Nursing Education Made Easy D Elakkuvana Bhaskara Raj
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, and t refer to table.
strength 245
terms and conditions 244
Admission/selection committee 245
Affiliation 242
criteria for 242
Aids, activity 196
Anti-ragging 241
Assessment, methods of 201
advantages 226
assessment of 225
cumulative scale 226
differential scale 225
social distance scale 226
summated (Likert) scale 226
Attitude scale 225, 227
types of 225
Audio-aids 191
computer 191
public address system 191
tape recorder 191
Audiovisual aids 155, 156, 159
advantages of 160
classification of 158
popular saying on 158
psychological bases of 159
purposes of 155, 160
room for 239
types of 155
use of 155, 156
Auditorium 238
Auto-instructional methods 295
Auxiliary nurse midwifery 12
Axiology 24, 33
Beds, distribution of 242
Bedside clinic 136
advantages 137
disadvantages 137
discussion phase 137
evaluation phase 137
phases/steps 136
purposes 136
Biological naturalism 29
Blackboards disadvantages 164
Bloom's taxonomy 206t
Body messages, observing 267
Booklets 180
Brainstorming 120
advantages 120
disadvantages 120
Brochure 180
Buddha's teachings 38
Buddhism philosophy 38
Budget 235
Bulletin 164
board 165
advantages 166
disadvantages 166
Buzz group 120
advantages 120
disadvantages 120
uses 120
sessions 84
Camera 183, 189
advantages 189
disadvantages 189
purpose 189
types of 189
Cartoon 164, 170
advantages 171
principles 170
Case presentation 130
advantages 131
components 130
disadvantages 131
purpose 131
Certificate courses 13
degree (undergraduate) 13
female health supervisor training 13
general nursing and midwifery 13
multipurpose health worker training 13
post basic diploma courses 14
Chalkboard 164
Chart 164, 166
chain 167
flip 167
narrative 167
pull 167
purposes 166
tabulation 167
types of 167
Charvaka 38
philosophy 38
Checklist 217
advantages 218
concept of 217
disadvantages 218
types of 218
Classroom 237
teaching 61
Clinical experience, organization of 319, 320
Clinical facilities 241
Clinical rotation plan
factors influencing 319, 320
principles of developing 320
Clinical teaching 125
methods of 123, 125
philosophy/principles of 125
steps in 125
Cognitive domain 206
Comic strips 171
limitations 171
uses 171
Common rooms 239
Communicating 267
consult others before 154
Communication 145
barriers to effective 150
breakdown, causes of 267
clarify idea before 153
barriers to 150f
factors for improving 153f
effectiveness, improving 153
factors affecting 150
follow-up 154
for decision making, effective 148
importance of 147, 149
in nursing, importance of 154
network 147
organizational barriers 152
personal barriers 153
principles of 146
adequacy 146
clarity 146
consistency 146
economy 147
integration 147
process 145
psychological barriers 151
purpose of 147
semantic barriers 151
Community health nursing, field practice area 243
Community practice laboratory 237
Computer 191, 193
electronic mail 193
facilitate 194
fax 194
in nursing education, use of 194
internet 193
laboratory 238
Computer assisted learning 112
advantages 113
limitations of 113
approach, disadvantages of 113
role of teacher 113
types 112
Conference 288
advantages 289
disadvantages 289
group 138
individual 139
nursing care 138
nursing team 140
advantages of 141
objectives of 140
procedure/mechanism of 288
staff 138
stages of 288
Counseling 259
advantages of using online 264
advising 259
and guidance 261
basic principles of 258, 261
centered 262
characteristics of 259
client-oriented 262
concept of 258
different types of 262f
directive 262
disadvantages of 264
eclectic 263
functions of 260
adjustmental 260
developmental 260
oriental 260
informing 259
meaning of 258
non-directive 262
online 263
principles of 261
process 265
stages of 265
services, purpose of organizing 271
skills of 266
types of 261
Counselor 270
characteristics and skills of 269
responsibilities 269
role and functions of 269
Course plan 314
content of 316
elements of 316
levels of 314
meaning 314
objectives of the 315
principles of 315
structure of 316
teachers role in 316
Crèche 240
Crisis in school, management of 277
Crisis, management of 277
Cultural heritage
conservation of 25
promotion of 25
transmission of 25
Curriculum content, effective organization of 313
Curriculum development
factors in 307
factors involved in 307, 308f
stages of 309
Torres and Stanton's stages of 309
Curriculum evaluation, meaning and need for 322
Curriculum, steps in the development of 310
Demonstration 82, 197
advantages of 83, 197
after 83
carrying out 83
disadvantages 84
essential characteristics of 82
group discussion and project 82
lesson 82
method 119
advantages 120
disadvantages 120
uses 120
precautions 83
presentation 83
teacher preparation 82
Diagrams 170
Dioramas 177
advantages 177
disadvantages 177
Direct purposeful experiences 161
Disciplinary action
principles of 275
program, components of 275
Disciplinary problems
dealing with 275
managing 273
strategies for management of 276
Disciplinary proceeding
causes of 275
enquiry, stages of 276
Discipline 3
aims and objectives of 273
approaches of 274
effective 274
employees, errors in 274
principles of 273
Discussion 79
application 79
conducting 80
constituents of 80
demerits of 288
essential parts of 80
feedback 79
lesson development 79
limitations of 81
merits of 81, 287
method 117
advantages 117
disadvantages 118
uses 117
organization of 80
topics for 287
Display boards 164
Dramatization 198
advantages of 198
types of 198
Edgar Dale's cone of experience 161, 161f
Education 6
adjustment aim of 9
adult 297
agencies of 301
materials for 300
need and importance of 298
organization of 298
problems of 301
aims of 6, 30
assessment in 203
characteristics of 5
citizenship training aim of 9
complete living aim of 9
cultural aim of 8
etymological meaning of 3
evaluation in 203
functions of 10
harmonious development aim of 9
individual aims of 7
individual and social aims of 6
information of 8
knowledge of 8
major philosophies of 17
moral aim of 9
nature of 4
social aim of 8, 9
vocational aim of 8
Educational implication 28, 30
of existentialism 36
of idealism 24
