IAN Reviews in Neurology 2022: Epilepsy-Innovations and Advances PN Sylaja
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table.
A
Ablation 161
hyperintense area of 166f
hypodense area of 166f
steps of 166f
Acalculia 5
Accelerometer 177
Acetazolamide 87
Acquired anterior opercular syndrome 108
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 14, 15, 71, 181
Age limited epilepsy syndrome 185
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 208
Alkyl carbamate 188
Alzheimer's disease 93
Ambulatory intracranial electroencephalogram 171
Amino acid change 80
Amygdala 121
Anesthesia, level of 50
Anesthetic
cycling and duration of 50
speed of weaning of 50
Anesthetic medications 4750
ketamine 50
midazolam 49
propofol 49
thiopental and pentobarbital 49
Aneuploidy 80
Angelman syndrome 81, 132, 191
Antiarrhythmic drugs 95
Antibiotic irrigation 129
Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody 31
Antiepileptic drugs 20, 89
advantages of withdrawal 21
dose 88f
newer 64
third-generation 44
withdrawal of 20
Antiseizure medication 20, 21, 23, 30, 34f, 48, 49, 61, 64t, 65, 66, 74, 85, 89, 92, 93, 100, 115, 131, 185, 198, 206
armamentarium of 180
general strategies 29
mechanism of action of 30t
treatment lag of 68
Anxiety 61
phenomenology of 63t
Aphasia 5
Apnea 156
Appetite suppression 189
Arcuate fasciculus 111
Arrhythmia 93
Arterial blood gas analysis 58
Arterial strokes 24
Arteriovenous malformations 133
Artificial intelligence 149, 187, 192, 204, 209
Asymmetric tonic seizures, semiology of 145f
Asystole 66, 156
Atkins diet 32
Atonic seizures 74
Atrioventricular conduction defect 66
Auditory aura 153
Auras 152
nonspecific 154
type of 153
Autism 133
spectrum disorder 206
Autistic traits 135
Autoimmune
and inflammatory causes 202
and paraneoplastic causes 94
causes 200
encephalitis 25, 133
epilepsy 94, 133
thyroiditis 200
Autonomic aura 153
Autonomic manifestations 152, 155
Autonomic pharmacology 97
Axio rhizomelic atonia 108
B
Bacterial meningitis 197
Barbiturates 33, 201
Basal ganglia 148
Basic sciences
pathophysiology 13
recent advances in 13
Behavioral arrest 8
Behavioral disturbances 184
Behavioral problems 135
Behnke-Fried depth electrode 122
Benign familial
epilepsy syndromes 79
neonatal-infantile seizures 208
Benign Rolandic epilepsy 107
Benzodiazepines 30, 34, 47, 48, 5557, 134, 201
potency of 56
role of 190
Biotinidase deficiency 133, 136
Bispectral entropy 174
Bispectral squared entropy 174
Blindness 152
Blood–brain barrier 196f
level 53
Blood-oxygen-level-dependent effect 147
Body perception illusion 153, 154
Bone
disorders 65
flap size 163f
loss in epilepsy, 65t
marrow transplantation 64
mineral disorders 61
Bradycardia 156
Brain
in petri dish 191
neurotransmitters 97
organoids 187, 191
parenchyma 118, 121, 196
trauma 20, 24, 25
tumors 20, 24, 25, 62
Brainstem level 13
Breastfeeding 85, 90, 183
Brivaracetam 29, 30, 3335, 38, 43, 187, 188, 207
Buccal midazolam 213
Bupropion 201
Busulfan 64
C
Calcium 30
channel 208
Cancer 64
chemotherapeutic agents 64t
medications, high doses of 64
systemic 61
Cannabidiol 3336, 38, 39, 43, 188
adverse events 39
dosage 39
mechanism of action 39
Carbamazepine 2831, 34, 35, 41, 89, 90, 95, 96, 108, 115, 181, 183, 207
Cardiac arrhythmias 93
Cardiac disorders 66
Cardiac pacemaker 126
Cardiovascular and respiratory disorders 61
Cardiovascular defects 89
Cardiovascular issues 93
Carotid sinus syndrome 93
Catamenial epilepsy 85, 86
management of 86
types of 86f
Cavernoma 103
Cavernous angiomas 120
CDKL5 gene mutation 189
Cenobamate 30, 3336, 3840, 43, 188
Central hypotonia 135
