Textbook of Cardiac Nursing Reena George
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table, respectively
A
Abdomen 31
Abdominal incision 258
Acetylsalicylic acid 348
Acidosis, metabolic 226
Activated partial thromboplastin time 35, 120, 121, 345
Acyanotic tetralogy of Fallot 241
Acylated plasminogen streptokinase activator 361
Adenosine 344
triphosphate 114, 125
Adenovirus 76
Adrenergic
agonists 351
blocking agents 338
inhibitors 271, 278
Airway 284, 285f
Alanine aminotransferase 202
Alarm system 45
Aldactone 276
Alkalosis, metabolic 275
Allen test 62
Allopurinol 344
Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents 339, 356
Alteplase 134
American Heart Association 88
Amlodipine 277, 357
Amphetamine 161
Analgesics 132
Anemia 113, 194
normochromic 71
Aneurysm 252
abdominal 253
classification of 253t
Angina 16, 109
crescendo 111
decubitus 112, 113
intractable 112, 113
nocturnal 112, 113
pectoris 111
postinfarction 112
refractory 112
severity of 115
stable 111, 113
types of 113t
typical 111
unstable 109, 111, 112
variant 111113
Angiography, coronary 117
Angiosarcoma 332
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 197, 205, 349
inhibitors 79, 103, 135, 156, 206, 349
Angiotensin-receptor
antagonists 206, 277
blockers 103
Annuloplasty 295
Anorexia 275
Anterior wall infarction 125
Antiarrhythmic drugs 344
Anticholinergics 343
Anticoagulant 135, 344
therapy 120
Anticoagulation 328, 330
Antidepressants 264
Antidysrhythmia 342, 343
drugs 134
Antihypertensive drugs 275t
Antiplatelet medication 120, 348
Antistreplase 134
Antistreptococcal therapy 89
Antistreptolysin O titer 87
Aorta 246
coarctation of 234, 243, 264
disorders of 246
dissection 250
inflammatory disorder of 246
perforation of 256
rigidity of 264
Aortic
arch syndrome 246, 247
dissection 248, 249, 250
insufficiency 155, 316
regurgitation 23, 24, 151
stenosis 32, 149, 155, 230, 234, 244
valve 150f
disease 149
normal 150
stenosis 150
Aortitis 246, 247
Aortography, abdominal 254
Arrhythmias 82, 102, 130, 191, 203, 333, 343
Arterial
blood gas 129, 202
carbon dioxide, pressure of 224
dilators 337
embolism, peripheral 70
pressure 260
wall failure 253
Arteritis 253
non-specific 247
Artery
pressure, pulmonary 58
pulmonary 58
rupture, pulmonary 61
wedge pressure, pulmonary 60, 146, 156
Arthralgia 88
Arthritis 87
rheumatoid 81, 246
Aspartate aminotransferase 128, 202
Aspiration 291
Aspirin 132, 362
Atenolol 356
Atherectomy 107
Atheroma 99
Atherosclerosis 99, 264
Atresia 234, 244, 245
Atria 5
Atrial
contractions, premature 168
dysrhythmias 168
fibrillation 88, 170, 170f, 237, 308
flutter 169, 308
natriuretic hormone 202
septal defect 192, 234, 236, 236f, 293
systole 10
tachycardia 335
tumors 144
Atrioventricular
block 38
bundle 9
node 9, 160
Autograft autologous 297
Autoimmune tissue disease 81
B
Bacteria 66, 76
Bacterial endocarditis, acute 67
Benzylpenicillin 72
Beta adrenergic 343
blockers 342
Bigeminal pulse 23
Bile acid 364
Bilirubin, serum 202
Biological tissue valves 297
Biventricular pacemaker 206
Bleeding disorders 104
Blindness 70
Blood
coagulation test 35
culture 37
disorders 113
glucose 39
lipids 36
plasma lipids 36
pressure 32, 96, 170, 205, 248, 260
monitoring 32, 61, 269
classification of 269t
studies 129, 269
supply 6
test 117
urea nitrogen 35, 74, 202
Blunt arterial injuries 253
Body fluid volume regulation 265, 266
Bowel ischemia 256
Brachytherapy 107
Bradycardia 38
Brain
natriuretic peptide 202
tumors 264
Breathing, artificial 286f
Bundle branch block 28, 177
Bundle of His 9
Burns 264
C
Calcium 38
antagonists 277
channel blockers 119, 206, 274, 340, 343, 357, 359
Candida 66
Captopril 277, 349
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 350
Cardiac
arrest 38, 229
assessment 15, 32
catheterization 50, 50f, 51, 145