Educational media 143
Educational objectives 64
formulation of 64
levels of 64, 65f
taxonomy of 206
Educational philosophy 22
essentialism 22
idealism 23
perennialism 22
progressivism 22
Educational psychology 307
Educational television 155
Environmental factors 55
affecting learning 55
beliefs 55
cultural demands 55
family background 55
implication for teaching 55
physical condition 55
social expectations 55
Epistemology 24, 32
concept of 24
Essay 209
questions, uses of 210
tests, scoring 210
type 210
question 209
test, principles for preparing 210
Evaluation 204
and assessment
concept of 203
purpose of 203
scope of 203
diagnostic 322
formative 322
purposes of 204
scope of 205
total scheme of 208f
types of 322
Exhibition 108, 176
advantages 108, 176
and programmed instruction 108
disadvantages 108, 176
requisites for 108, 176
Experiment 197
Field trip 97, 196
advantages of 99, 197
aims of 196
disadvantages of 100
features of 97
limitations of 197
purpose of 98
concepts of 97
instructional 98
motivational 98
school contests or festivals 98
types of 98
types of 196
Films 183
Filmstrips 184
advantages 184
principles 184
types 184
Fire extinguisher 240
Flannel board 165
advantages 165
disadvantages 165
use 165
Flannelgraph 164
Flash cards 164, 171
advantages 172
disadvantages 172
principles 171
purposes 171
Folder 181
Formulating objectives 64
Garage 240
General nursing
and midwifery 12
Program 233
Good physical atmosphere 49
Graph 164, 168
bar 169
line 169
method of preparation 169
pictorial 169
pie 169
types 169
Graphic aids 164, 167
Graphic teaching aid, advantages of 166
Group discussion 84
limitations 84
uses 84
type of 93
and counseling 251
services in nursing institutions, organization of 271
services, organization of 271
avocational 256
basic principles of 253
educational 255
health 257
importance of 253
in global context, implications of areas of 254
leisure-time 257
moral 257
principles of 253
services, different school 254
social 256
vocational 256
Handbill 181
Handout 182
disadvantage 182
features of 182
assistant 12
services 245
worker 12
Horney education 9
Hostel block 236
facilities 237t
Hostel facilities 240
Humanistic existentialism 35
axiology 36
epistemology 36
metaphysics 36
and aims of education 24
and curriculum 26
and discipline 26
and methods of teaching 26
and teacher 26
principles of 24
self-realization 24
Indian Nursing Council 13
guidelines 249
syllabus 314
Indiscipline in staffing, causes of 274
In-service education 279, 281, 282
factors influencing 283
nature and scope of 282
planning for 284
nature and scope of 281
problems related to 296
types of 283
In-service program
evaluation of 296
planning for 284
Internal assessment
advantages of 221
components of 221
disadvantages of 222
need for 220
purposes of 220
significance of 221
Inventive and creative powers, development of 25
Jainism philosophy 38
Job orientation 281
Khadigraph 164
Knowledge assessment 209
advantages of 215t
disadvantages of 215t
Laboratory 237
Lady health visitor 12
Leaflet 180
advantages 180
disadvantages 180
uses 180
dominated methods 300
factors associated with 48
factors belong to 49
age 50
attitude of learner 51
child himself 49
educational background 50
guidance 50
health status of child 51
intelligence 49
motivation 51
will to learn 50
characteristics of 299
principles of 297, 299
purposes 297
scope of 299
seven principles of 299
attitude 47
characteristics of 46
concept 47
discrimination 47
direct 312
effective organization of selected 310
general principles of selecting 311
in total curriculum, placement of 311
levels of 312
process of organizing 316
role of instructor in selection of 312
selection of 310
symbolic 312
vicarious 312
affecting 49
influence 47
methods of 48
motor 47
nature and characteristic of 45
nature of 45
of principles 47
over 49
problem solving 47
process, factors related to 48
types of 47
verbal 47
Lecture 75
as teaching method
cons of 78
pros of 77
method 117
advantages 117
disadvantages 117
guidelines for 77
uses 117
preparation and delivery of 76
qualities of good 77
Leisure aim of education 9
Lesson plan, essential of 68
Lesson planning 66, 321
classification of objective 70f
components 67
concepts of evaluation 321
element of good 69
classification 69
objective 69
evaluation 321
pre-requisites for making good 69
purpose of 66, 321
significance of 66
steps in 67, 68f
application 68
comparison or association 68
generalization 68
preparation 67
presentation 68
recapitulation 68
teacher requirement in 67
Library 238
Life activities 308
Likert scale 226
defects of 226
aspects of 267
blocks 267
effective 267
Live chat 264
Magnetic boards 166
advantages 166
Managerial efficiency, increase 148
Maps 170
types of 170
Master plan for curriculum, preparation of 318
Master rotation plan 317
criteria for 318
principles of 318
developing 319
purpose of 317
Measurement 203
concept of 203
process of 203
Mechanical naturalism 29
Metaphysics 32
Microfilm projector 184
Microscope 183, 189
advantages 190
disadvantages 190
types of 189
Micro-teaching 114, 116, 116t
advantages of 116
beginnings of 114
characteristics of 114
cycle 115, 116
limitations of 116
objectives in 114
phases of 115
purposes of 115
Mock-ups 177
Models 174
advantages 175
types of 174
Modern contemporary philosophy 16, 35
aims of education 35
curriculum 35
supernaturalism 35
Moral sense, development of 25
Moulage 178
process, image perspectives 178
Multipurpose hall 238
Museums 177
setting up school 177
Naturalism 28
and curriculum 31
and discipline 31
and methods of teaching 31
and teacher 32
exponents of 29
forms of 29
meaning 29
principles of 29
Newspapers 182
advantages 182
disadvantages 182
Nursing administration 195
Nursing care study 127
advantages of 127
content of 127
limitations 128
oral 128
advantages of 128
limitations of 129
purposes 127
steps to make 127
written 128
advantages of 128
limitations of 128
Nursing curriculum
meaning 305
nature and principles of 305, 306
nature of 306
need for 305
principles related to 306
Nursing education 10
aims of 11
continue 238
factors influencing 12
Nursing Educational Programs 12, 12t
Nursing manuals 134
