Textbook of Medical Mycology Jagdish Chander
INDEX
Note: Page numbers followed by f refer to Figure and t refer to Table.
A
Abdominal mucormycosis
signs of 562
symptoms of 562
Abscesses 621
Absidia corymbifera See Lichtheimia 556, 571
Acacia nilotica 298
Acanthamoeba 858
AccuProbe 90
Acervulus 52, 912
Achorion schoenleinii 162
Acid production 418
Acid-fast stain, modified 212f, 860
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 740
Acremonium 640, 683, 769, 781, 791, 912
falciforme 204, 217, 694
kiliense 694, 781
species 640, 648, 687, 781
Acridine orange stain 866
Acrodontium 791
Actidione 449, 912
Actinobacillus
capsulatus 709
lignieresi 218
Actinomadura 863
madurae 204206, 209f, 210f, 216
pelletieri 204, 205, 216, 217
Actinomyces 860, 863
Actinomycetoma 204t, 206, 206t, 209f, 211f, 214f, 215f, 216t, 218
grains of 212f
of foot 210f
of shoulder 209f
Adamson's fringe 166
Adenosine triphosphate 885
Adhesive tape technique 869
Adiaconidia 35, 708, 709t, 912
Adiaspiromycosis 707, 708, 711, 714
Adiaspirosis 707
Adiaspore 35, 912
Aerial hyphae 27
Aerobic actinomycetes 216
Aeromycology 14
Aerosolized pentamidine 482
Aflatoxicosis 763, 766
Aflatoxin 765, 912
African histoplasmosis 322
Agaricus bisporus 770
Ajellomyces 313
capsulatus 48, 313
dermatitidis 41, 50f, 343, 709
Aleurioconidia 709, 912
Aleuriospore 912
Algae-like organisms 54
Allergen immunotherapy 728
Allergic
alveolitis, extrinsic 722, 725
aspergillosis 526, 737
Aspergillus sinusitis 737
bronchopulmonary
aspergillosis 526, 723, 725, 737
mycoses 725, 697
diseases 405, 409
forms 527
fungal
diseases 722
rhinosinusitis 726
sinusitis 737
manifestations 409
respiratory diseases 722t
rhinosinusitis 146
Allescheria boydii 683
Allochthonous 912
Allylamines 103, 107, 108
Alphacel-yeast extract agar 853
Alternaria 640, 723, 740, 785, 789
alternata 279, 726, 789
dianthicola 279
infection 275
species 32, 640, 724f, 785, 785f, 787
tenuissima 279
Amanita 773
muscaria 771
pantherina 771
phalloides 771
proxima 772
pseudoporphyria 772
smithiana 772
virosa 771
American Type Culture Collection 891
Ameroconidium 912
Amido black solution 85f, 871
Amine alkaloid 766
Aminoadipic acid 798
Amphotericin B 104, 242, 674
colloidal dispersion 105
conventional 104
lipid complex 105
lipid-based formulations of 105
liposomal 105
Amsterdam declaration 42
Anamorph 912
Anamorphic fungi 52
Aneuploid 912
Angular cheilitis 405, 408
Animal
disease 230
inoculation techniques 872
pathogenicity 86, 137, 151, 188, 218, 241, 262, 284, 304, 320, 349, 367, 388, 422, 481, 516, 538, 575, 647, 650, 673, 713, 719, 747, 805, 820, 837
Annellide 912
Annellidic Scopulariopsis species 913
Annelloconidia of Magnusiomyces capitatus 620f
Annelloconidium 913
Annular erythematous scaly plaques 170f
Antheridium 913
Antibacterial therapy 63
Antibiotics 106
Antibody
detection of 84, 421, 537
Antifungal 104f, 108, 111, 114, 877
agents 165, 481
antibiotics 103
classification of 103
disks 882
drugs 284, 368, 454, 877
amphotericin B 881f
classification of 103t
resistance 115
practice guidelines 115
susceptibility testing 874
therapeutic drug monitoring 116