Central nervous system 38, 125, 194
infections 197
Centrotemporal spikes 107, 108
Cerebellar atrophy 134
Cerebral
abscess 122
activation 103
disorder, acute 194
glucose consumption 104
hemorrhage 94
malaria 25, 197
palsy 21
physiology 148
toxoplasmosis 25
venous thrombosis 198
Cerebrospinal fluid 48
Cerebrovascular disorders 93
Channelopathies 132
Chapeau de gendarme 158
Childhood epilepsy 131
Chlorambucil 64
Chloride channel 208
Chlorpromazine 201
Chocking 156
Choreiform movement disorder 135
Chromosomal syndromes 132
Cingulate cortex 152
Cingulum 121
Citalopram 201
Clobazam 23, 36, 37, 87, 183, 207
Clonazepam 15, 23, 58, 64, 87
Clonic jerks, asymmetric ending of 159
Clozapine 201
Cluster analysis, type of 152
Cognitive 5t
decline 69, 70f, 110
deficits, postictal 159
disability 137
disturbances 151
dysfunction 69
functions 69t
impairment 104
manifestations 152, 155
regression 133
Combined oral contraceptive pill 87
Comparative genomic hybridization 78, 79, 206
Complex epilepsy 131
Connective tissue disorders 200
Consciousness
alteration of 152, 154
loss of 171
Contraception 85, 87
Convolutional neural network 174, 175
Coronary artery disease 66
Corpus callosotomy 105
Corpus callosum 163f
Cortical abnormalities 146
Cortical blindness 135
Cortical dysplasia 105, 164
Cortical malformations 148
Cortical stimulation 118
Corticosteroids 14, 15
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone 13
Craniotomy 163f
Creatine deficiency disorders 136
Creatinine 195
Cryptococcal meningitis 25, 197
Cryptogenic epilepsy 182
Cryptogenic supra-refractory status epilepticus, evidence in 51
Cyclophosphamide 64
CYP2C19 substrates 36
CYP3A4 substrates 36
Cytochrome P450 39
Cytogenetic studies 206
Cytotoxic agents 95
D
Deep brain stimulation 105, 125, 126, 128
Delalande's technique 162
Dementias 93
DEPDC5 gene mutation 83
Depression 61, 63
frequency of 63
phenomenology of 63t
Desmethylclobazam 36
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 133
Diazepam 55, 57, 58, 187
Diffusion tensor imaging 111, 143, 146, 205
Diphenhydramine 201
Disease-specific therapies 31
Doose syndrome 111
Down's syndrome-related epilepsy 132
Doxorubicin 64
Dravet syndrome 22, 39, 68, 70, 73, 79, 80, 133, 134, 137, 188, 208
Drowsy 164
Drug refractory epilepsy, cases of 204
Drug-resistant
epilepsy 2, 27, 28, 137, 161, 182, 189
focal epilepsy, case of 148f
idiopathic generalized epilepticus 9t, 182
Dyselectrolytemia 196
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors 103, 105
Dyskinesias 134
Dysphasia 5
Dystonic limb posturing 157
Dystonic posturing 156
E
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 71, 133, 136
Early myoclonic encephalopathy 22, 79, 133
Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy 133
Echocardiogram monitoring 189
Eclampsia 196, 197, 201
Electrical shock 152
Electrical status epilepticus in sleep 109
Electrical stimulation 125
Electroconvulsive therapy 52
Electrocorticography 172
Electroencephalography 6, 9, 15, 74, 102, 109, 111, 115, 118, 145, 175, 181, 185, 192
abnormal 28
changes 78
in atonic drops 109f
in elderly epilepsy 94
role of 23
Electrolyte and metabolic disorders 200, 202
Emaptica 177
Emergency surgery 52
Emotional facial paresis 157
Encephalitis 197
Encephalopathic disorders 197
Encephalopathy 197
developmental 2
refractory 136
subacute 136
Endocrine impairment 168
Endoscopic corpus callosotomy 161, 162
Endoscopic disconnection 164
Endoscopic hemispherotomy 161, 162
technique of 162
Enzyme inducibility 97
Epi-care 178f
Epidiolex 188
Epigastric aura 152, 156
Epigenetics 191
Epihunter 176
Epilepsy 2, 93, 98, 125, 204
