Comprehensive Textbook of Nursing Education Jaspreet Kaur Sodhi
INDEX
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# Introduction to Education1

Jaspreet Kaur Sodhi
• • Introduction
• • Conceptualization of Term: Origin, Meaning and Views of Eminent Experts
• • Education: Definition and Concept
• • Determinants of Education
• • Philosophy as Determinant of Education: Concept, Definition, Branches of Philosophy, Types of Philosophies
• • Aims of Education: Various Aims of Education, Aims of Nursing Education
• • Factors Influencing Philosophy of Nursing Education
• • Educational Process: Process and Elements of Education.
• • Impact of Social, Economical, Political and Technological Changes in Education
• • Professional Education
• • Current Trends and Issues in Education
• • Educational Reforms and National Education Policy (Review)
• • Recommendations of Various Committees Pertaining to Nursing Education
• • Trends in Development of Nursing Education in India
• • Trends in Nursing Education
• • Issues Related to Nursing Education

EDUCATION: MEANING, CONCEPT AND VIEWS OF EXPERTS ON EDUCATION
‘Teaching is a very noble profession that shapes the character, caliber, and future of an individual. If the people remember me as a good teacher, that will be the biggest honor for me.
—A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

INTRODUCTION
I would like to dedicate this ‘unit-1 Introduction to Education’ in memory of our great Indian leader, philosopher, great Scientist, India's pride, Bharat Ratna The Missile Man of India –Dr Abdul Kalam. Despite the range of titles he had earned in his lifetime, the visionary preferred to call himself A Teacher. Abdul Kalam, he is the only president—who has a lot of love for children and feels that the future of India lies in them. According to Dr APJ Abdul Kalam (2006), the education system has a tremendous responsibility to transform a child to a leader-the transformation from ‘what can you do for me’ to ‘what can I do for you?’ The most important part of education is inculcating in the students the spirit of ‘we can do it’. Education is an endless journey—through knowledge and enlightenment. Real education enhances the dignity of a human being and increases his or her self-respect and universal brotherhood in its true sense becomes the sheet anchor for such education. According to Dr. Kalam, Education is a fundamental right of every Indian child. He emphasized that education is a pillar of a developed and a powerful country, besides the most important element for growth and prosperity of a nation.
2

Meaning of Education
Generally speaking, ‘Education’ is utilized in three senses: Knowledge, Subject and a Process.
Etymological meaning of education
Etymologically, the word ‘Education’ has been derived from different Latin words.
1. ‘Educare’ which means ‘to bring out’ or ‘to nourish’.
2. ‘Educere’ which means ‘to lead out’ or ‘to draw out’.
3. ‘Educatum’ which means ‘act of teaching’ or ‘training’.
4. ‘Educatus’ which means ‘to bring up, rear, educate’.
5. Ēducātiō which means ‘a breeding, a bringing up, a rearing.
The Greek word ‘Pedagogy’ is sometimes used for education.· The most common Indian word ‘Shiksha’ is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root ‘Shas’ which means ‘to discipline’, ‘to control’, ‘to instruct’ and ‘to teach’. Similarly the word ‘Vidya’ is derived from Sanskrit verbal root ‘Vid’ which means ‘to know’. Vidya is thus the subject matter of knowledge.
Narrower and Broader Meaning of Education
Education in the Narrower Sense
Education, in the narrower sense, is regarded as ‘equivalent of instruction’. It consists of the ‘specific influences‘ consciously designed by a school or college or in an institution to bring in the development and growth of the child. The word school includes the whole machinery of education from Kindergarten to the University. The purpose is to achieve mental development of children entering school. To make the narrow meaning of education more clear, the following views of some other educationists are being given:
• The culture which each generation purposefully gives to those who are to be its successors, in order to qualify them for at least keeping up, and if possible for raising the level of improvement which has been attained.
—JohnStuart Mill
• In a narrow sense, Education may be taken to mean, any consciously directed effort to develop and cultivate our powers.
—SS Mackenzie
• Education is a process in which and by which knowledge, character and behavior of the young are shaped and molded.
Prof. Drever
• The influence of the environment of the individual with a view of producing a permanent change in his habits or behavior, or thought and attitude.
—GH Thompson
In its wider sense, Education is the total development of the personality. Education in the wider sense is a lifelong process. It begins with the birth of a child and ends with his death. Continuity is the law of life. Education is not limited to the classroom only; it is also not limited to a particular period of life. Life is a continuous process of growth and development and so education is also a continuous process. Throughout life one goes on learning to adjust oneself to the changing patterns of life. In this way, education is a lifelong process of growth and development. To make the broader meaning of education more clear, the following views of some other educationists are being given:
• In the wider sense, it is a process that goes on throughout life, and is promoted by almost every experience in life.
—SS Mackenzi
• By education, I mean the all-round drawing out of the best in child and man's body, mind and soul.
MK Gandhi
• Education in its widest sense includes all the influences, which act upon an individual during his passage from the cradle to the grave.
Dumvile
• Education, in its broadest sense, is the means of the social continuity.
John Dewey

Definitions and Views of Experts on Education
• Webster defines education as the process of educating or teaching. Education is further defined as ‘to develop the knowledge, skill.
• Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man. Like fire in a piece of flint, knowledge exists in the mind. Suggestion is the friction; which brings it out.
—Swami Vivekananda
• By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man's body, mind and spirit.
Mahatma Gandhi
• The highest education is that which does not merely give us information, but makes our life in harmony with all existence.
—Rabindranath Tagore
• Education is something, which makes a man, self-reliant and self-less.
—Rigveda
• Education is that whose end product is salvation.
• Education according to Indian tradition is not merely a means of earning a living; nor it is only a nursery of thought or a school for citizenship. It is initiated into the life of spirit and training of human souls in the pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue.
• Education develops in the body and soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection he is capable of.
—Plato
• 3Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body. It develops man's faculty specially his mind so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness and beauty.
—Aristotle
• Education is the child's development from within.
—Rousseau
• Education is the enfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ. It is the process through which the child makes the internal-external.
—Froebel
• Education is the harmonious and progressive development of all the innate powers and faculties of man-physical, intellectual and moral.
—Pestalozzi
• Education is the development of good moral character.
—JF Herbert
• Education is not a preparation for life, rather it is the living. Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfil his possibilities.
—John Dewey
• Education is the complete development of the individuality of the child so that he can make an original contribution to human life according to the best of his capacity.
—TP Nunn
The different meanings and views of experts on education as given above lead us to the conclusion that education should have a comprehensive definition.
Thus, Education may be defined as a purposive, conscious or unconscious, psychological, sociological, scientific and philosophical process, which brings about the development of the individual to the fullest extent and also the maximum development of society in such a way that both enjoy maximum happiness and prosperity. In short, Education is the process of of exchange of ideas, the outcome of which is maximizing the potential's of individuals, according to his needs and demands of society, of which he is an integral part.

Definition of Nursing Education, Professional Education, Formal Education, Informal Education
Nursing Education is a professional education which is consciously and systematically planned and implemented through instruction and discipline and aims at harmonious development, i.e. physical, intellectual, social, emotional, spiritual and aesthetic powers or abilities of the student in order to render Professional Nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health and illness, in a variety of settings, in the best or the highest possible manner.
Professional Education includes any programme in which specialized training is provided to students to make them competent in their chosen sector by increasing knowledge, improving practical skills, changing attitude of those who commits to behave ethically to protect the interest of the public e.g. Nurse, doctor, pathologist, physical therapists etc.
Formal Education is defined as, ‘the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded ‘education system’, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programmes and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.’
Combs with Prosser and Ahmed (1973)
Informal Education is defined as, ‘the truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment – from family and neighbours, from work and play, from the market place, the library and the mass media.’
Combs with Prosser and Ahmed (1973)
Non-Formal Education is defined as, ‘any orga-nized educational activity outside the established formal system – whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity – that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.’
Combs with Prosser and Ahmed (1973)

AIMS OF EDUCATION
The aim of education should be to teach us rather how to think, than what to think—rather to improve our minds, so as to enable us to think for ourselves, than to load the memory with thoughts of other men.
— Bill Beattie

Meaning of Aim, Goal, Objectives, Target
The term Goal, Objectives, Target and aims are often confused and used interchangeably. But, there is a difference in all these terms. Lets us understand these terms.
Goals are what we should achieve in the long term. Goals are long term aims. Goals are stated and discussed in the overall management of the organization, since they are concerned with the organization as a whole.
Objectives are to be accomplished in the medium terms. Objectives are relatively short term milestones to be accomplished within the general goal. They are for the departmental level. Objectives must be SMART, which stands for:
4 S—Specific
M—Measurable
A—Acheivable
R—Relevant
T—Time Bound
Targets generally are stated and discussed in the lower or supervisory level. Target refers to physical achievements in the organization. Target is what you try to achieve.
Aims are general statements that provide direction or intent to educational action. Aims are usually written in amorphous words like: learn, know, understand, appreciate. Purpose and aims are possessed by the person, whereas target, goal and objectives are what he aspires.
The main difference between aims and objectives is that Aims are what you want to achieve, while, objectives are what you will do to achieve them. An objective is more specific in character, while an aim is more abstract. Also, an objective is time-bound whereas an aim need not be. Aiming is basically the first step of goal setting. Aims are things you plan to accomplish in a small amount of time, like a class lesson. It's something you just have to pass, it's not as hard as a goal or objective.
Fig. 1.1: Relationship between aims, objectives and goals
This picture depicts that the Goals are long term. The aims are directed towards goals. Aims gives direction to the activities. Aims of education are formulated keeping in view the needs of the situation and Objectives are short steps taken by an individual to achieve set goals.

Need of Educational Aims
• Education is a purposeful activity. By education we intend to bring certain desirable changes in the students.
• Education is a conscious effort and, as such, it has definite aims and objectives.
• In the light of these aims, the curriculum is determined and the academic achievements of the student are measured.
• Aims give direction to the activity. Absence of an aim in education makes it directionless.
• Every stage of human development has some aim for life. The aims of life determined by aims of education.
• The aims of education have changed from age to age and thus it is dynamic because the aims of life are dynamic.

Various Aims of Education
According to Dr Kalam, aims of education are as follows:
1. To build character and to cultivate human values in students.
2. To inject creativity and to develop a scientific attitude with a spiritual foundation
3. To enhance learning capacity through technology
4. To build confidence among children to face future challenges.
5. To ensure the creation of enlightened citizens to make the nation prosperous happy and strong
6. To develop capacity for research and inquiry among students.
7. To unfold innovating powers and entrepreneurship
9. To make the country independent.
10. To develop the sense of dignity, self-respect and self-reliance among students.
Aims of Education may be categorized as:
• The Individual Aims
• Social /Psychological Aim
• Professional Aims
• Self-Actualization Aims
The individual is the product of the society while society finds its advancement in the development of its individual member. An Individual cannot develop in a vacuum. According to John Adams, ‘Individuality 5requires a social medium to grow.’ According to T.P. Nunn, ‘Individuality develops in social environment.’ The true aim of education cannot be other than the highest development of the individual as a member of society. Morover, we cannot ignore Professional Aims of Education. Let us discuss individual, social and professional aims in detail.
1. The Individual aims: According to Sir Percy Nunn, ‘Nothing goods enter into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women. Education should give scope to develop the inborn potentialities through maximum freedom.’ Development of an individual-physically, mentally and spiritually is well known aim of education. Objectives related to this aim of individual development have been expressed in following ways:
• Developing physical and mental abilities of an individual.
• Acquiring the capacities of understanding, appreciation and expression through word and action.
• To make children self-confident and self dependent, and to make them physically and mentally strong. Education is meant to develop every child's character, personality and culture.
• The Knowledge or Information Aim: According to various educationists, knowledge is indispensable for all right action and it is the source of all power. ‘It is knowledge which makes a realist a visionary successful in any profession.’
• The Spiritual Aim: According to idealist thinkers, the spiritual development of an individual should be the supreme aim of education. Mahatma Gandhi has attached great importance to spiritual values in education.
• The Character Formation Aim: Character is the cream of life and, as such, it should be the aim of education. Vivekananda and Gandhi both emphasized character building in education. Character formation or moral education is concerned with the whole conduct of man. The Secondary Education Commission (1951-52) has rightly remarked: ‘Character education has to be visualized not in a social vacuum, but with reference to contemporary socio-economic and political situation.‘
• Moral Values: The aim of Education must enable the student to inculcate moral values. Such as faithfulness, goodness, purity, courage and honesty.
2. Social Aims: No individual can live and grow without society. Individual‘s security and welfare depend on the society. Education should make each individual socially efficient. A socially efficient individual is able to earn his livelihood. The individual is only a means. The progress of the society is the aim of education. Education is for the society and of the society. The function of education is for the welfare of the state. The state will make the individual as it desires. It prepares the individual to play different roles in society. Individuality has no value, and personality is meaningless apart from society. If society will develop individual will develop automatically. Here society plays an important role. The social aim of education should also take the form of social service and citizenship training. The spirit of service, sacrifice and co-operation should be developed through all the school programmes and practices.
The purpose of education should be the development of the fullest possible capacities and potentialities physical and spiritual of a total man’. It should make a man capable of earning his livelihood reasonably well to enjoy a happy and secure life, while making effective contributions to the society and national effort of making India strong, advanced and prosperous.
• The Culture Aim: The cultural aim of education has been suggested to supplement the narrow view of knowledge aim. The cultural aim of education produces men of culture.
• The Adjustment Aim: The adjustment is the primary rule of human life. Without adjustment to the environment, no-one can survive. Life is a struggle for adjustment. In the words of Horney: ‘Education should be a man's adjustment to his nature, to his fellows and to the ultimate nature of the cosmos.’
• The Citizenship Training Aim: A citizen has to perform various civic duties and responsibilities. Children should be so trained by education so that they can successfully discharge their various civic duties and responsibilities. The Secondary Education Commission in India (1951-1952) has greatly emphasized citizenship training in schools. Such training includes the development of certain qualities, such as clear thinking, clarity in speech and writing, art of community living, cooperation, toleration, and sense of patriotism and sense of world citizenship.
3. 6 Professional Aims
• The Vocational Aim: The vocational aim is also known as ‘the utilitarian aim or the bread and butter aim.‘ The above stated ideals of education are useless unless these aims enable us to procure the primary needs of our life-food, shelter and clothing. Education must help the child to earn his livelihood. Education, therefore, must prepare the child for some future profession or vocation or trade. The vocational aim is a narrow aim of education. Therefore, the vocational aim is not a complete aim in itself.
• The Leisure Aim: ‘Free and unoccupied Time‘ of an individual is generally known as leisure. It is a time which we can use in a creative way. During leisure, we can pursue an activity for own sake and not for earning a living, which is dull and monotonous. During leisure we can also regain our lost energy and enthusiasm. Leisure can make our life dynamic and charming.
4. Self-Actualization Aim
• The Complete Living Aim: Some educationists have insisted upon the need of an all-comprehensive aim of education. This viewpoint has led to the development of two aims–‘the complete living aim‘ and the ‘harmonious development aim.‘ According to Horney ‘there is no one final aim, subordinating all lesser aims to itself… There is something in all these aims but not everything in any one of them.‘
• The Harmonious Development Aim: Educationists are of the opinion that all the powers and capacities inherited by a child should be developed harmoniously and simultaneously.