therapy 102, 117
Antigen 441
culture filtrate 832, 837
detection of 84, 367, 537
heat-labile 366
Anti-neutrophilic response 60
Antiretroviral therapy 717
highly active 314, 497
Antiretroviral treatment 517
Antler hypha 913
Antrodia camphorata 769
Apophysis 913
Apophysomyces 555, 558, 561, 563, 567, 568, 781, 836, 853, 913
causes 561
elegans 40, 46
genus 557
infection 561
mexicanus 555
morphology of 568
ossiformis 555
species 556, 557, 567, 568, 572
trapeziformis 555
variabilis 50f, 555, 569f
Apothecia 913
Appressoria 913
Aquatic fungi 829
lower 30
Arterial catheters 63
Arthritis 405, 408
Artifacts 75, 135, 180, 447, 858, 872, 873t
Arthroconidia 28f, 360, 913
Arthroderma 163
vanbreuseghemii 44
Arthrographis 696
kalrae 696
Arthrospores 157f, 185f
chains of 188f
Ascomycetes 33, 50f, 204
Ascomycetous yeasts 30
Ascomycota 47, 50, 146, 313, 343, 715
phylum 53, 230
Ascospore 50f, 913
Ascostromata 913
Ascus 913
Aseptate 913
Asexual
conidia 604
propagule 436
reproduction 31
sporulation 567
Aspergilloma 526, 527, 527f
Aspergillosis 85f, 524, 527t, 528, 684
types of 531t
Aspergillum 524
Aspergillus 5, 26, 27, 50, 63, 71, 72, 81, 84, 110, 189, 524, 528, 538, 614, 640, 670, 687, 723, 725, 727, 737, 739, 762764, 768, 848, 851, 880, 910, 913, 915, 916, 918, 920
alliaceus 671t
antigens 537
candidus 671
clavatus 525
endocarditis 529
flavus 525, 531, 533, 534f, 671, 725, 738, 740, 766, 782, 913
fumigatus 46, 65, 422, 524, 525, 528, 531, 533, 538, 539, 622, 647, 671, 724726, 737, 740, 748, 782, 920
antigen 527
culture of 527
septate hyphae of 535f
fungal ball 533, 539
genus 538, 640
glaucus 525, 536
infections 524, 525, 528
meningoencephalitis 528
nidulans 13, 204, 525, 531, 536, 622, 671, 916
microscopic appearance of 537f
niger 525, 531, 536, 538, 671, 674f, 768, 782
hyphae of 672f, 674f
mycelial growth of 673f
ochraceus 768
oryzae 525, 766
sections 52
sinusitis 737
species 5, 26f, 80, 114, 209, 513, 525, 526, 529, 530, 531f, 533, 534f, 538, 538t, 539, 622, 648650, 651f, 671, 675, 781
septate hyphae of 76f, 531f533f
tamarii 766
terreus 110, 525, 528, 531, 539, 671
colony morphology of 536f
tracheobronchitis 527
versicolor 525, 528, 671, 766, 916
Asteroid body 229, 232, 913
Asthma
bronchial 526, 527, 723
severe 723
Asymptomatic oral carriage 408
Athlete's foot, tinea pedis 174
Atovaquone 482
Atrophic erythema, acute 408
Auditory canal, external 671f, 672f
Aureobasidium 640
melanogenum 149
pullulans 279, 640, 785, 785f
species 785
Autophagy 65
Autospore 913
Auxacolor testing 417f
Auxanographic method 853
Auxarthron 791
Auxenochlorella protothecoides 806
Azelaic acid 130
Azole 103, 108
action of 108
antifungal 349
B
Bacilliform 913
Bacteria 31t
Bacterial agents 204
Bagassosis 727
Baker's yeast 12, 621
Balamuthia 858
Balanitis 406, 408
Balanoposthitis 406
Balkan endemic nephropathy 768
Ballistoconidium 913
Bamboo rats, species of 512
Bandicota bengalensis 510
Barber's itch 172
Basal ascomycetes 53
Basal media 847
Basidiobolomycosis 554, 556, 597, 598t, 603
Basidiobolus 597, 834
ranarum 556, 558, 562, 575, 603, 605, 835, 917
culture of 606f
sexual spores of 606f