advances in genetics of 78
and pregnancy 88
classification of 132t
complex 131, 132
etiological classification of 6
genetics 27, 79
in elderly 92
in women 85
infantile migrating focal seizures 79
management 92, 96, 101
multifocal 133
natural history of 27, 180
poststroke 20, 24, 25
precision medicine in 209f
prognosis of 181, 182
surgery 20, 100, 101, 118, 146, 180
Epilepsy syndromes 2, 8, 22, 22t, 133, 180, 206, 208
and genes involved 79t
diagnosis 6f
prognosis 181
Epileptic auras, significance 153t
Epileptic disorders 136
Epileptic encephalopathy 2, 68, 70t, 77f, 78, 80, 131
Epileptic nystagmus 157
Epileptic seizures 171
Epileptic spasms 5, 12, 74
in cluster 68
treatment of 14
Epileptic syndromes 70, 73, 134
Epileptic zone 118
Epileptiform discharges 166f
Epileptogenesis, development of 31
Epileptogenic foci 103t
Epileptogenic lesions 105
Epileptogenic network 22
Epileptogenic zone 143
Epileptogenicity, hallmark of 148
Epileptologists 210
Eslicarbazepine 30, 33, 35, 38, 40, 41, 95
acetate 34, 35, 43
adverse effects 41
dosing 41
mechanism of action 40
Estradiol 85
Estrogen 85
Ethosuximide 31, 33, 34, 87, 181
Everolimus 189
Exacerbate seizures 28
Eye blinking 157
bilateral 157
unilateral 157
F
Facial dysmorphisms 204
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome 31, 70, 133, 137
Febrile seizures 134, 182
Felbamate 30, 31
Fencing posture 158
Fenfluramine 189
Fertility 87
Figure-of-4 sign 158
Fluorescence in situ hybridization 78, 81, 83
Focal cortical dysplasia 103, 122, 146, 210
Focal electrographic seizure 102f
Focal epilepsy
presurgical workup of 102f
syndromes 83, 131
Focal seizures 139f, 156
Folic acid 87
Forced thinking 153, 154
Fosphenytoin 47, 59
Fourier transform
fast 192
short-term 175
Fractional anisotropy 205
Fragile X
epilepsy 132
syndrome 81
Freiburg database 174
Frequent refractory seizures 108
Frontal lobe epilepsy 156, 212
Frontotemporal dementia 94
Fusobacterium 191
G
Gabapentin 29, 30, 31, 34, 87, 183, 208
GABA-related actions 30
Gamma knife in epilepsy surgery 164, 168
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 30, 48, 85, 200
Ganaxolone 137
Ganglioglioma 103
Gate theory 126
Gene therapy 78
Gene-modifying techniques 187
Genetic abnormalities 205
Genetic analysis techniques 80
Genetic counseling 82
Genetic epilepsy 132, 182
Genetic generalized epilepsies 8
Genetic influences
complex interplay of 196f
in drug metabolism 206f
in drug transporters 206
in ion channels 207
of ADRS–HLA 207t
of adverse drug reactions 206
of ion channels 208t
Genetic mutations 137
Genetic testing
and coverage range 81t
in epilepsy 83
Genetic underpinnings 62
Genetic variants 80, 83
Genotype-phenotype relationship 79
Geriatric autoimmune disorders 94
Geriatric neurology 92
Glasgow Coma Scale scores 95
Gliosis 94
post-traumatic 103
Glucose transporter 208
type 1 15, 133, 136
Glutamate 30
Glutamate decarboxylase 65 48, 94
antibody 48
Glutamatergic transmission 85
blockade of 30
Goosebumps 156
Granuloma 94
GRIN2A mutations 137
Gustatory aura 153, 154
Gut-brain axis 187, 191
Gut microbiome 191
H
Habitual seizure 122
Hallucinations 152
Head and eye version 158
Head trauma 197
Heart disease, structural 93
Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy 70
Hemispherectomy 162
Hemispherotomy 161
Hemogram, complete 58
Hemorrhagic stroke 198
Hepatic and renal diseases 200
Hepatic enzymes 64
Hepatic metabolism 97
Herpes encephalitis 24
Herpes simplex
encephalitis 97f, 133
virus 197
Heschl's gyrus 153
Heterotopias 120
Hippocampal changes 146
Hippocampal excitatory neurons 192
Hippocampal sclerosis 103, 133, 182, 210
Histone lysine deacetylases 191
