Yearbook of Neurology 2022 Gagandeep Singh, Kalyan B Bhattacharya
INDEX
Page numbers followed by t refer to table.
A
Acetazolamide 102
Acetyl-l-carnitine 123, 124
Acid alpha-glucosidase 281
Activated protein C 54
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome 204, 207, 208
Acute stroke 49
registry 176
Acute STroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne 176
Acute vestibular syndrome 1, 2
Adeno-associated virus 137, 142, 150
Adiponectin 137
Adiporon 137
Adrenal insufficiency, management of 136
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 62, 64
stimulation test 137
Adult cerebral malaria 32
Advanced neurologic diseases 306
Aerobic exercise, effects of 228
Alzheimer's disease 81, 108110, 112115, 118120, 248, 255, 256, 258
Amino acid decarboxylase 87
Amyloid-3β precursor protein 264, 265
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 300
Angiotensin receptor blockers 146
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 127, 146
Antecedent infections 127
Antiaquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G 198
Anti-connective tissue growth factor 143
Anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid 201
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate 57, 201, 206
Antiseizure medication 63, 73
Antitubercular drugs 39
Apolipoprotein E 262
Aquaporin-4 286
neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder 289
Argyll robertson pupils 26
Arrhythmias 146
Artificial intelligence 279
Artificial nutrition and hydration 307
Ashworth scale, modified 231
Aspiration thrombectomy 45
Aspirin 47, 49
Ataxia 90, 99
rating of 93, 94, 96
telangiectasia 96
Atrial fibrillation 53
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 254, 255
Autism spectrum disorders 66
Autoimmune
disorders 197
encephalitis 199, 201, 202, 206
Autosomal dominant 100, 101
B
Bacterial neuroinfections, acute 37
Barthel index, modified 231
Basic human right 297
Basilar artery
acute 44
occlusion 44
Beck's depression index 129
Berg balance scale 217, 218, 226
Best-corrected visual acuity 275
Biallelic trinucleotide 238
Bladder dysfunction, management of 218
Botulinum neurotoxin 212
injection 88
Botulinum toxin 88, 212
Brain 28
injury, acute 307
magnetic resonance imaging 11, 185, 265
swelling, determinants of 32
Breathing, sleep disordered 177
C
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 12
Calcium-binding protein calprotectin 130
Calpainopathy 151
Calprotectin 129
Campylobacter jejuni 125, 127, 128
Cannabidiol 63, 253
Cardiorespiratory fitness 113, 114
Cardiovascular disease 6, 161, 173
Cardiovascular health study 111
Caregiver stress 117
Casimersen 144t
Cataplexy, number of 170
Catechol-o-methyltransferase 254, 255
Central nervous system 10, 37, 199, 204
Central sleep apnea 169
moderate-to-severe 169
treatment of 169
Centronuclear myopathies 270
Cerebellar artery, posterior inferior 206, 207
Cerebellar ataxia 25
types of 97
Cerebellar function 95
Cerebellar inhibition 95
Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia 185
Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation 94
Cerebellospinal stimulation 94
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy 265
Cerebral malaria 32, 33
Cerebral small vessel disease 167, 168
Cerebral venous
sinus thrombosis 9, 10
thrombosis 10
Cerebrospinal fluid 11, 26, 31, 32, 3739, 85, 119, 127, 185187, 193195, 198, 202, 263, 264
classical 37
mutant huntingtin 87
spontaneous spinal 12, 14
Cerebrovascular disease 160
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease 263, 264
Chikungunya 127
Cholesterol 79
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy 129, 130
Chronic migraine, prevention of 2
Classic infantile pompe disease 249
Clinical dementia rating 109, 117
Cochin hand functional disability 124
Cognition 105
Cognitive deficiency 215
Cognitive impairment 91, 92, 294
mild 108, 109
Completing vaccination 285
Compound muscle action potentials 201
Consciousness, disorders of 302
Continuous positive airway pressure 160, 161, 166, 177, 178
Corneal nerve
fiber length 127
fractal dimension 127
Coronary artery disease 160
Coronary heart diseases 163
Corticosteroids 134
COVID-19 30, 76, 116, 165, 285
cornea of 126
diagnosis 29
infection 26, 27, 117, 126, 131
isolation 118
pandemic 3, 14, 15, 76, 117, 118, 165, 166, 304
risk of 285
severe 122
vaccination 27
Cranial nerve, branches of 17
