837f
Argyrogena fasciolata 207
Aripiprazole 394
Aromatic hydrocarbons 545, 549
Arrhythmias 13t, 32, 33, 311, 323, 336, 361, 375, 398, 476, 679, 699, 871, 882
treatment of 392
uncontrollable 733
Arsenate 108
Arsenic 108, 108f
keratosis 111f
poisoning 110t, 111f, 112f
trioxide 7
Arteether 681
Artemether 681
Artemisia annua 680f
Artemsinin 680
Arterial blood gases 221, 512, 527, 764, 914
monitor 366, 430
Arterial lactate concentration 591
Arteriovenous fistula 30
Artesunate 681
Arthralgia 706
Arthritis 797, 798
reactive 803
Arthropoda 232
Articaine 367
Arylhexyl-amines 328, 886
Ascaris lumbricoides 683
Asclepias
curassavica 503
fruiticosa 503
Ascorbic acid 71
Asian pit vipers 203
Asparaginase 767
Aspartate aminotransferase 481, 621, 623, 915
Aspergillus versicolor 832
Asphyxia, signs of 522
Asphyxiant
gases 931
poisons 509
simple 511, 931
Aspiration 546
pneumonia 26
Aspirin 223, 495, 613, 614
low-dose 614
Asthenia 393
Asthenic vegetative syndrome 130
Asthma 727, 738
bronchial 715
exacerbation of 333
irritant-induced 514
occupational 514
work-related 928
Ataxia 165, 292, 310, 435, 809
Atenolol 441
Athletic performance, enhancement of 712
Atomic absorption
spectrophotometry 922
spectroscopy 113, 121, 166
Atosiban 777
Atractaspididae 203
Atracurium 374
Atrial tachycardia, multifocal 733
Atrophy, acute yellow 96
Atropine 7, 18, 309, 435, 471, 569, 570, 575, 586, 823
challenge test 568, 575
sulfate 230, 602
toxicokinetics of 310t
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 322
Aucuba japonica 819
Aucubin 819
Australian funnel web spiders 240
Autoimmune disease 386
Automatic behavior 298
Autonomic dysfunction 184
mixed 237
Autonomic storm, part of 237
Autopsy 100f, 101f
Autumn crocus 193, 193f, 194f
Aversion therapy 280
Avitriptan fumarate 415
Azadirachta indica 192, 192f
Azapirone 304
Azathioprine 745, 760
Azidothymidine 667
Azithromycin 654
Azosemide 431
B
Babinski's sign 526
Bacampicillin 644
Bacillus
aerogenes capsulatus 805
anthracis 262, 651
cereus 794, 794f
Bacitracin 664
A 664
Baclofen 371, 372, 373b
Bacteria 794
peritonitis 32
B-adrenergic receptor antagonists 476
Balloon cotton 503
Bamboo
pit viper 204, 212
snake 203
Banded krait 204, 211f
Banded racer 207
Barb burns 296
Barbados nut 199
Barbitone 296
Barbiturates 19, 31, 123, 270, 296, 342
blisters 296, 297f, 298
chronic 296
long-acting 7
short-acting 7
Barbituric acid 296
method 533
Barium 145
carbonate 146
chloride 146
salts, soluble 145
sulfate 146, 779, 781
Bark scorpions 236
Barracuda, great 841f
Bartter's syndrome 660
Baseline pulmonary function tests 591
Basiliximab 748
Basophilic stippled cell 118, 119f
Bath salts 329, 887, 902
Batu 321, 880
Bawaskar's protocol 240, 240f
Beau's lines 110
Beclamide 342, 354
Beddome's coral snake 213
Bedside test 276, 527, 617, 642, 915
Bee, barbed stinger of 234f
Beer drinker's
cardiomyopathy 150
heart 151, 151f
Behavioral disinhibition 301
Behavioral disturbances 716
Behcet's syndrome 641
Belladonna alkaloids 31, 309
Belligerence 512
Benazepril 450
Bendroflumethiazide 431
Bengal cobra 206
Benomyl 597
Benorylate 614
Benperidol 383, 384
Benserazide 354
Benthiocarb 597
Bentonite 411
Benzalkonium chloride 88
Benzamides 383, 701
Benzanilide hydrochloride 457
Benzatropine methanesulfonate 357
Benzedrex inhalers 324
Benzedrine 324
inhaler 879
Benzene 7, 549, 551
Benzethonium chloride 88
Benzhexol 355
hydrochloride 357
Benzimidazole 683
derivatives 701
Benzine 546
Benzisothiazoyl piperazine 383
Benzisoxazoles 383, 392
Benzocaine 360, 367
Benzodiazepines 19, 31, 270, 298, 299, 300, 342, 391, 685, 691
designer 899
withdrawal syndrome 300b
Benzoisothiazol derivative 383
Benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers 444
Benzoylecgonine 870
Benzoylmethylecgonine 330, 865
Benzthiazide 431
Benztropine 357, 391
mesylate 355, 357
Benzyl penicillin 819
Benzylisoquinoline 254, 371, 374
Beri beri 838
Bertholite 102
Beta-adrenergic
agonists 726, 727, 777
antagonists 433, 437
receptor 467, 473
antagonists 467, 477
Beta-blocker 433, 437, 452, 467, 477, 729
cardioselective 437
nonselective 437
overdose, treatment of 440t
Beta-lactam antibiotics 645
Betamethasone 715
dipropionate 715
Beta-N-oxalyl-alpha-beta-diaminopropionic-acid 836
Beta-N-oxalyl-amino-l-alanine 836
Beta-phenylisopropylamine 879
Bezafibrate 482
Bhang 314, 876
lassi 315, 876
shop selling 315f
thandai 315, 876
Bhopal eye syndrome 521
Bhopal gas tragedy 522
Bibron's coral snake 204, 214
Bicarbonate 184, 195, 422
Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia 18, 469
Bidis 859, 860f
Bifonazole 673
Biguanides 720, 722
Bile acid 688, 696, 703
binding resins 480, 481
sequestrants 481
Biliary sclerosis 758
Bilirubin 621
Biochemical monitoring 229
Biochemical tests 914
Biogas 513
Biological sample test 99
Biphasic insulins 717
Bisacodyl 695
Bismuth
subnitrate 773
subsalicylate 614, 693, 699
Bite 926
superficial 216
Bitten part, treatment of 228
Bitter almond 530, 531, 834, 835f
Bitter apple 178
Black cobra 207, 207f
Black krait 204
Black pepper 187
Black phosphorus 91
Black water fever 676, 676f
Black widow 242f
Bladder distension 310
Bleeding 32
disorders 33
spontaneous systemic 226
Bleomycin 763
therapy 764
Blood 73, 278, 432, 594, 721, 870, 926
alcohol 286t
concentration 275, 276, 283
level 276
baclofen levels 372
barium level 147
clotting 915
coagulability 226
counts 758
cyanide
concentrations 443
levels 533
delivery system 30
doping 497
ethylene glycol concentration 294
gases 915
glucose 914
incoagulability, recurrence of 227
level 113
back extrapolation of 286
lithium level 411
mercury level 132
methanol level 290
pressure 13t, 223
lowered 868
systolic 678
schizontocides 674
urea 223
urea nitrogen 325, 914
test 276
Blue death 799
Blue krait 207
Blue man syndrome 461, 461f
Blue vitriol 139
Bluefish 840f
Blunt-nosed viper 204
Blurred vision 393, 452, 574
Body fluids 51t, 283
Body packer
syndrome 28, 262, 335, 339, 873
X-ray abdomen of 335f
Body-stuffers 262, 340, 340t
Boletus
luridus 824
sensibilis 827, 827f
Bone 123
marrow
suppression 761
tissue, microscopy of 195
Boradrenaline 739
Boric acid 31, 69, 70f
Borrelia burgdorferi 765
Botulinum
antitoxin 810
toxin 188
type A 812
Botulism 244, 809t
differential diagnosis 809t
prevention of 811
Bowel perforation 745
Bowel surgery, recent 27
Box jellyfish 248, 248f
Bradyarrhythmias 18, 469
Bradycardia 13, 237, 370, 379, 398, 415, 435, 439, 445, 447, 457, 462, 702, 772, 868
atropine for 476
hypotension with 782
Bradypnea 276
Brain 558
Bratt diet 813
Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale 868
Brazilian wandering spider 240
Breast cancer 754
Breath
analyzer 287f
device 287f
test 99
Breathalyzer 286
Breathing 11
Bretylium 462
Brevetoxins 847
Brinzolamide 429
Bristle millipede 247
British anti-Lewisite 114
Brivaracetam 342, 354
Broken neck sign 224, 224f
Bromadiolone 488
Bromazolam 899
Bromethalin 587
Bromide 31, 103
poisoning 432
rash 104, 104f
Bromine 101, 103
solution 166
Bromism 104
Bromochlorotrifluoroethane 361
Bromocriptine 103, 354, 356, 388, 745, 872
Bromoderma tuberosum 104
Bromopride 701
Brompheniramine maleate 103
Brompton's cocktail 331, 866
Bronchiolitis obliterans 333
Bronchitis, chronic 727
Bronchodilators 236, 726
Bronchospasm 564, 585, 781
Bronze diabetes 134
Brown flaxseeds 694f
Brown recluse 241, 241f
Brown sugar 262, 266
Brucine 421
Bruxism 323, 882
Buflomedil 443
Bulimia 404
Bulk-forming laxatives 693
Bullous lesions 526
Bumetanide 431
Bundle branch block 396
Bungarus 203
caeruleus 203, 204, 207, 208f, 226
fasciatus 204, 211, 211f
lividus 204
niger 204
Bupivacaine 360, 367, 369
Buprenorphine 263
Bupropion 321, 394, 408, 409, 864
Burning feet syndrome 165
Burning pain 60
Burnt rope 878
Burton's line 120, 120f
Burtonian line 130
Bushman's poison 503
Buspirone 304
Busulfan 748, 752
Butacaine 367
Butachlor 593
Butane 513, 546
mixture of 513
Butanilicaine 367
Butobarbitone 296
Butoconazole nitrate 673
Butorphanol 264, 360
Butriptyline 394
Butyrophenones 383
Butyrylcholinesterase 567
C
Cabazitaxel 769
Cabergoline 357
Cadmium 147, 147f
Caffeine 730, 734, 735, 858
dependence syndrome 734
overdose, acute 735
physiological effects of 734t
Calabar bean 574, 574f
Calcium 31, 688, 696, 732
antagonists 444
carbonate 688, 689
chloride 378, 433
disodium
edetate 143, 152
EDTA mobilization test 122
gluconate 158, 295
nephrolithiasis 432
oxalate 174, 175
crystals 79f, 294, 294f
silicate 688
therapy 447
Calcium channel blockers 433, 442, 444, 452, 477, 572, 744, 777
nonselective 444
uses of 445t
Calliophis
bibroni 204, 214
macclellandi 204
melanurus 214f
trimaculatus 204
Calloselasma 203
Calomel 126
Calotropis procera 503
Calymmatobacterium granulomatis 640
Cambendazole 683
Camellia sinensis 730
var assamica 730f
Camphor 554
Campylobacter 802
Canavalia maritima 900
Cancer
induction 781
occupational 929
Candida albicans 73
Cannabinoids 314, 700, 875
designer 329, 887
hyperemesis syndrome 316, 877
urine levels of 317, 878
Cannabis 308, 313, 314b, 858, 874, 876b, 922
indica 313, 874
broad leaf of 313f, 874f
ruderalis 313, 313f, 874, 875f
sativa 313, 313f, 874, 874f, 875
tea 315, 876
Capecitabine 757
Capillary column interface 921
Capillary leak syndrome 497, 759
Capreomycin 659
Capsaicin 186
Capsicum
annuum 185, 185f
frutescens 185, 185f
seeds 312
Captafol 598
Captan 598
Captopril 450
Carapichea ipecacuanha 24, 24f
Carbamate 560, 574, 575, 605, 607
common 573t
fungicides 597
insecticides 573, 574
pesticides 574
poisoning 568t
Carbamazepine 280, 342, 345, 391
poisoning, diagnosis of 346
toxicity, acute 345
Carbendazim 597
Carbendazole 597
Carbenicillin 644
Carbidopa 354
Carbimazole 706
Carbolic acid 7, 74
burns 77f
Carboloy-itch 151
Carbomycin 654
Carbon
dioxide 511
tetrachloride 557, 916
Carbon monoxide 11, 19, 39, 363, 511, 524, 525
poisoning 526f, 529b, 809
acute 525t
differential diagnosis of 525b
transfer factor for 152
Carbonic acid gas 511
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 429
Carboplatin 772
Carboxamides 342, 345
Carboxyhemoglobin level, estimation of 527
Carbromal 103
Carcinogen 516
Carcinogenicity 278, 598, 653, 708, 753, 832
Carcinogens 585
Carcinoid 699
Cardiac arrest, bupivacaine induced 370
Cardiac arrhythmia 15, 368, 406, 436, 469, 678, 741, 799
Cardiac disorders 759
Cardiac drugs 467
Cardiac effects 746
Cardiac failure 838
Cardiac glycosides 467, 503
Cardiac health 273b
Cardiac ischemia 415
Cardiac monitoring 346, 390, 406
continuous 361
Cardiac output, increases 726
Cardiac pacing, temporary 471
Cardiac rhythm, monitor 147, 732
Cardiomyopathy 151, 282, 334, 869
alcoholic 277f, 282f
chronic dilated 333
Cardioprotection 679
Cardiopulmonary bypass 28, 33
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 504
Cardiotoxic
plants 500
poisons 931
Cardiovascular collapse 368
Cardiovascular disease 862, 929
Cardiovascular effects 345
Cardiovascular poisons 427, 931
Cardiovascular side effects 780
Cardiovascular system 237, 926
Cardiovascular toxicity 389, 396
Carfentanyl 366
Carisoprodate 373
Carisoprodol 373
Carissa acokanthera 503
Carmustine 748, 753, 754
Carolina reaper 186f
Caroxozone 404
Carticaine 367
Cascara sagrada 695f, 696f
Caspian cobra 204
Cassava 508, 833
roots 533f, 833f
cross-section of 833f
Castor 7, 175
capsule 176f
oil 696
plant 176f
seeds 176f
Cat's eye test 310
Cataract 716
Catecholamines 726, 739
Catechol-O-methyltransferase 322, 355, 726, 881
Catha edulis 888, 889f
Catharsis 24, 26, 82
efficacy of 27
Cathartic colon 698
Cathinone 321, 329, 887, 888
derivatives 902
Caustic 59, 83, 101
potash 81
soda 81
Ceftaroline 647
Ceftazidime 819
Ceftobiprole 647
Celicera 240
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 800
Centipede 245, 246f
Central insecticides
board 606, 607
laboratory 606, 607
Central muscle relaxants 373
Central nervous system 11, 127, 176, 310, 321, 361, 369, 546, 719, 736
depression of 11, 14, 18
disorders 929
effects 564, 566
Central skeletal muscle relaxants 371
Central venous pressure 265
Centrilobular hepatic necrosis 620
Cephaelis ipecacuanha 24, 681
Cephalosporins 640, 645, 647, 648
fifth-generation 647
first-generation 647
fourth-generation 647
second generation 647
third-generation 647
Cerbera odollam 51, 503, 507, 507f, 508
Cerberetine 508
Cerberin 508
Cerebral arteritis 764
Cerebral edema 361, 430, 522, 715
management of 193
treatment of 722, 820
Cerebral gas emboli 87
Cerebral infarction 323, 882
Cerebral ischemia 415
Cerebral thrombosis 33
Cerebrospinal fluid 809
drainage 757
protein 809
Cerebrovascular accidents 336, 867, 871
Cetavlon 88
Cethromycin 654
Cetrilak 88
Cetrimide 88
Cetylpyridinium chloride 88
Chalcosis lentis 142
Champagne drug 338, 873
Chandan boda 209
Charas 315, 876
Charcoal
hemoperfusion 349
plasma perfusion 819
Chasing dragon 266, 266f
Chaulmoogra
oil 660
tree 660f
Cheese-tyramine reaction 405
Chelation 70
challenge test 137
principles of 115
provocative test 123
therapy 114, 132b, 133, 138, 152
Chemical 3, 282
analysis 50
ionization 921
warfare 524
Chemobrain 766
Chenathandan 209
Chest
anomalies 344
pain 336, 772, 871
recurrent 334, 869
X-ray 221, 527, 591
Chewing tobacco
plugs of 861f
twist of 861f
Chicken mite 245
Chili burns 186
Chills 33
Chillum 876
Chilly seed 185f, 186
Chilly workers’ cough 186
Chinaberry 102f, 192
Chinese herbal products, consumption of 184
Chinese restaurant syndrome 849
Chironex fleckeri 248
Chlamydia trachomatis 640
Chloracne 604, 604f
Chloral hydrate 31, 114, 270, 302, 916
Chlorambucil 750
Chloramine 511, 514
Chloramphenicol 640, 652
Chlorantraniliprole 602, 603
Chlorates 31
Chlordane 576
Chlordecone 576, 579
Chlordiazepoxide 298, 299
Chlorine 101, 102, 511
effects of 102t
liquid, ingestion of 103
Chlormethiazole 280
Chlormethine 748
Chlormezanone 373
Chloroacetanilide compounds 593
Chlorobenzilate 576
Chlorofluorocarbons 555
Chloroform 916
Chloroguanide 675
Chloromycetin 652
Chlorophenoxy compounds 593, 603
Chlorophyllum molybdites 827, 828f
Chloroprocaine 360, 367
Chloroquine 675, 678
Chlorothiazide 431
Chlorozotocin 753
Chlorpromazine 383, 387
Chlorpropamide 721
Chlorprothixene 383, 387
Chlortetracycline 650
Chlorthalidone 431
Chloruretic diuresis 86
Chlorzoxazone 373
Cholangiography 779
Cholecalciferol 586
Cholecystitis 758
Cholecystography 779
Cholera toxin 188, 799
Choleragen 799
Cholestasis 93, 654f, 742
Cholestatic hepatitis 654, 658
Cholestatic jaundice 714
Cholestyramine 481, 580
Cholinergic syndrome 9, 823
Cholinesterase 915
activity, depression of 567
enzymes 578
Chorea 22, 393
Choreoathetoid movements 323, 882
Chorionic gonadotropin 705
Chromatography 698
thin-layer 324, 568, 916, 917f
Chromic acid 70
Chronic exposure 61, 516, 518, 519, 550, 554, 555
Chronic extrapyramidal syndromes 386, 389
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 475, 727, 738
Chronic painter syndrome 898
Chrysanthemum
cinerariifolium 583
plant 583, 583f
Chvostek's sign 67, 78, 79f
Chylothorax 699
Cicatrisation phase, chronic 59
Ciclosporin 742
Cicuta maculata 424
Cicutoxin 424
Ciglitazone 724
Ciguatera