Histone modification 80
Homoeostatic mechanisms 97
Hormonal contraceptives 36, 37
Human brain organoids derived 191
Human immunodeficiency virus 25
Human leukocyte antigen 206, 207
Human pluripotent stem cells 191
Hydantoins 33
Hydrocephalus 189
Hydrocortisone 15
Hygroma 184
Hyperactivity disorder 108
Hyperexcitable neuronal membranes 41
Hyperkinetic behavior 69
Hypermotor behavior 152
Hypertensive encephalopathy 196
Hyperventilation 156
Hypnic jerks 93t
Hypoglycemia 57
related injury 13
Hyponatremia 95, 194
Hypoperfusion 103
Hypotension 66
Hypothalamic hamartoma 133, 164, 166f
surgical procedures 165t
Hypothermia 52
role of 52
Hypotonia 134
Hypoventilation 156
Hypoxia, acute 195
Hypoxic encephalopathy 201, 202
Hypoxic-ischemic
encephalopathy 7
injury 196
Hypsarrhythmia 68, 71
I
Iatrogenic injury 148
Ictal 9, 63, 103
activity 47, 48
autonomic manifestations 156t
bradycardia 66
grasping 157
gyration 158
nystagmus 158
piloerection 157
pouting 158
speech 157, 158
spitting and vomiting 158
Ictogenesis 172
Ideal rescue therapy agent 213
Idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes, prognosis of 182
Idiosyncratic reactions 97
Ifosfamide 64
Immune epilepsies 133
Immune-mediated epilepsies 136
Immunodeficiency disorders, primary 132
Immunomodulatory agents 51
Inborn errors of
creatine metabolism 133
metabolism 80
Infantile epilepsies 80
Infantile epileptic spasms syndrome 12, 68, 70, 71
structural etiologies of 13f
Infantile spasms 12, 71, 134
syndrome 79
Infantile-onset epilepsy 80
Infections 24
Infectious epilepsies 133
Inflammation 194
role of 31
Inhalational halogenated anesthetics 50
Inherited metabolic disorder 136
Instability, postural 93
Intellectual disability 132, 133, 206
Intelligence quotient 68, 115, 128
Interictal 63
abnormalities 185
discharges 148
electroencephalogram 68, 70f, 73f
epileptiform discharge 111, 147
Interleukin 1-beta 31
Interleukin 6 31
Intracarotid amobarbital procedure 147
Intracerebral hemorrhage 122, 198
Intracranial electroencephalogram 174, 175
Intracranial hemorrhage 198
Intractable epilepsy 149
Intractable focal epilepsy, case of 145f
Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone 14
Intranasal diazepam 190, 213
Intranasal midazolam 187, 190, 213
Intravenous immunoglobulin 49, 51, 114, 115
Intravenous methylprednisolone 49, 115
Ipsilateral hemisphere 157
Irinotecan 64
Irritability 69
Ischemic infarcts 94
Ischemic stroke 195, 198
Isoflurane 208
Ivabradine 208
J
Jacksonian march 152, 153
Janus kinase-signal transducer pathway 136
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 22, 180, 181
K
Karyotyping 78, 80
Katamenios 86
KCNQ2 gene 134
KCNQ2-related epilepsies 134
KCNT1 channel-related epilepsy 137
KCNT1 gene 135
Ketamine 48, 208
Ketogenic diet 15, 27, 52, 134
role of 32
L
Lacosamide 30, 31, 3335, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 59, 64
adverse events 42
dosing 42
Lamberink predictive model 22
Lamotrigine 29, 30, 31, 34, 36, 87, 89, 114, 183, 207, 208
Landau–Kleffner syndrome 73, 79, 113f, 108, 137, 181
Language lateralization 148
Laser interstitial
ablation 164
thermal
ablation 120
therapy 164, 187, 190
thermotherapy 161
Lead malfunction 122
Lennox–Gastaut syndrome 6, 22, 21, 28, 39, 70, 74, 79, 134, 161, 162, 181, 188, 189
atypical absences of 111
Lesionectomy 105
Lethargy 189
Levetiracetam 2931, 34, 35, 47, 55, 59, 64, 65, 87, 90, 89, 95, 114, 134, 181, 183, 201
Limb movements, paucity of 157
Lissencephaly 13f
Liver function tests 58
Lorazepam 55, 57, 58, 64
M
Magnesium 53
Magnetoencephalography 28, 111, 144
Medically intractable focal epilepsy 145f, 147f