contents of 134
Nursing practice laboratory 237
Nursing programs 12
meaning and definition 12
Nursing protocols 134
Nursing research 194
Nursing rounds 132
advantages 133
and reports 132
disadvantage of 134
kinds of 133
purpose 132
steps involved in 133
types of 133
Nursing teaching faculty 233
Nutrition laboratory 237
Objective structured clinical examination 222
advantages 224
design 223
disadvantages 224
marking 223
preparation 224
Objectives of nursing education 10
Objects and specimens 173
advantages of 174
mounting 174
principles 173
sources of 174
using 173
Observational techniques 216
Office requirements 238
Opaque projector 188
advantages 188
disadvantages 188
Oral examination 217
Organization of content, approaches to 313
Organization of school 232
Organization, elements of 314
Organizing, levels/dimensions of 314
Orientation training 295
Orthodox schools 38
Overhead projector 183, 187
advantages 187
during presentation 187
purposes 187
Overhead transparency 188
advantages 188
Pamphlet 179
advantages 180
and leaflets 179
disadvantages 180
principles 180
purposes 179
uses of 179
Panel discussion 90, 286
advantages 90
and symposium 90
characteristics 90
disadvantages 90
method 90
roles involvement in 287
Partial block system 313
Peg board 166
Philosophy 39
and aims 40
and discipline 41
and evaluation 41
and methods 40
and curriculum 40
and teacher 41
and textbook 40
branches of 18, 19t
of education 16, 39, 40
cultural bonds 40
human bonds 40
logical bonds 39
natural bonds 39
social bonds 40
of life 307
of nursing education 39
development of 40
factors influencing 41
sub-branches of 19t
teacher and student centered 17
teacher-centered 17
Physical naturalism 29
Pictures 170
Plan, nature of 317
Planning of school of nursing-organization 231
Planning process, steps in 285
Playground 240
Posters 164, 167
advantages 168
disadvantages 168
features of 168
preparation and rules 168
purposes of 167
usage of 168
Practical examination 219
place of 219
procedure for 220
Practical examiners 219
Pragmatism 20, 32
aims of education 33
and discipline 34
and methods of teaching 34
and teacher 34
educational applications 33
forms of 32
principles of 33
Prastana Traya 38
Pre-clinical science laboratory 238
Primary health center 135
Printed aids 179
types of 179t
Programmed instruction 109
advantage of 111
characteristics of 109
disadvantage of 111
method 118
advantages 118
disadvantages 118
uses 118
objective of 110
principles of 110
steps for development of 111
Programming, types of 110
Progressivism 37
aims of education 37
and teacher 37
exponents 37
meaning 37
methods of teaching 37
Projected aids 183
Psychomotor domain 206
Public address system 191, 192
advantages 192
disadvantages 193
large 192
venue 192
small 192
types 192
Puppets 175
advantages 176
disadvantages 176
selection 175
types of 175
Q-sort scaling technique 227
Radio 185
quiz programs 185
Rating scales 216
types of 216
Realism 27
and curriculum 28
and discipline 28
and teacher 28
axiology 27
epistemology 27
forms of 27
metaphysics 27
methods of teaching 28
principles of 27
player for teaching 191
room 239
type of 246
Recruitment 233
of teaching staff 233
criteria for 233t
Refresher courses 295
Role play 85
as training method for learning 86
as training technique 85
benefits or outcome of 86
objectives of 85
reasons and areas for selecting 86
principles for effective 88
procedure of 88
demerits of 89
merits of 89
uses of 87
values of 87
Rotation plan, types of 320
Scalogram (guttman) method 227
School management committee 234
School of nursing
additional staff for 234
administrative head of 231
and minimum requirements to 249
to set up new 231
management of 229
planning of 231
School records
maintenance of 245
principles of maintaining 245
School, facilities for 235
Schools of traditional Indian philosophy, classification of 38
Secondary Education Commission in India 9
Selection 243
policies 244
Seminar 93, 96, 96t, 289
advantages 96
affective objectives 93
as method of teaching 94
cognitive objective 93
conducting 95
disadvantages 96
international 94
main 94
method 119
advantages 119
disadvantages 119
uses 119
mini 94
national 94
objectives of 93
organization of 290
preparation for 290
requirements of 95
rules for conducting 95
technique 93
merits of 290
types of 94
Shiksha 3
Skills, assessment of 216
Slide 183
projector 183
advantages 183
types of 183
Society 307
Specimens, uses of 173
aim of education 9
self-realism 30
values, cultivation of 26
Staff development
need for 281
program 281
Staff education program, techniques and methods of 286
Staffing 242
Standing order 134
advantages of 135
purpose of 134
types of 135
Storeroom 239
Structure 181
advantages 181
applications 181
disadvantages 181
Student evaluation 220
external examinations 222
internal assessment 220
Student health service 248
Student welfare 247
Student-centered philosophies 17
Study assignment method 118
advantages 118
disadvantages 119
uses 118
Study day system 313
Summative evaluation 323
Summer and winter institutes 295
Supernaturalism and curriculum 35
Supernaturalism and teacher 35
Symposium 90, 96, 96t, 293
advantages 294
disadvantages 294
meaning 90
mechanism of 91, 294
objectives 91
precautions for 92
proposed topics for 294
purposes 91
advantages of 92
characteristics of 91
disadvantages of 92
limitations of 92
Tape recorder 185, 191
advantages 192
disadvantages 192
types 191
uses 191
Teacher, factors belong to 52
behavior 52
knowledge of
individual differences 53
psychology 52
subject 52
methods of teaching 52
narrow curriculum approach 54
no care to foster individuality 53
personality 53
adults, methods of 300
case analysis method of 126
case incident method of 126
case study method of 126
maxims of 56, 60
concrete to abstract 61
known to unknown 60
simple to complex 61
methods of 31, 73
principles of 56
general 58, 59b
psychological 56, 56b
staff, qualification of 233
system, types of 312
Teaching aids
characteristics of good 158, 160
classification of 158
psychology of 157
Teaching block 235
facilities 236t
system 312
advantages 312
Teaching methods 73
content-focused 75
instructor/teacher-centered 75