poisoning 841
toxins 842t
Ciguatoxin 842
Cilazapril 450
Cilostazol 495, 496
Cimetidine 391, 635, 690, 745, 819
Cinchocaine 367
Cinchona tree 675f
Cinchonism 676
Ciprofibrate 482
Circulatory failure 14
Circulatory shock, management of 99
Circulatory system 927
Cirrhosis 831
alcoholic 282f
Cisapride 697, 701
Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum 773
Cisplatin 772
Citalopram 399
Citrate toxicity 33
Citric acid 272
Citrullus colocynthis 178, 179f
Cladribine 757
Clarithromycin 402, 654, 660, 692
Claviceps purpurea 413, 413f, 891, 891f
Clavulanate 645
Claws 236
Cleistanthus collinus 195, 196f
Cleopatra 232
Climazolam 298
Clindamycin 662
Clioquinol 681
Clitocybe
clavipes 824
dealbata 823f
Clobazam 342
Clobetasol propionate 715
Clofarabine 757
Clofazimine 660, 661
Clofibrate 482
Clomifene 709
Clomiphene 709
Clomipramine 394
Clonazepam 298, 299, 342
Clonidine 280, 434, 864
Clopamide 431
Clopenthixol 383
Clopidogrel 495
Clorazepate 298, 342
Clorexolone 431
Clostridium 805
baratii 805
botulinum 262, 266, 806, 806f, 808
butyricum 805
perfringens 794, 806f
tetani 223, 266
Clothianidin 601
Clothiapine 383
Clotrimazole 673, 745
Cloxacillin 644
Clozapine 383, 390, 392
Cnidaria 247
Cnidocytes 247
Coagulation abnormality, treatment of 229
Coagulopathy, treatment of 820
Coal gas 513, 530
Coal tar warts 555
Cobalt 149, 149f
itch 151
poisoning, chronic 151
Cobra 203
bite 217f, 218f
Coca
cultivation 338f
plant 330, 330f
Cocaethylene 868
Cocaine 7, 114, 321, 330, 338, 339, 339b, 360, 367, 858, 865, 866
abuse 868
complications of 339b, 874b
bugs 334, 869
crash 333, 868
freebase 865
medical complications of 334b, 869b
packers 874
poisoning, treatment of 871t
powder 330f, 865f
teratogenic effects of 339t, 874t
washed out syndrome 332, 867
withdrawal 334, 869
Cocoa 730
Codeine 254, 264
Coelenterata 247
Coenzyme Q 261
Coffea arabica 730, 730f, 734
Coffee 730
ground vomit 60
Cognitive dysfunction, postoperative 363
Coke pipe 331, 865
Cola acuminata 731f
Cola-flavored drinks 730
Colchicine 181, 194
bodies 195
overdose 181
poisoning 194t
Colchicum autumnale 193, 194
ingestion 194
Coleoptera 232
Colesevelam 481
Colestipol 481
Colestyramine 481
Colistin sulfate 664
Colitis 333, 745, 867
Colocynth 178
fruit 179f
Colonoscopy revealing melanosis coli 698f
Color tests 915
Colubrid bite 217
Coma 256, 276, 311, 346, 354, 362, 368, 533, 620, 656, 703
cocktail 19
hysterical 13
toxic causes of 14t
Comfrey 472, 473f, 505
Common abstinence syndrome 278
Common cobra 203, 204, 206, 206f
Common dermal irritant plants 190t
Common designer drugs 328t, 886t
Common fatal plants 173t
Common green pit viper 203, 212, 212f
Common krait 203, 204, 206, 207
Common snake venoms, toxicity of 216t
Compartment syndrome 526
Complete blood count 121, 752, 914
Computed tomography scan 262
Concussio mercurialis 130
Confusion 292, 393, 496
Congenital anomalies 874
Congestive heart failure 33, 473
chronic 431
Coniine 423
Conium maculatum 423
Conivaptan 477
Conjunctivitis 797, 798
Conocybe cyanopus 826
Conservative management 229
Constipation 356, 699, 807
toxic causes of 693b
Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration 32, 33f, 138, 349
Continuous positive airway pressure 97, 145, 182, 198, 512, 522, 832
Convallaria majalis 503
Convulsions 20, 33, 260, 267, 291, 310312, 323, 325, 332, 336, 369, 379, 392, 398, 415, 583, 586, 656, 703, 733, 761, 770, 822, 867, 871, 882, 884, 904
clinical triad of 656
control of 193, 195, 394, 657
diazepam for 642
management of 389
toxic causes of 21t
treatment of 679, 702, 722
Coopman classification 714
Copelandia cyanescens 826
Copper 139
acetate 140
alloys 140
carbonate 140
chloride 140
compounds 140
cyanide 140
nitrate 140
oxide 140
sulfate 7, 25, 139, 140, 140f
toxic salts of 140t
Coprine-containing mushrooms 824
Coprinopsis atramentaria 824, 824f
Coproporphyrinogen oxidase 118
Coral snakes 203, 213
Corneal injury 588
Corneal microdeposits 461
Cornpickers eye 310
Coronary artery
disease 783
dissection 333
vasoconstriction 333, 867
Coronella brachyura 207
Corrosion 49
Corrosives 27, 59, 104, 762, 931
poisons 57
Corticosteroids 123, 236, 688, 700, 714, 715t, 737
inhaled 737
topical 190, 715
toxicokinetics of 716t
Corticotropin 714
Corticotropin-releasing hormone 714
Cortinarius
orellanoides 828
orellanus 828, 828f, 829
speciosissimus 829
Cortisol 714
Cortisone 715
Cosyntropin 714
stimulation test 714
Cotinine 861, 863
Cotrimoxazole 640
Cotton fever 262
Cough 448
syrups 264f
Coumarins 485
COX-2 inhibitors 628, 631
Crack eye 332, 867
Crack hands 334, 869
Cranial nerves 238
Craniofacial anomalies 344
Creatine kinase 221, 349, 512
Creatine phosphokinase, massive elevation of 333
Creatinine phosphokinase 493
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 705
Crime 284
Criminal Law Amendment Act 63
Criminal Procedure Code 41
Croconazole hydrochloride 673
Crofelemer 699
Crohn's disease 737
Cromolyn 737
Crotalinae 203
Crotaline snakes 212
Croton 179
lechleri 700, 700f
tiglium 179
variegatum 180, 180f
Crush syndrome 258
Cryolite 105
Cryptelytrops erythrurus 204
Cryptosporidium parvum 814, 815f
Cryptostegia grandiflora 503
Crystalluria 641, 760
Cupric chloride 140
Cupric sulfate 140
Cuprous chloride 140
Curare 7
Curcanoleic acid 199
Curcin 199
Cutaneous bullae 296
Cutaneous paresthesias 586
Cyamopsis psoraloides 693
Cyanide 7, 511, 530, 536
poisoning 537f
rash 533
Cyanogen 530
Cyanogenic fruits 539
Cyanogenic glycosides 531
Cyanogenic plants 531t, 831, 833
Cyanosis 375, 512
Cycads 832, 836
palms 836f
Cycas circinalis 836
Cycasin 836
Cyclic antidepressant 394, 395
overdose 396b
Cyclic benzyl-isoquinoline 374
Cycloate 597
Cyclobenzaprine 371, 379
Cyclodienes 576
Cyclomethycaine 367
Cyclooxygenase 629
Cycloparaffins 545
Cyclopenthiazide 432
Cyclopeptide-containing mushrooms 816
Cyclophosphamide 592, 749
Cycloserine 659
Cyclosporine 742, 744, 745
blood levels of 743
therapy 742
Cyclothiazide 432
Cyproheptadine 635
Cyproterone acetate 713, 770
Cyrotherapy 223
Cysteamine 626
Cystic fibrosis, treatment of 430
Cytarabine therapy, high-dose 759
Cytochrome oxidase 532
Cytokines 748
Cytolethal distending toxin 803
Cytomegalovirus 746
Cytosine arabinoside, high-dose 759
Cytostatics 742
Cytotoxic drugs 742, 776t
D
Daboia russelii 204, 209, 209f, 221, 226
Dacarbazine 748, 754
Daclizumab 748
Dactinomycin 764
Dactylosporangium aurantiacum 664
Danazol 745
Danbury tremor 129
Dangerous Drugs Act 45
Dantrolene 326, 371, 379
sodium 388
Dapsone 660
Daptomycin 664
Darbepoetin alfa 496
Date rape 302
Datun 193
Datura 7, 308
abuse 313
alkaloids, uses of 309t
fastuosa 308f
fruit capsule of 309f
fruit capsule with seeds 309f
metel
flower of 309f
leaves of 309f
seed 185, 185f, 186
stramonium 308
Daucus carota 424
Daunorubicin 766
Dead men's bells 467
Deaddiction 280
Death 262, 310, 533
penalty, imposition of 45t
ring of 816
Decarboxylase 118
Decitabine 757
Decongestants 633, 636
Decontamination 11, 23, 177, 179, 183, 300, 344, 389, 392, 411, 470, 548, 553, 557, 568, 580, 583, 595, 657, 666, 679, 721, 743, 776, 819, 827
Deep tendon reflexes 809
Deferasirox 138
Deferiprone 138
Deferoxamine 138b
Degreaser's flush 557
Dehydrase 118
Dehydration 616, 695, 799
Dehydrocholic acid 696
Dehydroemetine 681
Deinagkistrodon 203
Deliriants 253, 308, 931
Delirium 21, 239, 310, 311, 572, 582, 585, 761, 878, 895, 901
tremens 278, 279, 303
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol 314, 875
Delusions 278
Demeclocycline 650, 651
Demecolcine 194
Dementia 21, 278
Demoxytocin 777
Dendroaspis 203
Denopamine 726
Dental fillings 134f
Dental fluorosis 105, 105f
Deoxybarbiturates 342, 345
Depressant 931
Depression 383, 399, 404, 564
severe 892
Depressive disorder 407
Depressive syndrome 735
Dequalinium 88
Dermacentor toxins 244
Dermal absorption 75b
Dermal burns, treatment of 95, 558
Dermal clues 8
Dermal decontamination 554
Dermal disorders 929
Dermal exposure 144, 516, 595
Dermal irritant 189t
plants 173, 189
Dermal lesions, treatment of 548
Dermal scar 258f
Dermanyssus gallinae 245
Dermatitis 189, 764
allergic contact 190
treatment of contact 190
Deserpidine 437
Desferrioxamine 138, 138b, 593
challenge test 916
Desflurane 360, 364
Designer amphetamine 327
Designer
drugs 265, 858, 886, 887
sedatives 887
steroids 886
stimulants 887
Desipramine 394
Desogestrel 710
Desonide 715
Desoximetasone 715
Desoxypipradrol 887
Desvenlafaxine 399
Detoxification 280
accelerated 36
Devil's element 91
Dexamethasone 592, 715
Dexrazoxane 766
Dextran therapy 488
Dextromethorphan 264
hydrobromide 103
Dextropropoxyphene 268
napsylate 268
Dextrose 19, 68, 378, 433, 449, 451
Diabetes mellitus
insulin-dependent 718
new-onset 391
noninsulin-dependent 718
predisposition to 704
Diacetylmorphine 265
Diacylglycerol 153
Dialkoxy 563
Diallate 597
Dialysis
disequilibrium syndrome 430
indications for 230
Diamide insecticides 602
Diarrhea
bloody 803
severe 27
triad of 843
Diazepam 22, 97, 224, 298, 299, 342, 360, 392, 402, 441, 452, 571, 634, 657, 699, 703, 745, 752
treatment of 702
Diazinon 7
Dibenzodiazepines 383, 390
Dibenzothiazepine 383
Dibenzoxazepine 383, 387
Dibucaine 360, 367
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane 576
Dichlorphenamide 429
Dichlorvos poisoning 573f
Dicholine ester 374
Dichromate test 916
Dicloxacillin 644
Dicobalt edetate 535
Dicofol 576
Didanosine 667
Dideoxyinosine 667
Dieldrin 576
Dienochlor 576
Diethoxy compound 563
Diethyl phosphate 568
Diethylcarbamazine 683
Diethylmethylbenzamide 582
Diethylstilbestrol 708
Diethyltoluamide 560, 582
Difenoxin 699
Diflorasone diacetate 715
Diflunisal 614
Digibind 471
Digifab therapy 471, 472b
Digitalis 500
delirium 468
glycosides 469t
lanata 467, 467f, 468
leaf 505f
poisoning
acute 469t
treatment of 470t
purpurea 467, 467f, 468, 503, 505
toxicity 469
Digitin 467
Digitonin 469
Digitoxigenin 503
Digitoxin 467
Digoxin 467, 470, 572, 922
fab fragments 507
immunoreactive substance 470
poisoning
acute 472
acute-on-chronic 472
chronic 472
specific antibody 470, 505
Dihydroartemisinin 681
Dihydropyridine 444
Dihydrosanguinarine 837
Dihydrotestosterone 713, 769
Dihydroxy alcohols 270
Dihydroxyaluminum
aminoacetate 688
sodium carbonate 688
Dilated pupils 310
Diloxanide furoate 681
Dilute phosphoric acid 69
Dimercaprol 114, 132, 143, 152
Dimercapto propane sulfonic acid 71, 114
Dimercaptosuccinic acid 114, 124b
Dimethoxy 563
Dimethyl
phosphate 568
phthalate 583
sulfide 110
Dimethylaminophenol 535
Dimethyltryptamine 896
Dinitrobutylphenol 600
Dinitrocresol 600
Dinitrophenol 600
Dinoflagellates 842
Dinotefuran 601
Di-N-propyl isocinchomeronate 583
Dioxins 594, 603, 604f
Diperodon 367
Diphenhydramine 355, 702
Diphenoxylate 264, 699
Diphenylbutylpiperidines 383
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate 521
Diphtheria 809
toxin 188
Diphyllobothriasis 815
Diphyllobothrium latum 815
proglottids of 815f
Diplopia 310
Diplopoda 246
Dipyridamole 476, 495
Dipyrone 627
Diquat 588
Dirithromycin 654
Discolor urine 76t
Disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate dehydrate 443
Disopyramide 379, 452
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 83, 218, 323, 375, 617
Dissociative drugs 858
Distal renal tubular acidosis 196
Disulfiram 281, 598
ethanol reaction 281t
like reaction 648, 674, 682
therapy, principles of 281
Diuretics 429, 433, 467, 472
Divalproex 347
sodium 342, 347
Dizziness 391, 442, 512, 574, 703
Dobutamine 473, 474, 726, 727
Docetaxel 768
Docusate sodium 696
Dogbane 503
Dolasetron 636
Dolichovespula species 233
Domestic
fuels 3
gas 513, 524
pesticides 3
Domnaciti 207
Domoic acid 848
Domperidone 701703
products 703
Donepezil 416
Dopamimetic agent 872
Dopamine 97, 390, 412, 473
low-dose 782
Dopaminergic receptor agonists 467, 473
Dopexamine 726
Dorzolamide 429
Dosulepin 394
Doxacurium 374
Doxazosin 441
Doxepin 394
Doxifluridine 757
Doxorubicin 766
Doxycycline 650, 651
D-penicillamine 123
Dragon's blood 700
Droloxifene 709, 770
Dronabinol 314, 875
Dronedarone 462
Droperidol 365, 383, 384, 387
Drowsiness 435, 442
Drugs 42, 103, 223
absorption, reduce 398
abuse, surreptitious 859b
acting on uterus 726, 777
anesthetics 931
anti-anginal 477
antianxiety 383
antiarrhythmic 367, 429, 451, 452, 455, 505, 931
antiarthritic 73
antiasthmatic 726
antibacterial 640, 662
anticytomegaloviral 666
antifungal 640, 671
antiherpesvirus 640
antiherpetic 665
anti-infective 640, 931
anti-inflammatory 726, 737
antileprotic 640, 660
antimalarial 640, 674, 679
antimanic 409
anti-migraine 413
antineoplastic 73
antiparkinsonian 253, 342, 354
anti-platelet 485, 495
antiprotozoal 640, 682
antiretroviral 640, 667
antithyroid 688, 705, 706
antitubercular 640, 655
antiviral 640, 665
champagne 338, 873
combination effects 333, 868
common designer 328t, 886t
consultative committee 42
control laboratories 42
cytotoxic 742, 776t
designer 265, 858, 886, 887
dissociative 858
ergot 414t
fever 745
gastrointestinal 688
hepatotoxic 931
illicit 313
immunosuppressive 741
induced movement disorders 23t
induced myopathies 22
induced oral manifestations 10t
induced psychosis 825
induced tremor 23t
inducing crystalluria 641t
inhalant 897
interactions 346, 355, 376, 391, 416, 446, 480, 486, 643, 697, 735, 742, 861
mind altering 931
miscellaneous 611
narcotic 45, 254
nephrotoxic 931
neuroleptic 385
non-neuroleptic 385
performance-enhancing 724
prokinetic 688, 700
psychedelic 253, 891, 931
radioactively labeled 921, 922
sedative-hypnotic 931
somniferous 253, 931
sympatholytic 433
therapeutic 3
underground 886
Drugs and Cosmetics Act 42
Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 42, 43b
Drugs and Magic Remedies Act 1954 44
Drugs Control Act 44
Drugs Technical Advisory Board 42
Drunken gait 310
Drunkenness 283
certification of 285b
Dry bite 202, 216
Dry gripes 125
Dry hot skin 310
Dry ice 511f
Dry mouth 452
D-tubocurarine 374
Duloxetine 399, 400
Dumb cane 77, 77f, 173, 174f
Duodenal ulcer 690
Dyclonine 360, 367, 368
Dysarthria 292
Dyscontrol reaction 299
Dyscrasias 432
Dysequilibrium syndrome 33
Dyskinesia 355
Dysphagia 310
Dyspnea 574, 772, 774
Dystonia 22
acute 386, 389
Dysuria 310
E
E-aminocaproic acid 492
Eaton-Lambert syndrome 244
Ecchymosis 716
Echinocandins 672
Echinococcus granulosus 683
Echinodermata 247
Echis carinatus 203, 204, 206, 208, 209, 209f, 216, 221, 226
sochureki 204, 208
Econazole 673
Ecstasy 327, 886
tablets, collection of 328f, 887f
Ectopic pregnancy 754
Edema 432, 698, 712
peripheral 704
Edrophonium challenge test 916
Elapid snakebite 809
Elapidae 203, 204
Elapids 202
Elapsoidea 203
Electrocardiogram 690
Electroencephalogram 702
Electrolyte 914, 915
abnormalities 243, 799
disorders 363
disturbances 23, 375, 432
imbalance 27, 32
replacement 799
Electromyogram 568
Electromyographic studies 363
Electromyography 810
monitor 184
Electron
capture detector 920
impact 921
micrograph 804f
Electroretinography 290
Electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy 121
Elemental copper 140
Elemental lead 117f
Elemental mercury 126, 126f, 128