Basidiomycetes 33, 53, 155, 231
Basidiomycetous
fungus Schizophyllum commune 51
yeasts 30
Basidiomycota 47, 50, 128, 155, 231
phylum 53
Basidiospore 51f, 913
Basidium 913
Beauveria species 683
Beauvericin 769
Beigel's disease 154
Benzylamines 103, 107, 108
Bifonazole 109
Bioassay technique 117
Biochemical tests 418
Biological warfare 10
Bioluminescence assay 885
Biopsy 499
frozen-section 79
Bioterrorism 360
Biotin-avidin amplifications system 537
Bipolaris 271, 640, 723, 739, 740, 785, 787, 788, 915
hawaiiensis 726, 785
species 280f, 640, 785
spicifera 614, 740, 785
Bird seed agar 850
Bitunicate pyrenomycetes 252
Biverticillium 507
Black piedra 158
Black yeast 27, 146, 147f, 257, 279, 281, 785
Blackish pasty colonies 147f
Blakely's red gum 439
Blankophor 858
Blastic conidial development 34
Blastoconidium 913
Blastomyces 343, 613, 709, 713, 715, 716, 791, 870
dermatitidis 24, 25, 36, 80, 81, 114, 302, 342347, 347f, 348, 348f, 349, 350, 366, 380382, 440, 648, 650, 709, 713, 719, 791, 803, 804, 848, 849, 851, 853, 871
antigens 349
culture 348f
strains 343
yeast 344
gilchristii 342, 343
loboi 297
percursus 342, 343, 716
species 695
Blastomycetic dermatitis 342
Blastomycin 349
Blastomycosis 342, 346, 347
disseminated 345
queloidiforme 297
types of 346
Blastoschizomyces capitatus 619
Blastospore 453, 913
Blood
agar 851
plate 836f
cells 405
culture 74
glucose-cysteine 318
stream infections 402
Blurry vision 498
Body fluids 74
Bone marrow 74
Bonsai trees 231
Botryomycosis 218
causative bacteria of 218t
Brachiola 495
Brain
abscess 146
heart infusion agar 719, 849
Brazilian blastomycosis 379
Brewer's yeast 12, 621
Bronchoalveolar lavage 531
Broth dilution method 876
Broth macrodilution 877
method 877
Brownish mycelial colonies 187f
Brudzinski's sign 443
Bull neck 384
Burow's solution 112
Busse-Buschke disease 434
Butenafine 107
Byssinosis 727
Byssochlamys 768
C
‘C’ or ‘S’ -shaped streaks 643
Caenorhabditis elegans 87, 872
Caffeic acid agar 850
Calcium binding protein 314
Calcofluor white stain 858
Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar 854
Cancer 65
Candida 5, 24, 63, 72, 81, 82, 113, 114, 401, 440, 538, 640, 641, 722, 805, 871
albicans 7, 27, 34, 40, 65, 80, 83f, 114, 241, 401403, 405, 406, 411, 413f, 415, 416t, 418, 640, 641, 648, 849, 854, 868, 914
antigens 71, 403
nonspecific 421
auris 402, 416, 669
fungemia 416
dubliniensis 27, 402, 415, 416t, 849, 850, 854, 868
enolase antigen testing 421
fukuyamaensis 12
genus 422
glabrata 316, 317, 402, 403, 414, 415, 418, 854
guilliermondii 402, 415, 418
haemulonii 402, 403, 416
complex 416
infection 41, 63, 177, 406, 407, 420, 672
kefyr 402, 415
krusei 402, 403, 408, 413, 418, 640, 854
growth of 414f
lusitaniae 402, 410, 416
pancreatitis 409
parapsilosis 46, 156, 402, 403, 414, 418, 803, 854
growth of 414f
pelliculosa 416
rugosa 402, 416
score 423
species 5, 26f, 27, 36, 65, 78f, 83, 87, 105, 110, 111, 178, 188, 404, 410, 418, 422, 423, 513, 530, 615, 649, 650, 670, 675
growth of 413f
mixed infection of 412f
pseudohyphae of 410f413f
virulence factors of 404
stellatoidea 411
strains 420
