Essentials of Biochemistry Pankaja Naik
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table
A
Acetate 289
Acetic acid 24
Acetoacetate 164, 165
Acetoacetyl-CoA 164, 176
Acetone 164, 165, 167
Acetyl transacylase 168
Acetylation 68, 291
Acetyl-CoA 164, 165, 167, 169
carboxylase 82, 68, 167, 168
oxidation of 166
Acid 40, 262
maltase 145, 146
metabolic sources of 262
phosphatase 59, 65, 6971
Acid-base
balance 209, 215, 216, 262, 263, 265, 266
behavior 40
disorders 268t
disturbances, mixed 268
regulation 218
Acidic amino acid 35, 37
Acidic pH 217
Acidosis 267
lactic 76
metabolic 167, 267, 268
respiratory 267, 268
Aciduria, methylmalonic 75, 86, 87
Aconitase 140
Acrodermatitis enteropathica 225
Actin 5, 7, 44, 304
Actinomycin D 245
Active methionine, formation of 196f
Active transport 5, 6, 135
mechanism 183
Acute pulmonary respiratory distress syndrome 28
Acyl-carnitine 164
Acyl-carrier protein 80, 167, 168f
Acyl-CoA 118, 161, 169
dehydrogenase 78, 162
synthetase 161
Acylglucosylceramide 26, 126
Addison's disease 157
Adenine 106, 108, 110, 111, 111f
Adenosine 108, 196
cyclic 108
deaminase 236
monophosphate 108, 234
phosphoribosyl transferase 235
triphosphatase 304
Adenoviruses 295
Adenylate cyclase 108, 146, 259
Adipose tissue 167, 169
role of 207
Adrenal cortical hormones 257
Adrenaline 39, 151
synthesis 87
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 151, 195
Agar 18
Ala synthase enzyme 222
Alanine 3638, 186, 300
aminotransaminase 59
aminotransferase 70, 80
form of 186
transaminase 71, 81, 185, 185f, 274
serum 271
Albumin 42, 44, 52, 53, 262, 264, 271, 278
carries fatty acids 44
functions of 54
serum 52
Alcohol 42, 89, 289
dehydrogenase 90
soluble proteins 42
Aldehyde 10, 13, 89, 289
dehydrogenase 66, 67
Aldolase 59, 70
Aldonic acid 15
Aldosterone 178
Aliphatic side chain 36
Alkali disease 224
Alkaline phosphatase 6971, 274
serum 271
Alkalosis 267
metabolic 267, 268
respiratory 267, 268
uncompensated 267
Alkane phosphatase 274
Alkapton 194
body, formation of 194f
Alkaptonuria 194
Allergy 56
Allopurinol 67, 109, 237
Allosteric enzyme 67, 68f, 68t
modulator of 67f
Allosteric regulation 67, 168
All-trans-retinal 89
Alpha-1-globulin 53
Alpha-2-globulin 53
Alpha-amanitin 245
Alpha-amino acid, general structure of 35f
Alpha-amylase 59, 134
Alpha-anomers, formation of 14f
Alpha-helix 45
Alpha-keratin 44, 45
Alpha-ketoglutarate 78
dehydrogenase 76, 78, 79, 140, 142
Alpha-thalassemia 101
silent carrier type of 101
trait 101
Alpha-tocopherol 75
structure of 94f
American Society of Biological Chemists and American Physiological Society 42
Amides linkage 41
Amines 74, 200, 289
biogenic 200, 200t
hormones 257
synthesis of 200f
Amino acids 6, 35, 36t, 38, 39, 39t, 46f, 126, 151, 289, 300f
absorption of 183
activation of 252, 252f
aliphatic 37
amino groups of 40
arm 252
basic 35, 37
biological importance of 39
carbon skeleton of 189, 189f
catabolism of 184
chemical nature of 35
classification of 35, 39f
composition 69
condensation reactions of 81
conjugation 291
D and L forms of 40f
deamination of 78
decarboxylation of 200f
dehydratase 185, 186f
essential 38, 124, 126, 126t, 127, 175
general nature of 35
glucogenic 39, 142, 189, 191
heterocyclic 37, 38
hydrophilic 39
hydrophobic 39
ionization of 40, 40f
ketogenic 39, 189
metabolic classification of 38
methionine 248
mutual supplementation effect of 129
neutral 35, 37
nonessential 38, 124, 126
nonpolar 39
normal 35
nutritional
classification of 38
requirement of 35
oxidase 78, 184
pool 184, 184f
precursor 200
properties of 40
score 127
semi-essential 38, 188
sequence 69
side chain of 35, 37, 39
small neutral aliphatic 183
transport of 42
zwitterion forms of 41f
Amino aciduria 195
Amino sugars 14, 19
structure of 14f
Aminoacyl tRNA 251f
synthetase 252, 252f
Aminolevulinic acid 228
synthase 68, 228
Aminopeptidase 183
Aminotransferase 184
Ammonia 184, 188, 271
formation of 184, 266, 267f
intoxication 188
metabolic fate of 186
transport of 186, 186f
Ammonium ions, excretion of 266, 267f
Amphipathic 27
lipid 175
molecules 2
phospholipid 27f, 31
Ampholytes 40, 48
Amylase 6971
Amylopectin 17
structure of 18f
Amylose 17
structure of 17f
Anderson's disease 146
Androgen 31, 257
Anemia 225
clinical features of 222
hemolytic 75, 94, 96, 102, 149
hypochromic 101, 222
microcytic 75, 82, 222
macrocytic 85
megaloblastic 75, 85, 86
mild hemolytic 102
pernicious 75
severe 101
Angiotensin 42, 210
converting enzyme 67, 210
Angiotensinogen 210
Animal starch 17
Anion 40
Anode 52, 53
Anomeric carbon atom 13
Anomerism 13
Anomers 13
Anorexia 76, 131
Anoxia 102
Antabuse 66, 67
Antiatherogenic effect 26, 126
Antibiotics 64, 65, 121, 253, 254
therapy 96
Antibody 52, 54, 56t
antimicrosomal 280
Anticoagulant drug 65
Anticodon 252
Antidiuretic hormone 210
role of 210
Antidote 121
Antigen
binding site 55
receptor 56
Antihemorrhagic factor 95
Antihypertensive 67
Antimetabolites 64, 109
Antimycin A 121
Antioxidants 224, 283, 284, 285f, 288, 297
function 90
systems 286f
types of 284
water soluble 88
Antirachitic factor 91
Antituberculous drug 65
Antitumor drug 242
Antivitamins 77
Anuria 275
Anxiety 66
Apoenzyme 60
Apolipoprotein 31, 161
Apoprotein 31, 44, 60, 179
Apoptosis 28
Apotransferrin 221
Arabinosyl cytosine 109
Arachidic acid 24
Arachidonic acid 25, 26, 125
Arginase 60, 187, 188
Arginine 3639, 126, 183, 188, 191
formation of 187
Argininemia 188
Argininosuccinase 59
Argininosuccinate 187, 188
formation of 187
lyase 188
Argininosuccinic aciduria 188
Aromatic amino acids 37, 38, 182, 183
metabolism of 191
Arterial blood 262
gas analysis 268t
Artery, hardening of 178
Ascaris parasites 66
Ascorbic acid 74, 75, 87, 88
active form of 87
oxidase 60
Aspargine 3638
Aspartate 235, 238
aminotransaminase 59
aminotransferase 80
transaminase 70, 71, 81, 185, 185f, 274
serum 271
Aspartic acid 3639
amides of 36, 38
Aspirin 66, 67
Ataxia, Intermittent 188
Atherosclerosis 132, 154, 178, 284
development of 179
treatment of 179
Atrial natriuretic factor 210
Autoimmune diseases 284
Autosomal recessive genetic disorder 101
Avidin 83
Axons 5
Azathioprine 109
Azidothymidine 109
Azobilirubin 272
Azotemia 277
B
Bacteria 295
Balanced diet 130
Basal metabolic rate 129, 223
Basal metabolism, measurement of 129
Base 40, 262
metabolic sources of 263
substitution 249
Becker muscular dystrophy 306
Bees-wax 22
Behenic acid 24
Benedict's qualitative test 154
Benzoquinone acetate 194
Beriberi 7476
cerebral 77
dry 76
infantile 77
wet 76, 77
Beta-alanine 39, 80
Beta-anomerism 13
Beta-anomers, formation of 14f
Beta-carotene 89
Beta-globin chain 101
Beta-globulin 53
Beta-hydroxy
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 79, 162
butyrate 164, 165
Beta-keratin 44
Beta-ketoacyl
reductase 168
synthase 168
Beta-methyl-crotonyl-CoA carboxylase 83
Beta-oxidation
overall process of 163f
regulation of 164
sequence of reactions of 162
Beta-pleated sheet structure 45, 46f
Beta-thalassemia 101
major 101
minor 101
trait 101
Bicarbonate 167, 210, 267
buffer
mechanism of action of 263
system 263, 265f
ions 264
reabsorption of 266
Bile 221
acids 31, 127, 176
formation of 87, 88f, 176, 190
synthesis of 177f
pigment 275277
salts 39, 160, 173, 275277
Bilirubin 44, 54, 230, 271
conjugation of 230, 230f, 272
diglucuronide 271
direct 272
excretion of 231f
metabolic fate of 230
metabolism 272f
serum 230, 271, 272
unconjugated 272, 273
Biochemistry, international union of 58
Biocytin 82
Biological oxidative phosphorylation 116
Biosynthesis 167t
Biotin 60, 74, 75, 82, 167, 199
active form of 82