Eletriptan 415
Elevated amylase 290
Elevated creatine
kinase 243
phosphokinase 290, 526
Elimination enhancement 412, 776
measures 337, 872
Eluxadoline 700
Emergency 454
laparotomy 62
Emesis 24, 82, 738
Emetine 681
Empathicogens 888
Empathogens 329
Emperor scorpion 237
Enalapril 450
Encainide 457, 458
Encephalitis 809
Encephalitozoon 816
Encephalopathy 123
delayed 565
hypoxic-ischemic 451
Endemic hydroarsenicism 116
Endocrinal drugs 688, 704
Endocrine 278
disorders 718
effects 712
tumors 699
Endosulfan 576
Endothelin receptor blockers 433
Endotoxic septicemia 473
Endotracheal intubation 346, 810
Endrin 576
Enflurane 360, 362, 363
Enhydrina schistosa 204
Enicillium griseofulvin 674
Enocitabine 759
Enoximone 475
Entactogens 329, 888
Entamoeba histolytica 813, 814f
Enteroadherent strains 800
Enteroaggregative strains 800
Enterobius vermicularis 683
Enterococcus faecium 665
Enterocytozoon 816
Enterohemorrhagic strains 800
Enteroinvasive strains 800
Enteropathogenic strains 800
Enterotoxigenic strains 800
Enteroviruses 813
Entoloma grande 827
Environmental Protection Act 607
Environmental Protection Agency 131
Enzymatic cleavage 757
Enzyme 748, 767, 922
immunoassay 595, 846
inhibition 14
mediated immunoassay technique 915, 922
Eperezolid 665
Ephedrine 329, 636, 887
Epidemic dropsy 838, 838f
Epidemic spastic paraparesis 834
Epinephrine 726, 739
Epipodophyllotoxins 748, 767
Epirubicin 766
Epitizide 431
Eplerenone 432
Epoetin
alfa 496
beta 496
gamma 496
Epsilon-aminocaproic acid 492
Epsom salt 694f
Eptifibatide 495
Erectile dysfunction 782
male 783
Erethism 130
Ergocalciferol 586
Ergot alkaloids 413, 777, 830
Ergot drugs 414t
Ergotism 414
Erwinia chrysanthemi 767
Erysimum cheiranthoides 503
Erythema 764
multiforme 347
nodosum 803
leprosum 661
Erythromycin 391, 654, 745
Erythropoiesis, stimulation of 712
Erythropoietin 496
Erythroxylum
coca 330, 367
novogranatense 330
Escherichia coli 767, 800
enteroadherent 800
enteroaggregative 800
enterohemorrhagic 800, 801f
enteroinvasive 800
enteropathogenic 800
enterotoxigenic 800
Escitalopram 399
Eslicarbazepine 342
Esmolol 379
Esophagitis 81, 689
Esophagus, perforation of 26
Estazolam 298
Esters 715
Estrogens 688, 708
Eszopiclone 305
Ethacrynic acid 431
Ethambutol 659
Ethanol 7, 31, 270, 273b, 282b, 284, 287, 290, 295, 771, 920
administration of 290t
concentrations 271t
idiosyncratic intoxication 276
pharmacological effects of 272
withdrawal syndrome 9
Ethanol-disulfiram reaction, management of 281
Ethionamide 659, 660
Ethosuximide 342, 347
Ethotoin 342
Ethoxylated surfactant 596
Ethoxzolamide 429
Ethyl hexanediol 583
Ethylene
glycol 7, 293, 920
thiourea 598
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 567
Ethyleneimine 748
Ethylenimine 742
Etidocaine 360, 367
Etizolam 899
Etomidate 360, 364
Etoperidone 407
Etoposide 767
Etozolin 431
Eubacterium lentum 468
Eucalyptol 197
Eucalyptus 197, 198
globulus 198
oil 197
tree 198f
Eunectes murinus 203
Euphoria 322, 512, 881
Eustrongylides
anisakis 815
excisus 815
larvae of 815f
Eustrongylidiasis 815
Euthanasia 298
Ewald tube 25, 26f
Excessive antidiuretic hormone 762
Excretion 866
Explosive mixture 513
Extracellular volume depletion 432
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation 34
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 28, 33, 34f, 440, 454, 697
Extracorporeal sorbent-based devices 627
Extracorporeal techniques 28, 29
Extraocular muscle palsy, triad of 807
Extremity 719
tingling of 512
Eye 23, 85, 719, 926
contact 584, 585
exposure 97, 144, 533, 593
treatment of 95
injury 61
response 925
Ezetimibe 480, 483
F
Facial flushing 476
Factories Act 607
Faintness 442
Famotidine 635
Fanconi syndrome 119, 651
Fangs 201
marks 220, 220f
Fasciculations 22
toxic causes of 22b
Fast neutron activation analysis 122
Fat redistribution 716
Fatal dose, usual 7, 69, 72, 75, 78, 83, 118, 135
Fatal liver cirrhosis 758
Fatal mushroom poisoning 821f
Fatigue 461, 512, 703
Fat-tailed scorpions 236
Fatty degeneration 558
Fatty liver 831, 282
enlarged 96
Fava bean 832, 835, 835f
Fava crisis 835
Febrile inhalational syndromes 928
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 850
Fehling's test, positive 557
Felbamate 342, 351
Fenamates 628, 630
Fenamic acids 628, 630
Fenbendazole 683
Fenofibrate 482
Fenopraine 459
Fenoterol 777
Fenquizone 432
Fentanyl 265, 365
citrate 365
Fenticonazole nitrate 673
Ferbam 597
Ferric chloride test 617, 629, 838, 916
Ferrochelatase 118
Ferrous sulfate 134, 134f
Fertilizers 92, 931
Fetal alcohol syndrome 278, 278f, 281
Fetal death 874
Fetal hydantoin syndrome 343, 344f, 344t
Fetal tobacco syndrome 864
Fetal toxicity 766
Fetal valproate syndrome 348, 348f
Fetal warfarin syndrome 489, 489f
Fetor hepaticus 94
Fever 184, 803, 809
Fibrates 482
Fibric acid derivatives 480, 482
Fibrotic occupational lung diseases, chronic 928
Fidaxomicin 664
Filariasis 838
Fipronil 601
Fire ants 233, 233f
bites 235f
Fire medusa 248
First aid 66, 222, 238, 246
Fish tapeworm disease 815
Flaccid paralysis 807
Flame ionization 920
detectors 920
Flashback phenomena 892
Flatulence 699
Flavin adenine dinucleotide 109
Flea bitten appearance 115
Flecainide 457, 458, 572
Flibanserin 785
Floppy baby syndrome 155, 411
Floppy infant syndrome 300
Floxuridine 757
Flualprozolam 900
Flubromazepam 899
Fluconazole 673, 745
Flucytosine 672
Fludarabine 761
phosphate 761
Fluid
disturbances 432
overload 33
Flumazenil 300, 301, 399
Flunitrazepam 298, 299
Fluocinolone acetonide 715
Fluocinonide 715
Fluorides 31, 105
Fluorine 101, 104
Fluoroketolides 654
Fluorophosphates 563, 640, 642, 643
Fluoroquinolones 642
Fluorosis 105, 114
Fluorouracil 757
Fluoxetine 391, 399, 400
Flupenthixol 384, 387
Fluperlapine 383
Fluphenazine 383
Fluprednisolone 715
Flurandrenolide 715
Flurazepam 298, 299
Fluspirilene 363
Flutamide 713, 769
blood levels 714
Fluticasone propionate 715
Fluvoxamine 391, 399
Folic acid antagonists 748, 754
Folinerin 503
Folinic acid 291, 361, 756, 757t
Follicle stimulating hormone 705
Fomepizole 291, 295, 899
Food
additives 849, 849t
grade hydrogen peroxide 86
poisoning 791, 793, 805, 815, 816, 832, 840, 849, 931
prevention of 793
Foodborne
botulism 806, 807, 808t, 810
illnesses 795
Forced diuresis 28, 70
Forced vital capacity 810
Forensic
issue 65, 73, 82, 84, 86, 139, 178, 293, 318, 330, 380, 451, 897
scientist, role of 52
significance 63, 370, 433, 491, 604, 724, 741, 777, 830
Forest scorpion 237f
Formaldehyde 7, 288, 511, 515
Formalin 515
Formic acid 73, 288
Forrest test 916
Foscarnet 666
Fosinopril 450
Fosphenytoin 342
Fotemustine 753
Foxglove 500, 503, 505
Fragmentation pattern 921
Frangipani 503
Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin 121
French lilac 722, 722f
Fresh frozen plasma 229, 763
Frostbite 106, 512
treatment of 512, 548
Frosty coating 87
Frovatriptan 415
Fruit
capsule 254
kernel of 508
Frusemide 431, 872
Fugu poisoning 843
Fujiwara test 916
Fuller's earth 591
Fulminant poisoning 93
Fumes 539
Fumigants 560, 931
Fundoscopy 290
Fungi 560
Fungicides 560
Furans 603
Furosemide 97, 229, 431
G
Gabapentin 342, 349
Galactorrhea 770
Galantamine 416
Galega officinalis 722
Gallbladder disease 708
Gambierdiscus toxicus 842
Gametocytocides 675
Gamma glutamyl transferase activity 915
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 299, 349, 353, 371, 656
Gamma-coniceine 423
Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane 576
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate 903
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid 280
Gamotidine 690
Ganciclovir 666
Ganglionic blocking agents 433, 436
Ganja 314, 315f, 875
Gap acidosis 20
Garden carrot 425f
Garlicky odor 96, 99
Gas 545
chromatograph 258, 352, 915, 919, 919f, 921
mass spectrometer 325, 921f
emboli 87
eye 519
gangrene 805
Gasoline 546
Gastric
decontamination 425, 756
irritant plants 173, 175
lavage 24, 25, 82, 297, 504
solutions for 26t
mucosa 100f, 101f
ulcer 690
Gastrinoma 699
Gastritis 292
acute 688
Gastroenteritis, vibrio-related 799
Gastroesophageal reflux disease 688, 690
Gastrointestinal bleeding 431, 616, 688
Gastrointestinal complaints 469
Gastrointestinal distress 753
Gastrointestinal disturbances 476, 703
Gastrointestinal drugs 688
Gastrointestinal effects 333
Gastrointestinal symptoms 389
Gastrointestinal tract 562, 926
contrast radiography of 779
Gastroscopy 445
Gateway drug 318
Gautheria oil 614
Geiger counter 923
Gelsemine 931
Gemcitabine 757
Genocide of Jews 537
Gentamicin 650
Geranamine 887
Ghonas 209
Giant
centipede 245
interstitial pneumonia 151f
Gingival bleeding 219f
Gingival hyperplasia 445f
Gingival hypertrophy 343f
Ginkgo fruit tree 189
Gitalin 467
Gitoxin 467
Glasgow coma scale 11, 259, 310, 351, 424, 925
Glass jaw 94
Glaucoma 430
angle-closure 452
Glibenclamide 721
Glipizide 721
Glomerulonephritis 658, 715
Gloriosa superba 180, 181, 182
Gloriosine 181
Glory lily 180, 180f
Gloydius himalayanus 204, 213, 213f
Glucagon 439, 447, 720, 721, 723
Glucarpidase 757
Glucocorticoids 714, 742, 745
withdrawal syndrome 716
Glucomannan 693, 694
Gluconic acid 688
Glucose 719, 914
intolerance 391
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 915
Glutathione S-transferase 621
Glutethimide 31
Glycerine 430, 694
Glycerol 123
Glyceryl trinitrate 477, 477f, 478t
Glycol 73
Glycolic acid 294
Glycopeptides 584
Glycoproteins 584
hormones 705
Glycopyrrolate 570, 573
Glyphosate 596
Goat colchicine Fab fragments 195
Godambi 182
Goiter, cobalt-induced 150
Gokhra 206
Golee 315, 876
Golf balls 146
Gonadotropic hormones 705
Gongylophis conicus 210, 210f
Gram stain 794f, 796f, 806f
Granisetron 636
Granulocyte
colony-stimulating factor 185, 392, 496, 707, 757, 760
macrophage colony-stimulating factor 707, 753, 760
Granulocytopenia 753
Gray baby syndrome 653, 653f
Gray's viper 204
Green hair discoloration 142
Green pit viper 212
Green tobacco sickness 862
Grepafloxacin 643
Grim portents 131b
Griseofulvin 674
Groote Eylandt syndrome 159
Guanabenz 434
Guanadrel 436
Guanethidine 436
Guanfacine 434
Guanidine 811
Guar bean with potatoes 693f
Guar gum 693
Guillain-Barré syndrome 146, 165, 244, 808, 809, 809t
Guineafowl puffer 844f
Gunas 209
Gut 24
decontamination 311
Gymnodinium breve 847
Gymnothorax flavimarginatus 842
Gynecomastia 770
Gynura bicolor 605
Gyromitra esculenta 821, 821f, 822
Gyromitrin 821
H
Haber-Weiss cycle 141
Haemophilus influenzae 640
Hair
analysis 132, 335, 870
bleaching 86
color, disorder of 144
level 113
Hairy cell leukemia 603
Hairy spiders 244
Halazepam 298
Halcinonide 715
Hallucinations 310, 311, 332, 415, 486, 867, 889, 890t
Hallucinogen 253, 858, 887, 889, 897, 931
classification of 891
syndrome 9
Halobetasol propionate 715
Halofantrine's metabolite 680
Halofantrine's overdose, treatment of 680
Halogenated hydrocarbons 545, 555
uses of 556t
Halogens 101
Halometasone 715
Haloperidol 383, 384, 387
Halothane 360, 361, 362
hydrobromide 103
Hand-and-foot syndrome 768, 769, 758
Hapalochlaena maculosa 844
Hard metal lung disease 151, 151f
Harmful substance use, episode of 857
Harold shipman 53
Hashish 315, 876
blocks of 315f, 876f
oil 315
Hawaiian baby woodrose 892f
Hazardous substance use 857
Headache 292, 322, 476, 496, 512, 574, 728, 778, 803, 867, 881
syndrome 735
Health effects of ethanol, long-term 273f
Hearing
disorders 929
loss 676
sensorineural 654
Heart 282f
attack trial 441
block 398
failure, drugs used in 467
rate 726
Heavy cannabis 877
Heavy chronic amphetamine, manifestations of 324, 883
Heavy metal 73, 108, 114, 409, 931
pneumonitis 928
Hebeloma crustuliniforme 827
Helicobacter pylori 682, 690, 692
Hematemesis 219f
Hematite 134
Hematocrit 915
Hematological disorders 930
Hematological tests 915
Hematoma over gluteal region 226f
Hematopoietic growth factors 485, 496
Hematuria 760
Hemibungarus nigrescens 204
Hemiscorpius lepturus 236, 237
Hemochromatosis 134
Hemoconcentration 799
Hemodiafiltration 33, 115, 147, 402, 618
Hemodialysis 28, 29f, 115, 147, 156, 261, 293, 295, 349, 370, 392, 402, 436, 592, 596, 647, 618, 666, 720, 757, 829
factors affecting efficacy of 30b
high efficiency 347
indications for 30
principle of 29
Hemofiltration 28, 32, 402
continuous 627
Hemolysis 661, 675
evidence of 221
Hemolytic anemia 678
Hemolytic manifestations 553
Hemolytic uremic syndrome 676, 765, 798, 802
Hemoperfusion 28, 31, 297, 392, 436, 592, 757
circuit 31f
Hemorrhage 32
diffuse alveolar 333
intracerebral 323, 882
intrapulmonary 221
Hemorrhagic phenomena 486
Hemorrhagic tracheobronchitis 292
Hemotoxins 215
Henry's law 271
Heparin 485
rebound 487
Hepatic
cirrhosis 430
disease 718, 930
dysfunction 656, 745
encephalopathy 557t, 714
failure 831
necrosis 333, 558, 714
steatosis 668
Hepatitis 362, 696, 758, 769, 831
alcoholic 277f
B 31
chronic active 93
Hepatocellular carcinoma 831
Hepatocellular injury, acute 93
evidence of 621
Hepatorenal failure 822
Hepatorenal toxins 555
Hepatotoxic
agents 93t
drugs 931
plants 192
Hepatotoxicity 434, 461, 706, 709
management of 193
Hepatotoxin 93
Herbal smoking blends 900
Herbicide 560, 574, 587, 596, 931
Herbs 560
Hereditary angioneurotic edema, treatment of 712
Heroin 7, 265
Heroin-lung 257
Heterocyclic acetic acids 628, 631
Heterometrus indus 237f
Hexachlorocyclohexanes 576
Hexamethonium 436
Hexamethylmelamine 748
Hexobarbitone 296
Hexylacaine 367
High anion gap 289, 656
acidosis 289, 294
High dependency units 259
High performance liquid chromatography, applications of 920
Higher-osmolality contrast agents 778
Himalayan pit viper 204, 213, 213f
Hindu culture 318
Hippie generation 879
Hirsutism 347, 713, 716
Hirudin 493
Hirudo medicinalis 493f
Histamine 840
fish poisoning 840
release effects 375
Histotoxic anoxia 532
Hodgkin's lymphomas 762
Hoigne syndrome 645, 646
Hollister's criteria 891
Homatropine methylbromide 103
Homicidal poison 52, 96, 115, 530
suspected 52
Homicide 232, 266, 537
Homomenthyl salicylate 614
Homosalate 614
Honeybee 233, 233f
Hormone 748
replacement therapy 708
Horse-shoe viper 204, 212
Hospital odor 74
Hottentotta tamulus 236, 237, 237f, 239
Hourglass spider 242
Household
bleach 102
chemicals 3
insecticides 607
pets 797
Human carcinogen 550
Human growth hormone 704
Human tick paralysis 244
Human-derived botulism immune globulin 811
Hump-nosed pit viper 204, 206, 213, 213f
Hunter serotonin toxicity criteria 401
Huntsman spider 241
Hyaline membranes 461f
Hyaluronidase 215
Hyamine 2389 88
Hydantoins 342
Hydnocarpic acid 660
Hydnocarpus wightiana 660
Hydralazine 441
Hydrargyrism 129
Hydroarsenicism 116
Hydrocarbons 543, 545
Hydrochloric acid 65, 65f
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons 555
Hydrochlorothiazide 431
Hydrocortisone 714, 715
butyrate 715
valerate 715
Hydrocyanic acid 530, 531
Hydroflumethiazide 431
Hydrofluoric acid 65, 66, 105
burns 66, 66t
Hydrofluorocarbons 555
Hydrogen
cyanide 530, 531
ion concentration 181, 505
molecules 545
nitride 514
peroxide 86, 588
sulphide 511, 518
Hydrophid bite 219
Hydroxocobalamin 535
Hydroxy compounds 298
Hydroxycarbamide 773