tropicalis 402, 403, 413, 418, 640, 854
growth of 414f
viswanathii 402
Candidal granuloma 405, 407
Candidemia 405, 408
Candidial meningitis 408
Candidiasis 401, 405t, 407t, 409
Candiduria 407
Cannomys badius 507, 509, 510
Capilliconidia 913
Capnodiales 146
Capsular polysaccharide 441
Carbohydrate
assimilation media 853
fermentation media 853
Carbon
assimilation technique 136
dioxide 240
fermentation technique 136
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema 479
Castaneda's method 849
Castellani's method 889
Castellani's paint 112
Cave disease 315
Cell
mass vaccine 838
mediated immunity 85, 382
membrane 30
of fungi 30f
structure 29
titan 920
Cell wall 29
antigens 403
components 421
composition 31
mannoprotein 421
Cellobiose 452
Cellular immune responses 382
Cellular immunity 61
Cellulose 813
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 891
Central bronchiectasis 527, 724
Central nervous system aspergillosis 528
Cephalosporium 694
acremonium 12
Cerebral mycosis 274
Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis 272
Cerebrospinal fluid 74
Cerinosterus cyanescens 231
Cetacean lacaziosis-like disease 302
Chaetomella raphigera 37
Chaetomium 786, 918
atrobrunneum 275, 280
globosum 280
perlucidum 280
species 252, 274, 280, 785, 786f
Champagne cup appearance 569f
Champagne glass 568
Champignon mushroom 770
Chemoprophylaxis 423
Chicago's disease 342
Chignon disease 154
Chitin synthase 29
Chitosomes 29
Chlamydia pneumoniae infections 316
Chlamydospore 914
Chlamydospore formation 417
Chlorella 797, 806, 914
Chlorellaceae 798
Chlorellales 797, 798, 806
Chlorellosis 798
Chlorophyll, lack 798
Chlorophyta 798
Chloroplast 914
Chorioretinitis 649
CHROMagar Candida 83f, 414f, 418
medium 854
CHROMagar Malassezia 854
Chromatography, thin layer 772
Chromoblastomycosis 146, 251, 252, 252t, 255f, 258f
Chromomycosis 251
Chrysosporium 163, 695, 695f, 696, 740, 781, 791
articulatum 695
parvum var.
crescens 695, 708
parvum 695, 708
species 347, 386, 683, 791, 791f
zonatum 695, 696f
Chytridiales 811
Chytridiomycetes 811
Chytridiomycota, phylum 55
Ciclopiroxolamine 111
Circinate 914
Clades 917
Cladistics 914
Cladogram 914
Cladophialophora 280
bantiana 16, 271, 272, 280, 280f
carrionii 252, 253, 258, 261f
Cladosporium 32, 257, 258, 723, 740, 912, 919
bantianum 280
carrionii 258, 280
castellanii 146
cladosporioides 156, 912
species 284, 726, 787
trichoides 280
type 258
of sporulation 259f
Claviceps 763, 766
fusiformis 766, 767
purpurea 13, 766, 919
Cleistothecia 50, 51f, 537f, 914
Cleistothecial ascomata 53
Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) 874
Clotrimazole 109
cream 675
Coagulase-negative staphylococci 218
Coccidia 474
Coccidioidal meningitis, chronic 362
Coccidioides 319, 356, 357, 360, 363, 366, 613, 791, 801, 812, 818, 870, 915, 919
immitis 14, 17, 46, 356, 357, 364, 365, 707, 791, 792, 871
posadasii 14, 114, 356, 365, 791, 792
species 11, 27, 28f, 36, 80, 209, 350, 357, 360, 364f, 365f, 366368, 510, 648, 713, 915
infections 114
spherules 365f
Coccidioidin 366
Coccidioidoma 361
Coccidioidomycosis 356, 362, 910
disseminated 361