interactive/participative 75
learner-centered 75
lecture 76
types of 75
Television 183, 184
Test, concept of 203
Traditional Indian Philosophies 16, 37
Traditional philosophies 16
Traditional teaching 116, 116t
Trained Nurses Association of India 160
Tutorial method 119
advantages 119
disadvantages 119
uses 119
Universal education 25
Video 185
Video cassette player 183, 186
advantages 187
disadvantages 187
purposes 186
Video cassette recorder 183, 186
advantages 186
disadvantages 186
purposes 186
Video instruction, interactive 194
Visual symbolic and verbal symbolic 162
Workshop 101, 291
active phase 103
advantages 293
cognitive objectives 101
disadvantages 293
essential features 291
follow-up 104
functions of 101
instructional method 101
advantages of 106
areas of education for 105
limitations of 107
procedure of 102
roles in 105
objectives of 101
organization of 102
preactive phase 102
procedure 291
proposed topics for 292
psychomotor objectives 101
roles in 292
stages of 291
technique, role of organizer of 105
tips 106
World philosophies 18
Chapter Notes

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1Introduction to Education
  • Meaning of education, aims, functions and principles
  • Philosophy of education
  • Factors influencing development of philosophy of nursing education2

Meaning of Education, Aims, Functions and Principles1

Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquires knowledge, experience, skill and sound attitude. It makes an individual civilized, refined, cultured and educated. For a civilized and socialized society, education is the only means. Its goal is to make an individual perfect. Every society gives importance to education because it is a panacea for all evils. It is the key to solve the various problems of life.
Education has been described as a process of waking up to life:
  • Waking up to life and its mysteries, its solvable problems and the ways to solve the problems, and celebrate the mysteries of life.
  • Waking up to the interdependencies of all things, to the threat to the global village, to the power within the human race to create alternatives, to the obstacles entrenched in economic, social and political structures that prevent the waking up.
  • Education in the broadest sense of the term is meant to aid the human being in his/her pursuit of wholeness. Wholeness implies the harmonious development of all the potentialities God has given to a human person.
  • True education is the harmonious development of the physical, mental, moral (spiritual), and social faculties, the four dimensions of life, for a life of dedicated service.
Etymological Meaning of Education
Etymologically, the word ‘education’ has been derived from different Latin words:
  1. ‘Educare’, which means ‘to bring out’ or ‘to nourish’.
  2. ‘Educere’, which means ‘to lead out’ or ‘to draw out’.
  3. ‘Educatum’, which means ‘act of teaching’ or ‘training’.
  4. ‘Educatus’, which means ‘to bring up, rear, educate’.
  5. ‘Educatio’, which means ‘a breeding, a bringing up, a rearing.’
The Greek word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes used for education. The most common Indian word ‘shiksha’ is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root ‘shas,’ which means ‘to discipline’, ‘to control’, ‘to instruct’ and ‘to teach’. Similarly the word ‘vidya’ is derived from Sanskrit verbal root ‘vid’, which means ‘to know’. Vidya is thus the subject matter of knowledge. This shows that disciplining the mind and imparting knowledge where the foremost considerations in India.
Back in the 1,500s, the word education meant ‘the raising of children’, but it also meant ‘the training of animals.’ While there are probably a few teachers who feel similar to animal trainers, education these days has come to mean either ‘teaching’ or ‘the process of acquiring knowledge.’
Since time immemorial, education is estimated as the right road to progress and prosperity. Different educationists’ thoughts from both Eastern and Western side have explained the term 4‘education’ according to the need of the hour. Various educationists have given their views on education. Some important definitions are:
  1. ‘By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in man—body, mind and spirit.’
    — Mahatma Gandhi
  2. ‘Education enables the mind to find out the ultimate truth, which gives us the wealth of inner light and love. and gives significance to life.’
    — Rabindranath Tagore
  3. ‘Education is the process of the individual mind, getting to its full possible development.’
    — Dr. Zakir Hussain
  4. ‘Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.’
    — Swami Vivekananda
  5. ‘Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body.’
    — Aristotle
  6. ‘Education is the child's development from within.’
    — Rousseau
  7. ‘Education is complete living.’
    — Herbert Spencer
  8. ‘Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment.’
    — Plato
  9. ‘Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body.’
    — Aristotle
  10. ‘Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man's innate powers.’
    — Pestalozzi
  11. ‘Education is enfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ.’
    — Froebel
  12. ‘Education is the complete development of the individuality of the child.’
    — TP Nunn
  13. ‘Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences.’
    — John Dewey
  14. ‘Education is a liberating force and in our age it is also a democratizing force, cutting across the barriers of caste and class, smoothing out inequalities imposed by birth and other circumstances.’
    — Indira Gandhi
  15. John Locke said, ‘Plants are developed by cultivation and men by education’. This world would have been enveloped in intellectual darkness if it had not been illuminated by the light of education. It is right to say that the story of civilization is the story of education. Thus, education is an integral part of human life. It is the basic condition for a development of a whole man and vital instrument for accelerating the well-being and prosperity by the light of education.