independent carboxylation reaction 83
structure of 82f
Biotransformation 288, 289
Bisphosphoglycerate 79
mutase 139
phosphatase 139
Bitot's spots 91
xerophthalmia formation of 75
Blindness 154
Blood 275, 276
buffers 263
cholesterol 178
clotting 68
coagulation 54, 95, 216
forming organs, cancer of 293
glucose 153
estimation 154, 155
level 150, 150f
maintenance of 151
group polysaccharides 12
lactic acid of 25
pH, regulation of 263
principal buffers of 263t
sugar, fasting 155
urea 188, 277
high 189t
vessel, narrowing of 178f
Blurred vision 66
B-lymphocytes 56
Body
composition 129
fluids, normal pH of 262
mass index 129, 131
clinical application of 129
water compartments 208f
Bone 19, 71, 92, 218, 223
carcinoma of 70
diseases 70, 71
formation of 216
hardness of 223
marrow 228
Bradykinin 42
Brain 70, 167, 184
development of 26, 125
glycolipids, oxynervonic acids of 25
role of 207
Branched chain fatty acids 23, 25
British antilewisite 121
Brittle bone syndrome 301
Broad beta disease 174
Buffer 215, 262, 264
mechanism 263
Burning feet syndrome 75
C
Caffeine 237
Calbindins 92
Calciferol 91
Calcitonin 109, 259, 278, 296
role of 218
Calcitriol 92, 218
action of 92
Calcium 92, 214, 216, 260, 260f
absorption 216, 217
calmodulin 260f
homeostasis of 92f
intracellular 260
metabolism of 216
paracaseinate 183
serum 217, 218
Calthrin 7
Camptothecin 242
Cancer 67, 109, 132, 284, 293, 297
cells, characteristics of 293, 293f
colon 127
molecular basis of 293
prostate 70, 71
types of 293
Captopril 67
Carbaminohemoglobin 103
Carbamoyl phosphate 187, 238
formation of 187
synthase 187, 188, 238
Carbhemoglobin 103
Carbohydrate 2, 10, 23, 43, 124, 125, 134, 204206
absorption of 134, 135
chemistry 10
classification of 10
complex 11
digestion of 134, 135f
functions of 10, 12
high 168
markers 296
metabolic fate of 136
metabolism 76, 134
requirement 125
transport of 134, 136
Carbon
atoms 24
asymmetric 13
odd number of 164
dioxide 100, 234, 238, 264
binding site for 100f
metabolism 84, 199
monoxide 230
source of 234f, 238f
Carbonic acid 264, 268
Carbonic anhydrase 59, 60, 264, 265
Carboxyhemoglobin 104
Carboxyl 40
Carboxylase reactions, coenzyme of 82
Carboxypeptidase 60, 183
Carcinogenesis 293
initiators of 294
promoters of 295
viral 295
Carcinogens 293, 294
biogenic 295
physical 295
Carcinoma 293
Cardiac arrest 268
Cardiolipin 23, 29
Cardiovascular disorders 284
Carnitine 162
acyl carnitine translocase 59
acyl transferase 162, 164, 165
synthesis 87
transport system 162, 162f
Carotenoids 285
Carrier proteins 6
Catalase 4, 60, 116, 285
Catalytic proteins 44
Cataract 154, 218
Catecholamines 81, 191
Cathode 52, 53
Cell 1
cortex 5
cycle signalling 28
damage 216
division of 224
elevated destruction of 237
functions of 2
membrane 2, 215, 260f
fluid mosaic model of 3f
functions of 3
level 259
transport 1
powerhouse of 4
proliferation 296
shape of 3
size of 3
structure of 2
Cellular receptors 44
Cellulose 17, 126
structure of 18f
Central nervous system 80
Cephalin 23, 28, 29
Ceramide 29, 30
structure of 29f
Cerebral arterial occlusion 154
Cerebronic acid 25
Cerebrosides 23, 30
Ceruloplasmin 60, 221, 222
Cervonic acid 24
Chargaff's rule 111
Chaulmoogra acid 25
Cheilosis 75, 78
Chemical 294
carcinogens 294
action of 294f, 295
score 127
Chemiosmotic theory 119, 119f
Chenodeoxycholic acid 176
Chloramphenicol 254
Chloride 210, 264
ions 264
Chlorine 214
Cholecalciferol 23, 74, 75, 91, 91, 92
Cholecystokinin 260
Cholelithiasis 132
Cholera 31
Cholesterol 2, 23, 31, 90, 92, 127, 147, 161, 172174, 176, 178, 178f
biosynthesis 177f
regulation of 177f
stages of 176f
degradation of 176
ester 31, 31f, 160f, 161, 172, 173, 178
hydrolase 160
hydrolysis of 160
esterase 160
functions of 31
metabolism 175
serum 271
structure of 31f, 175f
synthesis of 79, 80, 176
Cholic acid 176
Cholinesterase 70
Chondroitin sulfate 12, 19
Chorionic gonadotropin 109
Chromatin fibers 5
Chromoproteins 43
Chromosomes 2, 5
Chylomicrons 23, 32, 43, 161, 169, 170, 172, 174
Chyme 160
Chymosin 182
Chymotrypsin 60, 183
Chymotrypsinogen 60, 183
Ciprofloxacin 242
Circadian rhythm 81, 195
Cirrhosis 54, 71, 174
Citrate 140, 168
synthase 140, 142
Citric acid cycle 4, 78, 140, 141t
amphibolic nature of 141
anabolic role of 141f
energetics of 141
intermediates of 142
location of 140
reactions of 80, 140, 140f
regulation of 142
significance of 141
Citrulline 188
formation of 187
Clathrin 7, 7f
Clavulanic acid 66
Clindamycin 254
Clupandonic acid 24
Coagulation 49
Cobalamin 74, 85
structure of 85f
Cobalt 214
Codons 252
number of 248
Coenzyme 60, 116
A 39, 80, 167, 198
Cohn's syndrome 215
Collagen 222
alpha-chain of 299
biosynthesis 87
formation 191
functions of 299, 300
structure of 299
triple helical structure of 299f, 300f
Colloidal osmotic pressure 47, 54
Color vision 90
Colostrum 55
Conjugation 231f, 290
Connective tissue 299
basic components of 299
disorders of 301
Convulsions, epileptic 75
Cooley's hemoglobin 102
Copper 60, 214, 222
metabolism, inborn errors of 223
Core protein 19
Cori's cycle 139, 139f, 142, 151
Cori's disease 146
Cornea, vascularization of 75
Coronary heart disease 127, 132
Corticotropin 109
Creatine 39
kinase 6971
phosphate 191
phosphokinase 69
synthesis of 191
Creatinine 277
clearance tests 278
Cretinism 157, 224
C-system 25
C-terminal amino acid 183
Cushing's syndrome 132, 156, 215
Cyanocobalamine 86
Cyanopsin 90
Cycloheximide 254
Cyclooxygenase 66, 67, 283
Cynocobalamin 60, 75
Cystathionine 196
lyase 196
synthase 81, 196, 198
Cysteine 3639, 41, 196, 197f, 198, 290, 291, 301
biosynthetic pathway of 197f
catabolism of 197, 197f
transaminase 197
Cystic fibrosis 70
Cystine 196, 197f
calculi 198
reductase 197
storage disease 198
Cystinosis 198
Cystinuria 198
Cytarabine 109, 242
Cytidine 108, 237
diphosphate 109
monophosphate 108
triphosphate 109
Cytochrome 116
A 118
A3 118
AA3 116
B 116118, 121
C 116
oxidase 118, 118f
oxidase 59, 60, 116, 121, 222
p450 289
enzyme complex 283
Cytoplasm 13, 106, 147, 167, 257
Cytosine 106, 108, 110, 111, 111f
arabinoside 242
Cytoskeleton 5
functions of 5
Cytosol 3, 136, 176, 187
Cytosolic carbamoyl phosphate synthase 238
D
D and L isomerism 13
D-2-deoxyribose 107
Dactinomycin 245
Daniel E Koshland, induced fit model of 61
De novo pathway 234
Deacetylation 68
Deamination 184, 185
Decarboxylation 81, 200, 200f
oxidative 76, 78, 79, 139, 140f
reaction 81
Defense protein 44
Degranulation 29
Dehydration 136, 154, 168, 211
hypernatremic 212
hyperosmolar 212
hyponatremic 212
hyposmolar 212
normonatremic 212
simple 211
Dehydrocholesterol 91
Dehydrogenases 44, 58, 59, 116, 117, 147
Dementia 75, 80
Denaturation, significance of 49
Dendrites 5
Dental
caries 223
fluorosis 223
Deoxy sugars 14, 15
Deoxyadenosine 108
monophosphate 108
Deoxyadenosylcobalamin 85
Deoxycytidine 108
monophosphate 108
Deoxyguanosine 108
monophosphate 108
Deoxyinosine 242
Deoxyribonucleoside 108, 109
Deoxyribose 12, 110, 112
Deoxythymidine 108
monophosphate 108
Deoxyuridine monophosphate 84
Dephosphorylation 68
Deprenyl 66
Depression 82
Dermatan sulfate 12
Dermatitis 75, 78, 80, 82
Detoxification 42, 271, 288, 289f
matrix 197
mechanism of 288
reactions 39, 150, 190
site of 288
Dextrin 17
D-fructose 17, 136
D-galactosamine 14, 19
D-galactose 18, 136
D-glucosamine 14, 19
Diabetes mellitus 127, 152, 153, 153f, 153t, 156, 167, 175, 178, 179, 277, 284
classification of 152
insulin
dependent 152
resistance 132
juvenile 153
non-insulin-dependent 153
secondary effects of 154
Diacylglycerol 28, 260
Diamino acids 37, 38
Diarrhea 80, 136, 212