compression 283f
diseases 16
drugs 334
dysrhythmias 160
emergencies 211
enzymes 35, 36t, 128t
failure, congestive 23, 194, 244
fluoroscopy 56
glycosides 204, 335, 354
monitoring 165, 228
nursing 1
output measurement 62
rehabilitation 1, 136
surgery 324
system 2, 15
anatomy of 2
physiology of 2
tamponade 82, 211
transplantation 318
trauma 333
troponins 36
tumors 32
valve
infection of 66
stenosis 142
Cardiomyoplasty 207
Cardiopulmonary bypass 109, 295, 328, 329f, 330, 330f, 331
Cardiovascular disorders 121, 264
Cardioversion 308
Carditis 86, 88
Carey Coombs’ murmur 86
Carotid
arteries 22
sinus massage 169
Catecholamines 343, 351
Central venous pressure 57
Cerebral
abscess 241
trauma 264
Cerebrovascular accident 270
Chemoreceptor system 265
Chest 23
compression 283, 283f
injury 80
pain 16, 77, 91, 113, 333
radiography 56, 129, 145
Cheyne-Stokes respiration 31
Chlamydia 66
Cholesterol lowering medication 352, 363
Cholestyramine 352
Chorea 87, 88
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 169, 195
Chylomicrons 36
Cimetidine 344
Circulation 282
Clonidine 276
Cocaine 161, 264
Cold cardioplegia 330, 331
Colesevelam 352
Colestipol 352
Community Rehabilitation Program 111
Complete blood count 71
Computed tomography scan 82, 247
Conduction system 9f
Congestion, severe pulmonary 200
Conjunctiva 70
Connective tissue
disease 81
disorder 253
Coronary artery 6, 124f
bypass graft 107, 108f
disease 37, 94, 103, 113, 146, 168, 191, 194, 195, 199, 270, 352
insufficiency 113
spasm 113
stent 106, 106f
thrombosis 99, 101
vasospasm 99, 101, 105
Coronary atherosclerosis 101
Corticosteroids 89, 344
Cotton-wool spots 268
Cough 31
Coxsackievirus 76
C-reactive protein 88, 117
Creatine kinase 35, 128
Cushing's syndrome 264
Cyanosis 20
peripheral 20
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 349
Cytomegalovirus 76
D
Dardiomyopathy 199
Death 241
Deep vein thrombosis 345
Defibrillation 309
Dextrocardia 234
Diabetes 98
Diazoxide 278
Diet
low-cholesterol 280
low-fat 280
Digitalis hypersensitivity 38
Digoxin 335
Diltiazem 277, 357
Diphtheria 76
Disopyramide phosphate 358
Disseminated lupus nodosa 264
Diuretics 274, 349
classification of 350
therapy 205
Dobutamine 205, 227, 343, 351
Dopamine 205, 227, 343, 351
Dressler's syndrome 130
Drug hypersensitivity 76
Dysplastic valves 245
Dyspnea 17, 250
Dysreflexia, autonomic 264
Dysrhythmias 61, 160, 161, 163, 193, 194, 208
junctional 171
ventricular 172
E
Echocardiography 48, 117, 129, 145
Echovirus 76
Ectopic beats, premature 23
Edema 25
pulmonary 146, 200
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 148, 252, 253
Eisenmenger's syndrome 237
Electrocardiogram 71, 102, 145, 161, 202, 212, 237, 250, 269
chest leads 42
normal 44f
Electrocardiography 10, 38, 39, 88, 116, 127, 239, 303
waveform 307f
Electrolyte
imbalance 275
serum 37
Embolism, pulmonary 194, 230
Enalapril 277, 349
Encephalitis 264
End-diastolic volume 11, 12
Endoaneurysmorrhaphy 255
Endocarditis 64, 66t
bacterial 65, 67t
classification of 65, 65t
infective 65, 66, 142, 237
lenta 67
non-infective 65
rheumatic 65
sub-acute 67, 70, 241
Endocardium 64
Endocrine diseases 264
End-systolic volume 11
Enterococcus faecalis 66
Epinephrine 343
Epstein-Barr virus 76
Erb's point 27
Erythema marginatum 86, 88
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 34, 71, 88, 248
Erythropoietin 264
Escherichia coli 67
Estrogens replacement therapy 96
Exercise 273
Extensive bowel procedure 259
F
Fatigue 18
Fever 88
persistent 70
rheumatic 76, 81, 84, 85, 88, 89t
Fibric acid derivatives 353, 364
Fibrillation 151
Fibrinolytic therapy 133, 346
Finger clubbing 70, 71
Fistula, arteriovenous 253
Fluid
accumulation 268
replacement 227
Fracture, sternal 291
Frank-Starling mechanism 198
Fungi 76
Furosemide 362
G
Gallops 28
Gastrointestinal