As is the meaning of education, so is its nature. It is very complex.
  1. Education is a life-long process: Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It starts from the womb of the mother and continues till death. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effect of everything, which influences human personality.
  2. Education is a systematic process: It refers to transact its activities through a systematic institution and regulation.
  3. Education is development of individual and the society: It is called a force for social development, which brings improvement in every aspect in the society.
  4. Education is modification of behavior: Human behavior is modified and improved through educational process.
  5. Education is purposive: Every individual has some goal in his/her life. Education contributes in attainment of that goal. There is a definite purpose underlined all educational activities.5
  6. Education is a training: Human senses, mind, behavior, activities; skills are trained in a constructive and socially desirable way.
  7. Education is instruction and direction: It directs and instructs an individual to fulfill his/her desires and needs for exaltation of his/her whole personality.
  8. Education is life: Life without education is meaningless and like the life of a beast. Every aspect and incident needs education for its sound development.
  9. Education is continuous reconstruction of the experiences: As per the definition of John Dewey education reconstructs and remodels the experiences towards socially desirable way.
  10. Education helps in individual adjustment: A man is a social being. If he is not able to adjust himself in different aspects of life his personality cannot remain balanced. Through the medium of education he learns to adjust himself with the friends, class fellows, parents, relations, neighbors, teachers, etc.
  11. Education is balanced development: Education is concerned with the development of all faculties of the child. it performs the functions of the physical, mental, aesthetic, moral, economic, spiritual development of the individual so that the individual may get rid of his animal instincts by sublimating the same so that he becomes a civilized person.
  12. Education is a dynamic process: Education is not a static, but a dynamic process, which develops the child according to changing situations and times. It always induces the individual towards progress. It reconstructs the society according to the changing needs of the time and place of the society.
  13. Education is a bipolar process: According to Adams, education is a bipolar process in which one personality acts on another to modify the development of other person. The process is not only conscious but deliberate.
  14. Education is a three dimensional process: John Dewey has rightly remarked, ‘All educations proceeds by participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race.’ Thus it is the society, which will determine the aims, contents and methods of teachings. In this way the process of education consists of three poles—the teacher, the child and the society.
  15. Education as growth: The end of growth is more growth and the end of education is more education. According to John Dewey, ‘an individual is a changing and growing personality.’ The purpose of education is to facilitate the process of his/her growth. Therefore, the role of education is countless for a perfect society and man. It is necessary for every society and nation to bring holistic happiness and prosperity to its individuals.
  1. Education is a bipolar as well as tripolar process.
  2. Education is a child-centred process.
  3. Education is a deliberate as well as internal process.
  4. Education is a psychological process.
  5. Education is not literacy.
  6. Education is a sociological process.
  7. Education is a lifelong process.
  8. Education is more than instruction and teaching.
  9. Education is more than giving information.
  10. Education is developing knowledge, skills and attitudes.6
Need of Aims of Education
Education is a purposeful activity. By education we intend to bring certain desirable changes in the students. Education is a conscious effort and, as such, it has definite aims and objectives. In the light of these aims the curriculum is determined and the academic achievements of the student are measured. Education without aim is like a boat without its rudder. Aims give direction to activity.
Absence of an aim in education makes it a blind alley. Every stage of human development had some aim of life. The aims of life determine aims of education. The aims of education have changed from age to age and thus it is dynamic because the aims of life are dynamic. Aims give direction to activities. Aims of education are formulated keeping in view the needs of situation. Human nature is multisided with multiple needs, which are related to life. Educational aims are correlated to ideals of life.
The goal of education should be the full flowering of the human on this earth. According to a UNESCO study, “the physical, intellectual, emotional and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man/woman is the fundamental aim of education.”
The goal of education is also to form children into human persons committed to work for the creation of human communities of love, fellowship, freedom, justice and harmony. Students are to be moulded only by making them experience the significance of these values in the school itself. Teachers could achieve this only by the lived example of their lives manifested in hundreds of small and big transactions with students in word and deed.
Individual and Social Aims
Individual aims and social aims are the most important aims of education. They are opposed to each other individual aims gives importance for the development of the individuality. Social aim gives importance to the development of society through individual not fulfilling his desire. But it will be seen that development of individuality assumes meaning only in a social environment.
Education is essential for every society and individual. It is life itself, but not a preparation for life. Man has various qualities. These qualities of the individual should be developed for the improvement of the country. So education plays a complementary role for overall individual, social and national development. It enables an individual to realize his/her highest self and goal. The key functions and roles of education towards individual, society and country are listed below.
Functions of Education Towards Individual
  1. Development of inborn potentialities: Education helps the child to develop the inborn potentialities of child providing scope to develop.
  2. Modifying behavior: Education helps to modify the past behavior through learning and through different agencies of education.
  3. All-round development: Education aims at the all round development of child—physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual.
  4. Preparing for the future: After completion of education the child can earn its livelihood getting proper education, which has productivity. The education should be imparted according to the own interest of the child.7
  5. Developing personality: The whole personality of the child is developed physically, intellectually, morally, socially, aesthetically and spiritually. He/She is recognized in the society.
  6. Helping for adjustability: Man differs from beast. Man has reasoning and thinking power. Man tries his best to adjust with his own environment through education.
Individual Aims
Sir Percy Nunn observes, ‘Nothing goods enters into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women and that educational practice must be shaped the individual. Education should give scope to develop the inborn potentialities through maximum freedom.’
  1. Biologists believe that every individual is different from others. Every child is a new and unique product and a new experiment with life. Thompson says, ‘Education is for the individual’. Individual should be the center of all educational efforts and activities.