Medically refractory epilepsy 118
Mefenamic acid 201
Memantine 208
Memory
deficits 147
impairment 5
long short-term 175
Mendelian inheritance 79, 131
Meningitis 122
Meningocele 184
Meningoencephalocele 103
Mental deterioration 68
Mental retardation 21
Mephobarbital 33
Mesial temporal
lobe epilepsies 180
sclerosis 103, 122, 168
structures 123f
Metabolic defect in epileptic child 136t
Metabolic disorders 197
Metabolic epilepsy 133, 136
Methotrexate 64
Methylprednisolone pulse therapy 74, 74f
Microbiome in epilepsy 191
Midazolam 48, 55, 57, 58
Migraine 61, 62, 65
risk of 65
Migrating focal seizures 138
epilepsy of infancy with 70
Migrating partial seizures of infancy 22
Miosis 156
Mitochondrial encephalopathies 182
Monosomy 80
Mood disorders, treatment of 64
Mood stabilization 69
Morphometry
analysis program 146
surface-based 146
voxel-based 146, 210
Mortality implications 62
Motor function 104
Motor manifestations 152, 154
Movement disorder 133, 135
Mydriasis 156
Myoclonic absence 5
epilepsy 22
Myoclonic atonic epilepsy 111
Myoclonic epilepsy
in infancy, severe 73
progressive 70, 80
Myoclonic seizures 73, 74, 136
Myoclonic-astatic epilepsy 134
Myoclonic-tonic-clonic 5
N
Narcolepsy 93
Nasopharyngeal airway 56
Natalizumab 31
Neonatal seizures and epilepsies, classification of 7
Neurocritical Care Society 47
Neurocutaneous markers 204
Neurocutaneous syndromes 133
Neurodegenerative processes 93
Neurodevelopmental regression, severe 135
Neuroimaging in elderly epilepsy 94
Neuroinfections 92
Neuroinflammation 27
Neurological comorbidity 62
Neurological disorder 132
Neurological examination 109, 182
Neurological signs 135
Neurological symptoms 137
Neuromodulation 125
in epilepsy 125
Neuropsychology 100, 104
Neurosteroids 189
Neurostimulation devices 126t
Neurostimulation in epilepsy, modern day 125
Neurostimulation techniques 180
Neurotransmitter release, modulation of 30
Next-generation sequencing techniques 82
Nightwatch 177f, 178
Nitrazepam 15
Nondominant hemisphere 157
Nonforced head deviation 157
Noninvasive neuromodulation technique 190
Novel medical technology 191
Nucleotide repeat expansions 78, 80
Nullisomy 80
O
Ohtahara syndrome 22, 71, 79, 133
Olfactory aura 153, 154
Oral benzodiazepines 213
Organ dysfunction 200
Oromotor dysfunction 108
Orphan disease 132
Orthostatic hypotension 93
Osteoporosis, risk for 95
Oxazolidinediones 33
Oxcarbamepine 207
Oxcarbazepine 2931, 34, 89, 90, 114, 115, 181, 183
P
Paclitaxel 64
Palliative neurosurgical procedures 101
Panayiotopoulos syndrome 180
Paralytic ileus, risk of 53
Paraneoplastic encephalitis antibody panel 58
Parkinson's disease 62
Paroxysmal nonepileptic seizures 28
Peak plasma concentration 214
Pediatric epilepsy surgery 24
Pediatric rare epilepsy syndromes 131
Perampanel 29, 30, 31, 3335, 37, 38, 40, 41, 44
Peri-ictal
nose-wiping 158
water drinking 158
Perimenstrual seizure cluster 86
Perinatal birth injuries 13
Perioral cyanosis 133
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 148
Phenobarbitone 29, 30, 31, 59, 181, 185, 207
Phenytoin 2831, 3436, 55, 59, 89, 207
Photoparoxysmal response 185
Photoplethysmogram 177
Photosensitive seizures 73
Physics 126
closed versus open loop 126
fundamentals 126
Piloerection 156
Placebo group 189
Plasma exchange 49
Polymicrogyria, detections of 146
Polypharmacy and interactions 97
Post epilepsy surgery 24, 24f
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome 24, 201, 202
Potassium 30
actions 30
channel 208
gene 192
Potential epileptogenic foci 102
Potentiation 30
Prader–Willi syndrome 81
Precision medicine 78, 82, 204
Prednisolone 15
