A Short Textbook of Psychiatry Niraj Ahuja
INDEX
A
Abnormal illness behaviour 99, 209
Abreaction 104, 218
Abstract thinking 14
Acamprosate 42
Acetylcholine 64, 75
Acrophobia 93
Acute
and transient psychotic disorders 61, 76
intoxication 33, 37, 46
polymorphic psychotic disorder
with symptoms of schizophrenia 86
without symptoms of schizophrenia 86
psychosis 228
schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder 60, 86
stress reaction 111
Adenoma sebaceum 159
Adjustment disorder 112
with depressed mood 76
Admission under special circumstances 232
Adolescent thinking 155
Affective
disorders 69
flattening 57, 62
spectrum disorders 81
Agitated depression 81
Agonist substitution therapy 44
Agoraphobia 92
with panic disorder 93
without panic disorder 93
AIDS dementia complex 25
Akathisia 228
Akinesis 225
Alcohol
and substance history 10
sensitising drugs 41
use disorders 35, 228
anonymous 41
hallucinosis 28, 38
seizures 38
Algophobia 93
Alogia 57, 62
Alprazolam 94, 98, 131
Alzheimer's
dementia 23
disease 26
Amantadine 48
Ambitendency 59, 225
Ambivalence 55, 56
Ambulatory schizophrenia 117
Amine hypothesis 184
Amisulpride 66
Amitriptyline 30
Amok 110, 111
Amotivational syndrome 46
Amphetamine 29, 48
induced psychoses 61
use disorder 48
Amygdalotomy 204
Amytal interview 218
Androgens 132
Anhedonia 12, 56, 57, 62
Anorexia nervosa 142
Antiandrogens 126
Anti-anxiety drugs 193
Anticipation 210
Anti-craving agents 42
Antidepressant 30, 76, 82, 87, 92, 95, 105, 112, 144, 181
Antimanic 185
Antipsychotic 26, 30, 65, 67, 68, 78, 87, 143, 168
depot preparations 181
dose in schizophrenia 66
drugs 174
Antisocial personality disorder 167
Anxiety 71
disorder 89
Anxious personality disorder 117
Apathy 56
Apomorphine 132
Appetite 71
Arctic hysteria 111
Aripiprazole 29, 66, 168
Ashton manual 51
Asperger's syndrome 165
Assertiveness training 131
Association disturbances 55
Astasia abasia 100
Asterixis 20
Atenolol 92
Atomoxetine 167
Attempted suicide 222
Attention
deficit disorder 166
seeking 103
Atypical
antipsychotics 29, 65
depression 81
Audible thoughts 55, 56
Auditory hallucinations 13, 56
Autism 55, 163, 164
Autistic
disorder 163
thinking 55
Autochthonous delusions 56
Automatic obedience 59, 225
Aversion therapy 41, 103, 126, 215
Ayurveda 54
B
Bad trip 50
Barbiturate 167, 193
use disorder 50
Battered child syndrome 228
Behaviour
modification 105, 131, 161, 167
therapy 41, 80, 94, 131, 143, 144, 214
Behavioural theory 91, 97
Benperidol 126
Benzodiazepines 40, 87, 92, 98, 105, 112, 137, 140, 194
receptor antagonist 51, 196
Beta blockers 194
Binge eating disorders 144
Biological
functions 72
theories 63, 75, 91, 94
Biopsychosocial model 17, 147
Bipolar disorder 73, 75
subtypes 73
Blackouts 37
Bladder training 169
Blocking 12
Blood
alcohol concentration 39
lithium levels 190
Blunted affect 58
Borderline personality disorder 60, 117, 228
Brain imaging 64, 75
Brief
dissociative stupor 100
history of psychopharmacology 173
pulse ECT 202
Bromocriptine 48, 132
Bruxism 140
Bulimia nervosa 144
Buprenorphine 44, 45
Bupropion 52
Buspirone 92, 98, 197
C
Caffeine 52, 53
CAGE questionnaire 37, 39
Cannabis
preparations 45
use disorder 45
Capgras' syndrome 87
Carbamazepine 79, 192
Carphologia 20
Castration anxiety 211
Cataplexy 138
Catastrophic reaction 22
Catatonia 59
Catatonic
behaviour 58
features 57
schizophrenia 59
signs 11, 225
stupor 67, 225
syndrome 225
withdrawal 225
Causes of
catatonic stupor 225
hypersomnia 138
mental retardation 157
Censor 206
Central mental health authority 233, 237
Cerebral palsy 159
Chasing the dragon 43
Child
abuse 228
psychiatry 162
Childhood
history 9
psychosis 165
Chlordiazepoxide 40, 51
Chlorpromazine 66
Cholinesterase inhibitors 25, 26