Cycloserine 38
Cytokine
release syndrome 32
storm 131
syndrome 31
D
Daily living, activities of 209, 260
Deep brain stimulation 66, 86, 303
Deflazacort 246
therapy 135
Dementia 25, 105, 108, 117, 202, 295
risk factors 113
with lewy bodies 171
Demyelination 284
Dengue 127
Derived neurotrophic factor 83
Dermatomyositis 157
Dichlorphenamide 154
Diplopia 189, 190
Direct oral anticoagulant 10
Disability 34
Disabling stroke 296
Disease-modifying therapies 284, 285
compliance of 284
Disease-modifying treatment 292
Divergent pallidal pathways 84
Domagrozumab 144t
Dopamine
agonists 86
loss, effects of statins on 79
transporter 79
Dravet syndrome 63, 73, 75
Drisapersen 144t
Drug-resistant epilepsy 164
Dual sensory impairment 110, 111
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 134, 136139, 141143, 145, 146, 150, 276
treatment of 142
strategies of 144t
Dysferlinopathy 151
Dystonic tremor 88
E
Edasalonexent 144t
Efficacy 284
Electrocardiogram 53
Electrochemiluminescence 101
Electroencephalography 71, 205, 252
Electronic health records 29
Emotion regulation index 74
Encephalitis 31
Encephaloceles 185
Endovascular stroke treatment 47
Endovascular therapy 44
Endovascular treatment 44, 4648
assessment of 44
Enzyme 273
replacement therapy 249, 250
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 37, 127
Epidermal neurite density 132
Epidural blood patch 12
Epilepsy 61, 65, 252, 297
prevention of 70, 252
thalamus for 66
treatment-resistant 254
Epileptic encephalopathy 63, 256, 257
Episodic ataxia 102
Episodic migraine 19, 21, 22
Episodic positional vertigo 2
Episodic spontaneous vertigo 1, 2
Epworth sleepiness scale 170, 180
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 206, 207
Eteplirsen 144t
Excessive day time sleepiness 171, 180, 181
Eye movement sleep behavior disorder 85
Ezutromid 144t
F
Facial pain 17
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy 152, 267, 268
Fampridine 102
Fatigue severity scale 98, 129
Fibromyalgia 132
Fluorescent in situ hybridization 264, 265
Fluoxetine 234
effects of 58, 233
Food and drug administration 144t
Friedreich's ataxia 237, 238, 271, 272
natural history of 272
rating scale, modified 238
Frontotemporal dementia 109, 110
Fugl–Meyer scale 216
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy 246
Functional gait assessment 217, 218
Functional oral intake scale 228
Functional reach test 226
G
Gait freezing 218
Gastrointestinal infection 136
Gender bias 311
Gene
editing 294
therapy 87
General practitioner 299
Genetic determinants 153
Genetic frontotemporal dementia 109
Genetic markers 256
Genetic screening 279
Giant cell arteritis 206, 207
extracranial 206
Givinostat 144t
Glial fibrillary acidic protein 263
Glucocerebrosidase gene 260
Glucocorticoids 136, 139
tapering 155
Glucosamine 273
Glycosaminoglycan 239
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiencies 245
Golodirsen 144t
Gross motor function measure 246
Guillain–Barré syndrome 125, 127, 128, 130, 131
H
Hank's balanced salt solution 149
Headache 1
attributed restriction 5
disorders 5
classification of 19
Healthcare policy challenges 297
Hematopoietic stem 239
Histone deacetylase 144t
Hospital anxiety and depression scale 161, 215
Human T-lymphotropic virus 35, 36
Humphrey visual field 275
Huntington disease 278
Hurler's disease 240
Hyperglycemia 57
Hypertension 5
Hypogammaglobulinemia 285
I
Idebenone 144t
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension 14, 186188, 192
Imminent ethical issues 294
Immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia 10
Immunoglobulin 96, 144t
Immunosuppressive therapy 203
Immunotherapeutic management 205
Immunotherapies 287
Impaired nonmotor symptoms 86
Implantable cardiac devices 307
Impulse control disorders 86
Impulsive-compulsive disorders 86
Infantile spasms 64
steroids for 64
Inflammatory myopathies 156
Infliximab 157
Inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiencies 245
Innumerable consultations 299
Insomnia 172
behavioral therapy for 166
chronic 175
Intensive blood pressure 48
Intensive care unit 206
Intensive caregiver education program 214, 215
Intensive systolic blood pressure 48
Internal carotid artery 46, 48
International League against Epilepsy 72
Intracranial hypertension 187, 193, 194
Intracranial pressure 185, 186, 195
Intravenous immunoglobulin 131
high-dose 10
Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone 65
Ischemic stroke 51, 176
acute 56, 214
J
Japanese encephalitis 127, 128
Juvenile
dermatomyositis 155
fibromyalgia 132
K
Karolinska sleepiness scale 180
L
Lasmiditan 8
Lateral cutaneous nerve 121
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy 275
Lecanemab 118
Left ventricular ejection fraction 145
Lennox–Gastaut syndrome 63
Leprosy 34
management information system 33
presenting symptoms of 33
Leukocyte telomere length 261
Leukoencephalopathy 282
Levetiracetam 68, 70
Levodopa 79
Lewy body 171
dementia 81
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies 147, 148, 148t, 149, 150
Lower urinary tract symptoms 219
Lumbar puncture 194
Lymphopenia 285
M
Major histocompatibility complex 242
Manual muscle test 157, 158
Maximal expiratory pressure 147
Maximal inspiratory pressure 147
Maximally tolerated dose 54
Maximum voluntary contraction 152
Mayo sleep questionnaires 171
Meckel's caves 185
Memory enhancement training 114
Meningitis 25, 32, 39
Mental distress 181
Methylation 254
Methylphenidate 254
Middle cerebral artery 46, 48
Migraine 12, 14, 15
attacks 7
chronic 2, 3, 19, 21, 22
disability assessment 22
physical function impact diary 22
treatment of 19
Mini mental state
examination score 224
test 215
Minute walk
distance 135
test 136, 140
Mirror therapy 231
Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor 252
Mobile stroke units 59, 60
Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise 229
Modern biomedical ethics 309
Monoclonal antibodies 4, 13
Mononeuritis multiplex 122, 123
Mononeuropathy, characterization of 121
Montreal cognitive evaluation 215, 233
Motivational doping 306
Motor axonal neuropathy, acute 125
Motor relearning program 224
effects of 224
Movement disorders 79
behavior 85
Mucopolysaccharidosis 240, 249
Multibacillary 34
Multifocal motoric neuropathy 129
Multiple sclerosis 228, 229, 284286, 291, 292
relapsing-remitting 284, 292
Multiple sleep latency test 181
Multiple system atrophy 95, 100, 219
diagnosis of 96
Muscle cells, denaturation of 246
Muscle disorders 134
Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase activation 201
Muscular dystrophies, management of 152
Mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 242
Myasthenia gravis 200
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 199, 204, 208
antibody 286, 289
immunoglobulin G, treatment of 288
Myelitis 25
asymptomatic neurosyphilis 25
Myeloradiculopathy 204
Myocyte membranes 246
Myopathy-functional activity scale 273
Myotonic dystrophy 153
N
Natalizumab 291
National Cholesterol Education Program 6
National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 41, 42, 58, 234
Nerve conduction study 122
Neurocysticercosis 28
Neurodegenerative
ataxia 94
dementia syndromes 201
Neurogenetics 236
Neurogenic detrusor overactivity 219
Neuroinfections 25
Neurological disorders 26, 27
Neurological symptoms 31
Neurology 84, 311
clinical research in 293
social aspects of 293
Neuromodulation
devices 19
neuroethics of 303
Neuromuscular blockade, use of 307
Neuromuscular junction 201
Neuromuscular transcutaneous electrical stimulation 227
Neuromyelitis optica
associated optic neuritis 191, 192
spectrum disorder 190, 191, 198, 199, 203
Neuro-ophthalmology 185
Neuropathic facial pain 16
Neuropathy, treatment of 123
Neuroprotection 53
Neuropsychiatric inventory 117
Neurosyphilis 25, 26
Newborns, screening of 309
Next-generation sequencing 266
Nicotinamide riboside 96
N-methyl-D-aspartate agonists 256
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 201
antibody encephalitis 205
Noncardioembolic ischemic stroke 49
Nondisabling neurologic deficits, minor 41
Noninvasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation 227, 228
Noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation 83
Nonmotor symptoms 81
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 124
Nuclear factor-kappa B 140, 144t
Nucleus, anterior 66
O
Obstructive sleep apnea 160, 161, 162, 167, 168, 177, 178
Ocular surface disease 126
index 126
Omaveloxolone 236238
Optic nerve drusen 195
Optical coherence tomography 188, 189, 194
Oral anticoagulation 53
Oral prednisolone 246
Oropharyngeal dysphagia 227, 228
P
Pain
chronic 174
management 307
Palliative care management 306
Palliative sedation 307
Palmitoylethanolamide 123, 124
Pamrevlumab 144t