bleeding 91
disturbance 275
tract 197, 200, 224
Giant cell arteritis 253
Glomerular filtration rate 208
Glomerulonephritis 264
Glucocorticoids 264
Glycoprotein 121
Graft
failure 253
infection 256
migration 256
thrombosis 256
Great arteries, transposition of 234, 241
H
Head tilt chin-lift maneuver 282f, 284, 285f
Headache 91
Heart 2, 9f, 28f, 160
artificial 322
attack 195
beat 164
chamber of 4
conduction system of 8, 8f, 162f
covering of 4
disease 1, 36, 123, 161
congenital 233
coronary atherosclerotic 94
inflammatory 64
ischemic 121, 261
obstructive congenital 234, 243
rheumatic 84, 142
failure 32, 69, 70, 131, 192, 199, 201, 261, 270, 333
acute 77, 198
backward 199
chronic 198
congestive 146, 190
diastolic 198
forward 199
refractory 203
systolic 198
types of 198
layers of 4
location of 3f
malposition of 233, 234
murmur 71
muscle 6, 99, 192
nerve supply of 9
normal functioning of 94
rate 326
regulation of 13
rhythm 326
sounds 27
abnormal 28
structural abnormalities of 142
structures, inflammations of 64
transplantation 207
heterotopic 322f
orthotopic 321f
procedure of 320f
selection 321
valves 143f
valvular disease of 230
Heimlich maneuver 285f
Hematoma 105
Hemoptysis 31
Hemorrhage 257, 271
splinter 70, 71
Hemothorax 291
Heparin sodium 345
HIV 76
Hodgkin's disease 246
Holter monitoring 45
Hormone, antidiuretic 197, 224
Human tissue plasminogen activator 134
Hydralazine 278, 355
Hydronephrosis 264
bilateral 264
Hypercalcemia 38
Hypercholesterolemia 97
Hyperglycemia 275
Hyperkalcemia 38, 275
Hypermagnesemia 38
Hypersensitivity reactions 76
Hypertension 97, 121, 192, 194, 199, 260, 265f, 268, 270, 346
accelerated 264
diastolic 263
emergency 278t
high 269
isolated systolic 263
malignant 264, 271
normal 269
primary 263
pulmonary 237
secondary 263, 264t, 267
severe pulmonary 61
systolic 263
Hypertensive crisis 271, 279
Hyperthermia 14, 73, 91
Hyperthyroidism 194, 264
Hypertrophy 235, 237
left ventricular 23
Hypervolemia 192194
Hypokalemia 37, 203, 275
Hyponatremia 203
Hypotension 224
Hypothermia 330
Hypothyroidism 194, 264
Hypovolemia 194
Hypoxemia 113
Hypoxia 20
I
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator 312, 312f
Infarction, postmyocardial 81
Infection 61, 64
Inferior wall infarction 126
Influenza virus 76
Intensive care unit 1, 79, 203, 271, 300
Intra-aortic balloon
catheter 315f
pump 228, 314, 318
Intra-arterial pressure monitoring 61
Intracranial pressure 264
Ischemia 130
distal 256
renal 251
Isoproterenol 343, 351
Isosorbide dinitrate 355
J
Janeway's lesions 70, 71
Jaw thrust maneuver 284
Joint National Committee 269
Joint pain 91
Jones criteria 88t
Jugular vein
distension 201
pressure monitoring 21f
K
Kidney 197
L
Labetalol 278, 356
Lactate dehydrogenase 128, 202
Laser ablation 107
Lateral wall infarction 126
Lead 264
Left ventricular failure 197, 200, 335
Leukocytosis 71
Libman-Sacks endocarditis 65, 66
Limb leads 40
Lipid profile 37t
Lipoprotein
high-density 37, 96, 269, 352
low-density 37, 96, 352
very low-density 36, 353
Liver 197
Loop diuretics 349, 350, 362
Losartan 277
Low arterial oxygen concentration 20
Lung 30, 224, 281
Lymphoma 80, 332
M
Magnesium 38
Magnetic resonance imaging 56, 129, 250
Marfan's syndrome 148, 252, 253
Measles 76
Mechanical valve, types of 298f, 299t
Menkes syndrome 253
Menopause 96
Methyldopa 76, 276, 277, 357
Mineralocorticoids 264
Mitral
regurgitation 24, 32, 146
stenosis 32, 143, 154
valve 65, 143f, 144
disease 143
prolapse 148
Monitor white blood cell 159
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 264
Morphine sulfate 228
Multiple-gated acquisition scanning 47
Multivessel disease 104
Mumps 76
Murmur 29, 333
Muscle 224
function, abnormal 193
Mycotic aneurysm 253
Myocardial
cells 124
dysfunction 193
glucose metabolism 48