  2. Naturalists believe that central aim of education is the autonomous development of the individual. Rousseau said, ‘Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the Author of Nature, but everything degenerates in the hands of man.’ God makes all things good, man meddles with them and they become evil. God creates everything good man makes it evil. So individual should be given maximum freedom for its own development.
  3. Psychologists believe that education is an individual process because of individual differences. No two individuals are alike. So education should be according to the interest of the individual.
Functions of Education Towards Society
Social change and control
The society is never station. It is progressive and dynamic. The child lives in society. It is the social environment where the personality of the child can be developed. The old traditions, customs are preserved and transmitted with the situations, which are ever changing. We should not think or believe in the blind beliefs, which are hindrances towards the development. Education helps to walk with the development of science and technology.
Reconstruction of experiences
Education is lifelong process. Life is education and education is life. Life is full of experiences. One cannot live with his/her past experiences, which are unable to adjust in the society. So education helps the individual to reconstruct the experience and adjust with the environment.
Development of social and moral value
Society is always in tension with narrowism. There is no social or moral value. Now the man is behaving similar to an animal. Animality can be changed with moral education. Education teaches the moral value and social value such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, fellow feelings, love affection, respect towards elder, helping the poor and needy persons.
Providing opportunity or equality
Indian Constitution has introduced the term ‘equality’ because we are not getting equal opportunities in all aspects. Education teaches us to give equal opportunities in all aspects irrespective of caste, creed, color, sex and religion.8
Social aim
The supporters believe that society or state is supreme or real. The individual is only a means. The progress of the society is the aim of education. Education is for the society and of the society. The function of education is for the welfare of the state. The state will make the individual as it desires. It prepares the individual to play different roles in society. Individuality has no value and personality is meaningless apart from society. If society will develop individual will develop automatically. Here society plays an important role.
Synthesis between Individual and Social Aims of Education
Individual aim and social aim of education go independently. Both are opposing to each other. It is not in reality. Neither the individual nor the society, can exist. The individual is the product of the society, while society finds its advancement in the development of its individual member.
Individual cannot develop in vacuum. According to John Adams, ‘individuality requires a social medium to grow.’ And TP Nunn says, ‘individuality develops in social environment.’
Functions of Education Towards Nation
  1. Inculcation of civic and social responsibility: Education helps to make rising generation to understand its rights and duties as citizens of a democratic country.
  2. Training for leadership: The leadership quality of the individual is developed when he/she participates in all spheres of social, political, religious and educational activities.
  3. National integration: We are living in one country having diversities in respect of color, caste, language, diet, dress, habits and physical environment. Educational integration leads to emotional integration. Education trains people for unity, not for locality, for democracy and not for dictatorship. Education serves the most important end of educating the man.
  4. Total national development: Education helps for bringing about total national development by developing its all aspects, i.e. social, economic, cultural, spiritual, moral, educational, etc.
Therefore, really education is an essential ingredient for all ages and stages of the life of an individual, society as well as the nation. Education can be a real panacea for all social evils.
Vocational Aim
The vocational aim is also known as ‘the utilitarian aim or the bread and butter aim.’ The above stated ideals of education are useless unless these aims enable us to procure the primary needs of our life food, shelter and clothing. Education must help the child to earn his/her livelihood. Education, therefore, must prepare the child for some future profession or vacation or trade. The vocational aim is a narrow aim of education. Therefore, the vocational aim is not a complete aim by itself.
Knowledge or Information Aim
Educationists who hold the knowledge or information aim of education justify their stand with powerful arguments. They argue that knowledge is indispensable for all right action and it is the source of all power. ‘It is knowledge, which makes a realist a visionary successful in any profession’.
Culture Aim
The cultural aim of education has been suggested to supplement the narrow view of knowledge aim. The cultural aim of education is no doubt a nice aim as it produces men of culture. But it is ambiguous and has too many meanings. It cannot serve as the major aim of education.9
Character Formation Aim or the Moral Aim
Character is the cream of life and, as such, it should be the aim of education. Vivekananda and Gandhi both emphasized character building in education. Character formation or moral education is concerned with the whole conduct of man. The Secondary Education Commission (1951–52) has rightly remarked: ‘character education has to be visualized not in a social vacuum, but with reference to contemporary socioeconomic and political situation.’ Therefore, we can conclude that only character building cannot be the aim of education.
Spiritual Aim
The idealist thinkers have opined that the spiritual development of an individual should be the supreme aim of education. Mahatma Gandhi has attached great importance to spiritual values in education.
Adjustment Aim
Adjustment is the primary rule of human life. Without adjustment to environment none can survive. Life is a struggle for adjustment. In the words of Horney ‘education should be man's adjustment to his nature, to his fellows and to the ultimate nature of the cosmos.
Leisure Aim
‘Free and unoccupied time’ of an individual is generally known as leisure. It is a time when we can use it in a creative way. During leisure we can pursue an activity for own sake and not for earning a living, which is dull and monotonous. During leisure we can also regain the lost energy and enthusiasm. Leisure can make the life dynamic and charming.
Citizenship Training Aim
A citizen has to perform multifarious civic duties and responsibilities. Children should be so trained by education that they can successfully discharge their various civic duties and responsibilities. The Secondary Education Commission in India (1951–1952) has greatly emphasized citizenship training in schools. Such training includes the development of certain qualities to character such as clear thinking, clearness in speech and writing, art of community living, cooperation, toleration, sense of patriotism and sense of world citizenship.
Complete Living Aim
Some educationists have insisted upon the need of an all—comprehensive aim of education. This viewpoint has led to the development of two aims ‘the complete living aim’ and the ‘harmonious development aim.’ According to Horney ‘there is no one final aim, subordinating all lesser aims to itself. There is something in all these aims, but not everything in any one of them.’
Harmonious Development Aim
Educationists are of the opinion that all the powers and capacities inherited by a child should be developed harmoniously and simultaneously. Gandhiji is a strong advocate of the harmonious development.