Chromatography 157
Chronic
depression 74, 77
fatigue syndrome 109
Circumscribed amnesia 101
Citalopram 26
Citrated calcium carbimide 42
Civil responsibility 229
Classical
conditioning model 214
psychoanalysis 213
psychosomatic disorders 147
Classification in
child psychiatry 162
psychiatry 2
Classification of
alcoholism 37
benzodiazepines 196
mental retardation 156
psychotropic drugs 172
Claustrophobia 93
Clerambault's syndrome 84
Clomipramine 98, 131
Clonazepam 94, 98
Clonidine 44, 167, 169
Clozapine 52, 53, 66
Cocaine 47
overdose 48
preparations 47
use disorder 46
withdrawal syndrome 48
Code of ethics for psychiatrists 234
Cognitive
behaviour therapy 68, 79, 94, 98, 112, 215, 216
behavioural theory 91
therapy 215
Combativeness 225
Command hallucinations 57
Common
examples of psychosomatic disorders 148
psychiatric emergencies 222
themes in suicide 222
Community
mental health 235
psychiatry 235
Comparison of delirium and dementia 22
Complex partial seizures 29, 31, 61, 227
Complicated grief reaction 152
Complications of
alcohol dependence 39
chronic alcohol use 38
Conceptual thinking stage 153
Concrete thinking stage 153
Conditioning devices 169
Conduct disorders 167
Conjugal paranoia 84
Consultation-liaison psychiatry 149
Continuous amnesia 101
Contraindications of disulfiram 42
Conversion
disorder 99
release symptoms 102
Coping
mechanisms 207
skills training 112
Coprolalia 168
Cortical dementia 24
Counselling 110
Counter
phobic defense 210
thoughts 96
Covert sensitisation 41, 215
CPAP 139
Crack 47
Cretinism 159
Criminal lunatic 232
Crisis 221
intervention 112
centre 228
Critical
comments 64
remarks 68
Cross-gender homosexuality 122
Culture bound syndromes 110
Cyclothymia 73
Cyproheptadine 144
D
Dangerous Drug Act of 1930 233
Deep brain stimulation 199
Defense mechanism 90
Definition of psychiatric disorder 1
Deliberate self-harm 222
Delirium 19, 21, 23
tremens 38, 41
Delusion of doubles 87
Delusional
depression 77, 78
disorder 58, 61, 76, 83, 84
dysmorphophobia 84
halitosis 84
parasitosis 84
Delusions 58, 60, 62, 71
Delusions of
control 56
grandeur 56, 70, 83
jealousy 83
nihilism 71
persecution 56, 61, 70, 83
reference 56
Demence precoce 54
Dementia 22, 23, 76
praecox 54, 61
Denial 65, 207
Dependence syndrome 34
Dependent personality disorder 118
Depersonalisation 13, 46, 109
derealisation syndrome 109
disorder 109
Depot antipsychotic 67
Depressed mood 71
Depression 61, 80, 95, 227
with psychotic features 77
Depressive
episode 30, 71
equivalent 81, 106
ideation/cognition 71
pseudodementia 23
stupor 71
Derealisation 13, 46, 109
Desmopressin 169
Deterrent agents 41
Detoxification 40, 41, 44
Developmental
milestones 154
reading disorder 162
Dexamphetamine 167
Dhat syndrome 110
Diagnostic formulation 17
Diazepam 40, 67, 87, 94, 112, 137, 149, 218, 228
Digit
backwards 14
span test 14
Dipsomania 34, 36
Disaster management 112
Disintegrative psychosis 165
Disorders of
adult personality and behaviour 113
affect 56
excessive somnolence 137
perception 56
sexual preference 124
Disorganised
behaviour 62
schizophrenia 58
symptoms 62
Dissocial personality disorder 115
Dissociative
amnesia 100, 101
anaesthesia and sensory loss 100
and conversion disorders 99
convulsions 100, 101
disorder 100
fugue 101
identity disorder 102
motor disorders 99
Distortion 207
District mental health programme 237
Disulfiram 41, 42
ethanol reaction 41
Divalproex 191
Donepezil 25, 26
Dopamine 75
agonists 132
Double depression 81
Down's syndrome 158
Dream anxiety disorder 140
Drug 33, 228
and alcohol dependence 227
induced psychoses 61
Dual-role transvestism 122
Duration of
therapy 202
untreated psychosis 63
Dyslalia 163
Dyssomnias 136
Dysthymia 73, 82
Dysthymic disorder 80, 82
E