Dicarboxylic acid 37, 38
Dicumarol 65, 95
Dienoic acids 24
Dietary carbohydrate, digestion of 134
Dietary fiber 12, 126
adverse effect of 127
significance of 127
Dietary phospholipids, hydrolysis of 160
Dietary triacylglycerol, hydrolysis of 160, 160f
Digestion 134, 160, 183
endocyte vesicles 8
mouth 134, 182
small intestine 160
stomach 134, 182
Dihydrobiopterin
reductase 191, 193
synthesis 193
Dihydrofolate reductase 67
Dihydrouridine 112
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate 169, 170f
Dihydroxycholecalciferol 92, 92f
Dimer 55, 70, 168
Dimercaprol 121
Dioxygenase 116, 194
Dipeptidases 183
Dipeptide 41
Diphosphatidylglycerol 29
Dipolar ion 40
Dipstick test 154
Disaccharides 11, 15, 16, 134, 300
classification of 15t
structure of 16f
Disposable dipstick strips 275
Distal histidine 99
Disulfide 54
bond 47
bridges 56
Disulfiram 66, 67
Divalent metal ion transporter 220
Diverticulosis 127
D-mannosamine 14
DNA
functions of 109, 111
ligase 242
polymerase 241, 242
repair 78
structure of 109
Docosahexaenoic acid 24, 26, 125
Dopamine 191, 200
beta-hydroxylase 222
D-ribose 107
Drugs 64, 129
antagonism 82
therapy 179
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 306
Dysbetalipoproteinemia 174
Dystrophies 70
E
Edema, severe 131
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 301
Ehrlich's aldehyde reagent 273
Eicosanoids 125
Eicosapentaenoic acid 26, 125
Elastase 183
Elastin 222
functions of 300
structure of 300
Electrical insulators 23
Electrochemical potential gradient 119, 120
Electrolyte 209, 210
balance 208, 210, 211
Electron carrier 116
cytochromes 117
Electron transport
chain 117, 120f
inhibitors of 120
reactions of 117
complexes, components of 117f
process 29
system 4
Electrophiles 295
Electrophoresis 52
Elevated plasma homocysteine levels 178
Elongation 242, 244
Embden Meyerhof pathway 136
Emphysema 301
Enalapril 67
Enantiomers 13, 40
Endocrine
glands 257, 258f
organ 222
Endocytic vesicle 7
Endocytosis 7
clathrin-mediated 7, 7f
constitutive 7, 7f
Endonuclease 244
Endopeptidases 183
Endoplasmic reticulum 13
structure of 3f
Endothelial cells, desquamation of 178
Energy
source of 306
storage 23, 219
Enolase 137
Enoyl reductase 168
Enterohepatic urobilinogen cycle 230
Enterokinase 183
Enteropeptidase 183
Enzymatic antioxidant system 285
Enzymes 24, 44, 58, 60, 61, 65, 66, 69, 116, 117, 241, 243, 273, 296
action, specificity of 61
activity 39
regulation of 67, 216, 219
allosteric regulation of 67
assay 271
classification of 58
clinical significance of 70
code number 58
commission 58
concentration, effect of 63
covalent modification of 67, 68, 68t
glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, competitive inhibitor of 149
glycolytic 216
hydrolytic 44
inhibitor
classes of 64f
clinical application of 66
intestinal 134
pancreatic 134, 183
proteolytic 183t
reaction 62
natural products of 64
role of 285f
substrate 60
complex 63, 66f
synthesis
induction of 67, 69
repression of 67, 69
Epidermolysis bullosa 301
Epimerases 59
Epimerism 13
Epimers 13, 14f
Epinephrine 109, 142, 146, 151, 168, 169, 191, 200, 259
Epithelial cell 27, 89
effect on 91
Epithelial tissues 293
Epithelium, intestinal 184f
Ergocalciferol 91
Ergosterol 91
Erythrocytes, Rapoport-Luebering cycle of 139f
Erythromycin 254
Erythropoiesis, rate of 221
Essential amino acid 38, 124, 126, 126t, 127, 175
requirement of 126
Essential fatty acid 22, 25, 124, 125, 175
deficiency 26, 126
functions of 26, 125
Estrogen 31, 178, 218, 257
Ethanol 65
Ether 29
Eukaryotes 1, 242, 254
ribosomes of 252f
structural features of 2t
Eukaryotic cell 1f
Eukaryotic ribosomal subunits, components of 113f
Exocytic vesicles 8
Exocytosis 7, 8
process of 8f
Exonuclease 244
Exopeptidase 183
Extracellular buffer 263
Extracellular fluid 7f, 209, 210, 263
Extracellular lipoprotein lipase 169
Eyes 90
vitreous humor of 19
F
Face, flushing of 66
F-actin 304
Fanconi's syndrome 152, 219
Fat 124, 125
emulsification of 160
malabsorption 96
soluble vitamin 74, 75, 75t, 89, 160
Fatty acid 23, 25, 27, 54, 147, 160, 161, 169, 205
activation of 161, 162
beta-oxidation of 162, 163, 163f, 164, 164f, 165
biosynthesis of 167
carbon atoms, numbering of 25, 25f
classification of 23, 24f
cyclic 23, 25
double bonds of 25
essential 22, 25, 124, 125, 175
functions of 25
oxidation of 4, 78, 161, 167, 167t
saturated 23, 24, 24t
straight chain 23
synthesis 68, 79, 80, 141, 167
reactions of 167
regulation of 168, 168f
unsaturated 23, 24, 24t, 25f
Fatty liver 29, 131, 174, 175
causes of 174
Ferric chloride 194
Ferritin 221
form of 44
Ferroportin 221
Ferroreductase 221
Ferroxidase 60, 220, 222
Fiber 124, 126
hypocholesterolemic effects of 127
hypoglycemic effect of 127
Fibrinogen 52, 54, 68
Fibroplasia, retrolental 75, 94
Flavin
adenine dinucleotide 78
mononucleotide 78
Flavoprotein enzyme 78
Fluoride 214, 223
Fluoroapatite 223
Fluorouracil 67
Folate 83
metabolism 88
trap 85
Folic acid 60, 74, 75, 83, 84f, 199f
active form of 83
deficiency 85f
role of 84f
structure of 83f
synthetic compounds of 83
Follicle stimulating hormone 109
Forbes disease 146
Formic acid 289
Formiminoglutamate 84, 199
accumulation of 85
excretion of 85, 85f
Fouchet's test 272
Free C-terminal amino acids 183
Free fatty acid 166, 169, 170f, 172, 207
mobilization of 169
Free N-terminal amino acids 183
Free radicals 178, 283
formation of 283
production of 284
Fructofuranose 12
Fructosans 17
Fructose 135, 136
1,6-bisphosphatase 142
6-phosphate 142
structure of 12f
transport of 135f
Fumarate 118
formation of 187
Fumarylacetoacetate hydroxylase 193
Furan ring 12
G
Galactocerebroside 30
Galactose 12, 16, 30, 135
disaccharides of 300
transport of 135f
Gamma-amino butyric acid 81, 200
Gamma-aminolevulinic acid, biosynthesis of 228
Gamma-carboxylation 68
Gamma-globulins 52, 53
Gamma-glutamyl cycle 184
Gangliosides 23, 30
Gastrin 42, 182, 260
Gastrointestinal tract 80, 215
Gene expression 90
Genetic code 248, 249f
characteristics of 248
Genetic factor 178, 179
Genital tract secretions 55
Globin 99, 100
Globosides 30
Globulin 42, 44, 52, 54, 271, 273
serum 52
Glomerular filtration 274
rate, estimation of 275, 277
Glomerular injury 277
Glossitis 75, 78
Glucagon 109, 142, 146, 150, 150f, 151, 153, 165, 168, 169, 176, 259
stimulates hormone sensitive lipase 170
Glucan transferase 145
Glucocerebroside 30
Glucocorticoids 31, 151, 176, 178
Glucokinase 44, 136, 137, 137f, 138, 144, 150
Gluconeogenesis 68, 139, 141, 142, 150, 151, 154, 205
characteristics of 142
location of 142
pathway of 143f
precursors for 142
reactions of 142
regulation of 142
significance of 144
Gluconolactone oxidase 87
Glucopyranose 12
Glucose 6, 16, 30, 134, 135, 154, 169, 275, 276
6-phosphatase 60, 142, 145, 146, 237
absence of 151
deficiency 237
6-phosphate 14, 136, 142, 147
dehydrogenase 59, 79, 147, 149
alanine cycle 151, 186, 186f
D and L isomers of 13f
disaccharides of 300
epimers of 14f
estimation of 137
formation of 39
maintenance of 150
metabolism 134
oxidation of 15f
phosphate esters of 14f
structure of 12, 12f
test 154
tolerance
curve 156, 156f, 157
test 154156
transport of 135f
Glucosidase 145
Glucosuria
hyperglycemic 276
renal 152, 276
Glucuronic acid 230f, 289, 290, 290f
formation of 149
pathway 149, 149f
reactions of 149
significance of 150
Glucuronidation 290
Glutamate 41, 197, 200
dehydrogenase 184, 185
clinical significance of 185
oxaloacetate transaminase 71, 185
pyruvate transaminase 185
Glutamic acid 3639, 101, 250, 290
amides of 36, 38
Glutaminase 186, 266
Glutamine 3639, 186, 234, 235, 238, 291