Hydroxychloroquine poisoning 678
Hydroxyl
free radical 588
radicals 141
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate 710
Hydroxytryptamine antagonists 633, 635
Hydroxyurea 773, 774
Hydrozoa 247
Hygiene 794
Hymenoptera
stings 232, 235, 236
venom 234t
Hyoscine 309
Hyoscyamine 309
Hyperacute form 589
Hyperammonemic encephalopathy, severe 348
Hyperamylasemia 566
Hyperbaric oxygen 39, 479, 528, 536
therapy, indications for 529b
Hyperbilirubinemia 742
Hypercalcemia 23, 154, 375, 432
reports of 771
Hyperchloremic acidosis 430
Hypercholesterolemia 479
Hypercoagulable states 415
Hypercoagulation 33
Hyperemia 832
Hyperglycemia 32, 237, 391, 458, 568, 699, 704, 716, 728, 738, 915
toxic causes of 914t
transient 243
Hyperinsulinism, congenital 699
Hyperkalemia 15f, 23, 67, 160, 161, 220, 221, 237, 326, 375, 432, 433, 450, 469, 472, 486, 596, 743
causes of 161
detection of 229
management of 229
severe 504
treatment of 162t
Hyperlipidemia
primary 479
secondary 479
Hypermagnesemia 157t, 158
clinical manifestations of 158t
Hypernatremia 23, 29
Hyperphosphatemia 620
Hyperpnea 616
Hyperpyrexia 310, 619
Hyper-reflexia 310, 323, 332, 867, 882
Hypersalivation 238f
Hypersecretory states 690
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis 929
Hypersensitivity reactions 177, 486, 645, 653
Hypersensitvity pneumonitis 168
Hypertension 13, 33, 237, 310, 323, 326, 336, 406, 415, 431, 432, 436, 496, 564, 716, 744, 770, 782, 871, 882, 885, 902, 903
portal 111
severe 311, 406
Hypertensive crises 436
Hypertensive episodes 436
Hyperthermia 20, 237, 311, 323, 326, 332, 335, 578, 867, 870, 882, 885
agents inducing 20t
malignant 20, 375, 375b
marked 375
mild 399
severe 326
Hyperthyroidism, treatment of 707
Hypertonic sodium bicarbonate 337, 458, 871
Hypertrichosis 442f
Hyperuricemia 432
Hyperventilation 512, 616
Hypervigilance 332
Hyphae 816
Hypnale hypnale 204, 213f, 221, 226
Hypoaconitine 501
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder 785
Hypoalbuminemia 838
Hypocalcemia 23, 32, 67, 166, 294, 617
Hypochloremia 432
Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis 431
Hypochlorite 102
Hypochondriasis syndrome 735
Hypoglycaemia 14, 179, 440, 568, 617, 699, 704, 718, 718t, 719, 728, 729, 914
causes of 718b
evidence of 621
reactive 718
toxic causes of 914t
treatment of 721, 723
Hypogonadism 278
treatment of 712
Hypokalemia 18f, 23, 146, 184, 196, 379, 432, 458, 472, 616, 617, 678, 695, 719, 728, 770, 799
substances producing 146t
treatment of 702
Hypomagnesemia 18f, 67, 432, 472
Hypomania 267
Hyponatremia 23, 432
overdose causes 431
Hypophosphatemia 290
Hypoproteinemic states 838
Hypoprothrombinemia 618
Hyporeflexia 296
Hypotension 13, 31, 32, 68, 138, 184, 219, 237, 239, 248, 261, 282, 292, 297, 355, 367, 370, 375, 379, 406, 415, 424, 432, 440, 444, 452, 457, 460, 476, 505, 578, 677, 678, 696, 740, 746, 754, 758, 904
correction of 236, 300
management of 390
treatment of 392, 722
Hypothermia 19, 296, 348, 435
Hypothyroidism 411, 699, 704, 838
Hypotonia 296
Hypovolemia 33
correction of 137
Hypoxemia 221
Hypoxia 14, 363, 574
treatment of 361
I
Ibotenic acid 824
Ibuprofen 629
Ichthyism 840
Ichthyohemotoxic fish 840
Ichthyosarcotoxicosis 840
Ichthyotoxic fish 840
Idarubicin 766
Idioblasts 174
Idiosyncratic reaction 653
Idoxuridine 671
Ifosfamide 749, 750
Illicit drug 313
Iloperidone 383
Imidacloprid 601
Imidapril 450
Imidazo compounds 298
Imidazole 450, 672, 673
antifungals 673
Iminostilbenes 342, 345
Imipramine 394
Immobilization 222
Immune
globulin 748
response 168
Immunoaffinity chromatography 846
Immunomodulators 726, 741
Immunosuppression 592
Immunosuppressive agents 741
Immunosuppressive drugs 741
Impotence 432
female 783
Inadvertent overdoses, prevention of 777
Inamrinone 475
Indalone 583
Indandiones 485
Indapamide 431
Indian cobra 204
inhabits 207
Indian coral snake 204
Indian Evidence Act 42
Indian krait 204, 207, 208f
Indian Penal Code 41, 63
Indian rat snake 207, 207f
Indian red scorpion 236, 237
Indian rock python 203, 203f
Indian smooth snake 207
Indian Society of Toxicology 4
classification of poisons 931
Indian venomous snakes 205
Indinavir 671
Indo-Chinese spitting cobra 206
Indomethacin 631, 777
Indonesia disaster 513
Indonesian cobra 206
Indoramin 441
Inebriants 253, 270, 931
Inebriation 275, 280
Infant botulism 806, 808, 810
Infection 32, 745, 869
intestinal 814
transmission of 801f
treatment of 820
Infertility 278
Inflammation, evidence of 50
Inflammatory myelopathies 809
Inflammatory phase, acute 59
Informed consent form 44
Ingestion 72, 129, 130, 180, 184, 186, 332, 516, 521, 534, 569, 585, 600, 826, 866
acute 469
Inhalant 858, 897
abuse 324, 883
drugs 897
related disorders 897
Inhalation 72, 128, 129, 148, 186, 332, 516, 522, 584, 600, 866
agents 360
exposure 518
Inhaled glucocorticoids
adverse effects of 737t
toxic effects of 737t
Inhibit acetylcholinesterase 563
cytochrome oxidase 519
Inhibitors 401, 690, 691
Injection 129, 133
injuries, high-pressure 929
marks 49
Inocybe rimosa 823f
Inorganic
acids 59, 60, 68
arsenicals 109t
mercury salts 128
nonmetallic elements 91
salts 128
Inositol monophosphate 153
Insect 232, 560
repellents 931
Insecticide 92, 560, 576, 859, 931
fluoride ingestion 106
Insecticides Act 606, 607
Insecticides Rules 576, 606, 606b
Insoluble salts 145
Insomnia 299, 735
Insufflation 332, 866
Insulin 68, 188, 378, 433, 449, 451, 688, 717, 718t
edema 718
in pregnancy 718
long-acting 717
preparations 717t
short-acting 717
Insulinoma 699
Interferons 670, 748
Interleukin-2 747
Intermediate syndrome 565
Intermittent acute symptoms 168
Intermittent positive pressure ventilation 362, 512
Interstitial lung fibrosis, methotrexate induced 756f
Intestinal irritant plants 173, 189
Intestinal perforation 333, 867
Intestine 61f
Intoxicants 931
Intoxication
pathological 276
stage of 275, 275f
Intra-arterial therapy 67
Intracompartmental pressure 228f
Intracompartmental syndrome 228
Intracranial hypertension 704
Intracranial pressure 572, 583, 587, 601
Intractable convulsions 733
Intrathecal baclofen 372
Intrathecal overdose 760
management of 373b
Intrauterine growth retardation 874
Intravenous
abuse, high-dose 324
agents 360
anesthetics 364
antivenom administration 228
chlorpromazine 474
fluid 95, 280
hydration 666
infusion 226, 260
injection 332, 827, 866
lipid emulsion therapy 28, 34
N-acetylcysteine 642
push injection 226
rehydration 793
therapy 67
Intussusception 798
Invertebrates 201
Ioderma 85
Iodex 84
Iodide 31, 85, 101, 707
mumps 85, 781
Iodine 84, 101
stains around abrasions 86f
sublimation 84f
tincture of 84
Iodism 85, 86
Ionic dimers 779
Ionic monomers 779
Ionization chamber 921
Iopanoic acid 781, 782
Ipecacuanha, syrup of 24
Iperidae 204
Ipomoea
batatas 605
violacea 891
Ipratropium 736
bromide 736
Iprindole 394
Iproniazid 655
Iproplatin 772
Irinotecan 769
Iron 7, 114, 134
content 135
dextran 497
overdose, child victim of 139f
poisoning 137f
salt 135, 137t
Irrational talk 369
Irritable bowel syndrome 700
Irritant contact dermatitis 190
Irritant gas exposure 928
Irritant plants 173, 931
Ischemia, peripheral 415
Ischemic colitis 323, 882
Ischemic heart disease 603
Isobamate 373
Isobenzan 576
Isobucaine 367
Isocarboxazid 394, 404
Isocyanates 521, 522
Isoflurane 360, 362, 363
produces hypotension 362
Isoniazid 31, 655
Isonitrile test 557, 916
Isoprenaline 726
Isopropanol 7, 31, 292
Isopropyl meprobamate 373
Isoproterenol 379, 726
Isosorbide 430
Ispaghula 693
Itai-itai disease 148, 149
Itching 190
Itraconazole 745
Ivermectin 685
Ixodes holocyclus 244, 244f
J
Japanese restaurant syndrome 815
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction 645, 646
Jatropha
curcas 199
plant 199f
poisoning 199
seeds 199f
Jatrophin 199
Jaundice 49, 696, 712, 769, 822
intense 821f
Javan spitting cobra 206
Jaw elevation 230
Jerdon's pit viper 204
Joint 331, 865, 876
Josamycin 654
Juice, exudation of 254f
Jumper ants 233
K
Kala azar 674
Kalakeute sapa 207
Kalotaro 207
Kanadar 207
Kannadi viriyan 209
Kaposi's sarcoma 762
Kappa-opioid receptor agonists 891
Karenia brevis 847
Karet 207
Kasargod endosulfan tragedy 579
Katla pamu 207
Kattige havu 207
Kattu viriyan 207
Katuka rekula paamu 209
Kaulback's lance-headed pit viper 204
Kawasaki disease 128, 128f
Kayser-Fleischer ring 142, 142f
Kelocyanor 535
Kepone shakes 579
Kerala food poisoning tragedy 605
Kerosene 546, 564
Kesari dal 836, 836f
Ketamine 360, 364, 893
chronic 365
Ketanserin 636
Keto compounds 298
Ketoacidosis 276
alcoholic 278
Ketoalcoholic death 283
Ketoconazole 673, 745
Ketolides 640, 654
Ketonemia 292
Ketonuria 292
Ketoprofen 630
Khus khus 267, 267f
Kidney 518, 588, 926, 927
Kindling phenomena 280
King cobra 204, 210, 211f
King's crown 503
Kingfish 842f
Kinky-hair syndrome 140
Kitasamycin 654
Knock-out drops 302
Kolakumandala 209
Konjac mannan 693
Koraile 209
Korsakoff's psychosis 278, 280
Kraits 203
Kratom 905
Krebs cycle 150, 615
Kussmaul respirations 230
Kwashiorkor 831
L
Labeled tracer antigen 922
Labetalol 434
Labile prodrug esters 715
Lachesis 203
gramineus 203
macrolepis 204
monticola 204
Lacquer tree 189
Lactarius piperatus 827
Lactate dehydrogenase 915
Lactic acidosis 221, 668, 722
Lactose dehydrogenase 353
Lactulose 694
Laetrile 531, 834
Lake Monoun disaster 513
Lamivudine 668
Lamotrigine 342, 349
Land snake 214f
Lansoprazole 692
Laryngeal edema 781
Laryngospasm 26
Lasofoxiphene 709
Lassitude 698
Late serum sickness reaction 227
Latent granulation phase 59
Later cardiovascular collapse 237
Lathyrism 836, 836f
Lathyrus sativus 836
Latrodectism 242
Latrodectus erythromelas 242
Lavacuator 25
Laxative 688, 693
abuse 698
Lazabemide 404
Lead 116
abatement 125
acetate 7
colic 120
encephalopathy 120
exposure, sources of 117t
lines 118, 118f, 120, 123
palsy 120
poisoning 119f, 120f
sugar of 117
Leathery 77
Leber's hereditary optic atrophy 533
Lebetine viper 204
Leech 493f
Lee-Jones test 533, 916
Legionella pneumophila 654
Leifson flagella stain 798f
Leiurus quinquestriatus 236
Leonotis leonurus 900
Leonurus sibiricus 900
Lepidoptera 232
Lepidosis 203
Lepirudin 488
Lesser black krait 204
Lethal blood level 870
Lethal concentrations, compilations of 51
Lethal dose, minimum 7
Lethargy 292
Leucovorin 756
Leukocyte count 915
Leukocytosis 61, 243, 458, 568
Leukopenia 746
Leukotriene
pathway inhibitors 726
receptor antagonists 726, 738
Levamisole 684
Levant viper 204
Levarterenol 741
Levetiracetam 342, 354
Levobupivacaine 360
Levodopa 354, 355
Levomilnacipran 399
Levormeloxifene 770
Levothyroxine sodium 705
Lex cornelia 4
Lhermitte's sign 361
Licensed bhang shop 319f
Lidocaine 367, 392, 455, 471
Light chain proteinuria 658
Lightheadedness 369
Lignocaine 18, 360, 367, 369, 379, 416, 455, 505
preparation 18
toxicity, acute 370
Lily of valley 503
Limb
anomalies 344
swelling of 228f
Linamarin 533
Lincomycin 662
Lindane 7
Linezolid 665
Linum usitatissimum 693
Liothyronine sodium 705
Liotrix 705
Lipid lowering
agents 467
treatment 441
Lipoatrophy 718
peripheral 668
Lipohypertrophy 718
Lipomata 668
Lipoprotein
high-density 480
low-density 481
lowering drugs 479
very low-density 481
Liposomal cytarabine 759
Lips
erosion of 61f
ulceration of 61f
Liquefied natural gas 546
Liquefied petroleum gas 513, 546
Liquid chromatograph 305, 352, 846, 921
high performance 197, 258, 325, 504, 521, 617, 915, 920
mass spectrometer 922f
Liquid hashish 315
Liquor consumed 286t
Liquor tragedies 291
Lisinopril 450
Listeria monocytogenes 804, 804f, 805
Listeriosis 804
Litharge 117
Lithium 30, 153, 391, 409
intoxication, management of 412b
poisoning 410t
Litmus test 61, 64, 65
Liver 277, 282f, 926, 927
abscess 814
centrilobular necrosis of 627f
cirrhosis of 277f, 282, 431
disease, veno-occlusive 753
failure 351
treatment of acute 820
function test 416, 591
tenderness 142
toxicity 591
transplantation 626, 820
Lobelia inflata 859
Lobeline 859, 864
Local anesthetic 360, 367, 369
systemic toxicity 34
toxic doses of 369t
Local cold compress 235
Local lipoatrophy 704
Local reaction 234, 235
Locally acting salicylates 614
Lockjaw 421
Locura manganica 159
Lofepramine 394
Lomustine 748, 753, 754
Loop diuretics 123, 429, 431
Loperamide 264, 699
Lophophora williamsii 896, 896f
Lorazepam 22, 298, 342, 360
Lormetazepam 298
Lotaustralin 533
Low birthweight 874
Lower limb, ischemia of 222f
Lower-osmolality contrast agents 779
Lowers mean arterial pressure 726
Low-molecular-weight heparins 485, 489
Loxapine 383, 387
Loxoscelism 241
Lucifer's jaw 94
Lucifer's matches 91, 92f
Lugol's iodine 84
Luminal amebicides 681
Luminous gastric contents 96
Lung 558, 562
cancer, small-cell 762
diseases, occupational 928
fibrosis 588, 589f
injury, acute 536
transplantation 593
Lurasidone 383
Luteinizing hormone 705
releasing hormone 713
Lycodon aulicus 208, 208f
Lycoperdon pyriforme 822f
Lycosa tarantula 243
Lyell syndrome 641
Lymecycline 650
Lymphangiography 779
Lymphocytic leukemia 754
chronic 761
Lymphography 779
Lymphoma 754
Lysergic acid diethylamide 413, 891
M
MacClelland's coral snake 204
Macrolide 640, 653
antibiotics 414
ring 653
Macrovipera lebetina 204
Mafenide 640
Magaldrate almagate 688
Magic mushrooms 826, 830
cluster of 826f
Magnan's sign 334, 869
Magnesia, milk of 694, 695f
Magnesium 157, 471, 688, 777
blocks 157f
carbonate 688
citrate 694
containing antacid 688
hydroxide 688, 694
oxide 689
peroxide 688
salt 157t
sulfate 261, 379, 694
therapy 100
trisilicate 688
Magnetite 134
Mahi-mahi 840, 840f
Maintenance therapy 793
Malabar pit viper 204, 212, 212f
Malaise 461, 908
Malathion 7
Mambas 203
Mancozeb 159, 597
Mandaladha haavu 209
Mandrake 767
Manganese 158, 158f
madness 159
normal levels of 160
Manganism 159
Mango 189
Mangrove pit viper 204
Mania 299, 383
Manihot esculenta 51, 508, 833
Mannitol 123, 430, 694
Mantakassa 834
Marchiafava-Bignami disease 277
Margosa oil 192
Marijuana 314, 315, 875, 876
Marilyn monroe 298
Marine food poisoning 840
prevention of 848
Marine invertebrates 247
Marine venomous creatures 247
Marine vertebrates 247
Marking nut 182, 182f
tree 189
Marlow syndrome 797
Marquis test 916
Marsh gas 513
Mass
analyzer 921
flow dependent detectors 919
food poisoning 793
poisoning 605
spectrometry 352, 846, 915, 921
Mast cell stabilizers 737
Mayapple 183, 767f
plant 767
Mazotti reaction 683
McEwan sign 275
M-chlorophenylpiperazine 408
Mean corpuscular volume 277
Mean lethal dose 586
Mebendazole 683
Mecamylamine 436, 864
Mechanical trauma 929
Mechanical ventilation 14
Mechlorethamine 748
Meclocycline 650
Meclonazepam 899
Medical cannabis 319, 875, 879
Medical importance, Indian snakes of 205
Medical marijuana 875
Medical prescribing errors 777t
Medicinal and Toilet Preparation (Excise Duty) Act and Rules 45
Medicinal carbamate compounds 574
Medicinal charcoal 27
Medicosocial issue 318, 330, 897
Medphalan 752
Medrogestone 710
Medroxyprogesterone acetate 710
Mees’ lines 110
Mefenamic acid 630
Mefloquine 679
Mefruside 432
Meixner test 818, 916
Melanonychia 774
Melia azedarach 192, 192f
Melitracen 394
Melphalan 752