Eating disorders 142
Echolalia 56, 59, 168, 225
Echopraxia 59, 225
Ecstasy 70
Educational history 9
Ego 206
defense mechanisms 206, 207
ideal 206
Egodystonic sexual orientation 123
Ego-structure 214
Ekbom syndrome 136, 137
Elation 70
Elective mutism 171
Electra complex 211
Electroconvulsive therapy 29, 67, 77, 98, 199, 228
Electroshock therapy 199
Elementary auditory hallucinations 56
Elevated mood 70
Emergency psychiatry 221
Emil Kraepelin 54
Emotional
blunting 56
lability 22, 25
over-involvement 64
shallowness 56
Emotionally unstable personality disorder 116
Emotions 69
Encopresis 170
English Lunacy Act of 1890 231
Enuresis 169
Environmental manipulation 26
Epidemiology 55, 222
Epilepsy 28
Epileptic seizures 101
Epiloia 159
Erectile dysfunction 127
Erotomania 84
Erotomanic delusions 83
Erythrophobia 93
Eugen Bleuler 54, 55
Euphoria 70
Exaltation 70
Excessive sexual drive 127
Excited
behaviour 227
catatonia 59
Expressed emotions 64, 65, 68
Expressive language disorder 163
F
Factitious disorder 119
Family
and marital therapy 80
history 7
structure 7
theories 64
therapy 68, 144, 217
tree 7
Fantasy life 10
Fatigability 72
Female
anorgasmia 130
orgasmic disorder 130
sexual arousal disorder 128
Ferric chloride test 157
Fetishism 125
Fetishistic transvestism 122, 125
First generation antipsychotics 66
Flapping tremor 20
Flashback phenomenon 46
Flight of ideas 12, 70
Floccillation 20
Flooding 94, 215
Flumazenil 51, 91, 196, 227
Fluoxetine 42, 85, 95, 98, 131, 144, 169, 171
Flupentixol 66
Flurazepam 137
Fluvoxamine 98
Forensic psychiatry 229
Formal operational stage 155
Fragile-X syndrome 159
Free association 214
Free basing 47
Frontal lobe syndrome 31
Frottage 125
Frotteurism 125
Functions of sleep 135
Furore 59
G
GABA 64, 67, 75, 91
benzodiazepine receptors 91
Galantamine 25, 26
Ganser's syndrome 102
GCP guidelines 234
Gender identity disorders 121, 123
Generalised
amnesia 101
anxiety disorder 90
Genetic hypothesis 63, 75
Genital phase 212
GGT 37
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome 168
Glasgow coma scale 14, 226
Globus hystericus 109
Glyceryl trinitrate 132
Gratification habits 171
Grid-iron abdomen 120
Grimacing 57
Group
psychotherapy 68, 131
therapy 41, 80, 144, 217
Guru-Chela relationship 219
Guthrie's test 157
H
Habit
and impulse disorders 119
disorders 170
Hallucinations 13, 28, 56, 58, 6062, 71
Hallucinatory behaviour 12
Haloperidol 26, 2830, 66, 149, 165, 228
Hangover 37
Hebephrenia 54
Heller's syndrome 165
Hermaphrodite 123
Hierarchy construction 214
Higher mental functions 13
Hindu
Adoptions and Maintenance Act 230
Marriage Act 229
History of
biological treatments in psychiatry 200
present illness 6
Histrionic personality
disorder 116
traits 105
Homosexuality 123
Hopelessness 71
Hostility 64, 68, 148
Hyperkinesis 164
Hyperkinetic disorder 166
Hyperphagia 139
Hypersexuality 139
Hypersomnia 137, 139
Hyperventilation syndrome 106, 228
Hypnagogic
hallucinations 138
phenomena 134
Hypnosis 131, 217, 219
Hypnotisability 217
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder 126
Hypochondriacal
disorder 105
features 60, 72
paranoia 84
Hypochondriasis 105, 209
Hypomania 70
Hypothyroid dementia 25
Hysteria 99
Hysterical pseudodementia 102
I
ICD-10 2
Id 206
Idazoxan 132
Identification
data 6
with aggressor 209
Idiot savant syndrome 164
Imipramine 95, 167, 169, 182
Immediate retention and recall 14
Impaired abstraction 56
Impairment of memory 27
Impotence 127, 128
Indian
Contract Act 231
Evidence Act 230
Lunacy Act, 1912 231, 232
Lunatic Asylums Act 231
Succession Act 230
Induced delusional disorder 85
Inferiority complex 117
Informants 6
Information processing hypothesis 65
Insomnia 38, 136
Institutionalisation 161
Insulin coma therapy 67
