Essentials of Orthophysiotherapy for Upper & Lower Limb Fractures Saurabh Garg
INDEX
A
Accidental injuries 32
Acetabulum osteoarthritis 107
Acromioclavicular
and sternoclavicular joint 274
joint 173, 236, 268
subluxation/dislocation 182
Acromiohumeral joint 268
Active
elbow mobilization 198
hip 216
knee flexion 219
wrist mobilization 203
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 26
Alfa adrenergic blockers 34
Allis method 109, 112
Ankle
and tarsal joint 260
dorsiflexion 225
injuries 153
joint 272
Anterior
dislocated shoulder 53
dislocation 47, 108
of shoulder 48
glide of
acromioclavicular joint 237
glenohumeral joint 236
sternoclavicular joint 238
process fractures 158
shoulder dislocation 183
Apprehension test 49
Arm length 171
Arthroscopy 12
Atypical fractures 7
Austin Moore prosthesis 118
Avascular necrosis 28, 31, 94, 114
Aviator's astragalus 160
Avulsion fracture 103
Axillary nerve palsy 54
B
Bado's classification 83
Barton's fracture 91
Baseball finger 98
Bennett's fracture dislocation 95, 205
Bigelow method 112
Bilateral skeletal traction 15
Bimalleolar fracture 153
Blood
gas 12
loss or hemorrhage 25
Body fractures 158
Bone grafting 30
Boxer's fracture 96, 97
Brachial
artery 25, 63
plexuses injury 50
Broken rhythm 267
Bruising 169
C
Calcaneum fracture 156
Calcium channel blockers 34
Callway's test 49
Cancellous bone graft 93
Card test 176
Carotid artery compression 44
Carpal
joint 275
tunnel syndrome 94
Carpometacarpal
glide of thumb 249
joint 270, 271
Cast
brace 16
immobilization 16
of functional bracing 130
Central
fracture dislocation 113
nervous system management 13
Chest
infection 26, 27
radiography 12
Chopart joints fracture 162
Classification of
distal humerus fracture 59
injury 21
supracondylar fractures 60
type III open fracture 21
Clavicle fracture 39
Claw toe deformity 149
Closed
fracture 4
reduction 109
Colle’s
cast 17, 88
fracture 17, 30, 86, 87, 89, 90, 200
Comminuted fracture 7, 9
Comminution of fracture 129
Common
cast for
lower limb 17
upper limb 16
iliac artery 107
prosthesis 118
Comolli sign 43
Compartment syndrome 27, 72, 80, 131, 149, 163
Complete
fracture 6
tear 37
Complex regional pain syndrome 175
Complications of fractures 25
Compound fracture 5
Computed tomography 11
Concavoconvex rule 230
Condylar fracture 149
Conservative method 116
Correction of deformity 132
Craig's classification 39
Crush injury 163
Cubitus valgus 78
deformity 64, 66
Cubitus varus deformity 70
D
Danis-Weber classification 155
Dash board injury 110
Deep vein thrombosis 209
Deformity 10, 110, 169
Direct trauma 137, 163
Dislocation of
acromioclavicular joint 45
elbow 70
hip 108, 131
metacarpophalangeal joint 100
sternoclavicular joint 43
Displaced
comminuted fracture 74
fracture 5, 73
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 26, 27
Distal
femur fracture 133
humerus fractures 59
radioulnar joint 242, 274
tibiofibular
articulation 260
joint posterior glide 260
Disturbance of sexual function 107
Dorsiflexion of ankle 224
Duga's test 49
Dystrophy 32
E
Ecchymosis 67
Egwas test 176
Elbow 173
and forearm complex 238
dislocation 71, 196
extension 198
flexion 198
joint 269, 274
stiffness 68, 72
Electrical stimulation 30
Electroconvulsive therapy 47
Epilepsy 47
Epiphyseal injury 8
Epstein classification 108
Esophageal rupture 44
Essex-Lopresti
classification 157
fracture/dislocation 79
Exacerbation of generalized illness 26, 27
Excision of fragments 30
Extensor lag 140
Extent of fracture line 5
External fixation 18, 106, 203, 215
F
Facilitated positional release 281
Fascial release 281
Fasten buttons 177
Fat embolism 26, 131, 149
Fatigue fracture 7
of neck of femur 120
Femoral
condyle fracture 135
neck fracture 114, 128
Fibular head anterior glide 259
Figure
of ‘8’ bandage 43
ladder exercises 188
Fixation failure 120, 123, 135, 140
Flexion 83
type supracondylar fracture 62, 63
Foot
compartment syndrome 162
joint 276
Forearm
fractures 79
length 171
Forment's test 176
Fracture 4
around ankle joint 223
calcaneum 157, 226
capitulum 77, 199
clavicle 181
dislocation 37
distal phalanges 100
femur trochanter 211
forefoot 227
greater tuberosity of humerus 55
head
and neck of radius 197
of radius 74
index finger 99
intercondylar tibia 222
lateral condyle 19
humerus 65
management 13
medial epicondyle 69
metacarpals 96
metatarsals 164
midfoot 227
neck femur 117, 209
neck of
5th metacarpal 97
femur 115
radius 76, 77
neck scapula 42
olecranon 73, 74, 197
patella 137, 139, 214
pelvic ring with disruption 104
pelvis 103
phalanges 98
radius/ulna 79
scaphoid 204
scapula 182
shaft
femur 128, 211
humerus 56, 58, 59, 193
surgical neck of humerus 190
talus 225
tibia and fibula 222
tibial
condyles 221
plateau 152
G
Galeazzi fracture dislocation 79, 85
Glenohumeral joint 232, 233
anterior glide 234
Grades of MMT 170
Greenstick fracture of ulna 8
Grip strength 177
Gun stock deformity 64
Gunshot injury 124
Gustilo and Anderson classification of open fracture 144
H
Hairline/crack fracture 8
Half squatting 219
Hamilton ruler test 49
Hammock-Sling traction 106
Hand
and finger joints 248
function 177
injuries 95
Hauser's operation 141
Hawkins classification of talus neck fracture 161
Healed fracture surgical neck humerus 54
Heel widening 160
Hemiarthroplasty 118
Heterotrophic ossification 132
Hip
abduction 215
examination 177
extension 215
flexion 215, 216
joint 252, 271, 275
anterior glide 254
posterior glide 253
traction/distraction 252
rotation 216
spica 117
Hippocrates maneuver 49
Humeroradial
articulation 240
joint 241
Humeroulnar
articulation 238
joint 240
Humerus fracture 18
Hypovolemic shock 131
I
Ilizarov's method 30
Impacted fracture 8
Incomplete fracture 5
Indirect trauma 137
Inferior
radioulnar joint 269
tibiofibular joint 272
Injuries around
elbow 60
forearm and wrist 79
hip 108
knee 133
leg, ankle and foot 144
pelvis 102
Intercarpal joint 270
Intercondylar fracture 67
humerus 196
Intermetatarsal joint 273
Internal
fixation 17, 24, 30, 82, 106, 117, 126
rotation 215
Internal wound management 22
Interphalangeal joint 265
glide 251
rotation 251
traction 250
Intertarsal
and tarsometatarsal joints 263
joint 272
Intertrochanteric fracture 123
femur 122
Intra-articular fracture calcaneum 158
Intramedullary nails 18
Intratrochantric fracture 114
Inversion of subtalar joint 224
Ischiopubic rami fracture 103
Isokinetic knee strengthening 220
Isolated fractures 103
Isometric
exercises 185, 186
knee extension 218
Isotonic knee 218
J
Janda's post-facilitation stretch method 278
Joint
depression fracture 157
plane rule 231
stiffness 38, 74, 76, 78
traction at 5th metacarpal 248
Judet's classification 113
K
Knee
dislocation 142, 143, 220
examination 179
flexion 218
joint 255, 271, 276
pain 149
stiffness 132, 135, 140
traction 255
Kocher's maneuver 50
K-wires 62
L
Lacerating superior vena cava 44
Lateral
condyle fracture 65
malleolar fracture 153
Lauge-Hansen classification 153
Lewit's post-isometric relaxation method 278
Ligaments injury 37
Limb injury 10
Linear fracture 6
Lower limb 36
Lunate
dislocation 93
fracture 205
Luxatio erecta 47
M
Magnetic resonance imaging 11
Maitland's mobilization 265
Mallet finger 98
Management of
fracture 13
open fracture 21
Manual muscle testing 170, 176
March fracture 7
Mason classification 75
McMurray's osteotomy 118
Medial
collateral ligament 180
epicondyle humerus 9
process fractures 158
Metacarpal fracture 205
Metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint 250, 270
Metatarsal
bone fracture 163
fracture 165
Metatarsophalangeal
and interphalangeal joint 273
joints injury 164
Method of closed reduction 148
Meyer's procedure 118
Micturating cystourethrogram 107
Milche maneuver 50
Modular fixators 19
Monteggia fracture dislocation 79, 82, 83
Muilligan's upper limb mobilization techniques 273
Multiple
chair pulley exercises 188
fractures 8
Muscle
energy techniques 230, 277
relaxants 34
Musculoskeletal disorders 32
Myositis ossificans 28, 64, 65, 68, 72
N
Neck of scapula 42
Neer's classification 40, 53
Nerve injury 63, 72
Neurological diseases 32
Neurovascular injury 41, 149
Night-stick fracture 79
Nondisplacement fracture 73
O
Olecranon traction 23
Open
book injury 105
fracture 5, 146
distal humerus 23
management 21
of hand 5
treatment 148
reduction 30, 82, 109, 112
and internal fixation 57, 93, 123
and screw fixation 93
Orthopedic trauma association classification 6
Osteoarthritis 35, 41, 66, 74, 114, 120, 140
wrist 76, 93
Osteomalacia 28, 78, 124, 140
Osteonecrosis 93
Osteoporosis 114, 124
P
Pain release phenomenon 230
Partial
fist 206
tear 37
Passive movement 198
Patella
dislocation 140
fracture 136
Patellar instability 140
Patellectomy 139
Patellofemoral articulation 272
Pathological fracture of humerus 9
Pattern of fracture 150
Pelvis fracture 102
Pen test 177
Peripheral joint mobilization techniques
lower limb 252
upper limb 232
Peroneal tendinitis 160
Phalangeal fracture 206
Phemister grafting 149
Piedmont fracture 85
Pinch grip 177
Pins and plaster cast 23
Plantar flexion 225
of ankle 224
Plaster of Paris 24
Pneumothorax 44
Positional release techniques 280
Posterior dislocation 47, 110
hip 111
Post-isometric relaxation 277
Postoperative osteoarthritis 135
Post-traumatic
arthritis 68, 70
osteoarthritis 78, 159, 163
Power grip 177
Primary fracture line 157
Principles of
fracture management 13
Maitland's techniques 265
Professor Baksi procedure 141
Proximal
radioulnar joint 242
tibiofibular articulation 259
Pubic rami fracture 104
Pulled elbow 72
R
Radial nerve injury 59
Radio isotope scanning 12
Radiocarpal joint 244
Radius and ulna 80
Reciprocal inhibition 277
Recurrent dislocation 50, 114
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy 28, 32, 149, 160
Refracture 131, 140
Resisted knee extension 219
Restricted knee movement 140
Reverse Bigelow technique 109
Ring fixators 19
Rolando's fracture 96, 205
Rupture of
bladder 106
diaphragm 107
urethra 106
S
Scaphoid
cast 17
fracture 17, 41, 92
Scapular mobilization 238, 239
Scapulothoracic movement 268
Schatzher pattern of fracture 150
Sciatic nerve injury 114
Secondary
fracture line 157
wrist osteoarthritis 94
Segmental
fracture humerus 7
Sesamoid fracture 167
Severe thoracic outlet syndrome 44
Shape of fragment or fracture pattern 6
Shock lung 26
Short arc exercises 218
Shoulder
dislocation 47
extension 185, 189
flexion 185, 186, 189
girdle 267
joint 273
complex 232
medial-lateral rotation 184
stiffness 54
wheel exercises to increase circumduction 190
Simple fixators 19, 24
Single condylar fracture humerus 195
Skeletal traction 15, 23, 130
Skin
damage 135
traction 15
Smith's fracture 90, 204
Spine of scapula 42
Sprain 37
Sternoclavicular joint 236, 268
Stiffness of shoulder joint 50
Stress
fracture 7, 103
fracture of radius 8
injury 163
test 177
Subluxation of radioulnar joint 90
Subtalar
articulation 158
joint 263
traction 262
Subtrochanteric fracture 124, 126
femur 124
Superficial gluteal artery injury 114
Superior
radioulnar joint 269
tibiofibular joint 272
Supination
external rotation 154
of tarsal joint 224
Supracondylar fracture 61, 213, 133
humerus 60, 194
Suprapubic cystotomy 107
Sural nerve injury 160
Sustentacular fractures 158
Synovial fluid 12
T
Talocalcaneal joint 262
Talocrural joint 260
distraction 261
posterior glide 261
Talus fracture 160
Tardy ulnar nerve palsy 78
Tarsometatarsal joint 273
Thermography 12
Thomas splint 117
Thompson and Epstein classification 110
Tibial plateau 149
Tibiofibular shaft fracture 144
Tie shoe laces 177
Toes fracture 166
Tongue fracture 157
Torus fracture 8, 9
Total hip replacement 118
Traction injury 163
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation 20
Traumatic myositis ossificans 35
Triceps weakness 74
Tuberosity fractures 158
Types of
dislocation 47, 108
forearm fracture 79
fracture 160
joint injury 36
nerve injury 36
U
Ulnar
nerve palsy 70
nerve symptoms 74
Undisplaced fracture 5, 6, 73, 81, 122
Unstable fracture 6, 122
Upper
limb 36, 181
mobilization 267
tibial Steinmenn's pin traction 130
Uric acid 12
V
Vascular
changes 143
diseases 32
injury 58, 131
Vertical injury 154
Visceral
diseases 32
injury 114
Volar and dorsal glide at humeroradial joint 241
Volkmann's ischemia 27, 63, 64, 81
W
Wand exercises 189
Wasting of muscles 30
Watson-Jones
approach 109
technique 112
Wound infection 26
Wrist
complex 244
joint 244, 269, 274
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