Melting point 554
Melzer's test 818, 916
Memantine 416, 417
Membrane-stabilizing agents 452
Memory
disturbances 278
loss 512
Meningismus 288
Meningitis 652, 797, 803
first-line treatment of 652
Menkes syndrome 140
Menorrhagia 278
Mental depression 574
Mental examination 285
Mental status 557
Mepacrine 680
Meperidine 267
Mephedrone 329, 887, 889, 902, 902b
Mephenytoin 342
Mephobarbitone 296, 342
Mepivacaine 360, 367
Meprobamate 31
Meprylcaine 367
Merbarone 769
Mercaptopurine 760
Mercaptopyruvate 536
Mercuria lentis 130
Mercurialism 129
Mercuric chloride 7, 126
Mercuric sulfide 126
Mercurous chloride 126
Mercury 126
compounds, uses of 126t
spills 133b
Merphalan 752
Merrem's hump-nosed viper 213
Mesalamine 614
Mescal buttons 896
Mescaline 896
Mesenteric ischemia 415
Mesna preparations 774
Mesoaconitine 501
Mesobuthus tamulus 236
Mesoridazine 383
Mesuximide 342
Metabolic acidosis 151, 184, 196, 221, 289, 326, 375, 392, 616, 620, 621, 656, 884
treatment of 20
Metabolic alkalosis 33, 432
Metabolic balance 926, 927
Metabolic rate, increased 20
Metabolism 866
Metal
and metallic elements 144
fume fever 142, 148, 167, 168, 928
Metaldehyde 599
Metallic copper 139f
Metalloid 108
Metamizole 627
Metastatic thyroid carcinoma, treatment of 707
Metaxalone 374
Metformin 722, 723
Methacycline 650, 651
Methadone 261
Methamphetamine 321, 329, 887, 902
crank crystals 322f, 880f
hydrochloride 321
ice crystals 321f, 880f
Methane 513, 546
Methanobacterium omelanskii 131
Methanol 7, 288, 920
poisoning 288f290f
Methaqualone 31, 304
derivatives 328, 886
Methazolamide 429
Methcathinone 888, 889
Methemoglobinemia 11, 370, 478, 661, 675, 678, 826
chocolate-colored blood of 478f
Methicillin 132, 644
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 662
Methimazole 706
therapy 706
Methionine 361, 623
Methocarbamol 374
Methohexitone 296, 360
Methotrexate 748, 754
lung 755
Methoxychlor 576
Methoxyflurane 360
Methoxy-o-desmethylencainide 457
Methoxyphenamine 329, 887
Methsuximide 347
Methyclothiazide 431
Methyl
bromide 511, 558, 916
isocyanate 511, 521
mercury 126
salicylate 613, 614
Methyldopa 433, 434, 451
Methylene blue 479, 536, 661, 662b, 702
therapy, failure of 662
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine 321, 902
Methylenedioxyphenethylamines, substituted 891
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone 329, 887
Methylmelamine derivatives 748, 752
Methylmercury 126, 131, 131b
Methylmethaqualone 887
Methylmorphine 264
Methylone 902
Methylphenidate 322, 881
Methylprednisolone 236, 592, 715, 745
Methylpyrazole 291, 295
Methyltheobromine 734
Methylxanthines 726, 730
Metiapine 383
Metoclopramide 701, 745
Metocurine 377
Metolazone 432
Metronidazole 682
Mexican poppy 832, 837
Mexiletine 456, 457
Mezlocillin 644
Michael addition 775
Miconazole 673
Microbial food poisoning 794
Micrococcus glutamicus 849
Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system 271, 274
Microsporidia 816
Midazolam 298, 342, 360, 657
Midecamycin acetate 654
Mifepristone 711
Migraine 383, 399, 404, 708
Milk and milk products 797
Milk-alkali syndrome 689
Millard's viper 204, 213
Miller fisher variant 809
Millipede 246, 246f
burn 247
Milnacipran 399
Milrinone 475
Minamata disease 131
Mind altering drugs 931
Mineral
acids 59
oil 696
seal oil 546
Mineralocorticoids 714
Minimal toxicity 161
Minocycline 650, 651, 660
Minoxidil 442
Miosis 9, 369, 400
Miscellaneous disorders 930
Misoprostol 711, 778
Mite 244, 245f, 560
holothyrus coccinella 245
Mitomycin C 765
Mitoxantrone 774
Mitragyna speciosa 905, 905f
Mivacurium 374
Moccasins 203
Mock viper 204
Moexipril 450
Molecular absorbent regenerating system 820
Molecular adsorbent recirculating system 32, 627
Molecular formula 60, 72
Molinate 597
Molindone 383, 384, 387
Molluscicides 560
Molluskicide 599
Mollusks 560
Mometasone furoate 715
Monday fever 168
Monoacetyldapsone 660
Monoamine oxidase 355
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 324, 394, 399, 401, 404, 405t, 728
Monocellate cobra 206, 207f
Monocled cobra 204, 206
Monoclonal antibodies 747, 748, 771
Mono-ethylglycylxylide 455
Monohydroxy alcohols 270
Monomethylhydrazine 821
containing mushrooms 821
Monosodium glutamate 849
Montelukast 738
Mood disturbances 356
Morchella species 824
Morgan's mushroom 827
Morning glory 891, 891f
Morphine 7, 254, 360
sulfate 872
Mosapride 697
Motor Vehicle Act 286, 287
Mountain pit viper 212, 212f
Mouse bioassay 845, 846, 848
Mouth
dryness of 310
wash 86
Movement disorders 22, 299
treatment of 23
Moxonidine 434
Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome 128, 129f
Mucosal ischemia, acute 333, 867
Mucous membranes 562
Mucuna pruriens 896
Muehrcke's lines 110
Multiple sclerosis 809
Mumps, precipitation of 781
Munchausen syndrome 724
Muromonab-CD3 747
Muscarine-containing mushrooms 822
Muscarinic effects 564
Muscimol-containing mushrooms 824
Muscle
enzymes 221
necrosis 526
relaxants 253, 360, 371, 378, 380
rigidity 323, 406, 882
Muscular hyperactivity 20
Musculoskeletal conditions 929
Musculoskeletal effects 867
Mushroom 282, 816
anatomy of 816f
gastroenteritis inducing 827
life cycle of 816f
myths 829t
poisoning 829
target organs 821t
Mustard water 25
Mustine hydrochloride 748
Muzolimine 431
Myalgias 843
Myasthenia gravis 244, 676, 809, 916
Myasthenic crisis 22
Mycobacterium avium 658, 659
Mycophenolate mofetil 745, 746
Mycophenolic acid 746
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 651, 654
Mycotoxicosis 830
Mycotoxins, naturally occurring 830t
Mydriasis 9, 292, 323, 362, 882
Myelography 779
Myeloid growth agents 497
Myelo-optic neuropathy, subacute 681
Myelosuppression 753, 755
Myocardial damage, evidence of 621
Myocardial depression 368
Myocardial infarction 33, 323, 337, 473, 710, 783, 871, 882
acute 337, 872
Myocardial ischemia 18, 323, 526, 882
Myonecrosis 231
Myopathy 22, 278, 668, 716
Myositis
fibrosa 22
ossificans 22
Myriapoda 245
Myrmecia pilosula 233
N
N,N-dimethyltryptamine 896
N-acetylcysteine 153, 362, 558, 592, 623, 819
N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine 620
N-acetylprocainamide 454, 679
Nadolol 441
Nafcillin 644
Nails, dystrophy of 165
Naja
kaouthia 204, 206, 207f, 218
naja 203, 204, 206, 206f, 226
oxiana 204, 207, 207f
sagittifera 204, 206
sputatrix 206
Nalidixic acid 642
Nalmefene 260
Naloxone 19, 259, 260, 435, 449
Naltrexone 260, 282
Naphazoline 636
Naphthalene 552, 554
mothballs 553f
Naphthenes 545
Naratriptan hydrochloride 415
Narcoanalysis 298
Narcolepsy 404
Narcotic drug 45, 254
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
Act 4547
Consultative Committee 46
Narcotics Control Bureau 46
Narcotine 254
N-aryl anthranilic acids 628, 630
Nasal congestion 356
National Poisons Information Centre 5
Natural gas 513, 530
Natural penicillins 644
Natural products 761
Nausea 323, 352, 356, 369, 372, 447, 616, 699, 709, 728, 738, 742, 745, 754, 778, 807, 868, 882
N-demethyl orphenadrine 378
N-desbutyl halofantrine 680
Necator americanus 683
Necrotizing myopathy, acute 22
Nedaplatin 772
Nedocromil 737
Needle 262
Neem 192
leaves 193f
oil 192
tree 192f
Nefazodone 402, 407
Nefopam 613, 628
Nelarabine 757
Nelumbo nucifera 900
Nematicides 560
Nematocysts 247
Nematodes 560
Nemorubicin 766
Neonatal caffeine withdrawal 735
Neonatal condition 862
Neonicotinoid insecticides 601
Neoplasms 718
Neostigmine 312, 378, 574
bromide 103
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 432
Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy 781
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 781
Nephrolithiasis 689
Nephropathy 742
Nephrotic syndrome 431, 715, 838
Nephrotoxic
drugs 931
poisons 73b
Nephrotoxicity 649
Nerine 503
Nerium oleander 503, 504, 506
pink flower 503f
plant 503f
white flower 503f
Nerve
gases 605
peripheral 866
Nervous system 281, 926, 927
hyperexcitability of 577
Nesidioblastosis 699
Nesiritide 476
Netilmicin 650
Neuroadaptation 858
Neuroblastoma 762
Neuroleptanalgesia 365
Neuroleptanesthesia 366
Neuroleptic
atypical 390
classical 383, 384t
overdose, acute 389
Neuroleptic drug 385
overdose 387b
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome 20, 155, 355, 385, 388, 392, 396, 402, 411
differential diagnosis of 386t
etiology of 385t
Neurological side effects 780, 782
Neuromuscular blockade 146, 374, 649
agents 371, 374, 420
Neuromuscular junction 374
Neuromuscular paralysis 657
Neuropathy 668
delayed peripheral 564
peripheral 461, 668
syndrome 565
target esterase 564
Neuropsychiatric effects 267t
Neurotoxic
agents, peripheral 420
esterase 564
poisons 251, 253, 931
shellfish poisoning 840, 847
Neurotoxicity 230
Neurotoxin 215, 806
Neutralization, heat of 59
Neutron activation
analysis 923
procedure 132
Neutrophilia 154
Niclosamide 684
Nicorette 863
Nicotiana
attenuata 858
glauca 858
longiflora 858
rustica 859
tabacum 859, 859f
trigonphylla 859
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 109, 274
phosphate 110, 274
Nicotine 7, 858, 859
agonists 864
antagonists 864
dependence 862
gum 863
insecticides 861
physiological effects of 862b
replacement
medications 864
therapy 863
sources of 861t
spray 864
transdermal patch 863
withdrawal 862, 863t
Nicotinic effects 564
Nifedipine 434, 445f, 744
Nifoxicam 899
Niftolide 713, 769
Night vision 512
Nimesulide 631
Nimetazepam 298
Nitenpyram 601
Nitrazepam 298
Nitric acid 64, 64f
test 838
Nitric oxide 631
Nitrites 520
Nitro compounds 298
Nitrobenzaldehyde 533
Nitrobenzene 550, 551, 551f
Nitrofurantoin 114
Nitrogen 511
detector 920
mustards 748
Nitroglycerin 477f
Nitroglycerine drip 872
Nitroimidazoles 682
Nitroprusside 402, 872
Nitrosoureas 748, 753
Nitrous oxide 360, 366
Nitrovasodilators 477
Nitzschia pungens 848
Nizatidine 635
N-methyl pyrrolidone 601
N-methyl-d-aspartate 264, 272, 351, 352, 417
N-methylthiotetrazole 648
Nocardia orientalis 663
N-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide 583
Nomogram 617
Nonantibiotic macrolides 654
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema 13t, 333
Noncholinesterase inhibitor-organophosphate compound 596
Non-corrosive chemicals 931
Nondepolarizers, interaction with 377
Nondermal allergic drug reactions 645t
Nonendocrine diseases, treatment of 715
Nonhemolytic manifestations 553
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas 762
Noninsecticide fluoride ingestion 106
Nonionic dimers 779
Nonionic monomers 779
Nonlymphocytic leukemia, acute 653
Non-metallic chemical 931
poisons 91
Non-nephrotoxic antibiotics 229
Non-neuroleptic drugs 385
Nonoliguric renal failure 345
Nonprotein nitrogen 514
Nonpulmonary cancers 862
Nonreactive nonstress test 257
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug 13, 73, 155, 223, 431, 613, 628, 743
Nonsteroidal estrogens 708
Nontoxic houseplants 174t
Nonulcer dyspepsia 688
Nonulcerative esophagitis 81
Nonvenomous snakebite 216
Noradrenaline 394, 407, 739, 739t, 741
Norepinephrine 394, 407, 739, 741
Norethandrolone 710
Norethindrone 710
Norethynodrel 710
Norgestimate 710
Norgestrel 710
Normal blood barium concentration 146
Normotension 13
Nornicotine 859, 863
Norovirus 813
Northeastern hill krait 204
Northern fowl mite 245
Nortriptyline 394
Norwalk virus 813
Noscapine 254
Nosema 816
Novobiocin 769
Nuclear reactions 923
Nursing and psychiatric care 11, 37
Nymphaea caerulea 900
Nystagmus 9, 292, 634, 846
Nystatin 672
O
O'grady criteria 626
modified 626
Obsessive-compulsive disorder 399, 404
Obsolete
antidotes 38t
emetics 25
Obstetric condition 862
Occupational exposure 125
Occupational safety and health administration 91, 928
Ochronosis 75, 75f
O-cresol test 916
Octopus, blue-ringed 844f
Octreoscan 699
Octreotide 699, 722
Octyl salicylate 614
Ocular
caustic exposures, management of 62b
clues 8
contact 600
diseases 715
exposure 186, 516, 519, 569
toxicity 289
Oculotoxicity 676
O-dinitrobenzene method 533
Odor 49, 533
Ofloxacin 643, 660
Oily chloramphenicol 652
Olanzapine 383, 391, 392
Oleander 7, 503
Oleandomycin 654
Oleandrin 503
Oligohydramnios 450
Oliguria 184
Olopatadine 738
Olsalazine 614
Omalizumab 726, 738, 739
Omeprazole 691, 692
Omoconazole 673
Ondansetron 636
Ononidis radix 552
Oodophyllum hexandrum 183f
Open heart surgery 473
Ophiophagus hannah 204, 210
Ophthalmologic effects 867
Ophthalmoplegia 809
Opiate 19, 31, 114, 182, 254, 699
analgesia 68
antidotes for 260b
common 255t
dependence 258
severity of 258
derivatives 328, 886
effects 267
overdose, acute 256b
poisoning, management of 259fc
uses of 255t
withdrawal 258t
Opioid 254, 858, 887
syndrome 9
withdrawal syndrome 9
Opisthotonus 421, 421f
Opium 7, 253
Act 45
overdose 256f
Optic neuritis 659
Optical coherence tomography 290
Oral acetylcysteine therapy 624
Oral anticoagulants 485, 488
Oral candidiasis 716
Oral cholestyramine 462
Oral clues 10
Oral contraceptive 708
Oral corticosteroids 190
Oral feeds 62
Oral hypoglycemics 688, 717, 720, 724
Oral misuse, sustained 324
Oral rehydration
solutions 793
therapy 793, 799
Orb weaving spider 241
Ordeal poisons 3
Orellanine-containing mushrooms 828
Orelline 828
Organic acids 72
Organic arsenicals 109t
Organic dust toxic syndrome 928
Organic lead poisoning 121
Organic mercurials 130
Organic mercury compounds 128
Organic nitrates 477
Organic poisons 171, 931
Organochlorides 560, 575
Organochlorine 7, 560, 575, 577579
compounds, common 576t
pesticides 607
Organophosphate 562, 569, 560, 563fc, 574, 605, 607
antidotes for 570b
compounds, common 561t
induced neuropsychiatric disorder, chronic 566
pesticide 562, 562f
poisoning 566, 809
Organophosphorus
compounds 560, 574
basic chemical structure of 563f
insecticides 562
Ormeloxiphene 709
Ornithonyssus
bacoti 245
sylviarum 245
Oropharyngeal irritant plants 173
Orphenadrine 371, 378
Orthostatic hypotension 393
Oseltamivir 671
Osmolal gap 294
Osmosis, reverse 30
Osmotic
diuresis 86
diuretics 429, 430
laxatives 693, 694
Ospemiphene 709
Osteomalacia 698
Osteoporosis 716
Ototoxicity 649
Ouch-ouch disease 148
Ovarian dysgenesis, treatment of 708
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 709
Ovaries, hyperstimulation of 705
Ovophis monticola 212, 212f
Oxacephalosporins 648
Oxacillin 644
Oxaflozane 399
Oxalic acid 7, 77
Oxaliplatin 772
Oxazepam 298
Oxazolidinediones 342
Oxcarbazepine 342
Oxethazaine 367
Oxicams 628, 631
Oxiconazole 673
Oxidative stress 837
Oximes 586
Oxons 563
Oxyacetylene flame 922
Oxybuprocaine 367
Oxygen 366, 592, 646
Oxymetazoline 636
Oxyphenbutazone 629, 916
Oxytetracycline 650
Oxytocin 777
antagonists 777
Ozolinone 431
P
P wave, abnormal 15
Paclitaxel 768
Pain 32, 248, 704
Painful peripheral neuropathy 165
Painter's syndrome 557
Palate teeth 201
Paliperidone 383, 392, 393
Pancreas 277
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma 277f
Pancreatic enzymes 688, 703
Pancreatic insufficiency 703
Pancreatitis 667, 668, 699, 704, 745
acute 742
chronic 703
Pancuronium 374
bromide 103
Pancytopenia 753
Panic disorder 399
Papaver
argemone 253
laciniatum 253
paeoniflorum 253
rhoeas 253
somniferum 253, 253f, 254
Papaverine 254