Prednisone 15
Pregabalin 30, 34, 87
Prehospital
management 55
pharmacological treatment 57
treatment of status epilepticus trial 57
Preictal and postictal psychiatric ailments 63
Preictal headache 153
Primidone 33, 34
Progesterone 85
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 25
Progressive neurological deterioration 70t
Progressive organic dysfunction 196
Propofol 48, 208
Protein binding 97
Proteobacterium in healthy controls 191
Pseudo-Lennox syndrome 73
Pseudo-refractoriness, concept of 28
Pseudoresistance 182
Psychiatric
ailments 64
comorbidity 62, 63, 104
disorders 63, 110
function 69
problems 132
symptom 69
Psychomotor regression 110
Psychosis 61
in epilepsy, phenomenology of 63t
Pyridoxine 15, 53
dependent epilepsy 133, 136, 208
supplementation 208
Pyruvate dehydrogenase 136
Q
Quality of life 94
Quetiapine 201
Quinidine 134
R
Radiofrequency 146, 161
ablation 161
electrodes 161
Rapamycin 189
mechanistic target of 83
Rasmussen syndrome 70
Rasmussen's encephalitis 22, 133, 137, 184
post-stroke atrophy 162
Rational polytherapy 27, 31
Rectal diazepam 213
Recurrent neural networks 174
Refractoriness, define 47
Refractory epilepsy 131
treatment of 187
Refractory status epilepticus 51, 47
Renal elimination 97
Renal failure, chronic 196
Renal function tests 58
Rescue therapy 211, 214
formulations 213
in epilepsy 211
indications for 212
Resective epilepsy surgery 84t
Residual gliotic scars 24
Respiratory distress, case of 56
Responsive neurostimulation 125, 126, 127, 161, 167, 167f, 171, 190
complications 128
long-term outcomes 128
Restless legs syndrome 93
Retigabine 30, 31
Rett syndrome 191
Rhythmic ictal nonclonic hand motions 156, 157
Rifampicin 35
Right parieto-occipital cavernoma 199f
Rituximab 31
Robot-assisted procedure 122
Robot-assisted stereoelectroencephalography electrode insertion 122
Robotic-guided hypothalamic hamartoma ablation 164
Robotic thermocoagulative hemispherotomy 163
development of 161
Rolandic epilepsy 22, 181, 185
cases of 180
Rolandic status epilepticus 108
Rufinamide 30, 3335, 37, 38, 42, 44
S
Salivation 156
Sanger sequencing 79
Scar epilepsy 20
Sclerosis, multiple 62
SCN2A related epilepsies 134
Scout image 121f
Seizures 61, 109
classification 1, 3
cluster 211, 212, 214
despite treatment 22
detection devices for diagnosis 176
during pregnancy 88
epileptic 2
focal 2
freedom 183f
frequency 204
generation 148, 172
nature of 95
risk of recurrence after first unprovoked 181
self-reporting 176
semiological manifestations of 152
semiology 139, 151, 152, 205
spread of 122
types, multiple 22
Semiology, postictal 8
Sensor dot 176
Sensorimotor area 152
Sensory auras, contralateral or bilateral 152
Sensory seizures 93
Serine-threonine kinase 135
Serum
calcium 195
electrolytes 58
glucose 195
magnesium 195
sodium 195
Simple motor manifestations 154
Single nucleotide variants 78, 80, 81
Sleep
apnea 93
disorders 93
disturbances 17
Sodium 30
Somatic comorbidity 62
Somatognosia 153
Somatosensory auras 152
Somnolence 189
Spasms
control of 16
prevention of development of 17t
Spastic quadriparesis 134, 135
SPEAC device 177, 177f
Specific epilepsy syndromes, etiology 8
Specific genetic syndrome 133
Specific lateralizing signs 156
Spinal cord stimulator device 126
Spinocerebellar ataxias 62
Sporadic hemiplegic migraine 65
Status epilepticus 55, 92
Stem cells 191
Stereoelectroencephalography 118, 119, 120, 120t, 122, 162
complications 122
technique of 168f
Stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation 164
electrode, placement of 166f
Stereotactic radiosurgery 168
Stereotaxy 121
Steroid 95
responsive encephalopathy 200