Intellectual development 153
Intelligence 14
Intermetamorphosis 87
International Pilot Study on Schizophrenia 63
Inter-sexuality 123
Interview technique 5
Intracranial space occupying lesions 28
Introjection 75, 209
Investigations in psychiatry 15
Involutional melancholia 80
Iproniazid 181
Irritable
bowel syndrome 107
mood 70
Isolation of affect 96, 208
Isoniazid 181
J
Jacobson's progressive 107
muscular relaxation 92, 131, 219
Jean Piaget 153
Jet lag 140
Judicial inquisition 232
Juvenile delinquents 167
K
K-complexes 133
Ketamine 52, 218
Kleine-Levin syndrome 139
Kleptomania 119
Klismaphilia 126
Koro 110, 111
Korsakoff's
psychosis 38, 39
syndrome 27
Kurt Schneider 54
L
LAAM 44, 45
La-belle-indifférence 103
Lack of
rapport 57
sexual enjoyment disorder 126
Lamotrigine 79, 188
Larks 140
Latah 110, 111
Late paraphrenia 61
Latency phase 212
Latent schizophrenia 59
Leaden paralysis 81
Learned behaviour 214
Learning disability 155
Legal and ethical issues in psychiatry 229
Lethal catatonia 59
Leucotomy 203
Lewy body dementia 25
Licensing authority 232
Life chart 7
Limbic system 203
Lithium 78, 188
Long-sleepers 134
Loosening of associations 55, 58, 59, 62
Lorazepam 26, 29, 87, 149, 228
Loss of ego boundaries 57, 65
Loxapine 66
LSD use disorder 49
L-thyroxin 227
L-tryptophan 137
Lucid intervals 26
Lunatic 232
M
Made
feeling 55, 56
impulses 55, 56
volition 55, 56
Maintenance therapy 44
Major depression 105
Male
anorgasmia 128
erectile disorder 127
orgasmic disorder 128
Malignant syndrome 228
Malingering 119
Mania 61, 70, 80, 227
Manic
depressive psychosis 73
episode 30, 69
stupor 70
Mannerisms 5759, 164
MAOIs 81, 82
Marchiafava-Bignami disease 40
Marijuana 46
Marital therapy 217
Masked depression 80, 105, 106
MCI code of medical ethics, 2002 234
McNaughten rule 229
Medical
emergency 221
interview 5
Medicolegal aspects 224
Megavitamin therapy 67
Memantine 25, 26
Memory disturbances 203
Menstrual and obstetric history 9
Mental
and behavioural disorders in ICD-10 3
disorders 19
Health
Act, 1987 232, 233
Authorities 232
retardation 153, 155, 162, 164
status examination 10, 11, 222
Mentally ill
person 232
prisoner 232
Metabolic syndrome 63
Methadone 44
maintenance 44
Methylphenidate 167
Michigan alcoholism screening test 37
Migraine 28
Mild cognitive disorder 32
Milieu therapy 68
Mini mental state examination 13
Minimal brain dysfunction 166
Minoxidyl 132
Mirror-gazing 58
Mirtazapine 30
Misconceptions about suicide 224
Mixed
affective 61, 73
episode 73
anxiety depressive disorder 80
Monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis 84, 85
Mood 12, 69
disorders 69, 76
stabiliser 30
stabilising drugs 185
Morbid grief 151
Motor activity 11
Multi-axial classification 4
Multifocal myoclonus 20
Multi-infarct dementia 25
Multiple personality disorder 102
Munchausen syndrome 119
Muslim Marriages Act 230
Mutism 56, 59, 225, 171
N
Naloxone 44, 227
challenge test 44
Naltrexone 42, 44, 132
Narcolepsy 138
Narcotic
anonymous 45
antagonists 44
Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Amendment) Act, 2001 233
Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPSA), 1985 233
National
Crime Records Bureau 222
Health Policy 235, 237
Mental Health
Advisory Group 237
Programme 235
Trust Act 161
NDRI 52
Necrophilia 126
Negative
reinforcement 215
symptom 57, 58, 6061
Neurasthenia 109
Neuroleptic
malignant syndrome 228
sensitivity syndrome 26
Neurosis 89
Neurotic
depression 82
traits 9
Nicotine 52
replacement therapy 52
Night terrors 140
Nightmares 140
Nitrazepam 137
NMDA 52
antagonist 26
NMHP 236
NMS 87
Nonorganic
dyspareunia 130
vaginismus 130
Non-REM sleep 133
Norepinephrine 75
Normal
aging process 23
child development 153
mental health 1
Nuclear schizophrenia 58