Paper chromatography 839
Paper wasp 233, 233f
Papilledema 772
Paracelsus 4
Paracetamol 7, 31, 39, 613, 619, 623
blood levels of 919
overdose 627f
poisoning, treatment of 623b
Parachuting 262, 339
Paradichlorobenzene 554
Paradoxical respiration 224
Paraffins 545
Paraldehyde 31, 303, 342
Paralysis 809
Paralytic ileus 27, 184, 799
Paralytic rabies 244
Paralytic shellfish 840
poisoning 809, 846, 848
Paramethadione 342
Paramethasone 715
Paranoia 323, 882
Paraquat 605f
exposure 589f
hart nomogram for 590f
poisoning 590
proudfoot nomogram for 590f
solution 588f
tongue 589
Parasites 793
Parathion 7
Paresis 574
Paresthesia 33, 772
Pargyline 404
Parkinson's disease 22, 404, 566, 603
Parkinson's syndrome 290, 348
Parkinsonism 386, 389
Parotitis 798
Paroxetine 399
Paroxysmal atrial
fibrillation 459
tachycardia 469
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia 459
Partial thromboplastin time 67, 492
Parvovirus 813
Pasteurella multocida 654
Pathogenic protozoa 814t
Pediatric poisoning 158
Pedicularis densiflora 900
Pediculosis 584
Peewano 207
Pefloxacin 660
Pemetrexed 754
Pemirolast 738
Pempidine 436
Penfluridol 383
Penicillamine 114, 143
Penicillin 640, 644, 645, 811
G 644
V 644
Penicillinase-resistant 644
Penicillium
janczewskii 674
stoloniferum 746
Pentachlorophenol 600
Pentazocine 266
Pentobarbitone 296, 657
Pentolinium 436
People's temple 537
Peptic ulcer 688
Peradeniya organophosphorous poisoning scale 564
Perampanel 342, 354
Perchlorates 707
Perfluorocarbons 555
Performance-enhancing drug 724
Pergolide 354, 357
mesylate 357
Perindopril 450
Perioral numbness 369
Peritoneal dialysis 28, 32, 33f
Peritonitis 63f
Periwinkle 762f
Permissible exposure limits 928
Peroxidase-catalase system 271
Peroxynitrite 589
Perphenazine 383
Persistent hypotension 733
Persistent pulmonary hypertension 404
Pervasive developmental disorders 392
Pesticide 3, 543, 560, 931
contamination of vegetables 605
toxicity of 607t
Pethidine 267, 360
toxicity 267t
Petroleum
distillates 114, 545, 546
jelly 546
Peyote 896
buttons 896
Phalloidin 817
Pharmacotherapy 337, 872
Pharmacy Act 44
Pharmacy Council 44
Phenacetin 619
Phenanthrene group 254
Phenazepam 899
Phencyclidine 893
crystalline powder 894f
Phenelzine 394, 404
Phenethylamines 891
Phenformin 722
Phenobarbitone 22, 30, 97, 296, 342
Phenol 7, 74, 74f, 916
marasmus 75
Phenolphthalein 695
Phenothiazines 19, 31, 114, 383, 386, 916
urine levels of 919
Phenoxybenzamine 441
Phensuximide 342, 347
Phentolamine 441, 872
Phenylalkylamine calcium channel blockers 444
Phenylbutazone 629, 916
Phenyle 74
Phenylethyl-amine 328, 886
Phenylethylmalonamide 345
Phenylpropanolamine 636, 637
Phenytoin 22, 342, 343f, 379, 392, 398, 471
encephalopathy 343
hypersensitivity syndrome 343
Phetigom 206
Philodendron 175
types of 175f
Phobic disorders 404
Pholiota squarosa 824
Phosgene 523
delivery system 524f
Phosphate 732
depletion syndrome 690
Phosphatidylinositol 153
Phosphenytoin 342
Phosphine 91, 96, 98
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors 467, 474, 726, 738
Phosphonate-containing agents 448
Phosphorescence 91
Phosphoric acid 68, 91
Phosphorus 7, 91
forms of 92f
radioactive isotopes of 91
Phosphorylation 574
Phosphorylcholines 563
Phossy jaw 94, 94f
Photodermatitis 189
Photosensitive reactions 190, 651
Phylloquinone 491
Physic nut 199
Physostigma venenosum 3, 574, 574f
Physostigmine 311, 372, 378, 392, 574, 634
use of 399
Phytomenadione 491
Phytonadione 491
Picrorhiza kurroa 819
Pierre Robin syndrome 281
Pifluthixol 383
Pileus 816
Pill millipedes 246
Pimecrolimus 744
Pimozide 383, 384, 387
Pincers 236
Pink disease 130, 130f
Pinpoint pupil 256f
Pioglitazone 724
Pipecuronium 374
Piper nigrum 187
Piperacillin 644
Piperazine 383, 684
Piperidine 383
Piperocaine 367
Piperonyl butoxide 583
Piptadenia peregrina 896, 896f
Pirarubicin 766
Piretanide 431
Piritrexim 754
Piroxicam 631
Pit adders 212
Pit viper 203, 204, 212, 213
brown-spotted 204
Pixantrone 766
Pizotifen 399
Placenta previa 874
Placental infarction 874
Plant
food 887
toxins 3
Plantago
afra 693
arenaria 693, 693f
ovata 693
Plants containing cardiac glycosides 500t
Plasma
cholinesterase 567, 575
cocaine 870
concentrations 614
enzymes 915
lipoproteins, lowering 481
mass spectrometry, inductively coupled 112, 122
nitrous oxide 361
paracetamol level 623
paraquat level 591, 591t
perfusion 28, 33
Plasmapheresis 28, 33, 34f, 596
Platinoids 772
Platinum coordination complexes 772
Platinum wire flame test 82
Pleistophora 816
Pleural effusion 32, 221
Plumbism 119
Plumeria rubra 503
Pneumocystis
carinii 660
pneumonia, management of 755
jirovecii 660
Pneumomediastinum 333
Pneumonia 32
organizing 333
Pneumonitis 745
Pneumoperitoneum 333, 867
Pneumothorax 333
P-nitrophenol test 567
Podophyllin 183
Podophyllotoxin 183, 767
Podophyllum 767
emodi 183
roots of 183
hexandrum 183
peltatum 183, 767, 767f
pleianthum 183
Poison 26, 42, 76t
chemical 89
classification of 931
elimination 11
hemlock 423, 423f, 424
household 3, 931
information 4
services 4
ivy dermatitis 190
miscellaneous 611
perfect 167
pregnant patient 11, 38
stupefying 53
Poisoning 51t
accidental 96
acute 69, 75, 93, 94, 104, 105, 119, 128, 132, 141, 148, 164, 256, 258, 275, 280, 300, 316, 317, 322, 325, 332, 335, 414, 525, 532, 555, 556, 564, 578, 615, 620, 719, 735, 754, 862, 863, 867, 870, 878, 883
chronic 70, 75, 94, 104, 105, 119, 129, 133, 142, 148, 164, 257, 261, 276, 280, 300, 301, 316, 317, 323, 333, 337, 345, 348, 415, 469, 526, 532, 557, 566, 578, 616, 621, 719, 862, 863, 872, 877, 885, 892
deliberate 724
dermal manifestations of 10t
diagnosis of 8
acute 94
epidemiology of 3
general management of 11
medicolegal aspects of 41
mild 123, 440, 534, 535, 618
mode of 314
moderate 123, 440, 534, 535
mortality from 6
radiography in 114b
scombroid 840
severe 123, 440, 534, 535, 618
acute 123
severity of 177t
score 7, 926
tetrodotoxic 843
treatment of comorbid 841t
Poisonous creatures 201
Poisons Act 42
Polacrilex 863
Police officer, role of 52
Poliomyelitis 244, 809
Polistes annularis 233f
Poloxamers 696
Polyclonal antibodies 747
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 554, 555
Polycythemia 151
vera 754
Polyene
antifungal group 671
antimycotics 654
Polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution 694
Polymer fume fever 168, 928
Polymyxin
B 664
sulfate 664
E 664
Polyneuropathy 566
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons 554
Polyoxyethylene tallow amine 596
Polyoxyethyleneamine 596
Polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene polymers 696
Polytetrafluoroethylene 168
Polythiazide 431
Polyvalent antivenom 225
vial of 225f
Poppy
plant 253
seeds 267
Poppy capsules with seeds 267f
spilling out 254f
Porthidium 203
Positive end-expiratory pressure 259, 362, 454, 512, 518, 523, 528, 536, 572, 586, 597, 659, 741, 782
Posterior pharynx, stimulation of 25
Post-hallucinogen perception disorder 892, 893
Postinjection syndrome 392
Postmenopausal women 708
Postmortem lividity, color of 49
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder 747
Postural hypotension 355, 356
Pot culture 319, 879
Potassium 31, 160, 160f, 696
bromide 103
carbonate 81
channel blockers 452
chlorate 162
clavulanate 644
cyanide 530
ferric
ferrocyanide 166
hexacyanoferrate, 166
hydroxide 81
infusions 147
levels 732
permanganate 83, 159, 163
crystals 83f
salt 160
sparing diuretics 429, 432
Potency 715
Povidone-iodine 84
Powder, inhalational 430
PR interval, abnormal 15
Pralidoxime 569, 570, 575
Pramoxine 360, 367
Pranlukast 738
Prasugrel 495
Prazepam 298
Praziquantel 684
Prazosin 441
Precocious puberty 705
Precoma 276
Prednisolone 715
Prednisone 715
Pregabalin 342, 349
Pregnancy 676, 735
category D 650
Pregnant victim 138
treatment of 573
Premature ventricular contractions 728
Premazepam 887
Prenalterol 726
Priapism 238f
Prilocaine 360, 367, 369
Primaquine 675
Primidone 342, 345
overdose 345
Probucol 480, 482
Procainamide 379, 454
Procaine 360, 367
Procarbazine 775
Prochlorperazine 383
Procyclidine 703
Profens 628
Profuse sweating 237
Progabide 342, 353
Progesterone 710
Progestins 688, 708, 710
Proguanil 675
Prokinetic drugs 688, 700
toxicokinetics of 702t
Prolactin 705
Prolonged exposure 519
Propafenone 459
Propane 513, 546
mixture of 513
Propantheline bromide 103
Proparacaine 360, 367
Propionic acid derivatives 628, 629
Propitocaine 367
Propofol 360, 366, 367f, 657
infusion syndrome 366
Propoxycaine 367
Propoxyphene 268
Propylene 513
Propylthiouracil 706
Prostacyclin 629, 778
Prostaglandin 777, 778
inhibition of synthesis of 629
synthetase inhibitors 777
Prostate cancer 713
Protamine sulfate 487
Protease inhibitors 414
Protective gear 216
Protein
binding 368
losing enteropathy 698
Prothrombin time 67, 490, 621, 623
Protobothrops
jerdonii 204
kaulbackii 204
mucrosquamatus 204
Proton-pump inhibitors 691
toxicokinetics of 692t
Protozoa 813
Protriptyline 394
Proudfoot 590
nomogram 590
Provisions of Insecticides Act 606b
Proxymetacaine 367
Pruritic erythematous rashes 347
Pruritus 347
Prussic acid 530
Psammodynastes pulverulentus 204
Psathyrella foenisecii 826
Pseudo-Bartter's syndrome 431
Pseudo-Cushing syndrome 278
Pseudocyanosis 461
Pseudoephedrine 636
Pseudomembranous colitis 646, 646f, 662, 663
Pseudosepsis syndrome 616
Pseudotumor cerebri 652, 716
Psilocybe semilanceata 826f
Psilocybin-containing mushrooms 825
PSL syndrome 823
Psoriasis, severe 754
Psychedelic drugs 253, 891, 931
Psychiatry
care 37
changes 869
disorders 929
drugs used in 253, 383
manifestations 717
Psychoactive substances 327, 886
Psychogenic coma 13
Psychomotor agitation 868
Psychosis 22t, 323, 353, 383, 882
acute 450
Psychotherapy 337, 872
group 337, 872
supportive 282
Psychotropic manifestations 826
Psychotropic substance 45
Psyllium 693
whole seed husks 693f
Ptosis 219f, 807
Ptyas mucosa 207, 207f
Ptychodiscus
brevis 847
veneficum 847
Public Health Authority 42
Puffball mushrooms 822
Pulmonary arterial hypertension 783
Pulmonary edema 221, 323, 337, 362, 375, 439, 447, 522, 558, 596, 696, 782, 799, 872, 882
acute 431
treatment of 361
Pulmonary effects 333
Pulmonary embolism 33
Pulmonary fibrosis, progressive 590
Pulmonary injury, acute 928
Pulmonary pathology 546
Pulmonary toxicity 138, 764, 837
Pulse 512
oximetry 527
monitor 764
rate 13t, 223
therapy 716
Pupillary dilation 868
Pupillary dysfunction 807
Pupils 809
Purging nut 199
Purification 920
Purine analogs 748, 760
Purple glove syndrome 343
Purple toe syndrome 488, 489f
Putaiyan 207
Putrefactive changes 49
Pyrantel pamoate 684
Pyrazinamide 659
Pyrazolam 899
Pyrazolidines 628, 629
Pyrethrins 583, 584t
Pyrethroids 583, 584, 584t, 605
Pyrethrosin 584
Pyrethrum 583, 584
Pyridine 533
Pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide 570
Pyridostigmine 312, 574
bromide 103
Pyridoxine 295, 657
Pyrimethamine 680
Pyrimidine analogs 748, 757
Pyrodinium bahamense 846
Pyrogenic reaction 227
Pyrovalerone 329, 887
Pyrrolidines 342, 354
Pyruvate 536
dehydrogenase 109
Python
molurus 203, 203f
reticulatus 203
sebae 203
Q
Q waves, lateral 16f
QRS complex 15f
abnormal 15
Quadruple therapy 693
Qualitative analysis 915
Qualitative assays 915
Qualitative desferrioxamine color test 137, 916
Quantitative analysis 915, 919
Quantitative assays 533, 918
Quaternary ammonium compounds 88
Quercetin 738
Quetiapine 383
Quinacrine 680
Quinalbarbitone 296
Quinapril 450
Quinethazone 432
Quinidine 31, 379, 392, 675
Quinine 31, 675
amblyopia 676
hydrobromide 103
Quinolones 640, 642
R
Rabbit syndrome 386, 389
Racecadotril 700
Radiation 922
Radioactive agents 931
Radioactive iodine 707
Radioactively labeled drug 921, 922
Radioallergosorbent test 227, 235
Radiocontrast agents 726, 778
Radioimmunoassay 258, 324, 352, 915, 921
Radiology 86, 123
Radionuclide agents 726
Radiopaque poisons 113, 113t
Radiotherapy 593
Raindrop pigmentation 111f
Rakta anali 209
Raktamandali 209
Raktha penjara 209
Raloxifene 709, 770
Raloxiphene 709
Ramipril 450
Ranimustine 753
Ranitidine 97, 100, 635, 690, 691
Raphides 174
Rapid fluid 799
Rashes 432
Rastafari 318
movement 879
Rat
paste tubes 101f
poison 146, 587
Rattlesnakes 203
Raubasine 437
Rauwolfia serpentina 436, 437, 437f
Rave parties 328, 328f, 330, 785, 886, 888
Raynaud's syndrome 764, 929
Reactions 227
sensitivity 718
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome 514, 521
Reactive oxygen
radicals 588
species 588
Reboxetine 407
Receptor antagonists 632, 634, 690
Recombinant neuroendocrine hormones 467, 476
Red blood cells 127, 567
Red man syndrome 658, 658f, 663, 664
Red neck syndrome 663
Red pepper 185
Red phosphorus 91
Red scorpion 236
Red snapper 842f
Red squill 587
Red tail pit viper 204
Redheaded cottonbush 503
Redox-cycling 588
Reed's classification 12
Refractory anemias 712
Refractory cardiac arrest 398
Refractory diarrhea 699
Regal python 203
Regular almonds 835f
Reinsch test 916
Reiter's syndrome 797, 798
Relaxes smooth muscles 726
Remifentanyl 366
Renal damage, evidence of 621
Renal disease 718, 930
lithium induced 155
Renal effects 333, 868
Renal failure 27, 60, 184, 229, 333, 375, 473, 799
acute 142, 210, 323, 591, 780b, 882
diuretics phase of 230
hemodialysis for 236
Renal function 392
tests 591
Renal infarction 333
Renal replacement therapies, continuous 156
Renal side effects 780, 782
Renal toxicity 138
Renin inhibitors 433
Renzapride 697
Repel pests 560
Replacement therapy 715
Reproductive problems 929
Reptilia 201
Rescinnamine 437
Reserpine 436
Resochin 678
Resorcinol 175
Respiratory acidosis 221
Respiratory alkalosis 616
mixed 616
Respiratory center, failure of 13
Respiratory depression 256, 354, 362, 396, 533
severe 346
Respiratory diseases 862
Respiratory distress 82
management of 99
Respiratory failure 230, 591, 772
Respiratory insufficiency 14
Respiratory irritants 511, 513, 931
Respiratory muscles, failure of 13
Respiratory paralysis 564
Respiratory rate 223
Respiratory system 334, 719, 927
Restless leg syndrome 734
Restlessness 703
Retha aunali 209
Reticulated python 203
Retinopathy 678
Reversible nephrotic syndrome 706
Reye's syndrome 616, 616t, 831
treatment of 619
Rhabdomyolysis 227, 231, 312, 323, 326, 333, 337, 375, 378, 407, 526, 827, 872, 882, 885
management of 390
prevention of 261
Rhabdomyosarcoma 762
Rhamnus purshiana 695
Rheochostica 244
Rheumatic disorders 715
Rheumatoid arthritis 738, 754
Rhinitis 694
Rhodanese 532
Rhubarb 77, 77f
Rhynchosia precatoria 187, 187f
Ribavirin 670
Riboflavin deficiency 668
Rice
syndrome fried 795
water 115
stools 799
Ricin 176, 177
Ricinoleic acid 176
Ricinus communis 176, 696
Rickettsia akari 245
Rifabutin 658
Rifampicin 660
Rigidity 375
Rimantadine 669
Ring keratitis 369
Ringer's lactate 300
Ringer's solution 61
Riot control agents 931
Risk behavior syndrome 713
Risperidone 383, 391393
Risus sardonicus 421f
Ritodrine hydrochloride 777
Ritonavir 391, 671
Rituximab 771
Rivastigmine 416
patches 417
Rivea corymbosa 891
Rizatriptan 415
Rock python 203
Rock salt 894
Rocky mountain spotted fever 652