Steven–Johnson syndrome 41, 206, 207
Stiripentol 3335, 37, 38, 42, 44, 134
Stroke 93, 196
acute 197, 198
incidence of 197
subtypes 198
STXBP1 mutation 71, 73f
Subarachnoid hemorrhage 198
Subcortical flair hyperintensity 198f
Subcortical structures 146
Subdural electrodes 119, 120t
Subdural hematoma, post-traumatic left convexity 199f
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas 189
Submillimeter range 144
Succinimides 33
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy 16, 21, 29, 100, 171, 182, 212
Super-refractory status epilepticus 47
Surface electromyography signals 177
Sweating 156
Symptomatic seizure, acute 24, 95, 194, 195
alcohol-related 201
causes 194
common metabolic disorders 195t
epidemiology of 196
etiology of 197
frequency of 197, 198, 199, 200
in elderly 92
list of drugs and toxins 201t
risk factors of 198, 199, 200
treatment of 198, 199, 200
Synaptic transmission, coregulator of 208
Synthetic minority oversampling technique 174
Systemic lupus erythematosus 200
T
Tachycardia 156
Tamoxifen 64
Tandem mass spectrometry 83
Targeted genetic testing, diagnosis 205
Technology, improvement of 187
Temporal lobe epilepsy 101, 149, 156, 190, 191
Temporal lobectomy, anterior 168
Temporal plus epilepsy 120
Teniposide 64
Tetracosactide 15
Tetrasomy 80
Thalamus 146, 148
anterior nucleus of 128
for epilepsy 128, 129f
Theophylline 95
Thiopentone 48
Thiotepa 64
Thrombocytopenia, cause 64
Thyrotoxicosis 93
Tiagabine 30
Timothy syndrome 191
Tocilizumab 31
Todd's palsy 157
Todd's paralysis 159, 199
Tongue bite, unilateral 159
Tonic head version 157
Tonic-clonic seizures 94f
Topiramate 15, 2931, 34, 65, 87, 89, 90, 183
Topotecan 64
Toxic epidermal necrolysis 41, 206, 207
Tractography 184
Tramadol 201
Transaminase elevation 189
Transaminitis 189
Transcranial direct current stimulation 190
Transcranial magnetic stimulation, repetitive 52
Transient ischemic attack 93
Traumatic brain injury 195, 199, 202
Trimethadione 33
Tuberculoma 20, 25
Tuberous sclerosis 120, 191
complex 13f, 39, 189
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 31
U
Unprovoked seizure 194
Urea nitrogen 195
Urinary urge 156
V
Vaccine-related encephalopathy 134
Vagal nerve stimulation 162, 190
implantation 102
Vagus nerve stimulation 125, 126, 128
complications 127
long-term outcomes 127
Valproate 29, 30, 31, 34, 36, 47, 55, 59, 65, 89, 95, 207
monotherapy 89
Valproic acid 90, 115
Vascular cognitive impairment 94
Vascular endothelial permeability 196
Vasovagal syncope 93
Venlafaxine 201
Verapamil 53
Vertiginous aura 153
Video-electroencephalography 101, 169f
monitoring 102, 119f, 151
semiology 152t
Vigabatrin 15, 30, 31, 71
and combined therapy 15
Vincristine 64
Visual aura 152
unilateral complex 153
various forms of 153
Vitamin D supplements 95
Voltage-dependent sodium channels 41
Voltage-gated
ion channels 30, 208
potassium channel 208
sodium channel 137
W
Wada testing 104
Warfarin 95
Wearable seizure detection devices 177
West syndrome 12, 21, 68, 71, 73, 79, 133, 137, 180
White matter fraction maps 148
Whole-exome sequencing 78, 81, 82, 206
Whole-genome sequencing 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 206
Wound hygiene 129
X
X chromosome 135
X-linked disorder 135
Z
Zonisamide 15, 29, 30, 31, 87, 90, 183, 207
×
Chapter Notes

Save Clear


IAN Reviews in NEUROLOGY 2022 Epilepsy-Innovations and Advances
IAN Reviews in NEUROLOGY 2022 Epilepsy-Innovations and Advances
Editor PN Sylaja MD DM FRCP (Edin) FESO FIAN Professor and HOD In charge, Comprehensive Stroke Care Program Department of Neurology Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