Nymphomania 127
O
Obesity 144
Obsessions 12, 9597, 168
Obsessive
compulsive
disorder 76, 95
personality disorder 118
symptoms 169
rumination 96
Occupational history 9
Oculocephalic reflex 226
Oedipus complex 211
Olanzapine 2830, 66, 168
Oneiroid schizophrenia 60
Operant conditioning 215
model 214
Opiate antagonists 132
Opioid
antagonists 45
derivatives 43
use disorders 42
Opium and Revenue Laws Act, 1950 233
Oppositional defiant disorder 167
Organic
amnestic syndrome 27, 39
anxiety 90
disorder 30, 91
catatonic disorder 29
delusional disorder 29
dissociative disorder 32
emotionally labile disorder 32
hallucinosis 28
mood disorder 30, 72
personality disorder 31
sexual disorder 132
stupor 225, 226
Orgasmic disorders/dysfunctions 128
Othello syndrome 84
Other
acute predominantly delusional psychotic disorders 86
biological methods of treatment 199
organic mental disorders 28
psychiatric emergencies 228
Oxazepam 26
Oxcarbazepine 79
P
PAD syndrome 81
Paedophilia 126
Palilalia 168
Paliperidone 66
Pananxiety 60
Panic disorder 90, 93, 228
Pan-neurosis 60
Pansexuality 60
Papaverine 132
Papez circuit 204
Paranoid
disorder 83, 84
personality disorder 58, 84, 114
schizophrenia 58, 61, 84
Paraphasias 56
Paraphilias 124
Parental counselling 165
Parkinsonian symptoms 26
Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act 230
Passive-aggressive personality disorder 118
Pathological
grief reaction 151
intoxication 33, 37
laughter and crying 30
Pavor nocturnus 140
Pedigree chart 7
Peduncular hallucinosis 28
Penis envy 211
Pentothal/amytal/diazepam interview 225
Perinatal history 9
Periodic limb movement disorder 136
Pernicious catatonia 59
Perpetuating and/or relieving factors 6
Perplexity 56
Perseveration 56
Persistent
delusional disorders 83
mood disorder 73
somatoform pain disorder 109
Personality
disorders 113
traits 113
Persons with Disability Act 161
Pfropf schizophrenia 61
Phallic phase 211
Phencyclidine use disorder 52
Phenelzine 95
Phenylalanine 158
Phenylketonuria 157
Phobia 92
Phobic
anxiety-depersonalisation syndrome 81
companion 93
disorder 92
Phonological disorder 163
Phototherapy 82
Physical causes of male erectile disorder/impotence 128
Physiology of hyperventilation syndrome 107
Physostigmine 227
Piblokto 110, 111
Pickwickian syndrome 139
Pimozide 66, 85, 169
Polysomnography 135, 137
Poor drug concordance 181
Positive
reinforcement 215
symptoms 62
Possession hysteria 102
Post-cardiac surgery delirium 149
Post-natal blues 145
Postpartum
psychiatric disorders 145
psychosis 145
Post-schizophrenic depression 60
Post-traumatic stress disorder 112
Poverty of
ideation 56
speech 56, 62
Pranayama 92, 219
Predisposing factors 6, 20
in delirium 21
Prefrontal lobotomy 203
Pregabalin 198
Premature ejaculation 130, 131
Premenstrual
syndrome 108
tension 108
Premorbid
histrionic personality traits 103
personality 10
Pressure of speech 59
Pre-treatment evaluation 200
Prevention of Illicit Traffic in NDPS Act, 1988 233
Primary
delusions 56
process thinking 205, 206
transexualism 121
Problem-solving skills 216
Prochlorperazine 66
Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia 59
Prognostic factors in
mood disorders 74
schizophrenia 62
Promethazine 67, 228
Propranolol 48, 67, 92, 194
Proverb testing 14
Pseudoseizures 228
Pseudodementia 23
Pseudohallucination 13
Pseudo-hermaphroditism 123
Pseudologia fantastica 120
Pseudoneurotic schizophrenia 60, 117
Pseudoseizures 100
Pseudo-transexualism 122
Psychiatric
emergency 221
intensive care unit 228
interview 5
rehabilitation 219
Psychiatry in medicine 149
Psychic determinism 206
Psychoactive substances 35
Psychoanalytic
psychotherapy 80, 98
theories 75
Psychoanalytical psychotherapy 213
Psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy 214
Psychodynamic theory 90, 93, 96
Psychodynamic theory of
dissociative disorder 103
obsessive compulsive disorder 97
Psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy 94
Psychoeducation 67, 144
Psychogenic
pain disorder 109
stupor 225, 226
vomiting 145
Psychological
theories 64
treatments 213
Psychomotor activity 70, 71
Psychopath 115
Psychopharmacology 172198
Psychosexual stages of development 211
Psychosis 83, 89
Psychosocial
crises 228
rehabilitation 42, 45, 68
therapies 75, 213
treatment 65, 67, 79
Psychosomatic disorders 146
Psychosurgery 67, 79, 97, 98, 203
Psychotherapy 41, 87, 91, 98, 104, 110, 143, 144, 165, 213
Psychotic
disorders 83
features 7072
Psychotropic drug 172
Punishment 215
Pyromania 119
Q
Quetiapine 29, 66, 169, 188
R
Rapid
cyclers 74
cycling 73
Rapport 11
Reaction to stress and adjustment disorders 111
Reactive psychosis 87
Reception order
on application 232
without application 232
Receptive language disorder 163
Recurrent depressive disorder 73
Refractory depression 185
Regression in service of ego 207
Rejection sensitivity 81
Relaxation
techniques 91, 94, 107, 137, 148
therapies 218
training 214
Release hallucinations 28
Remote memory 14
REM-sleep 133
Repression 90, 93, 205, 207
Reserpine 65
Residual schizophrenia 59
Restless legs' syndrome 136, 137
Rett's syndrome 165
Reversible dementias 26
Risperidone 26, 2830, 66, 149, 165, 168
Rivastigmine 25, 26
S
Satyriasis 127
Schizoaffective disorder 61, 76, 87
Schizoid
fantasy 209
personality disorder 114
Schizophrenia 54, 76, 105
Schizophrenia—clinical types 58
Schizophreniform disorder 60
Schizotypal disorder 115
Schneider's first rank symptoms 54, 56
Second generation antipsychotics 66, 175
Secondary
delusions 56
depression 82
gain 99
mania 82
process thinking 205, 206
transexualism 121
Sedative-hypnotic use disorder 51
Selective
amnesia 101
serotonin reuptake inhibitors 77
Seman's technique 131
Sensate focus technique 131
Sensory
deprivation 28
disorders 100
Serotonin 64
dopamine antagonists 67
norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 77
syndrome 185
Sertraline 26, 30, 92, 95
Severe depression 199, 228
Sex reassignment surgery 122
Sexual
and marital history 9
anhedonia 127
aversion disorder 126
desire disorders 126
disorders 121, 130
dysfunctions 126, 129
masochism 125
maturation disorder 123
pain disorders 130
relationship disorder 124
response cycle 127
sadism 125
Shavasna 219
Short-sleepers 134
Side effects of
antidepressants 186
antipsychotics 178
psychotropic medication 228
Sigmund Freud 205
Signal anxiety 90
Sildenafil 132
Simple
dissociative disorder 100
schizophrenia 60
Sleep 71
apnoea 139
attacks 137, 138
deprivation 135
disorders 133, 135
drunkenness 138
hygiene 137
paralysis 138
related enuresis 140
spindles 133
studies 75
terrors 140
Social
drift 65
history 9
judgement 15
manner 11
phobia 93
skills training 215
package 68
withdrawal 60
Sociocultural theories 65
Soft neurological signs 64
Somatic
delusions 56, 83
passivity 13, 55
Somatisation disorder 104, 105
Somatoform
autonomic dysfunction 106
disorder 104
Somnambulism 140
Somniloquy 140
Specific
arithmetic disorder 163
developmental disorder of
motor function 163
speech and language 163
personality disorders 113
phobia 93
reading disorder 162
Speech 12, 70
disorders 170
Splitting 117, 210
Squeeze technique 131
SSRIs 26, 30, 81, 144, 169
Stages of sleep 134
Stammering 170
Startle reaction 111
State
anxiety 89
Mental Health Rules, 1990 233
Stereotactic
limbic leucotomy 79, 204
subcaudate tractotomy 79, 204
Stockholm syndrome 209
Stress
management 112
vulnerability hypothesis in schizophrenia 64
Structural theory of mind 206
Stupor 29, 59, 199, 225