Aims of Nursing Education
• Harmonious development: Nursing education aims at the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual and aesthetic powers or abilities of the student. Harmonious development is essential for achieving the qualities required for leading a successful profession and personal life. In short, nursing education aims to prepare students as good human beings with qualities of a professional nurse.
• Including the right attitude: Right attitude towards nursing form the basic of nursing career. Right attitude helps to adjust to the student life and motivate them to achieve excellence in the upcoming professional life. Nursing education offers a variety of learning experience with an attitude among students.
• Knowledge and skill aim: Nursing education provides the much needed knowledge and skill required to practice the profession in a successful manner. Technological advancement in the field of education helps nurse educator to fulfill this aim in a meticulous way.
• Emphasis on high-tech-high-touch approach: High-tech-high-touch approaches in nursing care were devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of the technical advancements in the field of patient care. Nurse educators have to motivate the students to maintain the human elements of nursing while rendering care with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
• Prepare students to take up a role in learning: One of the aim of Nursing Education is to make nurse educator role model for students. Nurse educator of today is considered as a facilitator of learning, whose main duty is to prepare students to adopt a proactive role in learning so that they will actively participate in the teaching-learning process.
• Professional development: Nursing education prepares the students to render professional nursing care in the best or the highest possible manner. Nurse educators can fulfill the professional aspirations of the students by way of providing guidance, arranging adequate learning experience and serving as role models. The need for professional development in this era of competition and knowledge explosion should be explained properly to the students. Easy access to information, availability of staff development programs and increased opportunities for higher education will help nurses to maintain the professional development.
• Assist to build a promising career: Nursing profession offers a variety of career opportunities. It helps students to realize their potential and interests and will enable them to build a promising career.
• Democratic Citizenship: Nursing education should motivate the student to perform his or her duties as a citizen for the welfare of the fellow human being.
• Social aim: Nursing education prepares the student to become a useful member in the society. This will in turn help them to interact effectively with the people and render dedicated care without any discrimination.
• To prepare global nurse: Globalization and liberalization have created worldwide opportunities for professional nurses ever than before. Today a 7competent nurse with good knowledge in English can easily build a career in other nations.
• Leadership aims: Since nursing profession is experiencing a shortage of eminent leaders. Leadership aim is very important. Nursing education has to nurture leadership abilities among students.

PHILOSOPHY AND EDUCATION

Introduction
Philosophy is a scientific, systematic inquiry about the ultimate reality in the universe; it is the basis for understanding man. Etymologically, the word philosophy has been derived from the Greek words: ‘Philos’ means ‘Love’, ‘Sophia’ means ‘Wisdom’. It is the loving and searching for wisdom and truth. The etymological meaning of the word ‘Philosophy’ is ‘love of learning’. It signifies a natural and a necessary urge in human beings to know themselves and the world in which they ‘live and move and have their being’. It is impossible for man to live without a philosophy.

Meaning of Philosophy
• It is a living force, a way of life, an attitude towards life, or search for truth and reality.
• It is a search for deeper and finer values of life.
• It is a search for a comprehensive view of nature.
• Philosophy refers to a certain way of thinking. It arises out of an attempt.
• To arrive at the solution of the problem through the use of human reasoning and experience.
• To find the deeper meaning of the problems.
• Philosophy is the study of the general principles and understanding all, i.e. God, the World.
• Each individual should have a philosophy of life, i.e. a set of standards, ideals which are based on the principles that have been chosen as being acceptable to him.
• It is what we believe and the principle which governs our life.
• It is acting like a guide to have a concrete outlook on the world, life, human conduct and actions.
• Philosophy is the most earliest and original intellectual discipline.

Definitions and Views of Experts on Philosophy
• Philosophy is the science of knowledge.
—Fitch
• Philosophy is the science of all sciences.
—Coleridge
• Philosophy is the mother of all arts.
—Cicero
• Philosophy is the persistent effort of both ordinary and persistent people to make life as an intelligible as meaningful as possible.
—Bramold
• Philosophy is the tenacious attempt of reasoning men to think through the most fundamental issue of life, to reach reasonable conclusions on the first and last things, to suggest worthwhile goals that can command the loyalty of individuals and groups.
—Carlis Lamont
• Philosophy is a search for a comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of the nature of things.
—Henderson
• Philosophy is an unceasing effort to discern the general truth that lies behind the particular facts (i.e. The reality that lies behind the appearances).
• According to Alfred Weber ‘Philosophy is a search for a comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of the nature of things a person who searches into the reason and nature of things, who tries to arrive at a general principle, and who attempts to apply those principles to the daily conduct of life, acts like a true philosopher.
Branches of Philosophy
There are three major branches of philosophy. Each branch focuses on a different aspect and is central to our teaching. The three branches and their sub-branches are:
Branches
Educational examples
Metaphysics
What is the nature of reality?
• Do you think human beings are basically good or evil?
• What is conservative or liberal beliefs?
Epistemology
What is the nature of knowledge?
How do we come to know?
• How would an anthropologist look at this classroom?
• A political scientist? A biologist?
• How do we know what a child knows?
Axiology
What values should one live by?
• Is morality defined by our actions, or by what is in our hearts?
• What values should be taught in character education?

Relationship between Philosophy and education
‘Philosophy and Education are the two flowers of one stem, the two sides of one coin. One can never be thought of without the other. The presence of one is incomplete without the other. The following are a few viewpoints that establish the relationship between philosophy and education:
• View of Ross: ‘Philosophy and education are the two sides of the same coin; the former is the contemplative while the latter is the active side’.
• 8 View of John Dewey: John Dewey endorses the viewpoint of Ross when he says, ‘Philosophy is the theory of education in its most general phase’.
• Fichte's view: ‘The art of education will never attain complete clearness without philosophy’.
• Spencer's view: ‘True education is practicable to true philosophers’.
• Gentile's view: ‘Education without philosophy would mean a failure to understand the precise nature of education’.
Following points explain the relationship between education and Philosophy:
Philosophy Points out the Way to be followed by Education
Education is the modification of the child's behaviour, whereas philosophy shows the way to be followed by educators in the modification of the child's behaviour. Education is a laboratory in which the philosophical theories are tested, thus education will be said as, ‘applied philosophy’. Philosophy is wisdom; Education transmits wisdom from one generation to the other.
Education is the Best Means for the Propagation of Philosophy
A philosopher arrives at the truth after a great deal of emphasis on the real nature of the universe, man, his destiny and lays down aims, ideals and values and then he tries to live in accordance with them. He wants others to convert his beliefs and live according to them, thus it can be achieved through education, which is the best means for propagation of his philosophy. Education becomes more prominent than philosophy as action speaks louder than words.
All Great Philosophers are Great Educators
Philosophers reflected their views in their educational schemes. When the Philosopher wishes to spread his ideals, beliefs, he formulates a scheme of education based on his philosophy, e.g. Socrates, Buddha, Tagore, Gandhi, etc. were great philosophers and thinkers as well as great educators.
Philosophy Determines Broad Aspects of Education
Philosophy provides aims of education, it determines the curriculum (Course of Study), methods of teaching, school discipline, role of teacher, school problems, etc; Philosophy influences and determines both the matter and the method of education. Thus, philosophy contributes to the educational theory and practice.
S No.
Philosophy
Education
1.
It sets the ideals, principles, goals, standards, values thus it is in reality and truth.
Education works out those values.
2.
It is theory based.
It explains how to achieve the goals through man's educational efforts by practical application of theory.
3.
It is contemplative and tells way of life
It denotes practically walking on that path.
4.
It deals with abstract ideas.
It deals with concrete ideas.
5.
It is the art.
It is the science.
6.
Philosophy formulates the method.
It deals with the use of this method.
7.
Philosophy is wisdom
Education transmits that wisdom from one generation to the other.
8.
Philosophic theories and speculations are tested and made concrete
Education is a laboratory. Education may be rightly called applied philosophy.

Influence of Philosophy on Different Aspects of Education
Philosophy and aims of education: Philosophy is the determining force in laying down the aims of education. Aims of education are based on the views and ideals, beliefs, values and standards of philosopher.
Philosophy and curriculum: Curriculum is the sum total of all the activities and experience provided by the school to its pupils to achieve the aims of education. The philosophy determines content and discipline that student will follow to achieve educations objectives.

TYPES OF PHILOSOPHY
Philosophies are divided into 2 major types given as follows (Fig. 1.2):
A Synopsis of ‘Schools of Philosophy‘
Schools
Characterizations
Idealism
Reality is spiritual or mental. Knowing is recalling: Values, absolute we construct world.
Realism
Reality exists unperceived. Values are natural and absolute knowledge comes via the senses.
Naturalism
Only Nature exists -
Nature is better than Civilization
Empiricism
Knowledge comes through the senses
Pragmatism
Knowledge is what works.
Truth is Warranted Assertion values are Relative
Existentialism
Individual construct their reality Deciding precedes knowing.
9
Philosophical Analysis
Reality is what is verifiable.
Truth corresponds to reality.
Usage determines meaning.
Perenniallsm
Some knowledge is eternally valid.
Education cultivates intellect.
Essentiallism
Certain skills and knowledge are essential for rational living.
Progressivism
Children are naturally good. The child's needs and interests are relevant to the curriculum.
Reconstructionism
The school should help rebuild the social order.
Behaviorism
Only the physical world is real.
Learning is changing behavior.
Fig. 1.2: Classification of education philosophy
• Naturalism: Naturalism is a doctrine that separates nature from God, subordinates spirit to matter and setup unchangeable laws as supreme. According to naturalists, human life is a part of nature; it is a self-sufficient entity having its own natural matter, natural force and natural laws. It emphasizes, on ‘matter and the physical world’. It does not believe in spirituality and supernaturalism.
• Idealism: The word ‘Idealism‘ has been derived from ‘ideal‘ or ideas. Ideals or higher values are much more significant in human life than anything else. This philosophy seeks to explain man and universe in terms of spirit or mind. This philosophical thought, is originated by the great Greek philosophers, Socrates and Plato. Man's spiritual nature is considered to be the very essence of his being.
• Realism: Realism is an outcome of scientific development, by observation, experimentation and examination if it is found to be true can be considered as real; realism is directly related to man and society. Through realism man is able to enjoy the comforts of society, after getting all the joys of life. Realism provides education, which is useful for life where man can enjoy his activities and comforts in reality.
• Pragmatism: Pragmatism is a matter of fact, treatment of things based solely on their practical utility. It is the element of utility that has the greatest appeal for a pragmatist. For him, utility is truth and truth is utility. Pragmatism believes in practical and utilitarian philosophy.
Modern Philosophies
• Existentialism: This philosophy views a man as participating in a world of things and events, human existence is the nature of man to exist, to stand out into reality, to participate in being, to be present to all.
• Progressivism: Education is centered around for the present life itself. The development of an individual and the society is only possible, when education facilitates the growth of every phase of the child.
• Behaviorism: Each individual is having an ‘ ego‘/‘mind‘ centre of consciousness which enable him to choose any course of action, that he wanted to do. Individual's actions are predetermined by his heredity or immediate surroundings.
• Humanism: According to them, man is an end, not a means; the humanist emphasis is on literature. He has to overcome the conflicts of his own time.
• 10 Experimentalism: It rejects the laissez-faire indi-vidualism and permissiveness. They accept a natu-ralistic point of view, but they want the control and utilization of nature– not submission to nature. It accepts the perspective of evolution.
• Eclecticism: It is the fusion or synthesis of different philosophies of education. The harmonization of principles underlying various tendencies and rationalization of educational practices, the process of putting together the common views of different philosophies into a comprehensive whole.
• Reconstructionalism: It is the total change of the entire system or desirable change of the entire system.

IDEALISM EDUCATION
An idealist is one who on, noticing that a rose smells better than a cabbage, concludes that it is also more nourishing.
Mencken HL

Meaning of Idealism
The word ‘idealism’ has been derived from ‘ideals’ or ‘ideas’. According to this philosophy, ideals or lighter values are the most important thing in human life than anything else. The idealist believe in the world of mind (metaphysics) and in truth as ideas (epistemology). Idealism idolises ‘mind and spirit’. So, an idealist emphasize on spirituality of human being rather than scientific facts. Ultimately this philosophy believes that ideas or higher values in their mind make the human being perfect.

Exponents of Idealism
Guru Nanak, Mahatma Gandhi, Plato, Socrates, Kant, Tagore

Chief Assertions of Idealism
• Idealism believes in ‘Universal mind’ means ‘GOD’: It means ‘GOD’ is creator and others are created. As the Human mind is a part of Universal mind (God), so He is the source of all values, knowledge and activities of human. Man is considered as ‘spiritual being’ who is superior to all animals. So the main aim of human life is to achieve spiritual values, e.g. truth, goodness, etc., which are permanent, undying and absolute. By following these values, human being become higher in moral values and ultimately realization of universal mind or god in ownself.
• Idealism regards man as a spiritual being: As the human being is superior to all animals because of spirituality, so every individual soul (Atma) has to identify and merge into universal mind (God) so by following spiritual values he will achieve this ultimate goal of his life.
• The world of ideas and values is more important than the world of matter: Idealism has full faith in eternal values which never change. These values can neither be created nor destroyed. Man can only discover them, if they try. According to Plato, the outstanding eternal values are; truth, goodness and beauty (sathyam, shivam, sundarum)
• Real knowledge is perceived in mind: The knowledge which is gained through activity and creativity of mind is more important than the knowledge acquired through the senses.

Idealism in Education
All idealists believe that man is born with the spiritual self. Education helps in increasing spiritual values by developing moral values, self-realization and character development.