infarction 16, 23, 102, 103, 123, 124, 126f, 127f, 142, 160, 191, 194, 250
injury 80
ischemia 16, 111
muscle 35, 36
disorders of 193
necrosis 102
stabilizer 109
Myocarditis 7578
causes of 76
Myocardium 205
infarcts of 70
Myoglobin 39, 128
Myoglobinuria 39
Myopericarditis 77
Myxedema 80
N
Necrosis 70
Neoplasm 80, 332
metastatic 332
primary 332
Nephropathy, anesthetic 264
Nephrosclerosis 270
Nerves, parasympathetic 14
Neurological disorders 264
Nicardipine 357
Nicotinic acid 353
Nifedipine 277, 357
Nitrates 135
Nitroglycerin 113, 227, 278
Nitroprusside 278, 355
Nodules, subcutaneous 88
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 79, 204, 344, 348
Non-surgical cardiac interventions 103
Noonan syndrome 245
Norepinephrine 343
Nuclear persantine stress test 48
Nutrition 327
O
Obesity 98
Off-pump coronary artery bypass 109
Open heart surgery 81
Oral contraceptives 264
Orthopnea 17
Osler's nodes 70, 71
Oxygen administration 121
P
Pacemaker 301, 302f
battery positions 301f
endocarditis 65
permanent 302
Pain
abdominal 87
anginal 115, 115t
Palpitation 18
Pancreatitis 253, 264, 275
Paroxysmal
atrial tachycardia 169, 308
nocturnal dyspnea 200
Patent ductus arteriosus 23, 192, 234, 237, 293
Percutaneous transluminal coronary
angioplasty 104, 314
interventions 103
Pericardial friction rub 30
Pericardiocentesis 213, 213f
Pericarditis 16, 80, 130
constrictive 82, 83
Peripheral vascular disease 270
Persistent truncus arteriosus 234, 242
Pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging 48
Phentolamine 227, 278
Phenytoin 344
Pheochromocytoma 264
Phonocardiography 50
Phosphorus 38
Plasma C-reactive protein 71
Pneumothorax 61, 291
Poliomyelitis, bulbar 264
Polyarthritis 87, 88
Polycystic kidney disease 264
Polycythemia 113
Position emission tomography 48, 129
Postcardiotomy 81
syndrome 76
Posterior wall infarction 126
Potassium 37
channel blockers 120, 342
sparing diuretics 274, 350
supplements 273
Prazosin 356
Pregnancy 194, 195, 264
Premature ventricular contraction 152, 172
Presyncope 77
Prinzmetal angina 111113
Procainamide 358
Prominent neck vein pulsation 152
Propranolol 276, 278, 356
Prostaglandins 266
Prosthetic valves 298, 300t
Prothrombin time 35, 121
Protozoal infection 76
Pseudoaneurysm 253
Pulmonary valve disorders 153
Pulse 22
abnormalities, types of 23t
grading of 23t
Pulseless disease 247
Pulsus
alternans 23
bisferiens 23
paradoxus 23
tardus 23
Purkinje fibers 9
Pyelonephritis, unilateral 264
Q
Quinidine 172
R
Race 96
Radiation 81
therapy 76
Radionuclide scanning 129
Rapid eye movement 112
Red blood cell 34
Regurgitation, pulmonary 153
Relaxation technique 273
Renal disorders 264
Renin-angiotensin
aldosterone secretion system 266
mechanism 265, 266
system, stimulation of 196
Respiration, artificial 286
Resuscitation, cardiopulmonary 130, 175, 231, 281, 292, 311
Retinal damage 270
Rhabdomyosarcoma 332
Rheumatic fever, acute 86, 171
Rhythm disorder 241
Rib fracture 291
Rickettsia fungi 66
Roth's spots 70, 71
Rubella 76
S
Saint Vitus’ dance 87
Salicylate 89, 344
Sarcoma 332
Scleroderma 246
Sedimentation rate 128t
Septal defect, recurrence of 241
Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase 78
Shock 32
hypovolemic 23
Sick sinus syndrome 167, 303
Sickle cell crisis 264
Sinoatrial node 8
Sinus
bradycardia 165
dysrhythmias 167
node
abnormal rhythmicity of 161
dysrhythmias 165
rhythm, normal 165
tachycardia 166
Skeletal muscle 35
Skin 224
color 20
lesion 86
Sleep apnea 99, 264
Sodium 38
channel blockers 341
nitroprusside 227
restriction 272
Spirochetal infections 253
Spironolactone 276
Spondylitis, ankylosing 246
St Jude mechanical valve 300f
Stannous pyrophosphate scan 46
Staphylococcus aureus 65, 67
Stenosis 234, 242
pulmonary 153, 234, 240, 245
Stenotic renal artery 264
Sternocleidomastoid muscle 21f