Headquarters
EMCA House
23/23-B, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
Landline: +91-11-23272143, +91-11-23272703
+91-11-23282021, +91-11-23245672
Corporate Office
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
Phone: +91-11-43574357
Fax: +91-11-43574314
Overseas Office
JP Medical Ltd.
83, Victoria Street, London
SW1H 0HW (UK)
Phone: +44-20 3170 8910
Fax: +44(0)20 3008 6180
© 2023, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
The views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) or publisher of the book.
All rights reserved by the author. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com
IAN Reviews in Neurology 2022: Epilepsy-Innovations and Advances / PN Sylaja
First Edition: 2023
9789354659041
Printed at:
CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, a condition associated with stigma, psychiatric comorbidity and high cost. The key to the successful management of epilepsy is early diagnosis and timely institution of appropriate treatment, guided by recent advances in the field. Drawing upon national and international expertise, this book collates state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic developments in the management of epilepsy that may hold hope for countless patients.
Needless to say, this compendium will be of immense value to epileptologists and neurologists, in equal measure. To the epileptologist, it brings home critical aspects of presurgical evaluation, seizure semiology, advances in imaging and surgical techniques, and recent innovations in the field. To the general neurologist, this book offers useful insights into the challenges that beset the clinical management of epilepsy, and in addition, dwells upon status epilepticus, pediatric epilepsy and the important question of treatment withdrawal.
I am beholden to all those who invested their invaluable time to propel this venture to fruition. I shall not hesitate to submit that a close reading of the book would heighten the clinician's confidence in the management of epilepsy in consonance with current concepts.
PN Sylaja
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Editing a book of this genre is a gratifying experience by any reckoning. This attempt and its outcome would have been inconceivable if not for the effort of all stakeholders who, I believe, were consumed by a commendable commitment to their calling.
First of all, I am extremely grateful to all the distinguished authors for diligently preparing and fine-tuning the chapters. I am particularly obliged to Dr Gagandeep Singh for being with me all the way, right from the start, providing immense guidance as I undertook this project.
I express my sincere gratitude to Dr Chaturbhuj Rathore, Dr Sita Jayalakshmi and Dr Sangeeta H Ravat for their consistent support. I am immensely grateful to my colleagues, Dr Sruthi S Nair and Dr Soumya Sundaram, who helped me with the final touches that determine the overall quality of any job, including a technical compilation such as this.
I place on record my sincere thanks to Dr Nirmal Surya (President), Dr Meenakshi Sundaram (Secretary), and all the Executive Committee members for their unflinching support at all times.
I thank the publication team at M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, Dr Richa Saxena (Director—Professional Publishing), and Ms Nedup Bhutia Pillai (Team Leader—Print Publishing), for their professional approach and backing in bringing out this compendium.
At the end of the day, all contributors can justifiably feel elated over a job well done!