Idealism and Aims of Education
The most distinct contribution of idealism to the field of education is that it has provided human life with very high aims.
Some of these important aims are as follows:
• Exaltation of human personality: Idealism aims at making man perfect so to become perfect, self-realization is must which comes from education.
• Universal education: As all human beings are equal to god, so education should be provided to human beings of the whole universe without any distinction of caste, creed, color, religion or socioeconomic status.
• Development of inventive and creative powers: Education should foster inventive and creative power in man to modify environment according to his own needs and purpose.
• Acquisition and enrichment of cultural environment: Man himself is the creator of cultural environment. So he must not only preserve what he has inherited, he should also make his own contribution to the enrichment of that culture. Education must help him in making this contribution.
• Development of moral senses: One of the important aim of education is to develop moral values in the child so that he can distinguish between right and wrong.

The Concept of Student
• The student must bring himself closer to the absolute through imitation of the exemplar (the teacher) and through the study of those subjects (the humanities) 11which best represent or symbolize the true ideas of which the human race has knowledge.
• The idealistic pupil wish to be perfect, in whatever he does as well as he can.
• He is ambitious to deserve honors and scholarship.
• He wants to grow in knowledge and wisdom, to appreciate the aesthetic things in life to deserve recognition and to be a worthy person.
• He strives for perfection because the ideal person is perfect.

The Concept of Teacher
• Idealists have high expectations of the teacher. The teacher must be excellent, in order to serve as an example for the student, both intellectually and morally.
• The teacher must excel in knowledge and human insight into the needs and capacities of the learners; and must demonstrate moral excellence in personal conduct and convictions.
• The teacher must also exercise great creative skill in providing opportunities for the learner's minds to discover, analyze, unify, synthesize and create applications of knowledge to life and behaviour.
• The teacher serves as a model for the student by teaching through example and guidance, the lifelong habits of patience, tolerance and perseverance towards a goal.
• It is the teacher's responsibility to encourage the students and to provide them with materials to encourage them to work to achieve higher goals. The idealist teacher tries to be the right sort of person himself and to develop the right sort of personality in his pupils.
• The teacher should be close to the absolute and should be, in a very real sense, a co-worker with the absolute in developing the pupil's capacities and guiding him closer to knowledge of the ideal.
• Since idealists believe in character development, they also believe that the teacher should be a role model for students to imitate. Teaching is considered a moral calling.
• The teacher's role is to be a skilful questioner who encourages students to think and ask more questions in an environment that is suitable for learning.

The Curriculum
• Idealists believe that ideas can change lives and that classical literature can be used and explored to help solve problems in today's world.
• Creativity will be encouraged when students immerse themselves in the creative thinking of others and when they are encouraged to reflect.
• The curriculum is based upon the idea or assumption of the spiritual nature of man. This idea in turn leads to an idea of the nature of the larger units of family, community, state, earth, the universe, and infinity.
• In preserving the subject-matter content, which is essential for the development of the individual mind, the curriculum must include those subjects essential for the realization of mental and moral development. These subjects provide one with culture, and they should be mandated for all pupils.
• Moreover, the subject matter should be kept constant for all. The idealist tradition of subject matter is basically literary and places its primary emphasis on the subject matter of books, especially those literary pieces considered the masterworks of information about ideas.
• Because of the idealist's reliance on the world of the mind, their curriculum calls for little contact with the experiential universe. The idealist educator has little place in his curriculum for field trips and empirical or sensory data.

Instructional Methodology
• Idealist education involves depth of learning, a holistic approach that involves teaching the whole rather than its parts. Knowledge was not important just for the material needs that it met.
• The idealist is not concerned with turning out students with technical skills so much as having students with a broad view and understanding of the world in which they live.
• Idealism emphasizes the role of the teacher, a skillful questioner, who should be a model for the person we want children to become. While the lecture method is still important in an idealist's education system, it is considered more of a way to convey information and to help students comprehend ideas.
• Self-realization and self-education are very important in idealism. While teachers cannot always be present when learning occurs, they must attempt to stimulate students so that learning occurs even when they are not present. Project based learning is one example of a self-directed learning activity where learning can occur without a teacher's presence.
• As the curricular emphasis is the subject matter of mind: literature, history, philosophy, and religion. Teaching methods focus on handling ideas through lecture, discussion, and Socratic dialogue (a method 12of teaching that uses questioning to help students discover and clarify knowledge). Introspection, intuition, insight, and whole-part logic are used to bring to consciousness the forms or concepts which are latent in the mind. Character is developed through imitating examples and heroes.
• The classroom structure and atmosphere should provide the learners with opportunities to think, and to apply the criteria of moral evaluation to concrete within the context of the subjects.
• The teaching methods must encourage the acquisition of facts, as well as skill in reflecting on these facts. It is not sufficient to teach pupils how to think. It is very important that what pupils think about be factual; otherwise, they will simply compound their ignorance. Teaching methods should encourage learners to enlarge their horizons; stimulate reflective thinking; encourage personal moral choices; provide skills in logical thinking; provide opportunities to apply knowledge to moral and social problems; stimulate interest in the subject content; and encourage learners to accept the values of human civilization.

Concept of Discipline
• Idealists feel that strict discipline is essential for self-realization. These is no situation in which restraint is not required.
• Teacher's guidance is necessary at every step because he will impress upon his pupils the importance of higher values by leading a virtuous life and they will try to follow his example. In this way, the teacher will make the environment suitable for his pupils to realize the higher values of life through self-discipline.
• It may, however, be noted that idealists are not against freedom. But for them freedom is not a means as it is with the naturalist; it is an end. It is a well-deserved reward for the youth who has learnt to live under self-imposed regulation and discipline.

Limitation of Idealism
• Idealism may be considered to be outmoded in the prevailing scientific world-view. Idealistic concepts like ‘spirit’, ‘mind’, ‘soul’, the ‘cosmos’ have little relevance in classroom teaching.
• The idealistic education stresses on imitation of models, but younger generation prefers invention and originality rather than imitation.
• Too much emphasis on good manners and modesty may be mistaken for diffidence/hesitancy.
• Idealistic scheme of education, by and large, pays less attention to physical, industrial, electronic and social environment of today.

PRAGMATISM IN EDUCATION
What we want and need is education: Pure and simple, and we shall make surer and faster progress when we devote ourselves to finding out just what education is and what conditions have to be satisfied in order that education may be a reality and not a name or a slogan. Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.
John Dewey, Experience and Education

Introduction to Pragmatism
This philosophy deals with the practical utility of things. A pragmatist lives in the world of facts and not in a world of ideas. In other word, pragmatism believes in practical and utilitarian philosophy. The term ‘pragmatism’ derives its origin from a Greek word meaning ‘to do, to make, to accomplish’. Meaning ‘action or practice or activity’. Beliefs and ideas are true, if they are workable and profitable; otherwise false. Nothing is fixed in advance, everything is changing with time.

Chief Exponents
William James, John Dewey

Pragmatist Aims of Education
‘To have an aim is to act with meaning.
—John Dewey, Democracy and Education
• According to pragmatism ,the aim of education is dynamic in nature.
• According to pragmatists, the main focus of education is not the social heritage of the past, but the good life in the present and in the future. The standard of social good is constantly changing, so it should be tested and verified through changing experience. Life does not stand still and there is a constant need for improvement.
• Pragmatists believe that the aims are always determined by individual, not by any organization or any structure.
• Activity and experience for the creation of new values, activity and experience are essential, education should, therefore, provide physical, intellectual, moral and aesthetic activities as the media for the creation of values.
• The main aim of education is, to direct the impulses, interests and abilities toward the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in the environment.
• 13Pragmatism emphasizes on adaptation to environment, construction and reconstruction of experience and development of capacities to control the environment.
• It emphasizes on all round development of the individual. The individual must develop physically, mentally, socially, morally and aesthetically.

Pragmatism and Education
• Activity of curriculum: Pragmatism is not in favour for fixing curriculum in advance. An outline of the activities may be kept in view in the beginning and a curriculum can be evolved according to the requirement of the situations. Thus, it will be a flexible and changing curriculum. While deciding it, the nature of the child and the multiple activities of life must be taken into consideration.
• Utilitarian curriculum: Pragmatic curriculum is utilitarian. Only those experiences are provided which give as much knowledge and skills to the child, as he requires for his present and future life. At the elementary stage, reading, writing, arithmetic, nature-study, drawing and handwork are provided. At a later stage, practical subjects like languages, social studies, physical sciences, mathematics and hygiene are included in the curriculum. Agriculture for boys and home science for girls is prescribed. Training in some craft or vocation is also advocated.
• Principle of integration: While deciding the subjects of curriculum, the principle of integration is kept in view. Instead of working at separate subjects, the pupil should be encouraged to draw freely upon all knowledge that is relevant to the activity in which he happens to be engaged.
• It neglects useful subjects as poetry and art.

Principles of Pragmatism
• No ultimate values: The main principle of Pragmatic philosophy is that man creates his values during the course of activity. There are no fixed values for all times to come. Even truths are manmade products. There is nothing like absolute truth. According to pragmatism, whatever fulfils man's purpose and ‘desires and develops his life, is true. Truth is that which gives satisfactory results when put into practice.
• Emphasis on experimentation: Pragmatism lays a special stress on the value of experimentation. It stands for testing every statement by finding out its practical implications. If these implications are desirable, the statement is accepted otherwise rejected. Man is always carrying out various experiments in his life. But no judgment is possible before an experiment is tested by experience
• Belief in practical philosophy: Pragmatism believes that philosophy is not simply wisdom of the past. True philosophy is one that helps in the solution of practical problems of life. It should be practical and useful in influencing the conduct of life and not a passive enquiry or contemplation’. According to pragmatism, ‘philosophy is thinking what to do in a life situation and it is brought into existence when problems occur’.
• Human development according to environment: Pragmatism believes that growth of human personality takes place because of interaction with environment. Man tries to adjust himself to his environment and this results in his growth. During the process of adjustment, man not only adopts himself to his environment but he also tries to mould the environment according to his needs, purposes and desires.
• Faith in democracy: Pragmatism has deep faith in democracy. It is only through democracy that an individual can realize the maximum development of his personality. This development is possible only in a social context. Individual development also leads to the development of society. Thus a democratic social order is considered essential for the healthy growth of individuals.
• Revolt against traditionalism: Pragmatism believes that reality is in the making truth works in a practical situation. Whatever fulfils one's purpose and develops his life, is true. So it is a revolt against traditionalism and absolutism.
• Pragmatism in education: This philosophy does not believe in imparting education for its own sake. It is to be imparted with reference to human needs. It should enable the child to solve his daily problems and also to lead a better and happier life by creating new values. Education, therefore, must have its intellectual, moral, aesthetic, social and physical aspects.

The Concept of Student
‘Children are to be treated as rational creatures.
—John Locke
• The Pragmatist views the student as a whole organism constantly interacting with the envi-ronment. The school is both a part of this environment and a special man-made environment designed to provide the best possible educative experience to 14the learner. For this reason, the student is especially involved in interaction with the school.
• The whole organism which is the child; consists of the biological child, the psychological child, and the social child. The experiencing organism, which is the learner, brings to school with him all the meanings, values, and experiences that constitute his personality: his self.

The Concept of Teacher
Good teaching cannot be reduced to technique; good teaching comes from the identity and integrity of the teacher.
Parker J. Palmer, The Courage to Teach
• The teacher, for the pragmatist, is a member of the learning group who serves in the capacity of helper, guide, and arranger of experiences. He is as involved in the educative process as are these students.
• He advises and directs projects and activities that arise out of the felt needs of the students rather than those of the teacher. He must arrange the conditions by simplifying, purifying, ordering and balancing the environment in such a way as to provide the experiences that will contribute the most to the growth of these students.

Curriculum Framework
• The curriculum for the pragmatic philosophy supports a connection between knowledge and experience. It is important for children to connect the two so that learning can become meaningful.
• Pragmatists are of the opinion that the curriculum at the school should reflect the society. They have rejected the traditional approach to subject matter curriculum which is associated with formal schooling, where knowledge is separated from the child's own interests, needs and experiences and fragmented or compartmentalized. They emphasize the needs and interests of the children.
• Pragmatists believe in a broad and diversified curriculum. They endorse a more general education as opposed to narrow specialization. Pragmatic curriculum is composed of both process and content.
• Pragmatists focus some attention on process, because ends should not be dissociated from means.

Instructional Methodology
• The widest variety of techniques have been justified in the name of pragmatic philosophy, ranging from the almost complete laissez-faire to the relatively structured. Classroom discussion in a free and open atmosphere is encouraged, as well as individual problem solving research. All of this may well involve a tremendous amount of reading, studying, and traditional subject matter mastery.
• This philosophy believes that not all children learn the same way, so it is important to vary educational methods. This philosophy supports large print text, small desk, and things that move easily. The classroom would be a functional atmosphere with the interest of the children at hand. Problem-solving, themes, experiments are all parts of the pragmatic philosophy.
• Pragmatic method is rooted in the psychological needs of the students rather than in the logical order of the subject matter. Thus, method is nothing more than helping the students to use intelligence and the scientific method in the solution of problems that are meaningful to the child.

Methods of Teaching
• Pragmatics believes in experimenting with new methods. These methods are devised by the teacher in the light of real life situations. Education is not teaching or imparting knowledge but to encourage learning through self-effort and creative activity. Knowledge is not obtained from books but by actually doing things.
• Pragmatism stresses on “action rather than reflection“. The child should be put in real situations so that he may himself solve the problem practically, which arise out of those situations. He must be engaged in purposeful creative activity and problematic acts.
• The most important contribution of pragmatism to educational practice is the ‘project method’, which is ‘a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting’. The child is given a real and purposeful task to carry out. While doing so, he experiences the need of certain principles, skills and methods which he acquires, not formally but incidentally. Thus, the child gets knowledge and skills from the experiences gained in the accomplishment of that task. Psychologically also, this method is sound because the child is always interested in doing things with his own hands. In such a method, the school, the curriculum and the subject-matter are all considered from the child's points of view.

Pragmatism and Discipline
• The pragmatists believe that purposeful and cooperative activities, carried on in a free and happy environment, are conducive to good discipline. 15Such activities create in children virtues like tolerance, mutual respect, self-control, initiative, and originality. They thus, go a long way in the training of character and the establishment of self-discipline’.
• It is not imposed on the child by any external authority. On the other hand, the child imposes it upon himself voluntarily. Hence this is the best type of discipline.
• Pragmatism also emphasizes social discipline through participation in cooperative activities in the school society.

Limitations
• The pragmatic philosophy of education, by and large, ignores the place of spirit of the essence.
• Problems selected by the students may be unreal, having no relation to real life situations.
• Pragmatism does not provide for regular and systematic instruction.
• Pragmatism leaves many curricular gaps and deficiencies in the learning process.
• Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Only a few resourceful and gifted teachers may be able to cope with the demands of teaching in an environment set up under pragmatic conditions.