Social Aim
From the above discussion it is clearly evident that no individual can live and grow without social context. Individual life became unbearable to man and that is why he formed society. 10Individual security and welfare depend on the society. Individual improvement is conditioned by social progress. Education should make each individual socially efficient. A socially efficient individual is able to earn his/her livelihood.
The Functions of Education
  1. Ability to convert the young blood of the society into the productive and responsible citizens for the country.
  2. Creating awareness among the individuals regarding their own self and their surroundings so that they can be aware of their problems and can formulate ways to improve the standards of living.
  3. Create job opportunities and employment, which improves the gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita income of a country.
  4. Gives strength and self-confidence in the nation by means of using education as an important weapon for achieving competence.
  5. To contribute the development of society by providing skillful individuals to the business and government organizations.
Nursing education is a professional education, which is consciously and systematically planned and implemented, through instruction, and discipline and aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, social, emotional, aesthetic powers or abilities of the student in order to render professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health and illness, in a veracity of settings, in the best or highest possible manner.
Objectives of Nursing Education
  1. To prepare nurses who will give expert bedside nursing care in the hospital and home.
  2. To provide opportunities through curricular and extracurricular activities for the full development of the personality of each individual student.
  3. To provide integration of health and social expects.
  4. To basic purpose of nursing education is to prepare the nurse and able to plan for and give comprehensive nursing care.
  5. Nurse must have the necessary knowledge, principles, skills and attitudes which are essential to professional nursing practices.
  6. The nurse educators should guide the learning activities of students by acting as facilitators.
  7. Nursing students must develop competent health team members with sound judgment, intellectual and moral enlighten, professional competence and expertise.
  8. Nurse should be competent in teaching, oriented to community health and research–minded.
  9. Well qualified, competent nurses are needed to meet the needs of people in the society. Nursing care is an important and integral aspects of health care.
  10. Nursing education should impart scientific and up-to- date knowledge in the areas of medical, social, behavioral and biological sciences.
  11. Nursing education should have sufficient theory content and practical experiences.
  12. Nursing education should prepare nurses as good leaders to provide qualitative care.
  13. The nurse leader are responsible for effective nursing education, nursing education should aim to identify potential nursing leaders and facilitating for the development.11
  14. To improve the professional development of each nurse and their profession.
  15. For all round personality development of individual with nursing education nurse will develop and grow as a person of self-awareness, self-direction and self-motivation.
Aims of Nursing Education
  1. Harmonious development: Nursing education aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual and esthetic powers or abilities of the student. Harmonious development is essential for achieving the qualities required for leading a successful profession and personal life. In short, nursing education aims to prepare students as good human beings with qualities of a professional nurse.
  2. Including the right attitude: Right attitude towards nursing form the basic of nursing career. Right attitude helps to adjust with the student life and motivate to achieve excellence in the upcoming professional life. Nursing education offers a variety of learning experience with an attitude among students.
  3. Knowledge and skill aim: Nursing education provides the much needed knowledge and skill required to practice the profession in a successful manner. Technological advancement in the field of education helps nurse educator to fulfill this aim in a meticulous way.
  4. Emphasis on high-tech-high-touch approach: High-tech-high-touch approaches in nursing care was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of the technical advancements in the field of patient care. Nurse educators have to motivate the students of maintain the human elements of nursing, while rendering care with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
  5. Prepare students to take up a role in learning: The model of teacher as the pivotal and dominant figure in education, presenting a variety of information to pupil has practically disappeared. To a certain extent this is applicable to nursing education also. Nurse educator of today is considered as a facilitator of learning, whose main duty is to prepare students to adopt a proactive role in learning so that they will actively participate in the teaching-learning process.
  6. Professional development: Nursing education prepares the students to render professional nursing care in the best or highest possible manner. Nurse educators can fulfill the professional aspirations of the students by way of providing guidance, arranging adequate learning experience and serving as role models. The need of professional development in this era of competition and knowledge explosion should be explained properly to the students.
  7. Assist to build a promising career: Nursing profession offers a veriety of career opportunities. Helping students to realize their potential and interests will enable them to build a promising career. Helping to relive their potential and interests will enable them to build a promising career.
  8. Citizenship: Nursing education should motivate the student to perform his/her duties as a citizen for the welfare of the fellow human being.
  9. Social aim: Nursing education prepares the student to become a useful member in the society. This will in turn help them to interact effectively with the people and render dedicated care without any discrimination.
  10. To prepare global nurse: Globalization and liberalization has created world wide opportunities for professional nurses ever than before. Today a competent nurse with good knowledge in English can easily build a career in other nations. Considering the high demand 12of Indian nurses in the international context, we can add nurses one more aim, namely preparation of global nurse.
  11. Leadership aim: Since nursing profession is experiencing a shortage of eminent leaders. Leadership aim is very important. Nursing education has to nurture leadership abilities among students.
Factors Influencing Nursing Education
  • Health needs of the people in the society
  • Needs of the student and time
  • Philosophy of nursing
  • Current trends in general and professional education
  • Advances in sciences and technology.
Diversity is the major characteristic of nursing education today. Influenced by a variety of factors such as social change, efforts to achieve full professional status, woman issues, historical factors, public expectations, expectations of nurses themselves, legislation, national studies and constant changes in the healthcare systems many different types of nursing education programs exist.
Meaning and Definition
Nursing educational programs may be defined as in large part that influencing of one group of human beings, the pupils to grow towards defined objectives; utilizing a second group of human beings, the teacher as agents and operating in a setting of third group of human being, the public variously concerned both with objectives and with means used to achieve them.
Nursing Educational Programs
At present the various nursing educational programs are there (Table 1.1). We can classify these programs into following courses.