breakdown of 186f
deamination of 266
form of 186
formation of 186f
synthetase 59, 186
Glutathione 41, 191, 198, 289
conjugation 290
functions of 41
peroxidase 39, 60, 224, 285, 286
role of 42f, 285f
synthesis of 190
Glutelins 42
Glycans 11, 16, 17
Glycemic status, evaluation of 154
Glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate dehydrogenase 79, 136
D and L isomers of 13f
Glycerol 22, 23, 26f, 27, 142, 169, 172
3-phosphate 118, 169
esters of 23
kinase 142
structure of 27f
Glycerophospholipids 23, 27
Glycine 3541, 45, 83, 191, 199, 235, 290, 291
catabolic pathway of 190f
catabolism of 190
metabolic
disorders of 191
importance of 190, 190f
metabolism of 189
oxidase 190
renal tubular reabsorption of 191
role of 190f
synthesis of 189, 190f
Glycinuria 191
Glycogen 12, 17, 134, 207
abnormal 146
lysosomal degradation of 145
metabolism 68, 144
molecule 18f
normal 146
phosphorylase 68, 69, 145, 146, 151
A 146
B 146
kinase 216
storage disease 145, 146
symptoms of 146
types of 146f
synthase 144146, 150
Glycogenesis 136, 144, 144f, 145f, 150
hormonal regulation of 146f
pathway of 144f
reactions of 144
regulation of 145, 146
significance of 145
Glycogenolysis 136, 144, 144f, 145, 151
hormonal regulation of 146f
reactions of 145
regulation of 145, 146
significance of 145
Glycolipids 2, 3, 12, 14, 23, 25, 29, 30f, 160, 197
classification of 30
functions of 30
Glycolysis 68, 79, 136, 137, 143f, 169
anaerobic 137, 138
energetics of 138
reactions of 136, 137f
regulation of 137, 138f
significance of 138
Glycopeptidyl transpeptidase 66
Glycoproteins 3, 12, 14, 43, 54, 90, 150, 301
Glycosaminoglycans 19, 19f, 90, 301
functions of 20
Glycosidic bond 11, 16
Glycosphingolipids 23, 29
Glycosuria 152154, 276
alimentary 152
diabetic 152
Glycosyl bond 16
Glycosylation 300
Goiter 224, 279
Golgi apparatus 24
functions of 4
Golgi complexes 1
Gout 67, 236
classification of 236
primary 236, 237
secondary 237
treatment of 237
Gramicidin 121
Graves’ disease 279
Growth
cells 224
factors 295, 296
failure 225
hormone 151, 296
promoting oncogenes 294
retardation of 75
Guanine 106, 108, 110, 111, 111f, 235, 236
Guanosine 108
cyclic 109
monophosphate 108, 234
Guanylyl cyclase 109
Gum 18, 126
Guthrie test 193
H
Hair 131
loss 225
Hand in-glove model 61
Hartnup's disease 80, 195
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 279
Headache 66
Heart 69, 76, 222
attack 154
damage of 70
muscle, role of 207
Helix-destabilizing amino acids 45
Helminths 56
Hematuria 275277
Heme 39, 99
biosynthesis of 4
iron 219
molecule, structure of 228f
proteins 219, 221
copper-containing 116
structure of 99f
synthesis 141, 190, 228
regulation of 229
stages of 228
Hemochromatosis 222
Hemoglobin 41, 45, 47, 99, 100, 100t, 101, 103, 262
A1 101
abnormal 101, 103
breakdown of 229
buffer 264
mechanism of action of 264
catabolic pathway of 230f
chemistry of 99
derivatives of 103
functions of 99, 100
glycated 103, 154, 155
H disease 101
metabolism 228
normal 100, 103
quaternary structure of 100f
sickle 101
structure of 99
transports oxygen 44
Hemoglobinopathy 101
Hemoglobinuria 276
Hemoprotein 116
Hemorrhagic disease 95
Hemorrhagic disorder 75
Hemorrhoids 127
Hemosiderin 221
Hemosiderosis 222
Hepadnaviruses 295
Heparin 12
Hepatic diseases 70
Hepatic glycogen phosphorylase 146
Hepatic parenchymal diseases 70
Hepatitis 70
toxic 70
viral 70
Hepatobiliary disease 70
Hepatocyte, carcinoma of 293
Hepatoma 293
Hepatorenal tyrosinemia 193
Hepcidine 221
Her's disease 146
Herpes viruses 295
Heteroglycans 11, 12, 16, 18
Heteropolysaccharides 11, 12, 16, 18
Hexokinase 59, 60, 69, 136, 137, 137f, 138, 144
Hexose monophosphate pathway 147
Histamine 39, 81, 200
Histidine 3739, 103, 126, 199, 200, 250, 264
catabolism of 84
imidazole groups of 264
proximal 99
Histones 42, 44, 68, 106
Holoenzyme 60
Homeostasis 150
Homocysteine 84, 86, 179, 196, 198
remethylation of 196
Homocystinuria 198
types of 198t
Homogentisate 191
oxidase 191, 194
Homoglycans 11, 16
Homopolysaccharides 11, 16, 17
Homoserine plus cysteine 196
Hormone 23, 25, 39, 150, 191, 200, 259f, 260, 296
action, mechanism of 257259
anterior pituitary 151
classification of 257
hyperglycemic 150
hypoglycemic 150
luteinizing 109
receptor complex 259, 259f
release of 216
response element 259, 259f
sensitive lipase 169, 173
enzyme 151
thyroxine 192
Human chorionic gonadotropin 296
Human plasma lipoproteins, characteristics of 32t
Hyaluronic acid 12, 19
Hydnocarpic acid 25
Hydration 48, 162
Hydrocarbons, aromatic 289, 294
Hydrochloric acid 182
Hydrogen 100, 264
binding site for 100
bonds 45, 47, 48, 100, 111, 111f, 299
formation of 45f
ions 118
peroxide 283
Hydrolase 59
Hydrolysis 289
Hydroperoxidases 116
Hydrophobic bond 47, 48
Hydrops fetalis 101
Hydroxy amino acids 37
Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA-reductase 67
Hydroxyacyl
dehydratase 168
enzyme 79
Hydroxyapatite 216, 218
crystal 216
Hydroxycholecalciferol 92
Hydroxycobalamine 86
Hydroxyl radicals 283, 284
Hydroxylase 92
Hydroxylation 92, 289
Hydroxylysine 300
Hydroxymethyl 189
Hydroxyproline 300, 300f
Hyperadrenalism 156
Hyperammonemia 188
Hyperbilirubinemia 230
Hypercalcemia 218
clinical features of 218
Hypercholesterolemia 67, 178
familial 174, 178
Hyperchylomicronemia 174
Hyperglycemia 150, 152154
postprandial 150
Hyperhomocysteinemia 85
Hyperkalemia 216
causes of 216
symptoms of 216
Hyperlipidemia 179
Hyperlipoproteinemia 174
Fredrickson classification of 174t
Hypernatremia 211, 215
causes of 215
symptoms of 215
Hyperoxaluria, primary 191
Hyperparathyroidism 70, 218, 219
Hyperphenylalaninemia 193
Hyperphosphatemia 219
causes of 219
clinical symptoms of 219
Hyperpituitarism 156
Hypersensitivity, anaphylactic type of 56
Hypertension 132, 154, 178, 179, 277
Hyperthyroidism 156, 278, 279
Hypertriglyceridemia, familial endogenous 174
Hypertriglycerolemia 154
Hyperuricemia 236
Hypervitaminosis 80, 82, 88
A 91
D 94
E 94
K 96
Hypoadrenalism 157
Hypoalbuminemia 131
Hypocalcemia 218
clinical features of 218
Hypoglycemia 150, 154
Hypogonadism 132
Hypokalemia 216
causes of 216
symptoms of 216
Hyponatremia 215
causes of 215
symptoms of 215
Hypoparathyroidism 218, 219
Hypophosphatemia 219
causes of 219
clinical symptoms of 219
Hypopigmentation 193
Hypopituitarism 132, 157
Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis 278
synthesis of 278f
Hypothesis, chemiosmotic coupling 119
Hypothyroidism 132, 157, 178, 278280
primary 280
Hypoventilation syndrome 132
Hypoxanthine 235
guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 235
I
Icterus 230
index 271
Imino acids 37, 38
Immunoglobulins 52, 54
functions of 55
molecule, basic structure of 55f
structure of 54
Indolacetic acid 196
Indolpyruvic acid 196
Infections 109
Inflammation 279, 284
Inner membrane 4
Inner mitochondrial membrane 117
Inorganic compounds 295
Inosine monophosphate 235
Inositol triphosphate 28, 259, 260
Insulin 149, 150, 150f, 153, 164, 165, 168, 169, 176, 198
action 152
inhibits 142
insufficiency 175
mechanism of action of 260
receptors 153
resistance 153
role of 150f
secretion 152
Interstitial fluid 208
Intestinal mucosal cells 161
Intestine 92, 134, 160f, 169, 176, 183, 184, 218, 230
mucosal cells of 183
small 134, 182
Intracellular fluid 7f, 210, 263
Intravenous glucose tolerance test 156
Intrinsic binding energy 61
Introns, removal of 245
Inulin 17
Inulinase 17
Invertase 16
Iodine 214, 223, 278
Iododeoxyuridine 109
Iodopsin 90
Iodothyronine deiodinase 39, 224, 278
Ionic bond 47, 48
Ionophores 121
Iron 60, 99, 214, 228
absorption of 88f, 220, 220f, 221
chemical state of 221
coordination bonds of 99f
deficiency 221
anemia 221
excretion of 220
metabolism 219
disorders of 221
overload 222
storage of 220, 220f
sulfur
centers 117
protein 117, 118
transport of 220
utilization of 220f
Isoalloxazine ring 77
Isobutyric acid 25
Isocitrate 140
dehydrogenase 68, 140, 142
Isoelectric pH 40, 48
Isoenzyme 69, 69t
Isoleucine 3639, 126, 189, 300
Isomaltase 16, 134
Isomerases 59
Isomerism 13
Isomers 13
Isomolar dehydration 212
Isoniazide 65, 82
Isonicotinic acid hydrazine 65
Isoprene unit 176
Isovaleric acid 25
J
Jaundice 70, 71, 96, 230, 272, 273t
classification of 231
differential diagnosis of 232t, 272, 274t
hemolytic 231, 272, 273
hepatic 231, 272
hepatocellular 231
neonatal 232
obstructive 70, 71, 178, 231, 272
physiologic 232
post-hepatic 231
prehepatic 231
J-chains 55
Joints 222
synovial fluid of 19
K
Kayser-Fleisher rings 223
Keratan sulfate 12, 19
Keratinization 91
Keratomalacia 91
Keshan disease 224
Ketoacidosis 153, 154, 167
Ketogenesis 164
regulation of 165, 166f
significance of 165
Ketone 10, 154
bodies 23, 153, 154, 166f, 207, 275277
formation of 164, 165f
metabolism of 164, 166
structure of 164f
utilization of 80, 165, 165f
test 154
Ketonemia 167
Ketonuria 167
Ketose aldose isomerism 13, 13f
Ketosis 10, 166, 167
Kidney 92, 142, 167, 184, 218, 267
tubular cells of 152
tubules 237f
Kinky-hair disease 223
Kreb's cycle 140, 187
Kwashiorkor 127, 131, 131f, 175
Kynureninase 195
Kynurenine
formylase 195
hydroxylase 195
pathway 194
L
Lactase 16, 59, 76, 134, 136, 142
dehydrogenase 47, 59, 6971, 137
clinical applications of 70
isoenzyme 70t
metabolism of 138
Lactic acid cycle 139, 139f, 151
Lactonase 147
Lactose 16, 217
intolerance 136
L-amino acid across, transport of 184
Lanolin 22
Lanosterol 176
Lauric acid 24
L-configuration 35
Lecithin 23, 27
cholesterol acyltransferase 173
Legs, bowing of 93f
Leptin 132
gene 132
Lethargy 188
Leucine 3639, 126, 189, 300
Leukemia 70, 293
sarcoma virus 295
Leukotrienes 26, 125
L-galactose 18
L-glutamate 185
dehydrogenase 185, 185f
L-glutamic acid 83
L-iduronic acid 19
Ligases 59
Lignoceric acid 24
Lincomycin 254
Link proteins 19
Linoleic acid 2426, 125
Linolenic acid 2426, 125
Lipase 59
Lipid 2, 22
absorption of 160, 161, 161f
chemistry of 22
classification of 22
complex 23
compound 23
digestion, products of 161
functions of 22, 23
metabolism 160
peroxide radicals 285
profile tests 271
transport of 161f
Lipogenesis 169, 170f
regulation of 169
significance of 169
Lipolysis 154, 165, 169, 170f
regulation of 169
significance of 169
Lipooxygenase 283
Lipoprotein 23, 31, 32, 32f, 43, 170, 172174
A 179
classes of 31
functions of 32
high-density 23, 32, 32f, 43, 172, 173, 173f
intermediate density 172
lipase 154, 172174
enzyme 169
low-density 23, 32, 32f, 43, 172
metabolism 170
disorders of 174
structure of 31f
very low-density 23, 32, 32f, 43, 169, 170, 172, 173
Lipotropic factor 29, 175
Lisinopril 67
Liver 17, 52, 92, 131, 142, 144f, 145, 146, 165, 167, 169, 176, 222, 228, 230, 230f
cirrhosis 70
disease 70, 71, 95
diagnosis of 273
function tests 271, 272t
classification of 271
role of 206
Living cell, types of 1
Lumen, intestinal 161f
Lung surfactant 27, 29
Lyase 59
Lymph node, cancer of 293
Lymphocytes 54
Lymphoid tissues 52
Lymphoma 293
Lysine 3739, 87, 88, 126, 162, 183, 189, 300
Lysinuria 198
Lysolecithin 173
Lysophospholipid 23, 29, 161
Lysosomal disorder 198
Lysosomes 14
functions of 4
Lysyl hydroxylase 300
Lysyl oxidase 222
M
Macrominerals 214, 214t
Macromolecules 6
Macronutrients 124, 125
Macrophages 179
Magnesium 60, 214
Malic enzyme 79
Malignant carcinoid syndrome 80
Malignant disease 218
Malnutrition 54, 130
Malonate 65f
Malonyl-CoA 164, 167
Maltase 134
Maltose 15
Mammary glands, lactating 167
Manganese 60, 214
Mannosamine 14
Mannose 136
transport of 135f
Marasmus 127, 131, 131f, 131t
Marfan's syndrome 301
McArdle's disease 146
Meister cycle 184
Melanin 39, 192
pigment 191, 222
Melanocyte 192
stimulating hormone 109, 195
Melatonin 81, 195, 200
Membrane
carbohydrates 3
integrity 216
lipids 2
permeability of 29
proteins 2
transport 5
mechanism, types of 5f
Menadione 95
Menaquinones 95
Menkes syndrome 223
Menstrual blood 221
Mental
confusion 66, 76
retardation 188
Mesenchymal tissues 293
Metabolic function 214216
Metabolic pathways 134
Metabolic rate 278
Metabolism
integration of 204207
ketone bodies 166f
Metalloproteins 43
Metaproteins 43
Metformin 153
Methanol 289
Methemoglobin 103, 104
Methionine 3639, 86, 126, 182, 191, 196, 198, 290
adenosyltransferase 196
catabolic pathway of 197f
demethylated portion of 196
metabolism of 196
methyl group of 196
synthesis of 84, 85f
Methotrexate 67
Methylation 291
Methylcobalamin 85, 86
Methylguanylate 245
Methylmalonyl-CoA
epimerase 164
mutase 164
Mevalonate 176
Mevinolin lovastatin 67
Micelle formation 161
Microalbumin test 154
Microalbuminuria 277
Microfilaments 5
Microminerals 214, 214t, 222
Micronutrients 124, 125
Microsomal cytochrome p450 enzymes 289
Microsomes 3
Microtubules 5
Milk sugar 16
Mineralocorticoids 31, 178
deficiency 216
Minerals 129, 214, 285
antioxidant system 285
elements 125
metabolism 214
Missense mutation 250
Mitochondria 14, 106, 161, 176, 187
functions of 4
structure of 4f
Mitochondrial cytochrome p450 enzymes 289
Mitochondrial matrix 4, 140, 167
Mitochondrial membrane 117f
Moiety 45
Molecular biology 58
central dogma of 240, 240f
Molecular weight 47, 54
Molybdenum 60, 214
Monoacylglycerol 161
Monoenoic acid 24
Monohydric long chain alcohols 22
Monomer 55, 56
Mono-oxygenases 116
Monophosphate 108, 109
Monosaccharides 10, 11t, 30, 134
classification of 10t
phosphate ester of 14
types of 11
Moon face 131
Mouse mammary tumor virus 295
Mousy odor 193
Mouth 134
mRNA
functions of 112
structure of 112, 112f
Mucopolysaccharides 19, 20
Mucoprotein 43
Multienzyme system 67f
Mumps 70, 71
Muscle 17, 44, 69, 70, 145, 146, 215, 303
classification of 303
contraction 216, 305, 306
mechanism of 305
cramps 218
diseases 70
disorders 306
fatigue 76
fibers 303
proteins composition of 304
glycogen phosphorylase 146
smooth 303
striated 303
Muscular dystrophy 70, 306
Mutases 59
Mutation 77, 101, 242, 248
causes of 249
types of 248, 249, 249f
Myocardial infarction 70, 71
Myofibril, accessory proteins of 305
Myoglobin 45
stores oxygen 44
Myoinositol 28
Myopathies 70
Myosin 7, 304
functions of 304
molecule 303f
Myristic acid 24
Myxedema 157, 279
N
N-acetylglutamate 188
N-acetylneuraminic acid 30
Nalidixic acid 242
Narcotic drugs 65
Nausea 66, 76
N-butyric acid 24
Negative nitrogen balance 127
Neoplasm, malignant 293
Nephrocalcinosis 191
Nephron, components of 274f
Nephropathy 154
Nephrotic syndrome 54
Nerve impulses, transmission of 216
Nervonic acid 24
Nervous system 76
Nervousness 82
Net protein utilization 127, 128
Neural tube defect 75, 85
Neuraminic acid 14
acetylated derivatives of 14
Neuritis, peripheral 76
Neurological disorders 284
Neuromuscular irritability 218
Neurons 41
Neuropathy 75, 94
peripheral 154
Neurotransmitter 192, 195, 200
acetylcholine 76
release of 216
Neutral fat 22, 26, 160, 174
Neutropenia 222
N-glycosidic bond 107
Niacin 39, 60, 74, 75, 78, 194, 195
active coenzyme forms of 79f
biosynthesis of 195f
deficiency 80
Nicotinamide 78
adenine dinucleotide 78, 79, 117
phosphate 78, 79
Nicotinic acid 78
Night blindness 75, 90
Nitric oxide 283
synthase 283
Nitrogen 10, 99
atoms 238f
balance 127
base 23, 106
equilibrium 127
excretion 127
intake 127
Nitroprusside reaction 154
Nitrosamine 297