NATURALISM
From the solemn gloom of the temple children run out to sit in the dust, God watches them play and forgets the priest‘
Rabindranath Tagore
Naturalism is a concept that firmly believes that ultimate reality lies in the nature of the matter. Matter is considered to be supreme and mind is the functioning of the brain that is made up of matter. The whole universe is governed by laws of nature and they are changeable. It is through our sense that we are able to get the real knowledge. The sense works like real gateways of knowledge and exploration is the method that helps in studying nature.

Introduction to Naturalism Philosophy
Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in the 18th century. This philosophy believes that nature alone represents the entire reality. There is nothing beyond nature, behind nature and other than nature. According to this philosophy, human life is a part of scheme of nature. It is a self-sufficient entity, having its own natural laws to the entire human experiences, materials, rational or spiritual values. It emphasizes on ‘matter’ and the ‘physical world’. According to naturalism ‘material world is the real world’. This material world is governed by certain laws. So man, who is a creature of the material world, must submit to these laws.

Chief Exponents
Democritus, Bacon, Herbert Spencer, Huxley

Naturalist Aims and Objectives of Education
• Self-preservation is the first of the five objectives. In order to live completely, as man has first of all to live, he has to continue his own existence. While instinct is the chief guarantee of this objective, education may also help by acquainting the learner with the laws of health and enabling him to earn a living.
• Securing the necessities of life: It is especially in the realm of developing economic efficiency that education helps in preserving life. Money is not life, but it is a necessity in maintaining life. Education should train directly for success in this important function.
• Raising children: According to Spencer, the most important function that most men and women have to perform is that of being parents. Therefore, education should deal unashamedly both with the care of children in the nursery and the discipline of them as growing boys and girls.
• Maintenance of social and political relations: Beyond the home in the far-reaching social structure, man must have some understanding and mastery of social and political processes if living is to be complete. He must be a wise citizen who is equipped for effective social and political action.
• Enjoyment of leisure: Life is not all serious struggles, keeping physically strong, earning a living, being a responsible parent and an earnest citizen. Complete living also includes freedom from struggle, some of the time for ‘gratification of the tastes and feelings.‘

Different Forms of Naturalism
Naturalism as a philosophic doctrine has three distinct forms. They are:
• Physical naturalism: This form believes that the laws of physical nature govern the laws of human life. Reality does not exist within the individual. It is rather outside him, in the natural universe. Tagore calls ‘nature’ as ‘the manuscript of God’. Since human life is moulded and controlled by external nature, it should be in accordance with the natural laws. Such a philosophy throws man in 16the background and, as such, it has not influenced educational theory and practice.
• Mechanical naturalism: This form regards man as a mere machine. There is no spirit or soul. The only matter is everything. The mind is also matter, which is made of atoms, empty space and motion. Matter keeps on moving and changing and this change is governed by the laws of physical science. Man is also matter. He is a mere machine, governed by mechanical laws. He has no creative capacity, purpose or direction. This philosophy, therefore, aims at training man as a good machine and keeping it in good working conditions.
• Biological naturalism: This form seeks to explain man in terms of the lower form of life from which he has evolved. According to this philosophy, body which he has in common with other animals, is the real man. Man's natural endowments, including his instinct emotions and temperament, are the real springs of his behavior. If our behavior is according to our instincts, we feel happy, if not we feel unhappy and disappointed. Education should try to sublimate these natural impulses for socially desirable ends. It is this form of naturalism, which has made the most significant contribution to the development of educational theory and practice.

The Concept of Teacher
• According to naturalists, the teacher is the observer and facilitator of the child's development rather than a giver of information, ideas, ideals and will power or a moulder of character.
• In the words of Ross, ‘Teacher in a naturalistic set up is only a setter of the stage, a supplier of materials and opportunities, a provider of an ideal environment, a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. The teacher is only a non-interfering observer‘.
• The teacher's role is to remain in the background. The natural development of the child should be stimulated. Since, nature is considered to be the best educator.
• For Rousseau, the teacher, first of all, is a person who is completely in tune with nature. He has a profound faith in the original goodness of human nature. He believes that human beings have their own time-table for learning.
• Naturalists are of the view that teacher should not be one who stresses books, recitations and massing/shaping information in literary form, ‘rather he should give emphasis on activity, exploration, learning by doing‘.
• Great emphasis was placed upon the study, which teachers should base on the environmental background of each student, since the unacceptable behavior was rooted there rather than in the pupil's ill will.
• Teachers were advised to learn about the racial, national, and religious backgrounds of their students. If a pupil caused trouble or lacked initiative in school, the home conditions should be studied to see whether a home broken by divorce, death, or marital conflict is responsible for the child's difficulties. If a teacher was unable to manage a class, he was held responsible because he lacked insight into child nature.

The Concept of Student and Curriculum
‘I hate books; they only teach us to talk about things we know nothing about.‘
Jean Jacques Rousseau
• The pupil is to the teacher what man is to the philosopher. For a man who is interpreted by the philosopher also has various practical engagements, one of which is being a pupil at school in his formative years, may be a student in institutions of advanced learning during his more mature years, and we hope a learner throughout life. If a philosopher is also a teacher and at the sometime is consistent in both thought and practice, he will view man as a pupil in the classroom in the same way he thinks of him when philosophizing. So the doctrine of the pupil is virtually the doctrine of man in the classroom.
• Its curriculum is usually based on the needs, interests and abilities of the child in relation to its levels of development. So, a child-centered curriculum forms an amicable answer of the Naturalist. It helps in recognizing individual differences and experiences of the child should form the core element of the curriculum. The curriculum of the naturalists might be classified as experience-centered.
• Professional courses in child and educational psychology became the center of the educational program for teachers. ‘Know the child and you will know what to teach’ became the slogan of the naturalists.
• As a doctrine, naturalism does not favour in imposing any boundary on the children. They think that each and every child has the power to and demand of his own to frame curriculum.
• They have advised to include the following in the curriculum: Science dealing with nature will include Physics, 17Chemistry, Botany, etc. These branches of science will help children to be acquainted with nature. Mathematics and language will be included because these will help to acquire the subjects of science. History and Social Science – In order to acquire modern knowledge, one should practice the process of evolution. It will also help to realize the importance of those in their present life. Agriculture and Carpentry will offer opportunity for the children to act them in freedom and will increase their power of observation.
• Naturalists felt the importance of Physical Education and Health Training for self-protection. But they did not form any particular curriculum for this. They say that the children should be given the opportunity for their free movement of bodies in natural environments. They will thus acquire techniques of self-protection from nature and expose themselves in nature.
• They have included drawing as compulsory in the curriculum.
• Naturalists have also commented about ethical and spiritual training in the curriculum.
• They were against spiritual training as according to them children should pick their own religion from experiences they acquire. They also said that ethical training should not be imposed on children. They will build their own ethical sense in natural order, by receiving rewards and punishments.

Fundamental Principles of Naturalism
According to naturalism:
• The material world is the real world.
• The mind is subordinate to matter.
• Nature alone is the source of all knowledge.
• Values are created in terms of specific needs.
• All real values exist in nature in living close to nature.
• There is no possibility of any ‘supernatural being’.
• The individual is always given precedence.
• Man creates societies is always given precedence.
• Man creates societies only to meet some of his needs.
• Nature alone represents the entire reality. There is nothing beyond nature, behind nature and, other than nature.
• Human life is a part of the scheme of nature. It is a self-sufficient entity, having its own natural laws to the entire human experiences, material, rational or spiritual.

Methodology of Instruction
• Methods of instruction should be inductive. This follows from Nature's advice that teaching make fullest use of the self-activity of the pupil, telling him as little as possible and encouraging him to discover as much as possible for himself. To tell a child this and to show him that only makes him a recipient of another's observations. If the learning intellect is to be guided to its appropriate food, children must master the art of independent observation and direct acquaintance.
• The educational implications of the naturalistic theory holds that good education is pleasurable, thus, methods of teaching should be based upon the belief that the child is not averse to learning, but enjoys it. Teaching methods and materials will appeal to student's natural inclination to learn. Difficult tasks should be made pleasant.
• The natural mode of self-expression is play and learning should be done through cheerful spontaneity and creativity of play. The process of discovery is given importance. The activities like excursions, field trips and practical experiments are recommended to enhance learning.
• Pupil activity should be in form of recitation or written and oral examinations.
• Naturalism maintains that all teaching methods should be based on experience. Since, they rely on the inductive method; they insist that the first criterion for judging the value of a teaching method should be based on self-activity of the pupil finding the answers for himself.
• The pupil himself must observe nature in order to find facts and discover answers to his problems. All teaching methods should be characterized by pupil activity involving direct experience; the pupil must educate himself.
• A second characteristic of naturalistic teaching-learning methods is found in their conformity to the natural development of the pupils. It means readiness of the organism for any given learning. Negatively stated, this principle means that it is not the teacher or society that determines what the child should learn, but his own developmental level. Positively stated, it means that when the organism is ready for a certain type of learning activity, it will seek in naturally, that is, without being forced by the teacher or by adult society. Thus the pupil will learn about his physical environment when his interests and instincts lead him to such learning; boy-girl relationships will be developed when 18children reach the age for such relationships; pupils will learn to read when they are ready.
• A third characteristic of naturalistic methodology is that all educational activities should be enjoyable to the child. The tasks assigned by traditionalist teachers were designed to discipline the student and therefore were considered unpleasant by the student, but the naturalist felt that any task that is against interest of pupil should be avoided.

Method of Teaching
• Learning by doing: Naturalists are not in favour of direct teaching through lectures of textbooks. In place of book-learning, they emphasize the value of concrete objects. They advocate the direct experience of things and believe in the principle of ‘learning by doing’. Rousseau says, ‘Give to your pupil no verbal lesson’. He should be taught experience alone. Teaching by doing whenever you can and fall back on words when doing is out of the question. Book knowledge should be as little as possible. In the study of language, direct method of teaching is advocated to ensure the vocabulary of a student. In the teaching of science and mathematics, Heuristic method is emphasized, in a place of ‘chalk-and-talk’ procedure. Geography is to be taught with practical through actual excursion and observation.
• Play-way method: The naturalists advocate play-way as another important method of imparting education. Its underlying principle is that all learning should take place in the spirit and by the method of play-way. It is, therefore, regarded as the most natural and most outstanding method of creative education. It creates the spirit of joyful, spontaneous and creative activity.
• Observation and experimentation: The naturalists criticize the time-table, and disfavour any type of rigidity in the daily time schedule. So they have devised such schedules as the Dalton plan, which gives freedom to the pupils to choose his own schedule of work. They learn through observation and experimentation.
• Self-government and self effort: The naturalists also emphasize open-air schools, self government in schools and the establishment of coeducation in educational institutions. Self-government will give direct experience of social life while coeducation will develop the right type of family and community life. Thus, the contribution of naturalism to the field of modern methodology of education is most outstanding and most abiding.

Concept of Discipline
• Punishment should be constituted by the natural consequences of wrong deeds; should be certain, but tempered with sympathy. As we should teach in accordance with the rhythms of nature, so we should also punish as nature punishes.
• Naturalism aims at making education free from the bondage of rigid discipline under which children were tortured.
• The freedom of child disciplines him and he is naturally controlled by his own learning and experiences. It is believed that discipline is regulated by natural consequences.
• The situation will provide a form of innate discipline that should replace that of the teacher. To illustrate, a child learns to avoid hot objects because he has experienced the discomfort and pain which follow his touching them, the pupil learns to cooperate with other pupil when he finds himself excluded by his classmates. For example, every time a child puts his finger into the candle flames he gets a burn. Always it happens; always it is a burn. There are no harsh words, no snapping and snarling, just a burn proportionate to the size of the flame and the extent and duration of the contact. By this means nature quickly teaches the normal child the dangers of fire, and exemplifies for parents and teachers what is desirable in corrective relations with children.

Weakness of Naturalism in Education
• Naturalism in its extreme form neglects books and other media. It is very difficult to assume that we can neglect the vast quantities of printed materials.
• Physical nature alone is not sufficient for providing, education.
• Absolute freedom to child is a myth. It cannot exist. Child cannot be allowed the freedom to hang himself.
• Naturalism ignores the higher ends in the education process.
• It is very difficult to find naturalistic surroundings for locating educational institutions.
• Naturalism plays very little importance to the teacher in the educative process.

REALISM IN EDUCATION

Introduction
For the realist, the world is as it is, and the job of schools would be to teach students about the world. Goodness, for the realist, would be found in the laws of nature 19and the order of the physical world. Truth would be the simple correspondences of observation. The realist believes in a world of things or beings (metaphysics) and in truth as an observable fact. The realist would tend to view the learner as a sense mechanism, the teacher as a demonstrator, the curriculum as the subject matter of the physical world (emphasizing mathematics, science, etc.), the teaching method as mastering facts and information, and the social policy of the school as transmitting the settled knowledge of western civilization.

Aims of Education and Realism
• Realists do not believe in general and common aims of education. According to them, aims are specific to each individual and his perspectives. The aim of education should be to teach truth rather than beauty, to understand the present practical life. The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world.
• The science realists expressed that education should be conducted on universal basis. Greater stress should be laid upon the observation of nature and the education of science. Neo-realists aim at developing all-round development of the objects with the development of their organs.
• The realist's primary educational aim is to teach those things and values which will lead to the good life. But for the realist, the good life is equated with one which is in tune with the overarching order of natural law.
• Thus, the primary aim of education becomes to teach the child the natural and moral law, or at least as much of it as we know, so that his generation may lead the right kind life; one in tune with the laws of the universe. There are, of course, more specific aims which will lead to the goals already stated. For example, realists set the school aside as a special place for the accumulation and preservation of knowledge.
• The aim of education, as the realist sees it, is fourfold: to discern the truth about things as they really are and to extend and integrate such truth as is known, to gain such practical knowledge of life in general and of professional functions in particular as can be theoretically grounded and justified; and, finally, to transmit this in a coherent and convincing way both to young and to old throughout the human community.

Realism and Objectives of Education
The objectives of education according to Realism are as follow:
• Equipping students with knowledge and skill needed to understand and master their physical environment.
• Enabling students to adjust themselves to the realities of the physical world and to adjust with adult approved behaviour.

Realism and the Child
• Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. The child is a real unit which has real existence. He has some feelings, some desires and some powers. All these cannot be overlooked. Child can reach near reality through learning by reason. Child has to be given as much freedom as possible. The child is to be enabled to proceed on the basis of facts. The child can learn only when he follows the laws of learning.
• The child is to be understood a creature of the real world there is no sense in making him a God. He has to be trained to become a man only. To the realist, the student is a functioning organism which, through sensory experience, can perceive the natural order of the world. The pupil, as viewed by many realists, is not free but is subject to natural laws.
• The pupil must come to recognize and respond to the forced order of nature in those cases where he cannot control his experiences, while learning to control his experiences where such control is possible. At its most extreme, the pupil is viewed as a machine which can be programmed in a manner similar to the programming of a computer.

Realism and the Teacher
• According to realist, the teacher is simply a guide. The real world exists, and the teacher is responsible for introducing the student to it. To do this he uses lectures, demonstrations, and sensory experiences, The teacher does not do this in a random or haphazard way; he must not only introduce the student to nature, but show him the regularities, the ‘rhythm‘ of nature so that he may come to understand natural law.
• Both the teacher and the student are spectators, but while the student looks at the world through innocent eyes, the teacher must explain it to him, as well as he is able, from his vantage point of increased sophistication. For this reason, the teacher's own biases and personality should be as muted as possible. In order to give the student as much accurate information as quickly and effectively as possible, the realist may advocate the 20 use of teaching machines to remove the teacher's bias from factual presentation.
• The whole concept to teaching machines is compatible with the picture or reality as a mechanistic universe in which man is simply one of the cogs in the machine. A teacher should be such that he himself be educated and well-versed with the customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places.
• He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life. He must guide the student towards the hard realities of life. He is neither pessimist, nor optimist. He must be able to expose children to the problems of life and the world around.
A teacher should always keep in mind:
• Education should proceed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract.
• Students to be taught to analyze rather than to construct.
• Vernacular to be the medium of instruction.
• Individual's experience and spirit of inquiry is more important than authority.
• No unintelligent cramming. More emphasis on questioning and understanding.
• Re-capitulation is necessary to make the knowledge permanent.
• One subject should be taught at one time.
• No pressure or coercion is brought upon the child.
• The uniformity should be the basic principle in all things.
• Things should be introduced first and then the words.
• The entire knowledge should be gained after experience.
• There should be a correlation between utility in daily life and education.
• The simple rules should be defined.
• To find out the interest of the child and to teach accordingly.

Realism and Curriculum
‘According to humanistic realism, classical literature should be studied but not for studying its form and style but for its content and ideas it contained.
• Subject matter is the matter of the physical universe-the real world-taught in such a way, as to show the orderliness underlying the universe. The laws of nature, the realist believes, are most readily understood through the subjects of nature, namely the sciences in all their many branches.
• The highest form of this order is found in mathematics. Mathematics is a precise, abstract, symbolic system for describing the laws of the universe. Even in the social sciences we find the realist's conception of the universe shaping the subject matter, for they deal with the mechanical and natural forces which bear on human behaviour.
• Sense-realism focuses on more importance to the study of natural sciences and contemporary social life. Study of languages is not so significant as the study of natural sciences and contemporary life.
• Neo-realism gives stress on the subject physics and on humanistic feelings, physics and psychology, sociology, economics, ethics, politics, history, geography, agriculture varied arts, languages and so on, are the main subjects to be studied according to the neo-realists.

Realism and Methods of Teaching
• The method of the realists involves teaching for the mastery of facts in order to develop an understanding of natural law. This can be done by teaching both the materials and their application. In fact, real knowledge comes only when the organism can organize the data of experience.
• The realist prefers to use inductive logic, going from the particular facts of sensory experience to the more general laws deducible from these data. These general laws are seen as universal natural law.
• When only one response is repeated for one stimulus, it is conditioned by that stimulus. Now wherever that situation comes, response will be the same; this is the fact.
For Herbart, education was applied psychology. The five-step method he developed was as follows:
Preparation: An attempt is made to have the student recall earlier materials to which the new knowledge might be related. The purpose of the lesson is explained and an attempt is made to arouse interest in the learner.
Presentation: The new facts and materials are set forth and explained.
Association: A definite attempt is made to show similarities and differences and to draw comparisons between the new materials and those already learned and absorbed into the apperceptive mass.
Generalization: The drawing of inferences from the materials and an attempt to find a general rule, principle, or law.
Application: In general, application means working of academic exercises and problems based on both the new and relevant information.
21

Realism and Discipline
• Discipline is adjustment to objectivity. It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust himself to his environment and concentrate on his work. Bringing out change in the real world is impossible. The student himself is a part of this world. He has to admit this fact and adjust himself to the world.
• A disciplined student is one who does not withdraw from the cruelties, tyrannies, hardships and shortcomings pervading the world. One has to adjust oneself to this material world.
• The student must be disciplined until he has learned to make the proper responses. One tiny grain of truth is worth more than volumes of opinion.

HUMANISM IN EDUCATION
‘The four characteristics of humanism are curiosity, a free mind, belief in good taste, and belief in the human race.’
EM Forster

Introduction
Humanism is a belief that individuals control their own destinies through the application of their intelligence and learning. According to Humanism, Fundamental principles of education in Humanism are self evaluation, feelings and environment. Self-evaluation is the only meaningful evaluation of a student's work, Feelings are as important as facts, Students learn best in a non-threatening environment. Humanism believes in respect for ancient culture, respect for intellectuals and literary scholarship and respect for language.

Humanism and Aims of Education
As described by Gage and Berliner (1991), there are five basic objectives of the humanistic view of education:
• According to humanism, teacher is expected to be well read, well trained in humanities, and all subjects.
• Promote positive self-direction and independence (development of the regulatory system).
• Develop the ability to take responsibility for what is learned (regulatory and affective systems).
• Develop creativity (divergent thinking aspect of cognition).
• Curiosity (exploratory behaviour, a function of imbalance or dissonance in any of the systems).
• An interest in the arts (primarily to develop the affective/emotional system).

Humanism and Concept of Teacher
There are a variety of ways teachers can implement the humanist view towards education. Some of these include:
• Allow the student to have a choice in the selection of tasks and activities whenever possible.
• Help students learn to set realistic goals.
• Have students participate in group work, especially co-operative learning, in order to develop social and affective skills.
• Act as a facilitator for group discussions when appropriate.
• Be a role model for the attitudes, beliefs and habits you wish to foster. Constantly work on becoming a better person and then share yourself with your students.
• Unlike traditional educators, humanistic teachers do not separate the cognitive and affective domains.

Humanism and Curriculum
• This philosophy emphasize on music, literature and education about moral values.
• The classical part of the curriculum is made up of at least two-thirds of the program. History, philosophy, and mythology were normally treated in the context of the classical literature. Religion was taught as a separate subject.
• Physical education was extracurricular and usually part of organized sports activities. Attendances at mass and devotional exercises were required at boarding schools and sometimes of day scholars.
• These schools have no place for ‘intellectual lightweights. ‘ Satisfactory completion of this course of studies opened the door to the universities and to positions of leadership in the government.

Humanism and Concept of Student
• Learner must be taught to respect language, and must gain perfection in language.
• Learner is highly motivated and self-directed; assumes responsibility for learning and self-development. His experience has some continuity throughout changing events and places and in order to explain this, we must recognize that the self is a common factor in all of these experiences.
• The learner possesses a unique selfhood, self-realization supplements, and freedom as such with value concerns.
• The student is an experiencing organism capable of using intelligence to resolve its problems. He learns as he experiences; as he does and as he undergoes. 22As a thinking organism his experiences and his reflections upon those experiences become a part of him determining his likes, dislikes, and the future direction of his learning.
• The humanist views the student as a whole organism constantly interacting with the environment.
• Humanism in education recognizes the importance of the child. The child is a real unit which has real existence.

Humanism and Concept of Discipline
• Discipline is adjustment to objectivity. It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust himself to his environment and concentrate on his work. Bringing out change in the real world is impossible.
• The student himself is a part of this world. He has to admit this fact and adjust himself to the world. A disciplined student is one who does not withdraw from the cruelties, tyrannies, hardships and shortcomings pervading the world.
• According to Humanism, One has to adjust oneself to this material world.

Humanism and Achievement Evaluation
• Very vigorous oral and written exams were administered to determine whether the student should pass on to the next level. For these tests the student was expected to know all the vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and literary selections of each level.
• Humanistic educators believe that grades are irrelevant and that only self-evaluation is meaningful.
• Grading encourages students to work for a grade and not for personal satisfaction.
• Humanistic educators are opposed to objective tests because they test a student's ability to memorize and do not provide sufficient educational feedback to the teacher and student.

EXISTENTIALISM IN EDUCATION
Introduction: Existentialism rejects the existence of any source of objective, authoritative truth about metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. Instead, individuals are responsible for determining for themselves what is ‘true‘ or ‘false,‘ ‘right‘ or ‘wrong,‘ ‘beautiful‘ or ‘ugly.‘ For the existentialist, there exists no universal form of human nature; each of us has the free will to develop as we see fit.

Aims and Objectives of Education and Existentialism
• Existentialism is concerned with liberal education, freeing man from his isolation and his anonymity, freeing his mind from the confusions that prevent him from seeing his situations and his powers.
• According to existentialist, education should make a man subjective and should make him conscious for his individuality or ‘self’. Being self conscious he will recognize his ‘self’ and he will get an understanding of his ‘being’. Individuality lies on self-realization, a motivating force, from an existential perspective; a sense of self-identity is gained by how an individual relates to and values his or her relations.
• The purpose of education is to build character, to optimize potential and creativity and to enhance the quality of life through knowledge, and then from an existentialist perspective bureaucratization needs to be replaced by humanization.
• Every individual is unique. Education must develop in him this uniqueness. It must cater to individual differences. Education must make pupil aware of the infinite possibilities of his freedom and the responsibilities he must bear in life.
• The most important aim in education is becoming of a human person as one who lives and makes decisions about what he will do and be. ‘Human existence and the value related to it is the primary factor in education.
• The ultimate aim of education is to make man conscious of his destination, to give understanding of his ‘being’ and ultimately lead him to his heavenly abode.

Curriculum of Existentialism
• The curriculum should be chosen, sorted out and owned by the learner.
• According to existentialist, Curriculum can be explored as a means of providing students with vicarious experiences that will help unleash their own creativity and self-expression. For example, rather than emphasizing historical events, existentialists focus upon the actions of historical individuals, each of whom provides possible models for the students’ own behavior.
• Existentialism encourages individual creativity and imagination more than copying and imitating established models. In an existentialist curriculum, students is given a wide variety of options from which to choose.
• 23 Existence of individuals must constitute the ‘core of studies‘ both in and out of school.
• The existentialist has made extensive use of the art forms as the media for conveying their beliefs about philosophical matters. The existentialist is not much concerned with the actual courses or subjects in a curriculum.
• The central place is given to ‘humanities’, poetry, drama, music, art, novels etc. as they exert the human impact in revealing man's inherent guilt, sin, suffering, tragedy, death, hate and love. Humanities have spiritual power. Art and literature, they say should be taught, as they represent power of human nature.
• History should be taught in order to help the students to change the course of history and to mould future.
• Scientific subjects and mathematics should be included in the curriculum but they should not be given more stress, as they deal with objective knowledge. Self-knowledge precedes universal knowledge.

Instructional Methodology
• In reality, the way in which subject matter is handled seems to be more important to the existentialist than the subject matter itself.
• Existentialist methods focus on the individual. To recognize the ‘individual differences’ and wish to have diverse curricula suiting the needs, abilities and aptitudes of the individual, Learning is self-paced, self-directed, and includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly.
• Any teaching method must place the responsibility for choosing what to learn and learning depends on the individual. This assumption is entirely in harmony with the existentialist's insistence upon the absolute freedom of the individual. Obviously, an self-respecting existentialist would employ the traditional lecture-recite-assign-test method. He would reject with equal zeal the problem-solving method of instrumentalism because of its social emphasis. Any method which fosters group thinking or group action would be alien to the existentialist.

Concept of Teacher
• The teacher's role is to help students define their own essence by exposing them to various paths they may take in life and creating an environment in which they may freely choose their own preferred way.
• There are five characteristics of this ideal that are formulated by this existential framework. These include becoming more authentic, more spiritual, having a critical attitude, having a clear sense of personal identity and a developing empathetic awareness towards others.
• The teacher's characteristic of being ‘open’ to possibilities includes a willingness to allow others to re-evaluate those aspects of one's understandings that can be articulated. If one chooses to ‘close’ oneself off from the criticisms of others, one is no longer teacher. Having, openness, in this regard allows one to come to an understanding of self and others.
• An important characteristic of a teacher is that they have the ability to make judgments with regards to what is worthwhile and valuable in them and in others.
• The teacher must build positive relationships between himself and his students. He should avoid applying labels to children (such as ‘lazy’, ‘slow learner’, etc.) for individuals may indeed come to think of themselves this way. The teacher is also changing and growing as he guides the pupil in his discovery of self.

Concept of Student
• The existentialists want to give full freedom to the child. But the child should know the nature of his ‘self’ and recognize his being and convert imperfection into perfection.
• They do not want the child to become selfish, autocratic and irresponsible. Freedom is needed only for natural development. Education should be provided according to the child's powers and the needs. The child has to make ‘choices’ and decisions.
• Child thrives better when relieved from intense competition, harsh discipline, and fear of failure. Thus each child can grow to understand his own needs and values and take charge of the experiences for changing him. In this way self-evaluation is the beginning and end of the learning process, as learning proceeds, child is freely growing, fearless, understanding individual.
• Primary emphasis must always be on the child, as learner and not on the learning programmed. Child needs positive evaluation, not labels.

Concept of School
• The school should provide an atmosphere where the individuals develop in a healthy way. Any subject in school (even extra activities like athletics, music, etc.) 24can present existential situations for teaching and the development of human beings. The aim of school tasks should be to nurture self-discipline and cultivate self-evaluation.
• Democratic ideals should pervade the school. Democracy must be the soil in which the individual grows. It should be the democracy of unique individuals who value differences and respect one another. Self-government, pupil participation in planning and the encouragement of a free atmosphere characterize the school.
• Mechanization and impersonality should be counteracted in school. Student's timetables and work programmers are computerized. And thus the relationships between the individual students and the school programme become an impersonal one. Besides this, the use of programmed instruction, teaching machines and other equipments tend to decrease the personal contact between teachers and pupils.
• Concern and respect for the individual student should be a feature of the school.

ECLECTICISM
‘Eclecticism is the synthesis or harmonious blend of the diverse philosophies of education. It is the process of pulling out and putting together of the useful and essential aspect of various philosophies of education.
Introduction: In education eclectic tendency is the tendency to familiarize with different philosophies, to draw best and essential points out of them and to make one harmonious whole and make one new philosophy of education. No school of philosophy meets the entire requirement of varied situations of life. In fact, no educator can be exclusively idealistic, naturalist, or pragmatist. For the modern educationist, it will be beneficial and effective if they make a thorough study of these different schools of philosophy and then relate and rearrange the essential principles into one harmonious whole and thus build their own theory of education with the best material. This would be the basis for eclectic tendency in education.

Areas of Agreement or Eclectic Tendency at Work in Education
• Respect for the child's personality: The respect for the child as an individual and placing him at the centre of educational process, which is the common feature of the most of the modern philosophies of education. Idealism stressed spirituality and absolute values; naturalism emphasizes the matter in man; pragmatism is regarded as sort of compromise between spiritualism and materialism. Eclectic philosophy was formed to make the learner perfect with creative values and adjusting to the changing demands of the society.
• Powerful force of mind: mind is the powerful force in the life of man. Idealists consider mind as the creator of its objects and a discoverer of its own laws. Naturalists believe in the impact of environment on mind. The external world within the environment influences the mind and intellect. Pragmatists view the mind as a functional behavior.
• Free discipline: discipline is only a means and not the end in itself. Self-govt is acceptable of all as a powerful means of inculcating discipline.
• Individual and social development: Individual and social development are important aims of education. Health; command of fundamental processes; worthy home membership; vocation; citizenship; ethical character; enjoyment in freedom; integrating personality.
• Curriculum: Eclectics focusses on life centered curriculum for providing total experiences. It believes in unity of mind in heart of people as divergent tradition of country. Humanities, language skill, mathematics, geography, sciences, grammar, essential skills, desirable attitude and social virtues are included in various curricula.

Methods of Teaching
• Play way method.
• Learning by doing
• Direct experiences through project and problem-solving, etc.

Aims of Education
• Education should give a child a command of the basic processes of learning.
• The child should become an efficient member of the society.
• The development of moral character.
• Promotion of good health.
• Skilful training.
• To prepare a person to take his place in life.
• To be able to think, reason and to adapt himself to his environment.
• Interests and motivation of the child has to be improved.
• The child should be educated in the favourable and congenial environment.

PROGRESSIVISM
25 ‘A typical progressivist slogan is ‘Learn by Doing!’
Introduction: It is an American philosophy which is a revolt against the formal/conventional/traditional system of education. It became popular in USA, in year 1929 which adversely affected the educational system of the country. Education is centered around present life itself. The development of an individual and the society is only possible, when education facilitates the growth of every phase of child.

Exponents
John Dewey; William James; G Thomas Lawrence; William Kilpatric.

Basic Principles of Progressivism
• Emphasis on learning by doing-hands-on projects experimental.
• Strong emphasis on problem-solving and critical thinking.
• Makes students involve in group work and development of social skills.
• Emphasis on practice rather than knowledge.
• Education for social responsibility and democracy.
• Integration of community service and learning projects into the daily curriculum.
• Selection of subject content by looking forward to ask what skills will be needed in future society.
• De-emphasis on textbooks.
• Emphasis on life-long learning and social skills.
• Assessment by evaluation of child's projects and productions.

Aims of Education
• To develop the personality of an individual by providing a democratic environment in the educational institutions.

Progressivism and Curriculum
• It should be based on the actual environment of child. It must reflect his daily life.
• Curriculum includes Political; Moral; Social; Vocational; intellectual; Mathematics; General science, Languages; Integration of experiences.

Progressivism and Methods of Teaching
• Project method: Active participation of the pupils in learning.
• Socialized methods: To bring all the individuals into a group system of interaction.
• Conferences, Consultation, Planning and participation in the activities.

Progressivism and Teacher
• The human elements human beings are given more importance. The teacher has to meet the needs of pupil as good human being.
• The teacher who is vital in education process and having richer, superior experience and can analyze the present situation.
• Teacher will act as a stage setter, guide and coordinator but he is not total authority, just he guides the situation.

Progressivism and the School
School is a cooperative enterprise, it provide conducive environment for democratic growth of the child.

BEHAVIORISM
Person's behavior is the result of environmental conditioning. Man is a passive recipient, who reacts to external stimuli, in his external environment. According to Skinner, each individual is having any ego/‘mind’ centre of consciousness which enable him to choose any course of action, that he wanted to do. Individual's actions are predetermined by his heredity or immediate surroundings because man is not separate from his surrounding environment.
Techniques/Methods of Teaching
• Reinforcement provided by correct answers is a source of encouragement to the slow learners.
• It requires technical proficiency.
• Goals are not kept in mind, in controlling human behavior.
• Modelling, Self-control technique, Assertiveness training, Punishment
• Relaxation technique.

RECONSTRUCTIONALISM
Introduction: Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.

Main Elements of Reconstruction
• National culture and philosophy of life: The aim of reconstruction philosophy shall be to acquaint our students with our culture, customs, civilization, 26literature and history. A person should be acquainted with his national culture and philosophy for his all-round development.
• National education: In our education we have to include national education policy means narrow but broader nationalism. The aim of national education should also be a development of mind and personality which may give rise to the feelings of self-control, self-regard, human love and sympathy in man. It should be the main aim of national education to acquaint man with his duties.
• Duty of government: Educational reconstruction is a difficult task. For that help and interest of the government is necessary. Education takes the nation to the path of progress. So the Government has a great responsibility in this regard. The Government has to come forward in education reconstruction and it has to provide money in its budget.
• Duty of countryman: Along with Government, The leaders in the field of social, political, and educational activities will have to take the lead and participation in educational reconstruction. They will also have to change their outlook and will have to adopt an attitude of respect and honor towards their culture, philosophy, and traditions.

Aims of Education
• The primary aim of education is an all-round development of personality. It mainly includes physical, mental, moral and spiritual development. Along with it, reasoning, thinking, and intelligence should also be developed.
• The aim of education is to develop faith in democratic principles. To inculcate the feelings of social service in the student and create in him the capacity for adoption to environment and earning his living.
• Emotional integration with the people of other states should also be developed. People should also be taught the skill of utilizing their leisure in constructive activities.

Curriculum
• The curriculum will be based on the age, capacity, social status, environment and geographical conditions.
• Free Education: The education should be entirely free and this expenditure should be done by the state up to secondary stage. It is necessary to adopt democratic principles in curriculum and in the administration of educational institutions.

Discipline
• Education should be so organized and conducted that the problem of indiscipline may not arise at all, in the educational institution. For this, qualities like liberalism, tolerance and discretion may be developed in students.

PERENNIALISM
Exponents: Advocates of this educational philosophy are Robert Maynard Hutchins who developed a Great Books program in 1963 and Mortimer Adler.

Aims of Education
• For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understanding about the great ideas of Western civilization.
• These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Teaching these unchanging principles is critical.
• Humans are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Thus, cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile education.
• The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students’ growth in enduring disciplines. The loftiest accomplishments of humankind are emphasized– the great works of literature and art, the laws or principles of science.

PHILOSOPHY OF NURSING EDUCATION
Definition
‘Philosophy of nursing education is the written statement of the believes, values, attitudes and ideas which the faculty as a group agreed upon in relation of the nursing educational program, such as health, disease, nursing, nurse, nursing as a profession, education, learner society, patient, nursing education and preparation of nurse‘.

Factors Influencing Philosophy
Philosophy of nursing education is a perfect combination of philosophy of nursing and philosophy of education, more precisely, philosophy of nursing education is the application of the fundamental belief of nursing and education in the field of nursing education. In the philosophy of education, importance is given to the students. Objectives formulated with a philosophical basis of education focus on the student life and the all round development of student.
27 Summary of all philosophies
Philosophy
Idealism
Pragmatism
Naturalism
Realism
Humanism
Concept of aims of education
Increasing spiritual values by developing moral values
Self-realization
Character development.
Dynamic in nature.
‘Material world is the real world’
Self-preservation
Securing the necessities of life
To prepare the practical man of the world.
Promote positive self-direction, independence
Develop the ability to take responsibility for what is learned
Develop creativity
Curiosity
Concept of teacher
Ideal.
Role model
Intellectually and morally excellent.
Involved in the educative process as are these students.
Helper,
Guide,
Arranger of experiences
Non-interfering observer.
Facilitator of the child's development
Nature is considered to be the best educator.
The teacher is simply a guide.
The real world exists,
The teacher is responsible for introducing the student to real world.
Allow the student to have a choice in the selection of tasks and activities whenever possible.
Help students learn to set realistic goals.
Facilitator
Role model
Concept of student
Strives for perfection
Ambitious
a whole organism constantly interacting with the environment
The natural development of the child.
The child is a real unit which has real existence.
Child can reach near reality through learning by reason
Highly motivated and self-directed
Experiencing organism capable of using intelligence to resolve its problems
The child is a real unit which has real existence.
Curriculum
Based on spiritual nature of man
Not Fixed
According to the requirement of the situations
Child –oriented Curriculum
Science dealing with nature will include Physics, Chemistry, Botany
Physical Education and Health Training
drawing as compulsory
Mathematics is a precise, abstract, symbolic system for describing the laws of the universe.
Emphasis on music, literature and education about moral values.
Concept of discipline
Strict discipline
Purposeful and cooperative activities, carried on in a free and happy environment, are conducive to good discipline.
Education free from the bondage of rigid discipline
Punishment should be constituted by the natural consequences of wrong deeds
It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust himself to his environment and concentrate on his work.
It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust
himself to his environment and concentrate on his work.
Bringing out change in the real world is impossible.
• In the philosophy of nursing, emphasis is placed on the patients. Objectives may have to be formulated to provide comprehensive nursing care by identifying the patient needs, meeting those needs and evaluating the care.
• Philosophy looks at whole and nursing education prepares the students to react to a situation as a whole rather than fragments. For example, while caring a patient with cerebrovascular accident, nursing student has to consider the protective, 28curative and rehabilitative aspects rather than concentrating in any one aspect.
• Since the objectives, policies, academic and administrative control of the institution is based on the reality stated philosophy; statement of philosophy is regarded as the foundation for starting a nursing institute or a nursing educational program. To formulate the philosophy, staff may have to hold several discussions and reach a conclusion regarding what is feasible for students, institution, society and profession.
• The faculty of an institute enjoy all rights to formulate the philosophy based on their beliefs; so a thoughtfully coined philosophy must include the philosophical aspects like learner, society, man, nursing education, health and institution.
• The philosophy will decide the type of student selection process, objectives of the educational programs, curriculum development, type of practical experiences provided to the students, selection and placement of staff, teaching methods and evaluation system.
• Nursing prepare its members professionally through a variety of educational programs and these programs differ from each other in multiple aspects like entering criteria, duration, specialization, program evaluation, etc. each educational program in turn depends upon the philosophy. different for all nursing courses. Hence, philosophy has much importance in nursing education.
• Build right attitude. Even though every phase of nursing education is influenced by the philosophy, the most significant and everlasting influence of philosophy is noticed in the development and nurturing of proper attitude among nursing students towards the patient, community, fellow human beings and professional development. Through cultivating proper attitude, philosophy, plays a dominant role in uplifting the professional image of nursing.
• Advances with time. In the beginning, nursing and nursing education was solely under the influence of super naturalism but the changes in the education system, socioeconomic condition, scientific and technological advancements, and innovations in the health care sector and knowledge explosion motivated the nursing education to consider other philosophies also.

FACTORS INFLUENCING PHILOSOPHY OF NURSING EDUCATION
There are various factors influencing philosophy of Nursing Education. Here is list of factors affecting nursing education:
Fig. 1.3: Factors influencing philosophy of nursing education

CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION
Education has following characteristics:
• A tripolar process
• A bipolar process
• A continuous and life long process
• A process of individual development
• A deliberate process
• A dynamic process
• Preserver and transmitter of heritage
• A science as well as an art
• It is progressive

FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION IN INDIVIDUAL IN PRESENT CONTEXT – INDIVIDUAL AND NATIONAL CONTEXT

Functions of Education in Individual Life
2. Making the man civilized
3. Satisfaction of Needs
4. Vocational efficiency
5. Achievement of material prosperity
6. Achievement of self sufficiency
7. Development of character
8. Development of personality
9. Preparation for life
10. Creation of Good citizens

Functions of Education in National Life
2. National development
3. Emotional integration
4. Inculcation of civil and social duties
5. National Integration
6. Training for Morality
7. Supply of skilled manpower
8. 29Priority of National Interest
9. Promotion of social efficiency

Dimensions of National Development are mainly four-fold
• Economic Functions:
• Building a socialistic pattern of society
• Ensuring increased wages for all
• Bridging the gap between the rich and the poor
• Village and rural upliftment
• Urban development
• Ensuring full and proper employment for every individual
• Political Functions:
• Individual liberty of thought and speech
• Freedom of association
• Due process of law and equality before law
• Right to vote
• Parliamentary democracy
• Social Functions:
• Rising above caste system
• Respect for women
• Cultural Functions:
• Basis of entire fabric of national progress
• Integration and solidarity
• Signifies the implementation of the principles of unity in diversity
• Values ingrained – Co-operation, Co-existence, Spirit of harmonious living.
• Every individual – a significant link in human chain
• Developing a global concern for mankind as promoting modernization and Social change (modern civilized social order).

IMPACT OF SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL, POLITICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES ON EDUCATION

Introduction
Change is the law of nature. The word ‘change’ denotes the difference in anything observed over some period of time. Everything changes, every organism grows, every life flows. The society composed of human beings also undergoes changes. These changes occur in its cultural pattern, in its structure and consequently in its members. Society is the web of social relationships, therefore observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time. This process of change is quite complicated and needs a careful understanding. Education and society are closely related to each other. The report of the Indian Education Commission, appropriately entitled Education and National Development 1966, forcefully stated, ‘Education cannot be considered in isolation or planned in a vacuum. It has to be used as a powerful instrument of social, economic and political change.’ Let us understand the impact of various changes such as social, economical, political and technological changes on Education.

Impact of Social Changes on Education
Education performs several social functions. Starting from the socializing role in a family, its tasks cover areas like economic organization, social stratification and political ideas. Education emerges out of the needs of society. Social change means replacing the old with new in the society. It can be a modification of the old also if not total replacement. It can be a new mode of thought, a new attitude towards work, wealth, worship, a new behaviour pattern and so on. Education also plays a dynamic role in society. It performs the function of an initiator of social change. It not only generates new ideas and values, but also transmits them to the younger generation.
• The formal educational agencies such as the school has become a social necessity for providing special learning. It makes possible the accumulation and transmission of knowledge on a large scale. Whatever a student learns in school is a part of the cultural heritage of the society. This process of learning moulds and develops the personality of the young members of the society.
• Education trains people to develop new ideas and adjust to a changing environment. Parents and family play an informal role in education. In every society, the process of socialization of a child occurs within the family. But, the complex skills and specialized tasks cannot be provided to a child at home. Therefore, the role of the family gets restricted to only primary socialization.
• Modern education fosters liberal values such as equality, freedom and scientific temper. It cultivates awareness against inequality, social deprivation and all sorts of discrimination. Education thus empowers people to demolish the closed system of stratification and opens it up for social transformation. Moreover, modern education facilitates occupational mobility by creating new occupational opportunities.
• There is a direct relationship between culture and education. While culture gives identity to a society, education sustains it. Cultural elements of society are preserved and disseminated through education from one individual to another and also from one generation to another.
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Impact of Political Changes on Education
The political system is another important dimension in which education plays an important role. Both political system and educational system directly influences each other. In other words, ideology, values and goals work upon the politics of the time. The ideals of democracy, socialism, secularism and social justice have essentially grown in the modern times because of educational development. In India, the educated and enlightened people, for example, provided the leadership in the struggle for freedom.

Impact of Economical Changes on Education
The educational system also diversifies the economic system. Education helps to promote economic growth in terms of human resource development. The educational system provides skills and training for different occupations. It prepares younger people for occupying different positions according to education and skills. It is because of the specific economic needs of different countries that they have different educational priorities. In order to achieve this goal, investment in education is regarded as a means to improve human resources that promotes economic growth.

Impact of Modernization on Education
Education can perform the function of an initiator of change. It inculcates in the younger generation, whatever changes are desirable for rebuilding a society. Education cultivates necessary intellectual and emotional readiness to deal with the challenges of change. Education is an important instrument of modernization. Modern values in social, economic and political spheres have to be instilled in the minds of people to achieve the goal of modernization. Values such as equality, liberty, scientific temper, humanism pave the way for modernization. This task can be effectively performed by education.

EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AND NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY
After independence the Indian leaders realized the inherent defects in the system of education introduced by the British. Universalisation of education was the need of the hour. Education must be linked with national development in all directions. With these national goals in view, the government in independent India set-up different committees and commissions for educational reforms in the desired lines. These committees and commissions have formulated educational aims and objectives.

Development in Education Reforms
Indian University Commission: Just after independence, an education commission was set up to inquire into the various problems of education, particularly higher education, and to recommend proposals for its improvements. It is commonly known as Radha Krishnan Commission as in 1948-1949. This Commission has given many important recommendations regarding higher education. It has also formulated the aims of education in India.
Secondary Education Commission
For reconstruction of Secondary Education
• Secondary Education Commission was set-up (1952-53) under the chairmanship of Dr Lakshmanswami Mudaliar, a noted educationist and Ex-Vice Chancellor of the Madras University. The Commission has made important recommendations for the reconstruction and development of secondary education in the country.
• The Indian Education Commission on Educational Aims (1964-66): In July 1964, the Government of India set-up an Education Commission to overhaul and reconstruct the entire field of Indian education under the chairmanship of Dr DS Kothari. The Commission submitted its comprehensive report on July 1966.
• National Policy of Education, 1968: The government of India after considering the report of the Education Commission tried to formulate a national policy of education. With this report, the Parliamentary Committee on education was set-up in 1967. This Committee approved the recommendations of the Education Commission and formulated a national policy of education in 1968.
• The National Policy on Education was framed in 1986 and modified in 1992. NPE was based on a national curricular framework which contains a common core (which was flexible), consisting of history of India's freedom movement, the constitutional obligations and other content essential to nurture national identity. It was designed to promote values such as democracy, secularism, equalities of sexes, protection of environment, removal of social barriers etc.
• Since then several changes have taken place that calls for a revision of the Policy. The Government of India would like to bring out a National Education Policy to meet the changing dynamics of the population's requirement with regards to quality education, innovation and research, aiming to make India a knowledge super power by equipping its 31students with the necessary skills and knowledge and to eliminate the shortage of manpower in science, technology, academics and industry.
• For the first time, the Government of India is embarking on a time-bound grass roots consultative process, which will enable the Ministry of HRD to reach out to individuals across the country through over 2.75 lakh direct consultations while also taking input from citizens online A forum for involving citizens in the public policy and governance process was launched by Prime Minister on 26th July, 2014. Thirty three thematic topics already under discussion since 26th Jan., 2015.
• These themes are for consultation on Higher Education are Governance reforms for quality, Ranking of institutions and accreditations, Im-proving the quality of regulation, Pace setting roles of central institutions, Improving State public universities, Integrating skill development in higher education, Promoting open and distance learning and online courses, Opportunities for technology enabled learning, Addressing regional disparity, Bridging gender and social gaps, Linking higher education to society, Developing the best teachers, Sustaining student support systems, Promote cultural integration through language, Meaningful partnership with the private sector, Financing higher education, Internationalization of higher education, Engagement with industry to link education to employability, Promoting research and innovation, New knowledge.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations.
The scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was launched in 2001. The goals of SSA are as follows:
1. All 6–14 age children in school/Education Guarantee Scheme Center/bridge course by 2003
2. All 6–14 age children complete five year primary education by 2007
3. All 6–14 age children complete eight years of schooling by 2010
4. Focus on elementary education on satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life
5. Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010
6. Universal retention by 2010.
The programme covers the entire country with special focus on education needs of girls, SCs/ STs and other children in difficult circumstances. The programme seeks to open new schools in habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional classrooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grant. The SSA has a special focus on girls and children of weaker sections.
Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education
Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education (EGS and AIE) are an important component of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) to bring out school children in the fold of elementary education. EGS addresses the inaccessible habitation where there is no formal school within the radius of one km and at least 15–25 children of 6–14 years age group. Alternative education intervention for specific categories of very deprived children e.g., child street children, migrating children, working children, children living in difficult circumstances and older children in the 9+ age group especially adolescent girls are being supported under EGS and AIE all over the country.
Mid-Day Meal Scheme
The National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NPNSPE), popularly known as the Mid-day Meal Scheme, was formally launched on 21st, August 1995. The objective of the programme is to give a boost to universalization of primary education by increasing enrollment, attendance and retention, and also improving nutritional status of children in primary classes studying in government, local body and government-aided schools. From October 2002, the programme has been extended to children studying in Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and other Alternative and Innovative Education (AIE) Learning Centers also. Under the scheme central assistance is provided to states for the following: (a) 100 grams of food grains per child per school per day where there is a meal programme, alternatively three kg per child per month for 10 months, and (b) admissible transport subsidy for transport of food grains from the nearest FCI depot to the school subject to a ceiling of  50 per quintal.
District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)
The centrally sponsored Scheme of District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 as a major initiative to revitalize the primary education system and to achieve the objective of universalization of primary education. DPEP adopts a holistic approach to universalize access, retention and improve learning achievement and to reduce disparities among social groups. DPEP is based on the principle of ‘additionally’ 32and is structured to fill in the existing gaps. The programme components include construction of classrooms and new schools, opening of non-formal/ alternative schooling centers, appointment of new teachers, setting up early childhood education centers, strengthening of State Councils of Educational Training through District Institute of Education and Training (DIETs), setting up of Block Resource Centers/Cluster Resource Centres, teacher training, development of teaching learning material, research based interventions, special interventions for promoting education of disadvantaged groups, girls, SC/ST, etc. initiatives for providing integrated education to disabled children and distance education for teacher training have also been incorporated in the DPEP Scheme.
Operation Blackboard
The scheme of Operation Blackboard (OBB) was launched in 1987-88 with the aim of improving human and physical resource available in primary schools of the country. Provision of at least two reasonably large rooms, at least two teachers and essential teaching/learning materials for every existing primary school were the components of the scheme. The scheme has been merged in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) from 2002-2003.
Lok Jumbish Project
An innovative project ‘Lok Jumbish‘ with assistance from Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) was launched in Rajasthan to achieve education for all through peoples mobilization and their participation. Lok Jumbish Project (LPJ) has set-up innovative management structures incorporating the principles of decentralization and delegation of authority. Services under LPJ includes building partnership as well as building partnership with local communities and the voluntary sectors, intensive community mobilization, and schools mapping, processing as well as development of innovative design for community center school buildings programme.
RMSA was launched in March, 2009 with the vision of making secondary education of good quality available, accessible and affordable to all young persons in the age group 15-16 years. The objective of the scheme is to enhance access and improve quality of education at secondary stage, while ensuring equity. The scheme envisages enhancing the enrollment for classes IX-X by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of every habitation, improving quality of education imparted at the secondary level through making all secondary schools conform to prescribed norms, removal of gender, socio-economic and disability barriers, universal access to secondary level education by 2017, and universal retention by 2020.
Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA)
It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), launched in 2013 aims at providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions. The salient objectives of RUSA are to
• Improve the overall quality of state institutions by ensuring conformity to prescribed norms and standards and adopt accreditation as a mandatory quality assurance framework.
• Usher transformative reforms in the state higher education system by creating a facilitating institutional structure for planning and monitoring at the state level, promoting autonomy in State Universities and improving governance in institutions.
• Ensure reforms in the affiliation, academic and examination systems.
• Ensure adequate availability of quality faculty in all higher educational institutions and ensure capacity building at all levels of employment.
• Create an enabling atmosphere in the higher educational institutions to devote themselves to research and innovations.
• Expand the institutional base by creating additional capacity in existing institutions and establishing new institutions, in order to achieve enrolment targets.
• Correct regional imbalances in access to higher education by setting up institutions in un-served & underserved areas.
• To improve equity in higher education by providing adequate opportunities of higher education to SC/STs and socially and educationally backward classes; promote the inclusion of women, minorities, and differently abled persons.
Janshala Programme
Janshala (GOI-UN) Programme is a collaborative effort of the Government of India and five UN agencies – UNDP, UNICEF, UNESCO, ILO and UNFPE to provide programme support to the ongoing efforts towards achieving UEE. Janshala, a community based primary education programme, aims to make primary education more accessible and effective, especially for girls and children in deprived communities, marginalized groups, SC/ ST minorities, working children and children with specific needs.
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National Council for Teacher Education
The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) was established in August 1995 with a view to achieve planned and co-ordinate development of teacher education system throughout the country and for regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards of teacher education. Four Regional Committees of the Council have been set-up at Jaipur, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, and Bhopal for Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western regions respectively.
National Bal Bhavan
National Bal Bhavan (NBB), New Delhi is an autonomous body fully funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, which was established for children in the age group of 5–16 years. Objectives of the NBB are to enhance the spirit challenge, experiment, innovate and create. National Bal Bhavan was founded by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in 1956.

Development towards Education of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
• Article 46 of the constitution states that, ‘The State shall promote, with special care, the education and economic interests of the weaker sections the people, and in particular of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation.‘ After independence, the Government of India has taken a number of steps to strengthen the educational base of the persons belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
• Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a historic stride towards achieving the long cherished goal of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) through a time bound integrated approach, in partnership with the State. SSA, which promises to change the face of elementary education sector of the country, aims to provide useful and quality elementary education to all children in the 6–14 age group by 2010.
• District Primary Education Programme (DPEP): The thrust of the scheme is on disadvantaged groups like girls, SCs/STs. Working children, urban deprived children, disabled children, etc.
• Janshala: The objective of Janshala is to support the efforts for UEE by providing primary education to the children from SCs, minorities, working children and children with special needs. Janshala emphasizes on active involvement of community in primary education programmes and training viz. Karnataka, Janshala programme is in operation in 139 Blocks of 9 States Orissa, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The programme also covers the cities of Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar, Puri, Cuttack, Jaipur, Lucknow, Ajmer, Bharatpur, Jodhpur and Bhilai.
• National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS): The SC/ST students are given concession in admission fees to the extent of Rs 200 for bridge courses, Rs 250 for secondary courses and Rs 300 for senior secondary courses.

Development towards Quality Improvement in Schools
During the Tenth Plan, it has been decided to introduce a composite Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Quality Improvement in Schools‘. The National Population Education Project (NPEP) was launched in April 1980 with a view to institutionalize population education in the school education system. This was an externally aided project, which was fully funded by United Nations Population Fund. This project is also being implemented in higher and adult education sector.

Environmental Orientation to School Education
• Centrally-sponsored Scheme ‘Environment Orientation to School Education‘ was initiated in 1988-89. The scheme envisages assistance to voluntary agencies for conduct of experimental and innovative programmes aimed at promoting integration of educational programmes in schools with local environmental conditions.
• Improvement of Science Education in Schools: To improve the quality of science education and to promote the scientific temper, as envisaged in the National Policy on Education, 1986, Centrally sponsored Scheme; ‘Improvement of Science Education in Schools‘ was initiated during 1987-78 under the scheme financial assistance was being provided to States/UTs and voluntary agencies. While voluntary agencies were provided assistance for conducting experiments and innovative programmes. States/Union Territories were assisted for provision of science kits to upper primary schools, setting up/upgradation of science laboratories in Secondary/Senior Secondary Schools, library facilities in Secondary/Senior Secondary Schools and Training of Science and Mathematics teachers.

Development towards Integrated Education for Disabled Children
The scheme of IEDC was started in 1974. This scheme provided 100% financial assistance to state, UTs and NGOs to provide facilities for disabled children integrated in the normal schools for books and stationary, uniform, transport allowance, escort allowance, readers 34allowance for blind children, equipment, and salary of teachers recruited for teaching disabled children.

Development in University and Higher Education
Indira Gandhi National Open University
The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) established in September 1985 played very vital role in promotion of open university and distance education system in the educational pattern of the country and for coordination and determination of standards in such systems. The major objectives of the university include widening access to higher education to larger segments of the population, organizing programmes of continuing education. The target groups includes women, physically challenged and people living in backward regions and hilly areas, such as NE, KBK and those predominantly inhabited by tribals and SCs.

Development in Technical Education
The technical education system in the country covers courses in engineering, technology, management, architecture, pharmacy, etc. The Ministry of Human Resource Development caters to programmes at undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels. The technical educational system at the central level comprises, among others, the following: (a) The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), which is the statutory body for proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education system; (b) Seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs); (c) Six Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs); (d) Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangolore; (e) Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IITM), Gwalior; Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT), Allahabad; and its Extension Campus at Amethi; and Pt. Dwarka Prasad Mishra Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur; and (f) Eighteen National Institutes of Technology (NITs) (converted from RECs with 100 percent central funding).

RECOMMENDATIONS OF VARIOUS COMMITTEES PERTAINING TO NURSING EDUCATION
The recommendations given by committees and commission provided guidelines for improvement and growth of nursing education.
Health survey and development committee (Bhore committee 1946)
• Establishment of nursing college
• Creation of an all India nursing council.
• Introduction of a pre –nursing course in the final year curriculum in high schools as an optional subject.
• The training component for nursing was suggested to be divided into junior grade (3 year course with entry qualification as completion of middle school) and Senior grade ( 4 year course inclusive of 1 year midwifery with entry qualification as matriculation.)
Shetty committee (1954)
• The placement of one nurse to 3 patients in teaching hospital and one nurse to 5 patients in other hospitals.
• One midwife to 100 births in rural areas, and one midwife to 150 births in towns, cities, and in contact areas.
• For the public health field, it was recommended to have one public health nurse/ health visitor for 10,000 population.
• Improvement in conditions for training of nurses
• The minimum requirement for admission to be in accordance with regulation of the INC.
Health survey and planning committee (Mudaliar committee 1959-61)
• Three grades of nurses viz. the basic nurses (4 yrs), auxillary nurse midwife (2 yrs) and nurses with a degree qualification
• For GNM, minimum entrance qualification matriculation
• For degree course, passed higher secondary or pre-university
• Medium of instruction preferably English in general nursing
• Degree course should be taught only in English.
• It was recommended to have a department of health administration at the state level, headed by the Director of Health Services.
Mukherjee committee, 1966.
• Training of nurses and ANM'S required for family planning.
Kartar Singh committee, 1972-73
• The course of ANM of two years duration was reduced to 18 months.
• LHV course was reduced to two years from two and a half years.
• Multipurpose health worker scheme
• Change in designation of ANM's and LHV
• Setting up of a training division at the ministry of health and family welfare.
(A high power committee on nursing and nursing profession.)
• Two levels of nursing personnel
• Post basic BSc nursing degree to continue
• Masters in nursing programme to be increased and strengthened
• Doctorate in nursing programme to be started in selected university
• Continuing education and staff development for nurses.
Working group on nursing education and manpower, 1991
• By 2020, GNM programme to be phased out
• The curriculum of BSc nursing to be modified
• Staffing norm should be as per INC
• There should be a deliberate plan for preparation of teachers MSc/M Phil and PhD degrees.
• Improvement in functioning of INC
• Importance of continuing education for nurses.
Fig. 1.4: Impact of various committees on the evolvement of the status of nursing and midwifery in India
Key: CNE: Continuing Nursing Education; NABH: National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers; ISO: International Organization for Standardization; JCI: Joint Commission International; HR: Human Resources.
(Bagga Rajni, Tiwari Ritika, Jaiswal Vaishali, Abraham Asha. The Changing faces of Nursing and Midwifery from ancient to the post-independence period in India. Indian Journal of Continuing Nursing Education. Vol. 14. No. (1), Jan-June 2013. pp. 18)
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Fig. 1.5: Trends in nursing (Twelve five year plan)
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Fig. 1.6: The changing faces of nursing and midwifery in India over the years
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CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN EDUCATION

Introduction
Trends means movement in a particular direction. When we speak of a trend in nursing education, we mean a change currently taking place in nursing education and influencing the profession as a whole. For example, the present trend in nursing education is towards a higher level of education in the basic preparation of a professional nurse. This is a change happening right now and causing the entire profession to move in the direction of higher education for the professional nurse. The knowledge of trends is important for all members of nursing profession Planning for nursing education and nursing services as well as controlling the direction in which the profession moves are only-possible if we are aware of current trends.

Nursing Education in India
At the beginning, people giving nursing care were not formally prepared. They had motivation to serve, but lacked knowledge and reason to serve. However, slowly social reforms led the way for education in all fields. Women were not encouraged to undergo formal education. The social reforms of the 9th century in European countries led to formal preparation of nurses through education. As the medical profession progressed, the importance was laid on formal preparation of nurses.
Modem nursing education started on the basis of Florence Nightingale's work and training plan developed in a school of nursing in London. It is hard to rely that recognized preparation for modern nursing education began with the establishment of Nightingale School of Nursing in London. Nightingale stressed that nursing was not domestic and charitable service, but a respected occupation requiring advanced education.
Evolution of Nursing Education in India
We can summarize the history of nursing education in India as follows:
 1871 School of nursing started in general hospital, Madras. 1886 School of nursing in a full-fledged form was started in JJ hospital, Bombay. 1892 Many hospital in Bombay started nursing associations which were intended to provide additional facilities for the training of local nurses. 1908 TNAI established. 1909 Bombay presidency nursing association was formed. 1910 United board of examination for nurses was organized. 1913 South India Board was organized. 1926 First nurse's registration act passed in Madras. 1935 Madras and Bombay nursing council were established. 1942 ANM program started. 1943 School of nursing at RAK College, New Delhi. 1943 Diploma program in nursing administration started in New Delhi. 1946 Four year BSc nursing program was started in RAK College, New Delhi and CMC, Vellore. 1947 INC act was passed. 1949 INC was established. 1959 MSc nursing programme was started at RAK College. 1963 Post basic BSc nursing program started in various institutions. 1968 MSc nursing in CMC, Vellore. 1972 Basic degree program started in Kerala. 1985 MSc nursing started in CMC, Ludhiana. 1985 IGNOU established. 1986 Curriculum changes for GNM program from three and half years to three years. 1986 M Phil programme started in RAK, Delhi. 1987 MSc nursing started in Kerala. 1987 Separate directorate of nursing was created in Karnataka state. 1988 MSc nursing in NIMHANS, Bangalore. 1992 PhD in RAK College, New Delhi. 1992 Post BSc program started under IGNOU. 1994 MSc nursing at MAHE, Manipal. 1994 Basic BSc nursing program under school of medical education at Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam. 1996 M Phil and PhD at MAHE, Manipal and Kottayam. 2001 PhD at NIMHANS, Bangalore. 2005 PhD in RGUHS, Bangalore, Vinayaka mission, Tamil Nadu. 2005 to 2006 Increased duration GNM from 3 years to 3.5 years. 2006 to 2007 Revised syllabus of ANM. 2011 PhD in Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot. 2015–2016: Revision of GNM syllabus and decrease duration from 3.5 years to 3 years by INC.
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Trends in Nursing Education
A profession is a dynamic integration of the various faculties of knowledge. Since nursing education is a professional education, it is dynamic by its own nature and thereby giving rise to trends. Let us see some of the current trends in nursing education.
• Periodic Revision of Curriculum: Flexible curriculum designs are evolving to facilitate diversity of educational opportunity and overcome barriers of distance and time. These curricula are often competency based, focused on outcome and emphasize on student participation and responsibility for learning. E.g Curriculum duration of diploma GNM has been changed from 3 years and 6 months (internship) to 3 years in 2015.
• Innovation in Teaching and Learning: In nursing education, lots of innovations are taking place in the areas of teaching and learning. Invariably, these innovations lead to intellectual development, personal development and career development. E.g. use of concept mapping.
• Educational Quality Assurance: Educational quality assurance is a process for monitoring and evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of educational provision and to institute remedial measures as and when needed. In India, Nursing Education is flourishing at greater pace; naturally this will lead to dilution in the quality of nursing education in the absence of proper quality control measures. Motivated by this situation, accrediting bodies and nurse educators are expressing deep concern regarding the quality of nursing education. It is high time to prepare a quality index of nursing institutions all over the country by categorizing them into different grade based on the infrastructure and faculty profile.
• More Reliance on Technology: Technology exerts greater influences on nursing education as a tool for teaching and learning. Judicious use of educational psychology in the development and practice of educational technology has increased its user friendly nature considerably.
• Emphasis on High-Tech-High-Touch Approach: High-tech-high-touch approach in nursing care was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of technological advancements in the field of patient care. Present day nursing education is preparing the students to maintain the human elements of nursing while caring the patients with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
• Preparation of Global Nurses: Nursing education is all set to reap benefits created by globalization and liberalization by way of preparing global nurses. Many institutions are preparing students with a global perspective through providing learning experience to each student's knowledge in English along with the attainment of other objectives.
• Trans-National Acceptance: Nursing educational programmes in one nation are widely accepted by other nations. In fact, this trans-national acceptance is the main reason for the development of nursing education in the countries like India.
• Emergence of New Specialties: As par with the development in the medical and new specialties new specialities, the education education is also offering new specialties to meet the needs of the community.e.g Medical Surgical Nursing further has various sub-specialities such as cardio nursing, orthopaedic nursing and many more.
• Increased opportunities for higher education/studies: Nowadays, many institutions are offering various programs such as post certificate BSc nursing, MSc nursing, M Phil, and PhD. An eligible candidate can easily pursue higher education without much time lag.
• Preference of Short-term Clinical Programs Many graduate nurses prefer short term clinical programs of six months like trauma nursing, critical care nursing to upgrade their basic qualification for better career opportunities prevailing in the service sector.
• Potential Shortage of Nurse Educators: As a result of the existing career opportunities in the service sector when compared to the educational side, talented nurses are now opting a career in the service side for better prospects. This may lead to a shortage of nurse educators in the near future. Since the presence of talented nurses in the service sector will do a lot in uplifting the public image of our profession.
• Diminishing Government Role: Shortage of funds coupled with certain policy decisions has prevented the government from investing further in the field of nursing education. Now, the private sector is playing a dominant role in the development of nursing education.
• Uniformity and Standardization: Various universities and nursing boards are conducting nursing programs in a different manner. Even though efforts are on the way bringing about the much needed uniformity and standardization, nothing significant has been achieved so far.
• Enrollment of Men as Nursing Students: Previously, nursing was considered as a profession of females 40only. Less number of males was entering this profession. But now the trends in changing Males are also becoming members of this profession.
• Diversification of Nursing Students: Students have become greatly diverse in terms of age, race, gender, economic status, learning style etc.
• Computers in Nursing Education: Computers are used in all the fields with the advent of advanced technology. Also, in nursing there is wider use of computers for different purposes. That's why computer education has been introduced in nursing curriculum
• University based Education: Previously, the GNM and ANM courses were offered in Schools of Nursing that were not affiliated to any University. Now, B.Sc. Nursing and M.Sc. Nursing courses are being offered to nursing students in the colleges of Nursing affiliated to universities, e.g.: Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot in Punjab
• Expanded Nursing Literature: Nursing literature has greatly expanded with new books, journals, annual reviews, standards and policy statements
• Advanced Nursing Courses: Previously, the nursing courses offered to nursing students were preparing them for first line nursing posts, i.e. clinical nursing. But now the advanced nursing courses like M.Sc. Nursing and Ph.D Nursing have been started which prepare nurses for the posts of nursing educators and nursing administrators
• Community Health Oriented Nursing Education: Previously, there was more emphasis on education related to care of hospitalized patients. Nowadays community health oriented nursing education has also been given emphasis in curriculum of nursing education.
• More Experienced Teaching Staff: More experienced and educated staff is now available in nursing institutes for teaching nursing students. This has been possible due to the introduction of advanced courses in nursing.
• Proficiency Scoring: Nursing is a profession which develops and refines the skills of students; clinical performance appraisal of nursing students is a tough challenge for the evaluators. The introduction of proficiency scoring in nursing education has eased the job of nurse educators.
• Research in Nursing Education: one of the criteria for a profession is research. The nursing profession is evolving at a rapid pace, not only in service domain, but also in education and research field. Nurses should be prepared to do research so that they can gain insight into nursing problems. Research has become a major area in curriculum of nursing education.
• Periodic Revision of Curriculum: Accrediting bodies of respective countries are revising the curriculum of nursing education from time to time, for example, INC in India. This is required so that the nurses can be prepared according to the changing needs of society, emerging health problems, advanced technology used in healthcare facilities etc.
• Distance Education in Nursing: Different universities all over the world have started offering nursing courses through distance education. For example, in India IGNOU has started the B.Sc. Nursing post basic nursing course.
• Collaboration with Foreign Universities: Collaboration with different foreign universities has been established. The students who have successfully completed the basic course in nursing and fulfil the requirements are sponsored to foreign universities for further education.
• Privatisation of Nursing Education: A large number of nursing institutes are being established in private sector. This has resulted in flourishing of nursing education thus strengthening the nursing profession.
• Integration of Theory and Practice in Nursing Education: Nursing is a profession, which emphasizes the knowledge and skills related to patient care. Therefore, nowadays there is more stress on integration of theory and practice in nursing education.
• Nursing Theories in Nursing Education: Nursing theories should be applied for providing effective nursing care to patients. So, the nurses should be equipped with knowledge of these nursing theories. Nursing theories have become an important component in curriculum of for nurses.
• Advanced Educational Technology: Advanced educational technology, media like OHP's, slide projectors, computer models etc. are now used by nursing teachers to provide effective learning experiences to students.
• Emphasis on Legal Aspects in Nursing: Consumers in today's world have become more aware due to the Consumer Protection Act. Therefore, the nurses should be provided in depth information about legal aspects in nursing. Legal aspects in nursing are also included in the curriculum for nurses.
• Introduction of OSCE: For making the clinical evaluation more objective, Objective, Structured Clinical Evaluation has been introduced by nursing teachers. This has proved to be very beneficial.
• 41 Accreditation of Nursing institutes: All the nursing institutes need to get accreditation from State Nursing Council and INC periodically. This is required for checking that all the required facilities for providing nursing education are being fulfilled..
• Quality Assurance in Nursing Education: More emphasis on provision of quality education to the nursing students is also an important trend. for achieving this, the governing bodies have established the standards of nursing education. Periodic inspections of nursing institutes are also carried to see whether the educaton is provided according to these standards. Universities and SNRC has made facilities for surprise inspections to maintain standards as established by INC
• Self-Evaluation: Previously, the evaluation was totally the duty of teachers. But as the trend is changing. Self-evaluation by students is also given emphasis so that the students will get more insight of his or her performance.
• Financial Assistance from Government and International Agencies: Government agencies and international agencies have started giving financial aid to the nursing institutes for promotion of nursing education for example. Ministry of health and family welfare and WHO are providing funds to National Institute of Nursing Education, PGIMER, Chandigarh for organizing workshop.
• Scholarships and Awards for Students: Scholarships and awards are given to the students who secure distinguished positions at different levels like college level, university level, state level and national level. For example, TNAI grant scholarships like TATA Memorial Scholarship Fund, Kapadia Memorial Fund etc.
• Pedocentric: Student is a focus of the present day education system. The interest is shifted from the subject matter to student and the teaching learning process is largely directed by the nature and needs of learners.
• Teacher's role: This shift in emphasis from the teacher to the pupil in the process of education and the carrying out of instructional activites with the realization of specific and clear cut learning outcomes.
• Education for equality.
• Evidenced based teaching-learning/research in education.
• Tele-education: Activity centered and Creative education
• Increased acceptance of non-formal type of education
• Women education.
• Vocational education
• Methods of appraisal: e.g. replacement of scoring system with grading system
• Innovation in teaching-learning methods
• Commercialization of education
• International nurses mobility.
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