Coccidium seeberia 811
Coelomycetes 52, 53, 269, 918
pycnidia of 29f
Cokeromyces 919
recurvatus 386, 556, 558, 568
Colletotrichum 646, 688
coccodes 646
dematium 640, 646f
gloeosporioides 646
species 646
truncatum 646
Columba livia 439
Columella 914
Combating fungal infections 895
Commercial mushroom 770
Complement fixation test 367
Complement receptors 404
Conidia 27, 32, 34, 535f, 709, 914
chains of 690f, 692, 692f, 693f, 783f
multiple 718f
type of 270
Conidial ontogeny 34
Conidiobolomycosis 554, 556, 597, 598t, 599, 600f, 601f
swelling of 601f
Conidiobolus 834
coronatus 556, 599, 601, 602, 835
broad hyphae of 603f
culture of 602f
papillated conidia of 603f
villose conidia of 603f, 604, 604f
incongruous 556
sexual spores of 604f
lamprauges 556
sexual spores of 604f
species 606
Conidiogenesis 34
types of 34
Conidiogenous cells 788f, 789
Conidiophores 32, 535f, 914
Conidium 914
Coniosporium epidermidis 149
Contagious disease 358
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis 801
Copper-penny 253
Coprine atrementarius 770
Coprine poisoning 770
Coprinus syndrome 770
Coprophilous fungi 6
Coremia 783, 914
Coremium 914
Cornmeal agar 848
Cornmeal-tween agar 849
Cornea 645f
Corneal abscess 642f
Corticosteroids, adjunctive 482
Cortinarius 772
orellanoides 772
orellanus 772
rubellus 772
speciosissimus 772
Corymbs 569
Corynebacterium 156
diphtheriae 409
minutissimum 179
tenuis 157, 179
Coturnixcoturnix japonica 271
Counterimmunoelectrophoresis 388
Coxiella burnetii 316
Creatinine-dextrose-bromothymol-blue-thymine 452
Cryptic fungal species 52
Cryptic species 229, 914
Cryptococcaceae 128, 155
Cryptococcemia 444, 453
Cryptococcal meningitis 443
Cryptococcoma 443
Cryptococcosis 434, 446
Cryptococcus 5, 24, 51, 63, 72, 81, 110, 111, 113, 188, 436, 440442, 451, 805, 848, 850, 854, 859, 913, 914
adeliensis 438
albidus 435, 437, 438
gattii 435, 854
complex 438
immune response 441
laurentii 435, 438, 641
liquefaciens 438
neoformans 14, 16, 59, 65, 80, 363, 434, 435, 437t, 438, 439, 453t, 648, 818, 850, 851, 880
budding yeast cells of 449f
species 438
species 27, 29, 76, 77f, 78, 78f, 79f, 347, 386, 437, 439, 444, 451, 456, 621, 649, 803
budding yeast cells of 450f, 451f
virulence factors of 441
yeast-like mucoid growth of 451f
strain 451
Cryptosporidium hominis 861
Cryptostroma corticale 727
Cryptostromosis 726
Culicinomyces clavosporus 13
Cunninghamella 780, 919
bertholletiae 556, 569, 570f, 575, 781
species 558, 780
Cunninghamellaceae 556
Curvularia 271, 640, 739, 740, 912, 915, 918
geniculata 217, 787
infections 281
lunata 281f, 647f, 648, 726
pallescens 270
species 280, 640, 646, 787
Cutaneous aspergillosis 529
Cutaneous blastomycosis 345
Cutaneous cryptococcosis 443, 444
primary 445
Cutaneous emergomycosis 716
Cutaneous histoplasmosis 315
Cutaneous lesions 155
Cutaneous mucormycosis 559, 561
extensive primary 562f
Cutaneous mycoses 11
superficial 125
Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis 272
Cutaneous protothecosis 800
Cutaneous pythiosis 833
Cutaneous rhinosporidiosis 816
Cutaneous ulcerated plaque, primary 362f
Cyanobacteria 43