compounds 295
Noncarbohydrate 142
Noncellulose fiber 18
Noncompetitive inhibition 64, 65, 65f
Nonenzymatic antioxidant system 285
Non-heme iron 219
Non-keto hyperglycinemia 191
Nonoxidative deamination 81, 185, 186f
Norepinephrine 109, 191, 200
Normal glucose tolerance curve 156
Novobiocin 242
N-terminal amino acid 183
Nuclear activity 216
Nucleic acids 43, 84, 106, 107f, 284
chemistry of 106
Nucleolus 5, 106
Nucleoplasm 5
Nucleoproteins 43, 106
Nucleoside 106, 107, 108f
structure of 107f
Nucleotidase 236
Nucleotides 106, 108, 108t, 234
functions of 106, 107
metabolism 4
structure of 106, 108f
synthetic analogues of 109
Nucleus 13, 5
functions of 5
structure of 5
Nutrients 124
role of 124
Nutrition 124
Nutritional disorders 130
Nyctalopia 90
Nystagmus 194
O
Obesity 131
causes of 131
degree of 131t
Obstruction 70, 268
biliary 95
Ochronosis 194
Odd carbon acids 24
Odor 275
Okazaki fragments 242
Oleic acid 24
Oligopeptide 41
Oligosaccharides 10, 16, 30
classification of 11t
types of 11
Oliguria 275
Oncofetal antigens 296
Oncogenes 295
Oncoproteins 294
Opsin 89, 90
Optical isomerism 13
Optimum pH 63
Oral fluid intake 209
Oral glucose tolerance test 156
Organ function tests 271
Organelle 1, 2
Organic molecules, adsorption of 127
Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning 70
Ornithine
formation of 187
transcarbamoylase 187, 188
translocase 59
Osmolality 209, 210
Osmosis 6
Osmotic diuresis 154
Osmotic pressure 47, 210, 215, 216
gradient of 210
Osteoarthritis 132
Osteocalcin 92, 93, 95
Osteodystrophy, renal 93
Osteogenesis imperfecta 301
Osteomalacia 70, 75, 93, 218
Osteoporosis 218, 222, 223
Overflow proteinuria 276
Oxalate 191, 217
Oxaloacetate 142, 166, 185
Oxidases 58, 116
Oxidation 4, 15f, 78, 80, 116, 162, 166, 167, 167t, 289
biogenic 116
Oxidative deamination 185, 185f
Oxidative phosphorylation 4, 117, 118
chemiosmotic theory of 119f
inhibitors of 121
mechanism of 119
uncouplers of 121
Oxidoreductase 58, 116
Oxygen 99, 100
binding site for 100
derived free radicals 283
storage of 220
transport of 220
utilization of 220
Oxygenases 116
Oxyhemoglobin 103
Oxytocin 28, 29, 42
P
Paget's disease 70, 71
Pain, chest 66
Palmitic acid 24, 168
Palmitoleic acid 24
P-amino benzoic acid 83
Pancreas 60, 182, 183, 222
Pancreatic alpha-amylase 134
Pancreatic disease 70
Pancreatic duct 70
obstruction of 71
Pancreatic lipase 160
Pancreatic proenzymes, activation of 183, 183f
Pancreatitis
acute 70, 71
chronic 71
Pantethine 80
Pantoic acid 80
Pantothenic acid 60, 74, 75, 80
structure of 80f
Papovavirus 295
Paracasein 182
Parallel pleated sheet 46
Parasites 56, 295
Parathyroid hormone 109, 217, 296
role of 218
Pectin 18, 126
Pellagra 75, 80, 195
Penicillamide 82
Penicillin 66, 67
Pentaenoic acid 24
Pentamer 56
Pentapeptide 41
Pentose 107
phosphate pathway 79, 136, 147, 148f, 169, 170f, 234
disorders of 149
reactions of 147
regulation of 149
significance of 147
sugar 106, 107
Pepsin 44, 59, 60, 66, 182, 183
action of 182f
Pepsinogen 60, 182
activation of 182f
Peptides 41, 257
bonds 35, 41, 42, 45, 47
formation of 41f
Peroxidases 4, 58, 116, 285
Peroxisomes 24
functions of 4
Peroxyl radicals 283
Peroxynitrite 283
Petechiae, formation of 88
pH 275
Phenanthrene 31, 231f
Phenylacetate 193
Phenylacetyl glutamine 193
Phenylalanine 3739, 126, 189, 191, 192
catabolic pathway of 192f
hydroxylase 191, 193
metabolic disorders of 192
metabolism of 191
Phenylketonuria 192, 193f
atypical 193
characteristics of 193
classic 193
classification of 193
Phenyllactate 193
Phenylpyruvate 193
Phosphate 106, 210, 218, 234
attachment of 107
buffer
mechanism of action of 264
system 264
concentration, high serum 219
Phosphatidalcholines 29
Phosphatidalethanolamines 29
Phosphatidalserines 29
Phosphatidic acid 27
structure of 27f
Phosphatidylcholine 23, 27
Phosphatidylethanolamine 23
Phosphatidylinositol 23, 28, 259, 260, 260f
bisphosphate 260
Phosphatidylserine 23, 28
Phosphoadenosyl phosphosulfate 197, 197f, 290
Phosphocreatine 191
Phosphodiester 106
bonds 110
Phosphoenol pyruvate 142
carboxykinase 142
Phosphofructokinase 68, 136, 138, 138f, 146, 150
Phosphoglucomutase 59, 144, 145
Phosphogluconate 147
Phosphoglycerate
kinase 137
mutase 137
Phosphoglycerides 27
Phosphohexose isomerase 59, 136
Phospholipase
A2 160
C 259, 260
Phospholipids 2, 23, 25, 27, 28f, 160, 160f, 161, 173, 260
classification of 27, 27f
functions of 29
Phosphopentose
epimerase 147
isomerase 147
Phosphoproteins 43
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate 234
Phosphoric acid 23, 27
Phosphorus 10, 214, 218
homeostasis of 92f
metabolism of 92, 216
serum 219
Phosphorylase 145
enzyme 236
kinase 146
glycogen synthase 146
Phosphorylation 68, 116, 120, 120f
oxidative 4, 117, 118
substrate level 120, 137, 141
Phosphotriose isomerase 136
Photophobia 194
Photosensitivity 82
P-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase 191, 194
Phylloquinone 95
Phytates 217
Piles 127
Plaque 179
formation of 178f
Plasma 52
calcium
inorganic constituent of 54
regulation of 217f
cells 54
concentration, low 216
copper 222
membrane 2
oncotic pressure of 47
phosphorus concentration alterations 219
potassium level alterations 216
proteins 52, 54t, 271
buffer 264
classification of 52
major classes of 53
separation of 52
sodium 215
Plasmalogens 23, 29
Plasmodium falciparum 102
Platelet
aggregation 29
derived growth factor 44
Polar amino acids 39
Polydipsia 154
Polymeric protein hemoglobin, quaternary structure of 47f
Polynucleotides 106
Polypeptide 41, 45
chain 45f
hormone 210
Polysaccharides 10, 11, 16, 134, 197
classification of 11f
Polyunsaturated fatty acids 284
Polyuria 154, 275
Pompe's disease 145147
Porphobilinogen 228
synthase 60
Porphyrin 228
ring 99
Porphyropsin 90
Positive nitrogen balance 127
Potassium 210, 214, 215
active transport of 6f
metabolism of 215
obligatory loss of 215
serum 215
Power stroke 305
Pox viruses 295
Procarboxy peptidase 60
Procarcinogens 294
Proelastase 183
Proenzyme 60
Progesterone 31
Programmed cell death 28
Prokaryotes 1, 2, 242, 244f, 254
ribosomes of 252f
structural features of 2t
Prokaryotic cell, structure of 1f
Prokaryotic protein synthesis 254t
Prokaryotic transcription, inhibitors of 245
Prolactin 296
Prolamins 42
Proline 37, 38, 45, 87, 88, 300
structure of 38f
Prolyl hydroxylase 300
Propionate 99, 142
Propionic acid 24, 99f
Propionyl-CoA 164, 164f, 205
carboxylase 82, 164
Prostacyclin 26, 125
Prostaglandins 25, 26, 125
Prostate specific antigen 70, 71
Prosthetic group 60
lipid 43
phosphoric acid 43
Protamine 42, 44, 106
Proteins 2, 35, 35f, 117, 124126, 128, 154, 161, 182, 206, 241, 252, 275, 276, 284, 296
absorption of 182
biosynthesis 250
stages of 253f
buffer 264
caloric malnutrition 131
chemistry of 35
classification of 42, 44
composition of 42
conjugated 42, 43
contractile 44, 304
deficiency 175
denaturation of 48, 48f
digestion of 182
efficiency ratio 127, 128
energy malnutrition 131
classification of 131
fibrous 43, 46
formation of 35, 39
functions of 42, 44
globular 44, 44f, 46
hormones 257
hydration of 48
induced vomiting 188
isoelectric pH of 48
kinase 68, 146, 259
metabolism 182, 187
molecular shape of 43
monomeric 47
mutual supplementation of 128
nutritional quality of 127
peripheral 3
primary structure of 44
properties of 47
quaternary structure of 47
regulatory 44, 304
requirement 126
secondary structure of 45
shape of 47
simple 42
sparing effect 125
storage of 44
structure of 44
synthesis 216, 278
inhibitors of 253, 254t
tertiary structure of 47f
total 52
transmembrane 2