Stuporous catatonia 59
Subcortical dementia 24, 25
Substance abuse 35
Substitution drugs 44
Suction devices 132
Suicidal
gesture 222
ideas 71
risk 72, 199
Suicide 57, 72, 222
Sulpiride 66, 169
Sun downing 20
Super-ego 206, 212
Supportive psychotherapy 82, 85, 98, 105, 112, 167, 169, 220
Suppression 207, 210
Synaesthesias 46
Synanon 45
Syndrome of subjective doubles 87
Systematic desensitisation 94, 131, 215
T
Tactile hallucinations 38
Tadalafil 132
TCAs 81, 82, 184
Temporal
arteritis 28
lobe epilepsy 31
Test judgement 15
Testamentary capacity 230, 231
Theory of psychosexual development 207
Therapeutic
community 68
window 184
Thiamine 27, 227
deficiency 27
Thioridazine 66
Third
person hallucinations 56
psychoses 83
Thought
and speech disorders 55
blocking 56
broadcasting 56
diffusion 55
disorder 58, 62
echo 56
insertion 55, 95
withdrawal 55, 56
Thymia 82
Thymoleptics 181
Tic disorders 168
Token economy 215
Topographic theory of mind 205
Tourette's
disorder 168
syndrome 168
Trait anxiety 89
Trance and possession disorders 102
Transcendental meditation 92, 219
Transcranial magnetic stimulation 199
Transexualism 121
Transfer of property 231
Transient global amnesia 27
Trazodone 131, 137
Trichotillomania 119, 171
Tricyclic antidepressants 77, 131
Trifluoperazine 66
Triflupromazine 66
Tuberous sclerosis 159
Type
A
behaviour 148
personality 147
I and Type II schizophrenia 61
Types of psychiatric emergencies 221
U
Ultra-rapid cycling 74
Unconscious 205
Undifferentiated schizophrenia 60
Unilateral ECT 202
Unipolar depression 69, 75
Urophilia 126
V
Vagal nerve stimulation 199
Valproate 30, 79, 191
Valproic acid 191
Valpromide 191
Van Gogh syndrome 60
Varenicline 52
Vascular surgery 132
Verbigeration 56, 59
Verdenafil 132
Violence 227
Vipasna 219
Visual hallucinations 29, 38, 56
Vocal tics 168
Voices
commenting 55, 56
heard arguing 55, 56
Volatile solvent use disorder 51
Voluntary admission 232
Von Domarus law 55
Vorbeireden 102
Voyeurism 125
W
Waxy flexibility 59
Wernicke's encephalopathy 27, 38
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome 27, 38
Wihtigo 110, 111
Windigo 111
Withdrawal
state 33, 34
symptoms 40
syndrome 37, 46
Word approximations 56
Work-shift 140
World (Mental) Health Report 2001 238, 239
Worthlessness 71
X
Xenophobia 93
Y
Y-BOCS 96
Yog nindra 219
Yoga 92, 107
Yohimbine 132
Z
Zalpelon 137, 197
Ziprasidone 66, 169
Zolpidem 137, 197
Zoophilia 126
Zoophobia 93
Zopiclone 137, 197
Zotepine 66
Zuclopenthixol 66
×
Chapter Notes

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1A Short Textbook of PSYCHIATRY2
3A Short Textbook of PSYCHIATRY
Seventh Edition
Niraj Ahuja MBBS MD MRCPsych Consultant Psychiatrist Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Formerly Associate Professor (Psychiatry) GB Pant Hospital and Associated Maulana Azad Medical College (MAMC) and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India Formerly also at Department of Psychiatry Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry Lady Hardinge Medical College (LHMC) and Smt. SK Hospital, New Delhi All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India Contributing Editor Savita Ahuja MBBS DGO DFSRH DRCOG
4Published by
Jitendar P Vij
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Corporate Office
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002, India,
Phone: +91-11-43574357, Fax: +91-11-43574314
Registered Office
B-3, EMCA House, 23/23B Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110 002, India
Phones: +91-11-23272143, +91-11-23272703, +91-11-23282021
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A Short Textbook of Psychiatry
© 2011, Niraj Ahuja
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher.
First Edition: 1990
Second Edition: 1992
Third Edition: 1995
Fourth Edition: 1999
Fifth Edition: 2002
Sixth Edition: 2006
Reprint: 2009
Seventh Edition: 2011
9789380704661
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
Printed at
5
For Manisha and Neha
6
7Preface to the Seventh Edition
It is rather humbling to consider that it has been two decades that the Short Textbook of Psychiatry has enjoyed a wide distribution among the undergraduate medical students, interns, junior residents, postgraduate psychiatry students, nursing students, psychology and psychiatric social work students, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students, general medical practitioners, other physicians and health professionals in India and some other countries. I am really indebted to the many astute readers who have provided a very constructive and useful feedback, along with encouraging comments regarding the existing format and the contents of the book.
The seventh edition of the Short Textbook of Psychiatry has been once again extensively revised and updated. Significant changes have been made in almost all the chapters, especially in chapters on diagnosis and classification, psychoactive substance use disorders, psychopharmacology, schizophrenia, mood disorders and other biological methods of treatment. Coloured-shaded boxes have been added at various places in the text to highlight the important points in tables and figures. The chapter on psychiatric history and examination contains a summary of laboratory tests in psychiatry, in additions to other significant changes. The appendices have been revised and contain a glossary of common psychiatric terms.
The Short Textbook of Psychiatry sincerely hopes to retain its original aim of providing a brief yet comprehensive account of the psychiatric disorders and their allied aspects in a ‘user-friendly’ and ‘easy-to-follow’ manner.
I am grateful to Shri Jitendar P Vij, Chairman and Managing Director, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd for his exquisite control over the production and distribution of the Short Textbook of Psychiatry over the last 20 years.
I hope you enjoy reading the book and I warmly welcome critical comments and constructive suggestions. Please send your comments by email to STBPsy@gmail.com.
July 2010
Niraj Ahuja
8
9Preface to the First Edition
Psychiatry, as a branch of Medicine, has been cold-shouldered by physicians for a long time. There are various reasons for such an attitude. But, the most important exposition is an unfamiliarity with the psychiatric disorders and their treatment. This is easy to understand in the light of the fact that an easily comprehensible, non-intimidating and concise text on psychiatry was not earlier available.
Recently too, the various postgraduate entrance examinations have laid an increasing emphasis on psychiatry and its related branches. Keeping this in mind, the Medical Examination Reviewabove the midpoint, on a —Psychiatry (Multiple Choice Questions with Explanatory Answers) was written, the new edition of which appears this year. Its tremendous success during the last four years and encouraging suggestions from the readers have been a source of stimulation for drafting this text.
The Short Textbook of Psychiatry aims to provide a brief yet comprehensive account of psychiatric disorders and their allied aspects. While striving to make the book simple and easy-to-follow, an attempt has been made to keep the book aligned to the most recent developments in classification, terminology and treatment methods.
The Short Textbook of Psychiatry is addressed to medical students, interested physicians and other health professionals. A postgraduate student in psychiatry will find the text elementary and basic, although a first year postgraduate will find it useful for a broad introduction to the subject.
I will like to put on record my deep appreciation for Shri Jitendar P Vij, Managing Director; Mr. Pawaninder Vij, Production Manager and their efficient staff at the Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi for bringing out this volume in a short time.
I welcome critical comments and constructive suggestions from the readers.
January 1990
Niraj Ahuja