Rocuronium 374
Rodent 560
mite 245
Rodenticide 92, 101, 560, 586, 587, 931
Rofecoxib 631
Rolipram 738
Rolitetracycline 650
Ropivacaine 360, 367
Rosagenin 503
Rosary pea 187
necklace 188f
Rotavirus 813
Rotten egg odor 518
Rotten fish 101
Rough-scaled sand boa 210, 210f
Roxatidine 635
Roxithromycin 654
Rthanolism 276
Rubber vine 503
Rumack-Matthew nomogram 621, 622f
Rush 266
Russell's viper 203, 204, 206, 209, 209f, 210, 221
bite 219f
fangs 210f
venom 215
Ryania speciosa 602
Ryanodine 602
Ryanoid insecticides 602
Ryle's tube 25, 26f
S
Sabarubicin 766
Saccharides 26
Saccharomyces boulardii 663
Safety match 92, 92f
Salicin 613
Salicylate 31, 114, 613, 616, 916, 919
syndrome 9
Salicylazosulfapyridine 614
Salicylic acid 593, 613, 614
Salicylism 616
Saline laxatives 693, 694
Salix alba 613
Salmonella 704, 796
typhimurium 796f, 797
Salt 7
Salvia divinorum 900, 904, 904f
Salvinorin A 904
Samaritan 54b
Sanguinarine 837
Saquinavir 671
Sardonic smile 421
Saturnine gout 119
Saturnism 119
Saurine 840
Savlon 74, 88
Saw-scaled viper 203, 204, 206, 209f
Saxitoxin 846
Scabicide 576
Scabies mite 245
Scalded 78
Sceletium tortuosum 474
Schaedler's broth 806f
Schermann 590
Schiphozoa 247
Scintigraphy 597
Scintillation counter 923
Sclera, pigmentation of 75f
Scleroderma citrinum 827
Sclerosing cholangitis 758
Scolopendra subspinipes 245, 246f
Scombrotoxicosis, diagnosis of 841
Scombrotoxin 840
Scopolamine 309
hydrobromide 103
Scorpio
maurus imperator 237
pandinus imperator 237
Scorpion 236
sting 237f, 238f
prevention of 240
Scoville organoleptic test 186
Scoville scale 186
Scrophulariaceae 467
Scutellaria nana 900
Sea bass 842f
Sea krait 214, 214f
Sea onion 587f
Sea snake 203, 214, 214f
hook-nosed 204
true 214
Sea wasp 248, 248f
Seafood poisoning 841
Sea-mango 503
Secnidazole 682
Secobarbitone 296
Sedation 354, 633
Sedative
mildly 632
moderately 632
Sedative-hypnotic
drugs 931
syndrome 9
Seizure 20, 278, 346, 362, 447, 448, 458, 496, 578, 743, 745
control of 361
disorders 299
minimum quantity of 45t
Selective estrogen receptor modulators 709, 770
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 394, 399, 406, 474
Selegiline 354, 404
Seletracetam 342, 354
Semecarpus anacardium 182f, 183
Semiliquids 545
Semisynthetic penicillins 645
Semustine 753
Senna
alexandrina 695, 695f
tablets 695f
Sensorimotor neuropathy, peripheral 165
Sensory
neuropathy 657
paresthesias 809
Sepsis 746
Septata 816
Septicemia 797, 803
Serological tests 814
Serotonin
antagonist and reuptake inhibitors 394, 407
modulators and stimulators 394, 407
noradrenaline 394
norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 394, 399
Serotonin syndrome 9, 401, 407, 665, 669, 882
causes of 401t
treatment of 402
Serpents 201
Sertaconazole 673
Sertraline 399, 400
Serum 594
bromide level 104
ceruloplasmin level 143
copper level 143
cyanide level 533
formic acid level 290
glutamate pyruvate transaminase 353
glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 353
iron 136, 137
magnesium, monitor 732
paracetamol level 621
potassium levels 147
salicylate level 617
theophylline levels 732, 733
truth 298
Sesquiterpene lactones 584
Severe acidosis, management of 230
Severe pain, relief of 866
Severity, indications of 526
Sevoflurane 360, 364
Sewer gas 518
Sexstasy 329, 888
Sexual arousal disorder 782
drugs used for
female 785
male 782
female 785
treatment of 726, 782
Sexual cannibalism 242
Sexual desire disorder 782
Sexual dysfunction 401
Shaking palsy 354
Sheep farmer's disease 566
Shellfish
kinds of 846f
poisoning 799, 845
Shield-nosed snakes 203
Shigella dysenteriae 798
Shigellosis 797
Shiyar chiti 207
Shock 325, 799
cardiogenic 458
correction of 236
electric 223
hypotensive 229
Shongkhini 207
Shudder attack 849
Sigmoidoscopy 803
Sildenafil 782, 783
designer analogs of 887
Silodosin 441
Silver nitrate test 97
Silver sulfadiazine 640
Silybinin 819
Simfibrate 482
Sind krait 204
Sindoor 117, 117f, 126
Singh Vaughan Williams classification 452
Sinsemilla 314, 315, 875, 876
Sinus bradycardia 13, 18, 26, 336, 362, 396, 398, 439f, 446f, 469, 699
atropine for 505
Sirolimus 744
Skeletal fluorosis 105, 105f
Skin 23, 85, 281, 432, 532, 562, 719
cherry-red color of 526f
contact 180, 584, 585
corrosion of 70f
diseases 715
eruptions 347
exposure 103, 519, 600
lesions, common 189t
rash 129f, 165
spillage 568
therapy, topical 67
Skunk odor 302, 557
Slaughterhouse sledgehammer effect 520
Sleep
disorders 399
induction of 254
Sleeping sickness 674
Slender coral snake 204, 213, 214f
Slow channel blockers 444
Small cell carcinoma 754
Small head scales 212
Smear, peripheral 121
Smelling salts 514
Smokable form 865
Smoke 539
Smokeless tobacco 860
Smoky stool syndrome 94
Snake 201, 202f, 204, 231
classification of 203
envenomation 219b
identification of 220
species 204
Snake venom 214
apparatus 202
enzymes of 215t
ophthalmia 231
toxins of 215t
Snakebite 216, 220, 223b, 231, 232
diagnosis of 220
prevention of 231
treatment of 222
urine colors in 221f
Snorting 865
cocaine 331f
seventies 339, 873
Sodium
2-mercaptoethanesulfonate 751b, 774
aminosalicylate 614
amytal 296
antimony gluconate 682
azodisalicylate 614
bicarbonate 21b, 85, 97, 291, 295, 378, 390, 433, 455
carbonate 81
cyanide 530
dithionite test 591, 591f
hydnocarpate 660
hydroxide 81
hypochlorite 81, 102
lactate 455
loading 459
myo-inositol transporter 153
nitrite 534
nitroferricyanide 443
nitroprussiate 443
nitroprusside 443, 531
para-aminosalicylic acid 160
polystyrene sulfonate 378, 412, 433
salicylate 613, 614
stibogluconate 682
thiosulfate 534
valproate 342, 347
Sodium channel blockade 452
mild to moderate 452
Solenopsis invicta 233, 233f
Solithromycin 654
Somatostatin 699
Somatrem 704
Somatropin 704
Somniferous drugs 253, 931
Somnolence 435
Sorbitol 694
Sotalol 18, 441, 679
overdose 439f
Sour gas 518
South Indian pit vipers 212
Spectinomycin 664
Speech, slurring of 369
Speed ball 331, 333, 339, 866, 868
Spider keratouveitis 244
Spills, decontamination of 569
Spinach 77, 78f
Spinal agents 420
Spine 247
Spiramycin 654
Spirapril 450
Spironolactone 432
Sporontocides 675
ST segment, abnormal 15
Stachybotrys atra 832
Stachybotrys chartarum 832
Staphylococcus
aureus 665, 795, 796
strain of 795f
infection 797
State Pharmacy Councils 44
Statins 480
Stature, enhancement of 712
Status epilepticus 22t
Stavudine 668
Steatorrhea 699
Steatosis 93
Stenching agent 513
Sternbach's diagnostic criteria 401
Steroid
designer 886
estrogens 708
therapy 524
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 347, 641, 641f
Stibine, inhalation of 144
Stimulant abuse 325b, 883b
Stimulant laxatives 693, 695
Stings 926
Stink bomb 520
Stiripentol 342, 354
Stomach 61f, 82
blackish corrosion of 63f
grayish corrosion of 65f
perforation of 26, 63f
wash 25, 41, 133, 264, 295, 305, 346, 458, 515, 618, 623, 642, 691, 723
Stool analysis 793, 799, 814
Stool culture 801, 803
Stool sample, microscopy of 803
Strawberry tongue 128f
Streptococcus
agalactiae 665
pneumoniae 665
pyogenes 640, 665
Streptokinase 494
Streptomyces
mediterranei 657
nodosus 672
parvulus 764
roseosporus 664
venezuelae 652
Streptomycin 650
Streptozocin 748, 753, 754
Stress ulcers 688, 690
Striped coral snake 213
Stroke 277
Strophanthus 503
gratus 467
Stropharia coronilla 826
Strychnine 7, 31, 420, 421, 931
poisoning, differential diagnosis of 422t
Strychnos nux-vomica
fruit 420f
seeds 421f
tree 420f
Stryker pressure monitor 228f
Stupefaction 312
Subcutaneous injection 704
Subphylum chelicerata 236
Substance
abuse 399, 855
risk factors for 858b
dependence 857
induced disorder 857, 858
intoxication 857
use
disorder 857
harmful pattern of 857
withdrawal 858
Substitution therapy 261
Succinimides 342, 347
Succinylcholine 374377
interaction with 377
Sucrose polyester 581
Sudden infant death syndrome 145, 513, 736
Sudden sniffing death syndrome 898
Sufentanil 265, 366
Sufi saints smoking ganja 318f
Suicidal poisoning 96, 604
Suicide 538
tree 503, 507
Sulbactam 644
Sulconazole 673
Sulfacetamide 640
Sulfadoxine 640, 660, 680
Sulfamethoxazole 640
Sulfasalazine 614, 640
Sulfhydryl-containing agents 448
Sulfonamides 114, 430, 640
Sulfonanilide 628
Sulfone 660
syndrome 661
Sulfonylureas 720
toxicokinetics of 721t
Sulfosalicylic acid 166
Sulfur sulfanes 536
Sulfuric acid 60, 60f
ingestion 61f, 63f
Sulpiride 383
Sulthiame 429
Sumatriptan 415
Super buick 266
Superoxide 588
Supertoxic poisons 176
Supertoxins 807t
Supraventricular arrhythmias 396, 398
Supraventricular tachycardia 336, 733, 736, 871
Surfactant laxatives 693, 696
Suriclone 305
Surma 117, 117f, 144
Sutherland wrap 222
application of 222f
Swamp gas 513
Sweating 323, 882
Sweet almonds 835f
Sweet birch oil 614
Sweet pea 832
Sweet potato 182
Sweetening agents 849
Sympathectomy 415
Sympatholytic drugs 433
Sympathomimetic syndrome 9
Symphytum officinale 505
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone 477, 763
secretion 400, 752, 762
Syndrome of irreversible lithium-effectuated neurotoxicity 154
Synesthesias 889
Synthetic anticholinergics 31
Synthetic cannabinoid 858, 900
receptor agonists 900
Synthetic cat powder 889f
Synthetic cathinones 902
Synthetic nucleoside analogues 671
Systemic acidosis 68
Systemic amebicides 681
Systemic arterial hypertension 333, 867
Systemic asphyxiants 511, 524, 931
Systemic corticosteroids 714
Systemic disorders 386
Systemic lupus erythematosus 345
Systemic poisoning 585
Systemic toxicity 368, 477, 694
T
Tabby cat striation 166
Tachyarrhythmias 17, 237, 333, 867
Tachycardia 13, 237, 292, 323, 333, 336, 375, 533, 728, 754, 758, 868, 871, 882
hypotension with 782
junctional 469
Tachypnea 323, 375, 882
Tacrine 416
Tacrolimus 742, 744
neurological complications of 745t
Tactile hallucinations 323, 882
Tadalafil 783, 784
Taenia solium 683
Tamoxifen 709, 710, 770, 771
Tamsulosin 441
Tandem mass spectrometry 921
Tar 859
Tarantella 244
Tarantula 243, 244f
Tardive dyskinesia 22, 386, 389, 393
Tauromustine 753
Tawarya 209
Taxanes 748, 768
Taxus baccata 768f
Tazobactam sodium 644
T-cell receptor 747
Teeth
bleaching 86
brown discoloration of 651
line, yellow 148
Teflon 168
Tegafur 757
Teicoplanin 664
Telithromycin 654
Tell-tale signs 325b, 883b
Temazepam 298, 299
Temocapril 450
Tendu leaves, stacks of 860f
Teniposide 767
Tenofovir 671
Tensilon test 810, 916
Tension, surface 546
Teratogenicity 278, 598, 753
Terazosin 441
Terbinafine 674
Terbutaline 777
Terry's nails 111
Terutroban 495
Tetanus 805, 809
prophylaxis 223
toxin 188
Tetany 33
Tetracaine 360, 367, 866
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin 594
Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 603
Tetracyclic antidepressants 394, 395
Tetracycline 640, 650, 651
stained teeth 651f
Tetrahydrocannabinol 314, 891
Tetrahydrogestrinone 328
Tetrahydropyridine 566
Tetrahydrozoline 636
Tetralogy of Fallot 278
Tetrazole 450
Tetrodotoxic poisoning, severity of 845t
Tetrodotoxin 843, 844
Thalidomide 599, 660
Thallium 7, 163
poisoning 164f
triad 165
urinary excretion of 166
Thallous sulfate 167
Thavitta 209
Thebaine 254
Theobroma cacao 730, 730f
Theobromine 730
Theophylline 31, 730, 731t
Therapeutic drugs 3
Therapeutic misuse 84
Thermoregulation, impaired 20
Thiabendazole 683
Thiacetazone 660
Thiacloprid 601
Thiamethoxam 601
Thiamine 19, 295
Thiamylal 360
Thiazide 432
diuretics 429, 431
Thiazoles 672, 673
Thiazolidinedione 724
derivatives 720
Thickening agents 849
Thin layer chromatography
high-performance 568
plate, saturation of 917f
Thioacetazone 660
Thiobenzcarb 597
Thiocarbamate 597
fungicides 574
Thioctic acid 819
Thiocyanates 31
Thiodan 576
Thioguanine 761
Thions 563
Thiopentone 296, 360, 370
Thiophanate 597
Thiopurine methyltransferase 760
Thioridazine 383, 387
Thiotepa 752
Thiothixene 383, 387
Thioureylenes 706
Thioxanthenes 383, 384
Thrombocytopenia 32, 33, 278, 746, 753, 772
Thromboembolic disease 708
Thromboembolic phenomena 781
Thrombolytic therapy 872
Thrombosis 31
Thrombotic phenomena 486
Thromboxane 629
inhibitors 495
receptor antagonists 495
synthase inhibitors 495
Thymoglobuline 747
Thyroid 155
complications 781
drug 688, 705
function tests, monitor 707
hormone 705
Thyrotoxicosis factitia 708
Thyrotropin 705
Thyroxine 705
Tiagabine 342, 353
Tiapride 383
Ticagrelor 495
Ticarcillin 644
Tick 244, 560
bite paralysis 244
paralysis 244, 809
Ticlopidine 495
Tigecyclin 651
Tiletamine hydrochloride 364
Tinidazole 682
Tinnitus 369, 616
Tioconazole 673
Tiotropium 736
Tippler's bane 824
Tirofiban 495
Tissue
injury 168
plasminogen activator 494
schizontocides 674
Tizanidine 373
Tobacco 858
amblyopia 533
use, health consequences of 862
Tobramycin 650
Tocainide 456, 457
Tofenacin 399
Tofisopam 899
Tolazoline 441
Tolbutamide 721
Toluene 551
diisocyanate 521
Tolvaptan 477
Tongue 60
Toothpaste tubes 101f
Topiramate 342, 351, 352
Topotecan 769
Torasemide 431
Toremifene 709, 710, 770
administration 710
Torsade de pointes 389, 565, 698, 784f
ECG of 18f
Torsemide 431
Total leukocyte count 137
Tourniquet 222
Toxalbumin 176
Toxaphene 576
Toxic agents 860t
causing occupational diseases 49t
common 7t
Toxic aleukia, alimentary 832
Toxic cardiac effects 469t
Toxic conversion, reduced 36
Toxic delirium 332, 867
Toxic effect 347, 469
bypass 36
Toxic gases 511
Toxic inhalants 931
Toxic mushrooms 830t
Toxic neuritis 798
Toxic ophthalmological manifestations 9t
Toxic part 833
Toxic principles 833
Toxic reactions 235, 236
Toxic respiratory depression 13t
Toxic saliva 214
Toxic syndromes 9t
Toxicants 931
Toxicity
acute 443, 888
chronic 653, 712
clinical features of 633
mild 177
moderate 161, 177
rating 6t, 7, 573
severe 161, 177
subacute 112
Toxicoinfectious botulism 808
Toxicokinetics 60, 64, 69, 75, 109, 118, 127, 135, 141, 154, 164, 256, 271, 296, 355, 392, 400, 404, 409, 413, 445, 468, 474, 476, 562, 588, 741, 746, 783
Toxicologic testing 914
Toxicological analysis, methods of 913
Toxicology 3, 923t
analytical 911
and criminal law 47
and Workmen's Compensation Act 49
occupational 927
service, hunter area 401
Toxidrome 8, 9t, 151
Toxin 32b, 171, 795, 796, 823, 840, 931
adsorption of 28t
Toxoplasmosis 654
Traditional medicines 173
Traffic accidents 284
Tragic magic 894
Tramadol 268, 391, 402
Trandolapril 450
Tranexamic acid 493
Tranquilizers 383
Transdermal therapeutic system 434
Transvenous pacemaker 471
Tranylcypromine 394
Trauma 473
Traveler's diarrhea 803
Trazodone 407
Tree tobacco 858
Tremor 22, 323, 332, 334, 461, 574, 867, 869, 882
Treosulfan 752
Triallate 597
Triamcinolone 715
acetonide 715
Triamterene 432
Triazenes 748, 754
Triazolam 298
Triazoles 672, 673
Triazolo compounds 298
Trichlormethiazide 431
Trichloroethylene 916
Trichocereus pachanoi 896
Tricholoma
aurantium 824
pessundatum 827
Trichomonas vaginalis 682
Trichothecenes 830, 831
Trichuris trichiura 683
Triclabendazole 683
Tridemorph 598
Trifluoperazine 383
Trifluoromethyl benzenamine 587
Triflupromazine 383
Trihexyphenidyl 355, 357
Trihydrogen nitride 514
Trihydroxy alcohols 270
Trimeresurus 203
anamallensis 204
gramineus 204, 212, 212f