Stethoscope, parts of 26f
Stokes-Adams attack 176, 303
Streptococcus
faecalis 72
pneumoniae 67
viridans 67, 72
Streptokinase 134, 361
Stress
acute 264
emotional 194, 195
physical 194, 195
testing 46
Stroke 70, 261
volume 12, 23
Sudden cardiac death 232
Sulphonamides 76, 344
Suzman's sign 244
Swan-Ganz catheter 60f
Sydenham's chorea 87
Sympathetic nervous system 196, 277
Syncope 18, 77, 333
Syphilitic aortitis 151, 246
Systemic lupus erythematosus 66, 76, 144, 253
T
Tachycardia 38, 151, 166, 194
supraventricular 308
Tachydysrhythmias 163
Tachypnea 30
Takayasu's disease 253
Takayasu's syndrome 247
Tardive cyanosis 234
Tenormin 356
Terazosin 357
Tetanus 76
Tetralogy of Fallot 234, 239, 240, 240f
Thiamine deficiency 194, 195
Thiazide 274, 350
Thoracic aneurysm 254
Thromboembolism 203
Thrombosis 241
Thrombotic endocarditis, non-bacterial 65, 66
Thyroid
diseases 194
hormones 14
Thyrotoxicosis 194
Tinnitus 91
Tirofiban 362
Tissue plasminogen activator 133
Tocainide 358
Torsades de pointes 174
Toxemia 264
Transdermal patch 338
Transesophageal echocardiography 49, 71, 117, 129, 308
Transient ischemia attacks 70, 268
Transluminal extraction coronary atherectomy 107
Traumatic injuries 252
Tricuspid
atresia 234, 242
insufficiency 156
stenosis 155
valve
disease 153
disorders 153
Trimethaphan 278
Troponin 128
Tuberculosis 65, 76, 253
Tumor, renin-producing 264
Turner's syndrome 253
Typhoid fever 76
U
Upper respiratory tract infection 78
Uremia 80, 202
Urinalysis 39, 269
Urokinase 361
V
Vagal nerve stimulation 162
Valsalva maneuver 169
Valsartan 277
Valve 5
dysfunction, signs of 70
replacement 295
types of 296, 297f
Valvular heart disease 16, 88, 142, 154t, 194, 195
Valvuloplasty 294
Vascular disease, severe 61
Vasodilators 227, 274, 278, 336
Venous air embolism 61
Ventricle, contraction of 10
Ventricular
assist device 228
dilation 196
fibrillation 174, 230
septal defect 192, 234, 235, 235f
systole 11
tachycardia 173, 230
Verapamil 357
Viruses 76
Vomiting 275
W
Warfarin sodium 345
Water hammer pulse 23
White blood cell 34, 73
White coat hypertension 263
William's syndrome 245
Wilm's tumors 264
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Chapter Notes

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IntroductionChapter 1

Cardiology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of heart. Physicians specializing in this field of medicine are called as cardiologist. The term cardiology is derived from the Greek word Kardia, which means heart or inner self.
Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that works with patients who suffer from various conditions of cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurse help to treat conditions such as unstable angina, cardiac myopathies, coronary artery diseases, myocardial ischemia or infarction, cardiac arrhythmias and congestive heart failure under the directions of cardiologist. According to the Center for Disease Control, the heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac nurse give care to a wide variety of patient, from children to the elderly, in surgical or ambulatory setting.
Cardiac nurse perform postoperative care in a surgical unit and also performs cardiac monitoring and health assessment. Cardiac nurse works in many different environments including intensive care unit (ICU), cardiac catheterization laboratory, coronary care unit (CCU), operation theater, cardiac rehabilitations center, clinical research, cardiac surgery ward, cardiovascular ICU and cardiac medical ward.
Cardiac nurse must have basic life support and advanced cardiac life support certification. In addition, cardiac nurse must possess specialized skills including electrocardiogram monitoring, defibrillation and medication administration that contains intravenous drip.