Papilledema 188
Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes 197
Parkinson's disease 7982, 8487, 180, 218, 247, 260, 262, 263, 298
dementia 79
detection 298
pathophysiology of 84
prevalence of 217
Parkinsonian behavioral deficits 84
Paucibacillary 34
Peak cough flow 147
Pediatric neurology 308
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 301
Periodic paralysis, primary 154
Perioptic subarachnoid space 186
Peripheral nervous system 204
syndromes 203
Peripheral neuropathy 121
Permanent respiratory insufficiency 301
Persistent idiopathic facial pain 16
Pharmacology 32
Phrenic nerve stimulation 169
Pittsburgh sleep quality index 171, 229
Placebo-controlled trial 81
Plaque reduction neutralization test 128
Plasmodium falciparum 32
Pluripotent stem cells 142
Polymerase chain reaction 37, 264, 279, 280
Polymyositis 157
Polysomnography 167, 173, 178
Pompe disease 280
Positron emission tomography 119
Postvaccinal neurological disorders 27
Praiseworthiness 305
Prednisolone 156t, 246
Pregnancy, management of 290
Prizeworthiness 305, 306
Prodromal emesis 286
Progenitor cells 239
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy 266
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation 224
Pseudodeficiency alleles 280
Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome 195
Pyridoxine, high-dose 244
Q
Quality of life 300, 301
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction 35
R
Raised intracranial pressure, syndrome of 187
Randomized clinical trial 43
Randomized controlled trial 2, 3, 50, 6971, 75, 82, 170, 179, 180, 253
Rankin scale, modified 44, 55, 56
Rapid eye movement 164, 171, 172, 180
sleep-onset 181
Recurrent neurocysticercosis 28
Refractory epilepsy 66
Refractory movement 303
Rehabilitation 209
Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, treatment strategies for 292
Renal replacement therapy 307
Respiratory management 146
Restore brain study 58
Retinal nerve fiber layer 188, 189, 194
Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction 27
Rheumatic diseases 123
neurological complications of 123
Rheumatoid arthritis 123, 124
Rituximab 199, 287
S
Sarcoglycanopathy 151
SARS-COV-2 infection 26, 126, 128
Schirmer tests 126, 127
Self-rating anxiety scale score 215
Self-rating depression scale 215
Serum
calprotectin 129
C-reactive protein 37
neurofilament light chain 100, 129, 130
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 31
infection 130
Sex differences 112
Sexual harassment 311
Sialorrhea 301
Silent brain infarction 168
Sleep
behavior disorder 171, 172
disorders 174
duration 162
heart health study 173
medicine 160
Sleep apnea 161
cardiovascular endpoints 160
treatment of 176
Sleep disturbances 172, 174, 181
spectrum of 181
square 228
Small fiber neuropathy 126, 132
Social handicap 5
Solitary cysticercus granuloma 28
Spinal muscular atrophy 237, 240, 241, 243, 278, 280, 310
Spinocerebellar ataxia 9092, 98, 100, 101
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension 11, 12
Spontaneous microembolic signals 52
Standard prophylactic drugs 12
Stroke 41, 163, 209211, 233, 296
and death, prevention of 49
chronic 216
recovery 56
Subcutaneous natalizumab 291
Subjective cognitive decline 108, 114, 115
Subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation 86
Sudden unexpected death 65
Surrogate decision-making 307
Survival motor neuron 236, 237
Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage 42
Symptomatic spinal muscular atrophy 244
Symptomatic therapy 252
T
Talditercept alfa 144t
Task-based mirror therapy 230, 231
Telomere length 261
Thrombolysis 41
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic syndrome 9, 10
Ticagrelor 49
Tissue plasminogen activator 46
Tracheostomy placement 307
Transcranial direct current stimulation 303
Transcranial magnetic stimulation 95
Transdermal cannabidiol gel 62
Transient ischemic attack 49, 163
Traumatic brain injury, chronic 299
Treatment disability score 129
Treatment-emergent adverse events 8
Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay 26
Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia 19
Trigeminal neuralgia 16
Tuberculosis 32, 39
meningitis 38
Tuberous sclerosis 252
complex 70, 71, 252
Tumor necrosis factor alpha 31, 83
U
Ultrasound 267
Unfractionated heparin 47
Unified Huntington's disease rating scale 87
Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale 180, 217, 248, 260
Unpleasant soft symptoms 267
Upper limb motor function 230
Urinary symptoms 218
V
Vaccination implications 285
Vagus nerve stimulation 65, 66, 84
Vamorolone 144t
Vestibular disorders activities 102
Vestibular migraine 1
Vestibular rehabilitation 220, 221
Vestibular test 1
Video electroencephalography 253
Video head impulse tests 1
Video oculography 1
Virtual epilepsy clinics 75
Virtual reality 218, 232
Vision and hearing impairment 111
W
Wakefulness test 170
West syndrome 61, 64
White matter hyperintensities 168
Whole-exome sequencing 266
Withholding and withdrawing treatment 307
Writer's cramp 213
disability scale 212, 213
impairment scale 212, 213
occupational therapy for 212
rating scale 212, 213
X
X-linked recessive disorder 141
Y
Yoga 114
×
Chapter Notes

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Yearbook of NEUROLOGY 2022
DISCLAIMER
All the abstracts included in this book have been paraphrased in accordance with standard norms. The comments listed beneath the abstracts solely reflect the views and opinions of the corresponding authors.
Yearbook of NEUROLOGY 2022
Editors Kalyan B Bhattacharya MD DM MAMS FIAN FRCP (Edin) Adviser and Senior Consultant Department of Neurology Medica Superspecialty Hospital and Formerly Professor and Head Department of Neurology RG Kar Medical College Kolkata, West Bengal, India Gagandeep Singh MD DM (Neurology) FAMS FRCP (London) FIAN FICP Professor and Head Department of Neurology Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana, Punjab, India and Honorary Senior Research Fellow Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy Institute of Neurology, Queen Square London, UK
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Yearbook of Neurology 2022/ Kalyan B Bhattacharya, Gagandeep Singh
First Edition: 2023
9789354659430
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CONTRIBUTORS
Editors
Section Editors
Associate Editors
PREFACE
It is with great pleasure that we write the preface for the first edition of the Yearbook of Neurology in our country brought out under the aegis of the Indian Academy of Neurology.
The idea of bringing out such a compilation was conceived in January 2020 when the officials of the Indian Academy of Neurology approached and appointed me as the Editor-in-Chief for the book targeted to be published at the time of the annual conference in 2021. However, all hell broke loose within 2 months and we plunged into the disaster of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since everything went haywire and the publication houses were constrained to work with a substantially curtailed number of staff, the book could not be brought out. We tightened our belt and pledged sincerely to bring it out in 2022.
The book contains 16 chapters dedicated to different subspecialties in neurology. Each chapter is headed by one or two editors who are recognized experts in their chosen field and they with their associates have culled 10–12 publications from various peer-reviewed and indexed journals of international repute. The content of the papers has been condensed into abstracts in their own style and language, and the editors have written an expert commentary at the end as the key message, in keeping with what is the practice in the international volumes. There were occasional hiccoughs of various natures and therefore, we could not incorporate some chapters, despite our best intentions, as well as the contributors.
This is the maiden endeavor of the Indian Academy of Neurology to venture into such a project and it is hoped that it will be a regular project every year.
Yearbooks are generally meant for academicians, practicing consultants, and postdoctoral students with the aim of getting acquainted with the latest developments in the subjects and we sincerely hope that this book will serve that purpose.
We are thankful to the editors and their co-workers of the subsections for helping us to bring out the first volume of the book. We also extend our sincerest thanks to M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India for kindly agreeing to publish the book and bringing it out on time.
We shall feel that our job is well done if it meets the requirements of the neurologists in our country.
Kalyan B Bhattacharya
Gagandeep Singh