malabaricus 204, 212, 212f
purpureomaculatus 204
strigatus 212
Trimethadione 342
Trimethaphan 436
Trimethobenzamide 701
Trimethoprim 640, 680
Trimetrexate 748, 754
Trimipramine 394
Trinder's test 617, 915
Trinitrotoluene 600
Tri-o-cresyl phosphate 831
Triorthocresyl phosphate 563
Tripamide 431
Triple whammy effect 431
Trismus 220, 421
Trisodium phosphonoformate 666
Trofosfamide 749, 750
Troglitazone 724
Trolamine salicylate 614
Troleandomycin 654
Trophoblastic diseases 754
Tropical ataxic neuropathy 533, 834
Tropical rat mite 245
Tropisetron 636
Troponin 16
Trousseau's sign 67, 78, 79f
Trovafloxacin 643
Trunk, skin of 641f
Tryptamines 891
Tubular necrosis, acute 430, 658
Tuna, varieties of 840f
Tunnel vision 512
Turbid antivenom 225f
Turner's syndrome 708
Turnera diffusa 900
Turpentine 546
Twig snakes 203
Twitching 369
Tylocine 654
Tylosin 654
Typhoid fever 652
Typhus 652
U
U wave, abnormal 17
Ulcerative colitis 737
Ulcerative esophagitis
mild 81
severe 81
Ultraviolet
spectrometry 594
spectrophotometer 918, 918f
Undercooked fish 799
Underground drug 886
Unithiol 143
Untoxication 275, 280
Unwanted weeds 560
Upper airways dysfunction syndrome, reactive 102
Urapidil 441
Urethritis 797
Urginea maritima 587f
Urinary alkalinization 618
Urinary oxalate crystals 79
Urinary retention 237, 310
Urinary tract symptoms 746
Urination 237
Urine 221, 594
alcohol concentration 283
discoloration 367f
lead level 122
level 112, 143
mercury level 132
normal 676f
output 224
paraquat level 591
porphyrin level 122
red discoloration of 629
test 70, 104, 166
Urography 779
Urokinase 494
Urticaria 347, 781
Uterine muscle 777
contraction of 777
relaxation of 727
Uteroplacental effects 333, 868
Uveitis, acute anterior 803
V
Vaginal douche 86
Valaciclovir 665
Valdecoxib 631
Valganciclovir 667
Valnoctamide 342
Valproate 347
adverse effects of 348t
Valproic acid 342, 347, 348
Valpromide 342, 347
Valrubicin 766
Vancomycin 663
Vardenafil 783
Varenicline 864
Vasodilation, peripheral 728
Vasodilators 433, 441, 467, 472
Vasopressin receptor antagonists 467, 477
Vasospasm 323, 882
Vattakoora 209
Vecuronium 374
Velnacrine 416
Venlafaxine 391, 399, 400, 403
Venom 234, 241, 242
apparatus 236
claws 245
glands 240
leakage of 216
nature of 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212
toxins 241
Venomous arachnids 236
Venomous bites and stings 201, 931
Venomous creatures 201
miscellaneous 244
Venomous fish 247
Venomous insects 232
Venomous snakes 203, 204t, 225t
identification of 205
indicative of 205b
largest 211
Venomous snakebite 216
Venous blood gases 914
Venovenous hemodialysis, continuous 347
Venovenous hemofiltration, continuous 819
Ventilation, adequate 236
Ventricular arrhythmia 68, 336, 396, 729, 733, 871
treatment of 458
Ventricular fibrillation 323, 398, 882
Ventricular tachycardia 398, 736
Verapamil 444
overdose 446f
Verdigris 142
Vermilion 117, 117f, 126
Verpa bohemica 824
Vertebrates 201
Vertigo 292, 356, 393, 476
Vespa crabro 233f
Vespula pensylvanica 233f
Viagra 887
Vibrio 798
cholerae 798, 798f
vulnificus 800f
Vicks nasal inhaler 324
Vidaribine 671
Vigabatrin 342, 350
Vilazodone 407
Viloxazine 407
Vin rose urine 137f, 916
Vinblastine 762
Vinca
alkaloids 748, 761, 762
rosea 761, 762f
Vincristine 762
Vindesine 762
Vine snake 216
Vinegar 72
Vineyard sprayer's lung disease 142
Vinflunine 762
Vinorelbine 762
Violent behaviour, type of 22
Violent patient, tranquillization of 22t
Viper
bite 219f, 220f
lance-headed 203
large-scaled 204
true 203
Vipera russelii 209, 226
Viperid 203, 204
bite 218
envenomation 218
Virilizing
effects 712
syndromes 713
Virola calophylla 896, 896f
Virus 813
Viscera 51t
chemical analysis of 283
Viscus, perforation of 32
Visual acuity 512
Visual disturbances 369
Visual evoked response 290
Vital signs, monitor 764
Vitamin
B12 361
C 592
D2 586
D3 586
E 586, 592, 773
K1 491
Vitriolage 63, 63f
Volatile liquids, quantitate blood levels of 920
Volatile substance 897
abuse 897
Volkmann's ischemia 228
Vomiting 28, 33, 60, 224, 238, 323, 352, 356, 369, 372, 441, 447, 452, 616, 699, 709, 728, 742, 745, 752, 754, 772, 778, 803, 807, 843, 868, 882
von Willebrand's disease 348
Vorapaxar 495
Voraxaze 757
Vortioxetine 407
Vreatinine 223
W
Wall's Sind krait 204
Warfarin 403, 488
embryopathy 489
overdose 491t
Warm saline 25
Washing soda 81
Wasp, smooth stinger of 234f
Water hemlock 424, 424f
Watery diarrhea 803
painless 799
Weakness 698
Weedicides 560
Weight loss 698
evidence of 868
Wernicke's encephalopathy 278, 280
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome 279
West Bengal liquor tragedy, 2011 292f
Wheezing 772
Whippit cream charger 371f
White lipped pit viper 204
White phosphorus 91, 93
Whole blood clotting test 221
Whole bowel irrigation 24, 28, 137, 435, 618
Whole gut lavage 28
Widow spiders 242
Wild garlic 194
Wild tobacco 858
Wildlife Protection Act 210
William Henry's law 287
Willow tree 613f
Wilms’ tumor 762
Wilson's clues 719
Wilson's disease 142
Winter vomiting bug 813
Wintergreen, oil of 614
Withdrawal symptoms 712
Withdrawal syndrome 278, 258, 735
Wolf snake, common 208, 208f
Wolf spider 241, 243
Wood sorrel 78f
Workmen's Compensation Act 49
World Anti-Doping Agency 705
Worm wobble 684
Wound botulism 806, 808, 810
clinical features of 808
Wound care 106, 549
Wright spirometer 13f
Wrist drop 120f
Wuchereria bancrofti 683
X
Xamoterol 726
Xanthoproteic reaction 64, 64f
Xenon 360
Xipamide 432
X-ray 132, 136, 165, 870
emission, proton-induced 122
Xylene 551
Xylometazoline 636
Xylose lysine sodium deoxycholate agar plate 804f
Y
Yanghai tombs 318
Yellow jackets 601
Yellow oleander 503, 506, 506f
flower 506f
plant 506f
Yersinia
enterocolitica 136, 803, 804, 804f
pestis 651
Yersiniosis 803
Yohimbine 436
Yuppie plumbism 126
Z
Zafirlukast 738
Zalcitabine 668
Zanamivir 671
Zephiran 88
chloride 88
Zeuxis
samiplicutus 844
siguinjorensis 844
variciterus 844
Zidovudine 391, 667
Zileuton 738
Zinc
phosphide 91, 100
poisoning 101f
powder 101f
sulfate 25
supplementation 324, 881
Zineb 597
Ziprasidone 383
Ziram 597
Zofenopril 450
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome 688, 690, 699
Zolmitriptan 415
Zolpidem 305
Zonisamide 342, 352, 353
Zopiclone 305
Zornia latifolia 900
Zotepine 383
Zuclopenthixol 383
×
Chapter Notes

Save Clear


Modern Medical Toxicology
If I can ease one life the aching
Or cool one pain
I shall not live in vain.
— Emily Dickinson
Medicine in the hands of a fool is poison,
Just as poison becomes medicine in the hands of the wise.
— Giovanni Casanova
Modern Medical Toxicology
FIFTH EDITION
VV Pillay MD DCL Chief Poison Control Centre Head Analytical Toxicology and Professor and Head Department of Forensic Medicine and Medical Toxicology Amrita School of Medicine (Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham) Kochi, Kerala, India Foreword Prem Nair
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
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© 2023, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
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Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
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Modern Medical Toxicology
First Edition: 1995
Revised Reprint: 1999
Second Edition: 2001
Reprint: 2003
Third Edition: 2005
Reprint: 2008
Fourth Edition: 2013
Fifth Edition: 2023
9789354657986
Printed at
The memory of
my father, Mr PV Pillay
and
my mentor, Prof ATS Iyengar
FOREWORD
With this edition, Modern Medical Toxicology (MMT) celebrates its 25th year in circulation. When Dr VV Pillay wrote the first edition of this book way back in the 1990s, he could not have realized the extent of popularity his book would engender among medical students, faculty and practitioners. MMT has now grown in size, but is still compact enough to be carried in the hand as a handbook.
Although the knowledge of medical toxicology has advanced substantially, the goal of MMT has not changed: to provide useful clinical information on poisons and poisoning to emergency room (ER) physicians, other clinicians, medical students, interns, residents, nurses, pharmacists, and all healthcare professionals in a concise, complete, and accurate manner. The text continues to cover all the topics expected in a book of this size, with detailed information on corrosives, irritant poisons, neurotoxic agents, cardiovascular drugs and poisons, asphyxiants, and even pediatric and obstetric poisons.
With poisoning cases constituting a significant proportion of hospital admissions, MMT quickly provides information that will help practitioners achieve optimal care. The more specialized the practice of medical toxicology becomes, the more important such information becomes. Specialists as well as generalists must at some time or the other require to quickly access information about various poisons.
The fifth edition of MMT is the culmination of an arduous but rewarding 8-year enterprise. Every chapter has been updated and completely rewritten. A number of original color photographs and drawings have been included for the first time. Dr Pillay deserves a degree of gratitude that cannot be adequately expressed here, but we know he will feel sufficiently rewarded if his efforts serve your needs.
I congratulate Dr Pillay for this monumental work, and hope this edition will serve as an aid to you, compatible with your needs, and worthy of frequent use.
Prem Nair MD FACP DipAB (Gastro)
Provost and Group Medical Director
Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences (Kochi) and
Amrita Hospital (Faridabad)
(Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham)
Kochi, Kerala, India
PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION
Modern Medical Toxicology (MMT) was conceived more than 25 years ago as an attempt to present current information on medical aspects of toxicology (especially diagnosis and management) to medical students and physicians. At the time it was first written, the only information on medical toxicology available was contained in the toxicology section of textbooks of forensic medicine, and as can be expected, much of it was outdated, incorrect or inappropriate. Physicians treating poisoned and overdosed victims were often in a quandary for accurate guidelines, and were forced to turn to Western sources of information which did not always help, since the toxicological scenario in the West was (and continues to remain) completely different from that which is encountered in India.
The need for a book exclusively designed to meet the needs of Indian physicians was dire, and it was at such a time that I wrote the first edition of Modern Medical Toxicology, taking great care to incorporate only information that was current and practically useful. In order to make it interesting to medical students, I had included a number of case histories, anecdotes and quotations. But over a period of time, I realized that the information content with regard to toxicology for medicos had improved considerably in recent textbooks of forensic medicine (a possible, positive fallout of MMT!), and the focus therefore should shift exclusively to physicians.
It is with this objective in mind that I had completely changed the format of MMT from the 4th edition onwards, and jettisoned the occasional frivolity, retaining only hardcore practical information that would be of use to a clinician at the bedside of a poisoned/overdosed victim. The new edition (like the previous one) is therefore shorn of historical cases, anecdotes and quotes, and embellished instead with precise and explicit practical tips for managing poisoned/overdosed patients, with incorporation of numerous color images, many of them absolutely original contributions from renowned experts in the field. I have received considerable feedback from many physicians across India and even abroad, that this radical shift has greatly benefitted those whom this book is now directed at: general physicians, emergency physicians, critical care specialists, intensivists, pediatricians, clinical pharmacologists, and of course forensic medical experts and toxicologists.
I would be grateful for such continuing feedback that will serve to make subsequent editions even better. Do write to me, or email me on toxicology@medical.aims.amrita.edu or drvvpillay@gmail.com.
VV Pillay
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
The desire to write this book originated from a near catastrophic occurrence about three years ago. One evening, my daughter (then aged 8 months) swallowed some cockroach bait accidentally. We rushed her to the hospital where a stomach wash was carried out. Following this, none of the doctors present (including myself) had an inkling as to what further must be done. We did not even know the exact ingredients of the bait that my daughter had swallowed. Though it later transpired that the substance, which happened to be a newly introduced insecticide, while being poisonous to cockroaches was relatively non-toxic to humans. My wife and I spent a sleepless night observing our child's condition with great anxiety.
This incident brought me face to face with the dismal reality of ignorance and apathy on the part of the medical profession in our country in matters relating to poisoning. Though toxicology is today an important part of clinical medicine in the West, it is largely neglected in India. This, despite the well-known fact that cases of poisoning constitute a significant proportion of hospital admissions. There is an urgent need for doctors in India as in other Third World countries to realize the importance of toxicology in clinical medicine. This book is a humble contribution towards generating such an interest and providing practical guidelines in the treatment of poisoning. Though emphasis is on the clinical and pharmacological aspects, the book nevertheless deals extensively with forensic implications. After all, almost every case of poisoning has medicolegal overtones! Also, while the stress is on important fundamental information on commonly encountered poisons, an attempt has been made to enhance readability by including fascinating trivia (as Accessory Points), and landmark case histories involving the use or misuse of poisonous substances.
I have consulted innumerable journals and treatises for modern concepts in toxicology and have in addition corresponded with all major pharmaceutical companies and forensic science laboratories in India for information relating to various aspects. I hope all this has been worthwhile. If this book is found to be genuinely useful by medical students, doctors and all others concerned with toxicological matters, my efforts would have been vindicated. Suggestions and criticism for improving this book (which by no means is flawless) in subsequent editions would be particularly welcome.
VV Pillay
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Grateful acknowledgments are due: