Tuberculosis: Selected Problems Violeta V Mihailovic Vucinic, Dragana M Jovanovic
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart,and t refer to table.
A
Abdomen
computed tomography scan of 140, 181f
ultrasound 72
Abscess formation 63f
Acid-fast bacilli 5, 5f, 57, 64, 69f, 70f, 77, 106, 135, 157, 172, 180, 190, 207, 215, 258
smears, microscopy of 6t
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome 77, 170, 105, 128, 226, 287, 298
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 134
Adalimumab 230
Addison's disease 135
Adenopathy
bilateral hilar 178f
intrathoracic 103f
ipsilateral hilar 98f
Adenosine deaminase 90, 158160, 207
and lysozyme, estimation of 90
levels, diagnostic utility of 144
Adrenaline 86
Adverse drug reactions 282
Adynamia 173
Airway
fistulas 81
benign 85
occlusion of 84
peripheral 54f
stenosis 87
Alcohol use 249
Alcoholism, chronic 281
Alkaline phosphatase levels 132
Alopecia 286
drug-induced 286
American Thoracic Society 42, 44
Amikacin 16, 200, 284
Amoxicillin 194, 196, 270, 285
Amplified molecular tests 65
Ancillary diagnostic tests 66
Anemia 97, 134
Animacula 128
Anorexia 97, 173, 206, 223
Antigens, mycobacterial 115
Antirejection drugs 35
Antiretroviral therapy 27, 70, 197
Anti-T-cell antibodies 119
Anti-tuberculosis
chemotherapy 298
drugs 185, 187, 217, 266, 267, 281, 283, 286
adverse effects of 281, 287
causative 282
common adverse effects 284t
dosages 218t, 284t
first line 268t, 281, 282t, 283t
major side effects 218t
second-line 283
therapy 136
treatment 69f, 147, 165f, 215, 302
Anti-tumor necrosis factor 27, 35, 257
Argon plasma coagulation 81, 85f
Artery
bronchial 86
pulmonary 131
Arthralgia 286
Arthritis 182f
rheumatoid 231
Asbestosis 171
Aspartate aminotransferase 132
Aspergilloma 107, 299, 303
Aspergillosis 58, 59f, 231
chronic pulmonary 107, 108, 109f
Aspergillus fungus 303
Aspirates 172
Aspiration, bronchial 79
Asthma, history of 100f
Atrial septostomy catheters 85
Auramine 5, 208
Autoimmune disease 292
Axial contrast enhanced computed tomography 69f
Azaindoles 271
B
Bacillus calmette-guérin 1, 41, 129
vaccinated populations 162
vaccination 66, 307, 314
role of 149
Bacterial cellular membrane 293
Bacterial infection 107, 109f
symptoms of 216
Balloon dilatation 81, 83, 83f
Bedaquiline 194, 196, 201, 271, 285287
Berylliosis 64
Biochemistry tests 301
Biopsy
bronchial 3, 81
endobronchial 7981, 87
role of 143
tissue, joint sensitivity of 158
Blood 3
gas analysis 143
sugar 301
Body fluid evaluation 212
Body mass index 301
Bone marrow biopsy 316f
Borborygmi 216
Bovine tuberculosis 1
Bowel habits, altered 216
Brain, magnetic resonance imaging of 235f
Breast, abscess of 227
Bronchial brushing 79
Bronchial stenosis 299
balloon dilatation of 83f
Bronchiectasis 58, 102f, 107, 108, 236f, 238f, 299
Bronchoesophageal fistula 82, 84, 85
computed tomography image of 86f
Broncholithiasis 97
Bronchopneumonia, caseous 51f
Bronchoscopic methods 80t, 87t
Bronchoscopy 56, 78, 79, 91
conventional 77, 78
interventional 77, 81
Brucellosis 64, 132, 160
C
Calmette-guérin strains 10
Cancers 292
Capreomycin 16, 284
Carbon monoxide, diffusion capacity for 142
Cardiovascular disease 110, 292
Cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test 213, 215
Casein hydrolysate 7
Caseous necrosis, small areas of 177f
Cat-scratch lymphadenitis 64
Cavitary formation 53f
Cell
membrane 5
types 291
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2, 44, 91, 310
Central nervous system 131, 133, 200, 214, 227, 283
disorders of 284
Centrifugation 4
Centrilobular nodules, reactivation tuberculosis of 101f
Cepheid geneXpert 66
Cerebral
cortex 214
edema 214
Cerebrospinal fluid 3, 200, 208
Cervical
lymph node 63f, 70f
tuberculosis, complications of 63f
lymphadenitis, mycobacterial 62
lymphadenopathy 72
Chemoprophylaxis 223
Chest
computed tomography 68f, 101, 180f, 236f, 237f, 240f
scans 263f
contrast-enhanced computed tomography of 140f
multislice computed tomography of 178f
radiograph 68f, 70f, 138f, 180f, 263f
X-ray 39, 51f, 53f, 178f, 234f, 236f, 237f, 239f, 240f
lesions 316f
Chlamydia pneumonia 160
Cholecalciferol 291
Choroidal tubercles 145
Chromatography, gas-liquid 11
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 110
Cilastatin 196
Clarithromycin 194, 196, 285
Classical miliary pattern 136f
Clavulanate 194, 196, 285
Clavulanic acid 270
Clofazimine 194, 196, 270, 285
Clostridium difficile colitis 284
Coagulation 301
Collapse-consolidation lesions 219
Combination therapy 310
Computed tomography scan 54, 55f, 99f102f, 157f, 262f
Congenital infection, symptoms of 216
Conjunctiva 62
Connective tissue diseases 231
Consilium 270
Corticosteroids 35, 54, 175, 230
role of 219
Corynebacterium 6
Cough 98f100f, 156f, 206, 223
productive 171
Craniocaudal propagation 236f
C-reactive protein 97
Critical drug concentration 189
Cryotherapy 81, 84, 85f
Cryptococcosis 231
Cyanoacrylate glue, bronchoscopic injection of 86
Cyclophosphamide 230
Cycloserine 196, 200, 222, 270, 284
Cystic fibrosis 259
D
Dangerous addiction 243
Delamanid 194, 196, 271, 285287
Deoxyribonucleic acid 1, 5, 65, 78
Diabetes 130, 232, 252, 292
insulin dependent 309
mellitus 51, 112, 113, 113t, 115, 115b, 229, 269, 281
controlled 96
higher risk of 112
Diarrhea 286
Diarylquinoline 201
Dihydro-nitroimidazooxazole 271
Diospyros
ebenum 243
melanoxylon 243
Directly observed therapy 195
strategy 22
Directly observed treatment short-course 77, 266, 306
Disease-modifying drugs 27
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease 260
Dithiothreitol plus 4
Dizziness 284, 286
Dragging sensation 133
Drug
abusers 314
interactions 281
lymphocyte stimulation test 282
reaction 287
resistant tuberculosis 13, 22, 200, 222, 270, 311
causes of 187
emergence of 306
infection 188
management of 196, 209
risk factors of 187
treatment of 198t, 200, 218t, 269
sensitive tuberculosis, treatment of 218t
susceptibility testing 15, 188, 189, 193, 209, 269
limitations of 194
methods 192t
Dry bronchiectasis 107
Dry cough 101f, 157f
Dysphagia 67
Dyspnea 97, 156
E
Electrocautery 81
Electrolyte 301
disturbances 137
metabolism 288
Emphysema, subcutaneous 136
Empyema 303
mixed 107
Endobronchial tuberculosis 83f, 87, 88f, 105, 106f, 206
types of 87
Endobronchial ultrasound 67, 81, 82
guided transbronchial needle aspiration 80, 87
Enteritis 132
Enzyme
drug-metabolizing 288
linked immunospot assay 313
Eosinophilia 287
Epithelioid cells 176f, 177f
Epitheloid hystiocytes 238f
Ergocalciferol 291
Erythrocytes 179f
Estimated tuberculosis
incidence rates 23f
mortality rates 24f
Etanercept 230
Ethambutol 185, 191, 218, 222, 268, 270, 281283
Ethionamide 16, 196, 200, 222, 270, 284
Extensive pulmonary destruction 56f, 58, 107, 108f
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis 185, 186, 188, 192t, 195, 199, 200b, 201
regimen 199
treatment of 270t
Eye disorders 286
F
Fatigue 156f
Febrile episodes 157f
Fever 52, 100f, 165, 173, 223
mild 206
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy 143
Fibrinogen 86
Fibroblasts 176f
Fibrocavitary
disease, adult type 211f
lung disease 258
Fibrotic lesions 42
Fibrotic tissues 299
Fine needle aspiration cytology 64, 70f, 214
Fistula
bronchopleural 82, 299
esophagomediastinal 67
tracheoesophageal 67
Fixed drug combinations
place of 219
therapy 287
Flexible bronchoscopy 78
Fluorescent staining 208
Fluorochrome stained smears 5
Fluoroquinolones 191, 201, 269, 270
Fluoroscopy 89
Forced vital capacity 142
Forecasting drug adverse effects 288
Fungal infection 64
respiratory 171
Fungus 1
G
Gallium scintigraphy 141
Gamma-interferon 161
Gangrene, pulmonary 58
Gastrectomy 35
Gastric
aspirates 213
lavage 3, 5, 208
Gastrointestinal discomfort 284
Gastrointestinal intolerance 282
Gatifloxacin 196
Giant multinucleated cells 176f, 177f
Gingiva 62
Glycemic control, worsening of 171
Gram-ghost 5
Gram-neutral bacilli 5
Granulie curable 145
Granulie d'Empis 145
Granuloma 34, 238f
formation of 231
necrotic 316f
tuberculous 179f
Granulomatous disease 1, 132
Granulomatous pathology 82
Granulomatous tissues 85f
Guinea pigs 37
H
Hallucinations 284
Headache 284
Heart 137
Helper T-cell 113
Hematogenous dissemination 133
Hemodialysis 35
Hemoptysis 58, 81, 82, 98f, 99f, 107, 302
bronchoscopic interventions for 86
low-grade 107
massive 109f, 299
mild 107
Hepatic injury, risk of 42
Hepatitis
B surface antigen 181
toxic 111, 282
Hepatosplenomegaly 223
High performance liquid chromatography 11
Highly active antiretroviral therapy 70
Histoplasmosis 132, 231
Hot tub lung disease 258
Human immunodeficiency virus 22, 24f, 27, 28, 35, 41, 51, 63, 67, 77, 96, 102, 103f, 128, 146, 170, 199, 205, 225, 228, 249, 257, 269, 298
disease, late stage 78
infection 26, 102, 111, 130, 146, 170, 226, 306
course of 259
treatment of 46
negative 42, 70, 282
positive 36, 38, 42, 227
related disease 23
seronegative 63
status, positive 67
Hybridization assays, solid phase 13
Hydrocephalus 216, 273
Hypergammaglobulinemia 97
Hyperhemia 88f
Hyperkalemia 135
Hyperparathyroidism 230
Hypersensitivity 258, 284
Hypertension, pulmonary 301
Hyperuricemia 286
Hypoalbuminemia 97
Hypocholesterolemia 149
Hyponatremia 97, 135
Hypotension 135
Hypothyroidism 286
Hypoxia 34
I
Imipenem 194, 196
Immune system 25
Immunity, adaptive 112
Immunochromatographic tests 11
Immunodeficient states, clinical spectrum of 225fc
Immunosuppressive agents 129
Immunosuppressive therapy 225
Infarction 214
Infections 292
prevention of 307
risk of 307
Infectious agents 108
Infectious disease 22, 160, 170
Infectious Diseases Society of America 67
Inflammation, granulomatous 57
Infliximab 230
Innate immune system 293
Interferon-gamma release assay 16, 33, 37, 39, 41, 66, 90, 102, 162, 212, 312, 313
role of 142
Interleukin 113
Isoniazid 44, 185, 193, 200, 209, 218, 268, 281283, 310, 311
acetylation status 288
high dose 196
monotherapy 310
prophylaxis 232
Isotonic saline lavage 86
J
Jejunal bypass surgery 35
K
Kanamycin 200, 201, 222, 284
Ketoacidosis 229
Ketosis, development of 229
Kidney 134, 177f, 288, 301
abscess of 227
disease, chronic 35, 230
insufficiency, chronic 51
L
Lactate dehydrogenase, estimation of 90
Langhans cells 176f, 177f
Langhans type, giant cells of 238f
Laser photoresection 81
Latent tuberculosis 33, 43, 44t, 111, 116
diagnosis of 33, 39fc, 142
infection 26, 33, 39, 102, 142, 247, 248, 312, 313
Lavage
bronchial 79
bronchoalveolar 3, 79, 80, 87, 131, 208
Leprosy 64
Leukemia 231
Leukocytosis 97, 288
Levofloxacin 196, 202, 222
adverse effects of 284
Lidocaine 79
Ligase chain reaction 90
Line-probe assays 191
Linezolid 16, 194, 196, 270, 285
Lipopolysaccharide 293
Listeriosis 231
Liver 132, 301
abscess of 227
biochemical disturbances 288
cirrhosis 281
disease, chronic 281
enlargement of 316f
enzymes 148
toxicity 281, 282
Lobectomy
first 298
plus minor resection 301
Low glucose concentration 158
Löwenstein-Jensen medium 9f, 209
Lung 179f
abscesses 171
cancer 105f
decortications of 301
disease
chronic 174
inflammatory 303
parenchymal 97
hemorrhage 300
malignancies 171
parenchyma 234f, 236f, 238f
resection of 300
transplant 118
Lymph node 61, 69f, 70f
axillary 227
biopsy 64
bronchial 50
enlargement 51f, 181f
intra-abdominal 227
intrathoracic 89, 227
left hilar 70f
mediastinal 68f, 69f
pulmonary hilar 179f
regional 206
retroperitoneal 227
right hilar 69f
suprasternal 69f
tuberculosis 61, 214
nontuberculous 71
Lymphadenitis 62
granulomatous 182f
retroperitoneal 132
Lymphadenopathy 223
abdominal 216
mediastinal 178f
paratracheal 70f, 210f
tuberculous 89
Lymphocytes 176f, 177f
atypical 287
Lymphocytopenia, severe 149
Lymphogranuloma venereum 64
Lymphohematogenous dissemination 214
Lymphoma 64, 160, 171
M
Macrolides 271
Macrophages 217
Malaise 165
Malignancy 228
hematological 35
Malignant diseases, treatment of 225
Malnutrition 230, 281
Mantoux procedure 35
Massive pleural adhesions 273
Measles 205
Mediastinal lymphadenitis, diagnosis of 67
Meningitis, tuberculous 133
Meningoencephalitis 273
Meropenem 194, 196, 270
Metabolic disorders 97, 229
Metabolic syndrome 292
Metallic stents, expandable 84
Methotrexate 230, 231
Microabscesses, multiple 136
Miliary nodules 138f, 140f
Miliary tuberculosis 86, 128132, 132t, 134, 135138, 137t, 139, 144, 146, 148, 207, 210f, 235f, 316f
diagnosis of 86, 104
epidemiology of 129
infection 316f
pathogenesis of 130fc, 133
Molecular methods 12, 13, 90
Molecular tests 57, 65
Monoresistance 311
Morphozinamide 185
Moxifloxacin 196, 202, 287
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 29, 29f, 43, 185, 186, 192t, 269, 270t, 299, 314
development of 311
diagnosis of 188
presumptive 194
regimen 196
second-line drugs in 283
treatment 195, 201, 300
Multiple scar formation 63f
Mycobacteria 159, 284
cell wall 4
disease, pulmonary nontuberculous 257
isolation of 64
Mycobacterial stain and culture 159
Mycobacterium 11, 13, 141, 144, 257
africanum 1, 2, 10
avium 258
intracellulare complex 62, 79, 226
bovis 1, 7
canetti 2
caprae 2
chelonae 10
complex 228
drug-resistant 118, 147
flavescens 313
kansasii 38, 62, 258, 313
infection 258
leprae 1
marinum 10, 38, 313
microti 2
nontuberculous 257
pinnipedii 2
riyadhense 38
scrofulaceum 62, 258
szulgai 38, 313
tuberculosis 1, 2, 7, 10, 10f, 13, 15, 17, 33, 34, 37, 45, 46, 56, 57, 61, 62, 64, 65, 71, 87, 96, 112, 113, 113t, 115, 129, 130, 157, 162, 163, 171, 172, 185, 186, 189, 190, 205, 212, 215, 217, 229, 232, 244, 267, 267b, 268, 269, 293, 298, 300, 306, 313
colonies 9f
complex 1, 189, 257
culture of 190
detection of 12, 13, 228
direct test 12
identification of 10, 12
in vitro 226
infection 66, 91, 252, 291, 293295, 306, 313
microbiology of 1
replication 50
specific antigens 33
test 12
transmission 307
xenopi 258
Mycoplasma 160
Myopathy 292
N
N-acetyl-l-cysteine 4
N-acetyltransferase type 2 genotyping 288
National Institute for Clinical Excellence 40, 44
National Tuberculosis Programs on Management of Tuberculosis, guidance for 309fc
Nausea 281
Negative predictive value 41
Neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet 303
Neuropathy, peripheral 221, 282
Neutropenia 283
New anti-tuberculosis drugs
common adverse effects 286t
dosages 286t
Night fever 98f
Night sweats 52, 97, 99f, 156
Nocardia 6
Nodular bronchiectatic disease 258
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 231
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 221
Nontuberculous mycobacteria 1, 41, 57, 61, 62, 190, 257, 312
disease 260, 270
conservative treatment of 260, 260t
diagnosis of 259
infection 66, 102, 259
lung diseases 257
Nuclear imaging techniques 141
Nucleic acid amplification 57, 65, 104, 162
based techniques 12
tests 11, 112, 162, 207
O
Ofloxacin 16
Optic neuritis 282
Oral anti-tuberculosis drugs, second-line 284t
Oral reserve drugs 285t
Organ transplantation 233
Oropharyngeal mucosa 62
P
Pain
abdominal 132
chest 157f
colicky abdominal 216
Pancreas, posterior of head of 181f
Para-aminosalicylate sodium 196
Para-aminosalicylic acid 196, 270, 284
Paradoxical reaction 67
Paradoxical worsening 70f, 164
Parenchymal lesions 316f
Pediatric tubercular lymphadenopathy, diagnosis of 215fc
Pelvis 72
Peptide nucleic acids 6
Perfusion lung scintigraphy 301
Pericarditis, constrictive 273
Pericardium 227
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells 17
Peritonitis 132
Pertussis 205
Phenomena 40
Phototoxic reactions, mild 285
Piringer-Kuchinka lymphadenopathy 64
Pleura 227
Pleural biopsy 163
Pleural effusion 206, 212f
bilateral 138f
Pleural fluid
analysis 157
characteristics 158
cultures 159
elevated 158
Pleurectomy 301
Pleuritic chest pain 53, 165
Pleuropneumonectomy 301
Pneumoconiosis 139
Pneumocystis
carinii 226
jirovecii 148
Pneumolysis, extrapleural 301
Pneumomediastinum 136, 137
Pneumonectomy 298, 301
Pneumonia 171
lower lobe 211f
Pneumothorax 58, 107, 108f, 136
artificial 298
left-sided 136f
Pneumotomy 298
Polymerase chain reaction 65, 80, 90
role of 144
Positive predictive value 41
Posteroanterior chest radiograph 99f, 100f103f, 109f, 108f, 157f, 165f, 166f
Pott's disease 273
Pregnancy 135
Preventive therapy
options 310
target groups 308
Proinflammatory cytokines 34
Prothionamide 16, 196, 200, 201, 270, 284
Pseudoinfections 91
Psoriasis 231
Puerperium 135
Pulmonary disease 61, 104, 257
Pulmonary function
development of 232
tests, role of 142
Pulmonary tuberculosis 52, 53f, 54, 77, 96, 111, 114, 116, 209, 245, 294, 298
diagnosis of 172, 207, 213fc
elective surgical treatment of 302
infection 55f
postoperative management 303
sequel of 304
Purified protein derivative 1, 35
Pus 172
Pyrazinamide 185, 198, 200, 217, 218, 222, 266, 268, 270, 274, 281283, 311
analogs 271
testing 194
Pyrexia of unknown origin 134
Pyridoxine 272
role of 219
Q
Q fever 160
R
Radius, distal parts of 182f
Randomized controlled trials 149
Rapid acetylator 288
Rapid immunochromatographic tests, performance of 10
Rasmussen's aneurysm 97, 107
Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay 14
Renal disease, chronic 174
Renal failure 221
reversible 281
Renal insufficiency 232
chronic 229
Respiratory distress mimicking asthma 206
Respiratory failure
acute 149
signs of 239
Respiratory infection, upper 171
Respiratory specimens 3
Respiratory symptoms 52
analysis of 173
Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program 208, 218t
Rhodamine 5
Rhodococcus species 6
Ribonucleic acid 5
Rifabutin 16, 284
Rifampicin 13, 44, 185, 191, 193, 201, 209, 221, 268, 281283, 310, 311
monotherapy 311
resistant tuberculosis 185
Rifampin 162, 217, 218
Rifapentine 311
long-acting 310
Ruthenium 271
S
Salivary glands 62
Sanatoriums 272
Sarcoidosis 64, 132, 139
Serpentine cord 10f
Serum alkaline phosphatase 227
Serum bilirubin, elevated 132
Shock 221
Short-course chemotherapy 266
Silicosis 35, 171
Single nucleotide polymorphisms 288
Skin 133, 227
abnormalities 287
abscess of 227
induration 36
lesions 133
rash 282
reaction 37
false-positive 102
tests 159
Smoking and tuberculosis 243, 244
disease 245
Sodium hydroxide 4
Soft tissue 227
Solid culture media 7
Solid organ transplant 117, 118
Sparfloxacin 267
Spleen 132, 316f
enlargement of 316f
Sputum smear
and culture 172
microscopy 301
and culture, role of 142
negative
disease 12
thoracic tuberculosis 80t
positive disease 306
Sputum test 111
Statoacoustic nerve damage 282
Stenosis
incomplete 84
tracheal 84f
Stent placement 81, 83
Steroids, role of 148
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 221
Streptomycin 209, 218, 268, 281, 282
Submandibular nodes 214
Swelling, glandular 61
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion 97
Syphilis 64
T
Tendon rupture 284
Terizidone 196, 270, 284
Tetracaine 79
Thioacetazone 194, 196
Thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide 9
Thioridazine 272
Thoracic computed tomography 316f
Thoracic surgery 298
Thoracic tuberculosis 79, 81, 87t
complications, management of 82t
Thoracomyoplasty 301
Thoracoplasty, extrapleural 301
Thoracoscopy 163
Thoracostomy 298
Thorax, axial computed tomography 69f
Thrombin 86
Thrombocytopenia 221
Thyroid 135
Tissue
biopsy 3, 172
transplantation 232
Tobacco
cessation 252
smoke 246, 275
environmental 250
usage 243
Tonsils 62
Toxoplasma lymphadenitis 64
Trachea, edematous mucosa of 106f
Tracheobronchial malacia 83
Tracheobronchial stenosis 81, 82
management of 81
Traction diverticula, development of 85
Transbronchial biopsy 79, 80, 81, 87
Transbronchial needle aspiration 79, 80, 87
Tubercle bacilli 157, 217
Tuberculin reactivity 247
Tuberculin skin test 16, 26, 35, 36, 39, 40t, 41, 66, 102, 142, 205, 210, 216, 308, 312
method 36f
positive 33
Tuberculin units 36
Tuberculoma 55, 55f, 78, 89, 105f, 216
diagnosis of 89
pulmonary 105, 109f
Tuberculosis 22, 24f, 28, 39, 52f, 55f, 58, 61, 77, 84f, 96, 103f, 110, 112, 113, 117, 128, 155, 170, 174, 185, 205, 213, 215, 219, 225, 226, 228, 229, 232, 246, 251f, 252, 253f, 291, 294
abdominal 216
active 111, 116
pulmonary 96, 116
acute miliary 145
bacilli 206
bilateral cavitary pulmonary 109f
bronchogenic 96, 105
bronchoscopic biopsy revealed 106f
care and control, global progress in 22t
cavity 59f
large 100f
typical 99f
central nervous system 214
characteristics of 115b
childhood 205
chronic bilateral multicavitary 108f
clinically unrecognized 170
coinfection 27
complications of 58, 58t, 82, 273
congenital 216
control, different levels of 307
cutis miliaris acuta generalisata 133
death 248
diagnosis 50, 64, 70f, 77b, 171, 227
methods for 190
disease 22, 52, 247
postprimary 52, 53
drug resistance patterns 186t
during bronchoscopy, transmission of 91
effusion 155
epidemiology of 22
extrapulmonary 61, 213, 246
extrathoracic 214
granulomas 235f
granulomatous reactions, staining of 104
immunodiagnostic tests for 16
immunopathology of 45
in pregnancy 110, 269
in solid organ transplant recipients 117
incidence of 113
infection 43, 52, 54f, 56, 57, 316f
clinical manifestations of 50
healed primary 52f
less nosocomial 78
rate of 314
risk of 315
symptoms of 54
infiltrates 97
intrathoracic 86, 206
laboratory 2
diagnosis of 1
latent 33
lesions 103f
lower
lobe cavitary 100f
lung field 54, 100
low-incidence 312
lung lesion 99f
lymph node 61, 62
lymphadenitis 61, 82, 89, 214
management of 71
management of 298
mortality 247
multicavitary 108f
natural history of 112f
new cases of 29f
osteoarticular 216
pleural 109f
presentations, atypical 54
prevalence of 24
prevention 306, 312, 314
primary 50, 51f, 96, 97, 210f
progressive 56f
primary 211f
rapid diagnosis of 90
reactivation 53, 96, 98, 207
relapse, history of 102f
related deaths 28
risk factors for 110
self-reported 246
surgery for 303
toward personalized treatment of 288
tracheobronchial 106f
treatment 111, 228, 266, 267b
major historical landmarks of 266t
worldwide, prevalence of 25
Tuberculostearic acid, estimation of 90
Tuberculous disease 247
Tuberculous infection 249, 252
Tuberculous lymphadenitis 6264, 70
development of 62
Tuberculous pleural
disease 165f
history of 166f
effusions, diagnosis of 157, 164t
Tuberculous pleuritis 155, 156, 158
treatment of 164
Tularemia lymphadenitis 64
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 309
inhibitors 315
Tumor-like lesion 105f
U
Ulna, distal parts of 182f
Upper lobe infiltration 100
Ureas 271
Uric arthritis 282
Urine 3, 172
Uropathy, obstructive 273
V
Vasculitis 214
Visual impairment 221
Vitamin
B6 272
C 272
status 272
D 272, 273, 291, 295
biochemistry and metabolism 291
biologic system 295
catabolism of 293
chemical structure of 291, 292f
deficiency 230
effect of 293
endocrine system, role of 291
immunomodulatory effects of 293
metabolic activation of 291
receptor 291
responsive elements 292
role of 293
status 294
supplementation 294
treatment 294
D2 291
D3 272, 291
supplementation 272
Vomiting 216
W
Watanabe spigots 85
Weakness 156
“Weigert” tubercle 129
Weight loss 101f, 156, 156f, 206, 223
World Health Organization 44, 110, 307
Recommended Grouping of Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs 195t
Y
Yersinia lymphadenitis 64
Z
Ziehl-Neelsen method 5f
Ziehl-Neelsen stain 208
×
Chapter Notes

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CLINICAL FOCUS SERIES: Tuberculosis Selected Problems
CLINICAL FOCUS SERIES: Tuberculosis Selected Problems
Editors Violeta V Mihailovic Vucinic MD Professor of Internal Medicine and Pulmonology Vth Clinical Department for Sarcoidosis and other Granulomatous Diseases University Hospital of Pulmonology Clinical Centre of Serbia Belgrade, Serbia Dragana M Jovanovic MD PhD Professor of Internal Medicine VIth Clinical Department University Hospital of Pulmonology Clinical Centre of Serbia Belgrade, Serbia
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Clinical Focus Series
Tuberculosis: Selected Problems / Violeta V Mihailovic Vucinic, Dragana M Jovanovic
First Edition: 2019
9789386261359
Printed at
CONTRIBUTORS
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
PREFACE
The global tuberculosis (TB) burden is higher than expected and estimated previously.
Two years ago, when the idea about this book rose, TB still remained one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide.
In the year 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 10.4 million new TB cases worldwide, 10% among children. There were an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths.
The book on selected problems in TB tends to elucidate special clinical approach to this global health problem. Dealing from the epidemiology of TB infection to non-Mycobacterium infection manifestations, authors illuminate different clinical manifestations of TB, which might help doctors in recognizing the disease appearance.
The main purpose of this book is to provide medical fraternity broad review of possible clinical manifestations of TB. It is written for general practitioners, internists and pulmonologists. The book may provide also medical students with much useful information.
Authors of the book “Tuberculosis: Selected Problems” wish to contribute to one of the main targets of the WHO “End TB Strategy” that calls for a 90% reduction in TB deaths and an 80% reduction in the TB incidence rate by 2030, compared with 2015.
This is a group effort of the authors of this book to contribute to “Stop TB Millennium Goals”.
Violeta V Mihailovic Vucinic
Dragana M Jovanovic
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Editors appreciate all the authors for their serious work on the chapters of this book. Their contribution is equal to the lifesaving manner they are acting every single day during the work with tuberculosis patients.
The final look of this book was made by careful efforts of Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. and our most sincere appreciations belong to them.