transport 44
Proteinuria 275, 277
glomerular 276
post-renal 276
tubular 276
Proteoglycans 12, 14, 19, 43, 150, 301
aggregate 19, 19f
monomer, bottle brush structure of 19f
Proteolysis 154
Prothrombin time 271, 273
determination of 273
Proto-oncogenes 295
Protoporphyrin 99
Provitamin 89
Pseudouridine 112, 113
Pseudouridylate 245
Pteridine ring 83
Ptylin 134
Purine 106, 234
base 39, 106
hypoxanthine 236
structure of 106f
degradation 78
nucleosides phosphorylase 236
nucleotides
biosynthesis of 234
catabolism of 236, 236f
synthesis of 234, 235, 235f
ring
formation of 190
structure of 106f
synthesis of 84
Puromycin 254
Pyran ring 12
Pyridine 78
Pyridoxal phosphate 81, 84, 185, 196
structure of 81f
Pyridoxamine 80
Pyridoxine 60, 74, 75, 80, 106, 195, 295
Pyrimidine
bases 39, 106, 235
structure of 107f
catabolism of 238f
dimmers 295
nucleosides 237
nucleotide 84
catabolism of 238
De novo biosynthesis of 237
metabolism 234
synthesis of 238f
ring, structure of 107f
Pyrophosphate 76f
Pyrrole rings 99
Pyrrolysine 39
Pyruvate 138, 185
carboxylase 59, 60, 68, 82, 142
dehydrogenase 47, 68, 78, 79
complex 76, 139, 140f
fate of 139
kinase 137, 138, 150
oxidation of 4
oxidative decarboxylation of 78, 79, 140f
R
Radiation 294
action of 295
ionizing 284, 295
Random blood sugar 155
Rapoport-Luebering cycle 139, 130f
significance of 139
Reactive oxygen species 283
Red blood cells 4
Redox buffer 41
Renal disease 218
Renal failure 216, 219
Renal function 188
serum markers of 275
tests 271, 274
major 275t
urine markers of 275, 277
Renal losses 216
Renal tubular reabsorption 191, 274
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system 210, 211f
Replication
basic requirements for 241
stages of 241
Reproduction 2
Reproductive functions 195
Respiration 268
depression of 268
Respiratory chain 78, 117
components of 117, 117f
Respiratory system 265f
Retina, development of 26, 125
Retinal aldehyde reductase 89
Retinoblastoma 296
Retinoic acid 89, 90
Retinoids 89
Retinol 23, 74, 89, 89f
Retinopathy 154
Reverse cholesterol transport 173
Rhodopsin cycle 89
Riboflavin 60, 74, 75, 77
active form of 78
structure of 77f
Ribonucleic acid 240
Ribonucleoside 108
Ribonucleotide 108
Ribose 12, 112, 234
sugars 76
Ribosomes 2, 3, 112, 252
Ribothymidine 112, 113
Ribothymidylate 245
Ribozyme 113
Ribulose-phosphate 147
Richner-Hanhart syndrome 194
Ricinoleic acid 25
Rickets 70, 75, 93, 93f, 218
renal 93
Rifampin 245
Rigor mortis 305
RNA
synthesis, basic requirements for 243
types of 112
Rothera's qualitative test 154
Rous sarcoma virus 295
S
Saccharic acid 15
Saccharides 10
S-adenosyl homocysteine 196
S-adenosylmethionine 196, 199
Saliva 55
Salvage pathway 234, 235
significance of 235
Sarcolemma 303
Sarcomas 293
Scaly dermatitis 26, 126
Scavenger enzymes 285
Scleroproteins 43
Sclerosis 178
Scurvy 75, 88, 88f
Selenium 39, 60, 175, 214, 224, 285
toxicity 224
Selenocysteine 39, 224
Selenomethionine 224
Selenosis 224
Sensory neuropathy 82
Serine 3638, 83, 185, 189, 196, 199
dehydratase 185
Serotonin 81, 195, 200
functions of 195
Serum albumin 52, 273
Sex hormones
female 31, 257
male 31, 257
Sialic acid 14, 30
Sickle cell
anemia 102
trait 102
Sickle red blood cells 102f
Silver nitrate 194
Single polypeptide chain 47
Skeletal muscle 5
role of 207
structure of 303
Skin 80, 90, 131, 215, 222
effect on 91
pigment 39, 191
protector 26, 126
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 3
Sodium 209, 214, 215
active transport of 6f
deficiency 211
dependent glucose transporter 135
depletion 215
intake, excessive 215
loss of 215
metabolism of 215
pump 136
Soft tissues 237f
Sorbitol 15
Spermaceti oil 22
Spermatogenesis 225
Spheroproteins 44
Sphingomyelin 29
structure of 29f
Sphingophospholipids 23, 29
Sphingosine 23, 29
Starch 17
Stearic acid 24
Stereoisomerism 40
Steroid 23
hormones 23, 31, 147, 176, 257
formation of 178
nucleus 31f
synthesis 87
Sterols 160
Sticky patch 102
Stomach 60, 182
Streptomycin 254
Stroke 132, 154
Succinate 109, 118
dehydrogenase 65, 78, 118, 141
competitive inhibition of 65f
thiokinase 141
Succinyl acetone 193
Succinyl-CoA 109, 164f
Sucrase 16, 59, 134
Sucrose 16
Sugar 6
acids 14, 15, 15f
alcohols 14, 15, 15f
derivatives 14
simple 10
types of 10
Suicide inhibition 64, 66
Sulfa drugs 291
Sulfate 19, 289
conjugation 290
Sulfatides 30
Sulfation 68, 290
Sulfhemoglobin 104
Sulfur 10, 39, 214
containing amino acids 37, 38, 186, 198
transferase 197
Sulpholipids 197
Sulphonamide 65
Superoxide 104, 283
anion 283
dismutase 222, 285, 286
Suppressor genes 294
Sweating 66
Swollen bleeding gums 88f
Synthesis, site of 32
Synthetases 59
T
Table sugar 16
Taste sensation, loss of 225
Tauri's disease 146
Tears 55
Teeth 223
formation of 216
loosing of 88f
Testosterone 178, 218
Tetanus toxins 31
Tetracycline 254
Tetraenoic acid 24
Tetrahydrofolate 83, 84, 190f, 196, 197f, 199
derivatives 234
formation of 84f, 199f
structure of 199f
Tetrahydrothiophene 82
Tetraiodothyronine 223
Tetrapeptide 41
Thalassemia 101, 250
types of 101
Theobromin 237
Therapeutic drugs 245
Thiamine 60, 74, 75, 76, 76f
absorption of 77
active form of 76
pyrophosphate 76, 76f, 77, 147, 148
structure of 76f
Thiazolidinediones 153
Thioesterase 168
Thiokinase 161
Thiolase 162, 164, 165
enzyme 176
Thioredoxin reductase 39
Threonine 3638, 126, 185
dehydratase 185
Thrombin 68, 216
Thromboplastin 28, 29
Thromboxane 26, 125
Thymidine 237
monophosphate 84
Thymidylate synthase 67, 84
Thymine 106, 108, 110, 111, 111f, 112
Thymol turbidity 271
Thyroglobulin 192, 280
Thyroid 176
adenoma 279
autoantibodies 280
binding globulin 280
function tests 271, 278, 279, 280t
gland 223
failure 280
hormones 223, 257
nodules 279
peroxidase 280
stimulating hormone 109, 278, 280
Thyroiditis 279
Thyrotropin releasing hormone 42, 260, 278
Thyroxine 39, 151, 191, 192, 278
binding globulin 278
Tissues 173
Tocopherol 74, 94
Tocopheroxy radical 285
Topoisomerase 241, 242
Total body
cholesterol 132
sodium, normal 211
water 208
Toxicity 80, 82, 88
Toxins 64
Trace elements 214
metabolism of 222
Transaldolase 147
Transaminases 44, 184
enzyme, clinical significance of 185
Transamination 81, 141, 184
reaction 81, 185f
metabolic significance of 185
Transcobalamin 86
Transferase 59
Transferrin 221
transports iron 44
Transketolase 76, 77, 147
reactions 76
Translocase 58, 162
Transmethylation 196
reactions 196
Transpeptidase, bacterial 67
Trans-sulfuration reaction 81
Transthyretin 46, 278
Triacylglycerides 26
Triacylglycerol 22, 26, 26f, 31, 31f, 160, 161, 169, 170f, 172174, 205
degradation of 169
functions of 26
mixed 26
overproduction of 174
simple 26
stores, lipolysis of 169
synthesis of 169
Tricarboxylate 140
Tricarboxylic acid 140
cycle 140
Trienoic acid 24
Triglycerides 22, 160, 173
Triiodothyronine 223, 278
Tripeptide 41
Triphosphate isomerase 59
tRNA
functions of 113
structure of 112
Tropocollagen 299
Tropoelastin 300
Tropomyosin 304
Troponin 44, 304
True waxes 22
Trypsin 44, 59, 60, 70, 183
inhibitors 65, 66
Trypsinogen 60, 183
Tryptophan 3739, 78, 126, 189, 191, 195, 199, 200, 248
dioxygenase 222
kynurenine metabolic pathway of 195f
metabolism of 194
oxygenase 194
pyrrolase 194
transport of 195
Tubular fluid 266, 266f
Tubulin 5
Tumor 293
biomarkers, clinical applications of 296
markers 71, 296
suppressor genes 296
Tyramine 200
Tyrosinase 193, 194, 222
Tyrosine 3739, 103, 189, 191, 192, 192f, 200, 278
aminotransferase 194
catabolic pathway of 192f
degradation of 87
kinase 260
second messenger 260
metabolic disorders of 192
transaminase 191
Tyrosinemia 193, 194
classification of 193
neonatal 194
Tyrosinosis 193
acute 193
chronic 193
U
Ulceration 91
Ultraviolet light 295
Unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA 162
Uracil 106, 108, 112
Urate
crystals 237f
deposition of 237f
Urea 184, 271, 277
biosynthesis of 4
cycle 184, 187
energy cost of 187
enzymes, genetic defects of 188t
metabolic inborn errors of 188
reactions of 187f
regulation of 188, 188f
significance of 188
formation of 186, 187
Uremia 188, 189t
post-renal 189
prerenal 189
renal 189
Uric acid 236238
overproduction of 236
Uridine 108, 237
diphosphate 109, 144
glucose 144, 149
glucuronate 149, 150
glucuronic acid 290
monophosphate 108
triphosphate 144, 149
Urine 215
abnormal constituents of 276t
analysis 275
bile salts 271
bilirubin 271, 272
dipstick, interpretation of 155f, 276f
glucose 154
testing 154
Urobilin 230
Urobilinogen 273
Urolithiasis 191
Uronic acid 15, 19
amino sugar 19
pathway 149
V
Valeric acid 24, 82
Valine 3638, 101, 126, 300
Valinomycin 121
van den Bergh reaction 272
van der Waals
forces 47, 100
interactions 47
Vasoconstrictor 195, 200
Vasopressin 28, 29, 42, 109, 198, 210
Viruses 294, 295
Vision 89
effect on 90
Vitamin 39, 60, 74, 125, 129, 194, 285
A 23, 74, 75, 89, 89f
deficiency, symptoms of 91
ester 23
excessive intake of 91
functions of 89
role of 89
structure of 89f
active form of 92
antioxidant system 285
B complex 74
B1 60, 7476
B12 74, 75, 85, 85f, 86, 164, 196
active form of 85
role of 85f, 86f
B2 60, 74, 75, 77
B3 74, 75, 78
B5 74, 75, 80
B6 60, 74, 75, 80, 81f, 195
active form of 81
deficiency of 80
B7 75
B9 75, 83
biosynthesis of 195f
C 74, 75, 87, 285
antioxidants role of 286f
deficiency 88f
classification of 74
D 23, 31, 74, 75, 91, 176, 216
deficiency of 93, 218
ester 23
formation of 178
lack of 218
receptor 94
resistant rickets 94
role of 92f, 218
D3
active form of 91f
formation of 91f, 178f
deficiency 175
E 74, 75, 94, 175
K 74, 75, 95
dependent carboxylation 95
functions of 95
structure of 95f
K1 95
K2 95
K3 95
lipid soluble 23
niacin 195
water soluble 74, 75, 75t 76
Volatile acids 263
Vomiting 66, 212
von Gierke's disease 146, 237
W
Wald's visual cycle 89, 89f
Warfarin 95
Water 124, 208
balance 208210, 215, 216
normal 209
regulation of 211f
daily intake of 209
deficit of 211
depletion 215
distribution of 208, 208t
extracellular 208
holding capacity 126
loss
gastrointestinal 209
urinary 209
output 209
retention of 215
Watson-Crick DNA double helical structure 110
Waxes 22
Weaning disease 131
Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome 75, 77
Wilson's disease 82, 223
X
Xanthine 236
oxidase 60, 67, 78, 236, 237, 283
Xanthosine monophosphate 235
Xanthurenate 195
Xenobiotics 288
biotransformation of 288
metabolism of 78
source of 288
Xerophthalmia 75, 91
Xylitol 15
Xylulose-5-phosphate 147
Z
Zinc 60, 214, 224
deficiency 225
Zwitterion formation 40
Zymogen 60, 60t
×
Chapter Notes

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ESSENTIALS OF BIOCHEMISTRY
ESSENTIALS OF BIOCHEMISTRY
THIRD EDITION
Pankaja Naik PhD Professor Department of Biochemistry SMBT Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center Nashik, Maharashtra, India
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Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
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Essentials of Biochemistry
First Edition: 2012
Second Edition: 2017
Reprint: 2017, 2018
Third Edition: 2023
9789354659973
Printed at
My mother
Shrimati Jaylaxmi Chaudhary
and
My father
Late Shri Dnyandeo Chaudhary
PREFACE
The author and publisher are pleased to present the third edition of Essentials of Biochemistry. Second edition of Essentials of Biochemistry was published in 2017, originally intended to provide a concise aspects of biochemistry most relevant to the study of medicine and dental.
My dental students often would come asking which topic should we read and which topic to be omitted from the previous edition. So I decided to streamline my existing second edition of Essentials of Biochemistry, to focus only on the dental biochemistry syllabus prescribed by Dental Council of India (DCI). This third edition of Essentials of Biochemistry is fulfilling the requirements of dental students and can also be used by allied health science students.
The content has been presented in a way, so that the students would find it easy to attempt any question in the form of objective type or essay type. To facilitate the student learning, exam questions in the form of long answer questions (LAQs), short answer questions (SAQs), and multiple choice questions (MCQs) are given at the end of each chapter.
After reading this book, reader's suggestion and healthy criticism will be of great help in the future improvement of the book. I would like you to send me your feedback at pankajanaik@gmail.com
Pankaja Naik
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I express my profound gratitude to Honorable Shri Balasaheb Thorat (Former Minister of Revenue of Maharashtra and Trustee) and Honorable Dr Sudhirji Tambe (MLA and Trustee), SMBT Sevabhavi Trust, Nashik, Maharashtra, India, for their keen interest in all the academic activities of the faculty members. I sincerely express my gratitude to Dr Harshal Tambe, the Dynamic Managing Trustee, SMBT Sevabhavi Trust, Nashik, Maharashtra, India, for his continuous support and encouragement.
I wholeheartedly acknowledge the interest, and enthusiasm of Dr (Brig.) Vasant Pawar, Former Director, SMBT Sevabhavi Trust, Nashik, Maharashtra, India. He has always been supportive and a well-wisher in all my endeavors.
I am very grateful to Dr Ashok Shinde, Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, and Dr Meenakshi Sreeram, Reader and Head, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, MGV'sKBH Dental College and Hospital, Nashik, for their professional support and providing balanced feedback in their friendly and cheerful style.
I am grateful to all my colleagues and students from various institutes and universities across the world as reviewers. Their suggestions and thoughtful comments immensely helped me in maintaining excellence of the third edition.
I am grateful to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Group President), and Mr MS Mani (Group President) of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for their motivating passion and all the timely extended help in bringing out the Essentials of Biochemistry. I wish to thank Mr Chandrashekhar S Gawade (Zonal Manager—Mumbai Branch), for his unfailing personal support in the preparation of third edition of Essentials of Biochemistry.
I sincerely appreciate Dr Madhu Choudhary (Director–Educational Publishing), Ms Pooja Bhandari (Production Head), Ms Sunita Katla (Executive Assistant to Group Chairman and Publishing Manager), Ms Samina Khan (Executive Assistant to Director–Educational Publishing), Dr Aditya Tayal (Team Leader–UG Publishing), Mr Rajesh Sharma (Production Coordinator), Ms Seema Dogra (Cover Visualizer), Ms Geeta Barik (Proofreader), Ms Uma Adhikari (Typesetter) and Mr Gopal Kirola (Graphic Designer) of Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for the efforts they put forth for the upcoming edition for dental students. Thanks for their careful attention and dedication in accomplishing this task on time. It was really nice to work with them.
Last but not least, thanks to my husband Mr Shekhar and my son Mr Sushrut in supporting me to complete the task successfully.