Table 1.1   Various Nursing Educational Programs
Nursing programs
Certificate courses
ANM course/ HW§ (F) course/ HA (F) course/ LHV*
GNM course
Degree (UG)+
  • **BSc Nursing (basic)
  • BSc Nursing (post certificate)
  • PB BSc Nursing
Post basic diploma courses
Masters education post graduation (PG)
  • Master of Nursing (MN)
  • MSc++, nursing
  • Mphil in nursing
Doctoral Programs
PhD ‡‡ in nursing.
*LHV, lady health visitor; +UG undergraduates; ANM, auxiliary nurse midwifery; §HW, health worker; HA, health assistant;
GNM, general nursing and midwifery; **BSc, Bacherlor of science; ++MSc, Master of science; ‡‡ PhD, Doctor of philosophy.
Certificate Courses
Multipurpose Health Worker Training
The training grew out of the earlier auxiliary nursing and midwifery (ANM) course. The ANM training was for 2 years and mainly covered a maternal and child care, and family welfare. In keeping with the policies of the government of India to have multipurpose health workers, the Indian Nursing Council revised the ANM's syllabus in 1977 and reduced the duration to 18 months. The focus of training is on community health nursing. At the end of the course the candidates are eligible to work in health subcenters. There are about 500 schools in India offering this course in India at present. The multipurpose health assistant (male) [MPHA (M)] training course is also conducted in some states of India with an 18 months duration.
Female Health Supervisor Training
This course was initially meant as a health visitor training course. It went through several modifications in course of time and finally metamorphosed into the present 6 months promotional training. The female health supervisor or MPHA (F) course is currently conducted in 21 centers in India. Besides this basic course, several states have their own promotional courses as requirement for ANMs to be qualified for promotion to supervisors.
General Nursing and Midwifery
The general nursing and midwifery course is conducted in more than 1,000 centers in the country. The syllabus has undergone many revisions according to the changes in health plans and policies of the government and changing trends, and advancements in education, nursing, health sciences and medical technology. The latest revision of the general nursing syllabus by the Indian Nursing Council (INC) in 1988 had reduced the duration of the course from 3.6 years to 3 years. The basic entrance qualification has become intermediate or class XII instead of the earlier 10th class. Both science and arts students are eligible. The focus of general nursing education is care of the sick in the hospital. On passing the candidates are registered as nurses (RN) and as midwives (RM) by the respective state nursing councils.
Degree (Undergraduate)
There are two types of graduate nursing education in India—one is of 4 year basic course for fresh entrance and the second is condensed postbasic course for those who have undergone the GNM course.
4 Year Bachelor of Science in Nursing [BSc (N)]
Graduate nursing education started in India in the year of 1946 in Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore and in the Rajkumari Amrit Kaur (RAK) College of Nursing at Delhi University. At present several universities in India offer the course. The entry qualification is intermediate with biological sciences, physics and chemistry.
The course focuses on preparation of professional nurses for working at the bedside and for taking up leadership roles in public health nursing. The course also includes managerial and teaching subjects to prepare graduates to take up first level teaching and administrative jobs in the hospital. Overall, the graduate nursing course in the country offers a broad base in both arts and sciences, and lays the foundation for a holistic perspective to health and caring.
Post Basic BSc (N)
A 2 year degree course in nursing is offered in several universities in India. This course was specially designed to provide higher educational opportunities for practicing nurses. The entry 14requirement is that they should have completed the general nursing course and XII (usually with science). Most places also ask for 1 year after completing the diploma (GNM) course. Two exams are conducted by the universities one at the end of the 1st year and the other at the end of the 2nd year.
BSc Nursing (IGNOU)
Distance education in postbasic nursing has also been started by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1994. This has provided an opening for diploma nurses all over the country to undertake higher education. The IGNOU offers courses through its study centers throughout the country.
Post Basic Diploma Courses
These courses are designed for higher studies in chosen specialties. Normally, the duration is 1 year. Candidates who had successfully completed there GNM/BSc Nursing programs can apply. In some institutes its mandatory to complete 2 years of work experience to attain eligibility for the course. The clinical setting offers plenty of opportunities for the successful candidates. Nurses who successfully complete these programs are given due consideration for promotion.m
The following are the post basic diploma courses, which are taught in various institutes in India:
  1. Diploma in Neuro Nursing.
  2. Diploma in Cardiac Nursing.
  3. Diploma in Psychiatric Nursing.
  4. Diploma in Critical Care Nursing.
  5. Diploma in Neonatal Nursing.
  6. Diploma in Operation Theater Technique.
  7. Diploma in Nursing Education and Administration.
Candidates who had successfully completed Diploma in Nursing Education and Administration are eligible to be appointed as tutors in School of Nursing.
Postgraduate Nursing Education
Master of Science in Nursing MSc (N) course is presently being offered in several universities in the country. The 2 year course is designed to prepare clinical and community health nursing specialists. Besides clinical specialization the students are thought to conduct research in nursing. A thesis is submitted by each student in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree. Courses in education and administration are given to prepare the students to take up responsibility in education and administration in nursing and allied health areas. The entrance requirement is BSc (N) and 1 year experience as a clinical nurse or instructor. Entrance test is mandatory in reputed institutes. University exams are conducted at the end of the academic year or semesters.
MPhil and PhD programs
Till a few years ago nurses had to travel abroad to study PhD course or seek admission in allied disciplines. In the 80's RAK College of Nursing started an MPhil program as a regular and part time course. Since then several universities started registering candidates for PhD in nursing. Prominent among these are MGR Medical University, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health 15Sciences, SNDT University and Delhi University. The Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) has started both MPhil and PhD program in nursing through support from the WHO.
However, nurses keen to obtain doctorate degrees continue to seek admission into universities and departments with related disciplines such as community health, nutrition, social sciences. The Jawaharlal Nehru University at New Delhi, the Padmavathi Mahila University, Triupathi, and the Center for Development Studies, Trivandrum and the Center for Economic and Social Sciences, Hyderabad are some of the universities and institutes where nurses seek to obtain higher education.