Cyclopeptides 771
Cyclopiazonic acid 766
Cyclospora cayetanensis 861
Cygnus 814
atratus 814
olor 814
Cylindrical conidia 283f
Cylindrocarpon 688
cyanescens 782
destructans 782
lichenicola 782
lucidum 13
species 782, 782f
Cyst 475
Cysteine-heart 849
Cystic subcutaneous
phaeohyphomycosis 274f
Cystoisospora belli 861
Cytoplasmic antigen 404
enzyme immunoassay 420
Cytoplasmic fusion 32
Cytoplasmic membrane 30
Cytosine deaminase 111
Cytosol 30
Cytotoxic chemotherapy 345
Czapek-Dox agar 851
D
Dactylaria 269
Dalmau plate culture 848
Dandruff 133
Dapsone 482
Dasypus novemcinctus 382, 389
Dauer cell 798, 914
Dematiaceous fungi 146, 146t, 251, 270, 270t, 739, 780, 784
Dendrogram 914
Denticles 240
Deoxyribonucleic acid
bar coding 90
probes 367
Dermatitidis 342, 345
Dermatitis 133
Dermatomycoses 146, 162
Dermatophilosis 171
Dermatophyte 28f, 163, 166, 169t, 176, 182f, 183, 880
arthrospores of 181f
causative 166t
conidia of 181t
ecological classification of 164t
septate hyphae of 181f
species 32f
spiral hyphae of 184f
test medium 160, 182, 851
Dermatophytic mycetoma 210
Dermatophytosis 162
chronic 166
deep 177
Dermoscopy 148
Descemet's membrane 640, 641
Detoxification 774
Deuteromycetes 128, 146, 204, 230, 252, 269, 358, 709, 914
Deuteromycota 34, 51
phylum 53
Diabetes mellitus 7
Diacetoxyscirpenol 768
Diaminodiphenylsulphone 820
Diaminopimelic acid 798
Diaper dermatitis 407
Dichloran rose-bengal chloramphenicol 850
medium 850
Dichotomous 531, 564
Diff-Quik stain 862
Digital object identifier 908
Dimethyl sulfoxide 856, 877
Dimorphic fungi 709
Diploid 915
Diplorhinotrichum gallopavum 269
Dipodascus capitatus 619
Dirofilaria 712
Disjunctor cell 915
Disk diffusion method 881
Dixon agar, modified 852
Dolipores 915
Dothideomycetes 146
Double ring sign 275
Doughnut-lifting sign 601
Drechslera 740, 787, 788
Drosophila melanogaster 87, 872
Dulcitol 452
Dusty cotton disease 727
Dystrophic onychomycosis, total 177
E
Echinocandins 113
Econazole 109, 675
Ectothrix 915
infections 168
Eczema, atopic 133
Eiken latex agglutination test 452
Emerging fungal
diseases 9
infections 622
Emergomyces 707, 709, 714719
africanus 707, 714716
orientalis 346, 707, 714
pasteurianus 44, 316, 513, 707, 714, 715, 718f
growth of 718f
species 42, 343
Emergomycosis 4, 36, 42, 44t, 309, 316, 322t, 346, 347t, 513, 637, 707, 714, 915
Emmons’ modification 848
Emmonsia 707710, 714, 715
crescens 343, 707711, 713, 715, 716
in vitro growth of 713f
parva 710
var. crescens 695, 708
var. parva 695, 708
parvum 708
pasteuriana 707, 714, 715
species 80, 364
Emmonsiella 313
capsulata 313
Emmonsiellopsis coralliformis 709
Encephalitozoon
cuniculi 495, 496, 500
hellem 496
intestinalis 494498
Endemic mycoses 9, 358
Endemic nephropathy 768
Endocarditis 405, 408
Endocystic cells 356
Endogenous endophthalmitis 648
Endomyces species 12
Endophthalmitis 405, 408, 639
fungal agents of 648t
Endophyte 915
Endoreticulatus species 496
Endoscopic sinus surgery 745, 749
Endospores 813, 819, 915
Endosporulation 915
Endothrix 915
infection 168, 168f
Enniatins 769
Enolase 421
Enterocytozoon bieneusi 494, 495, 496, 497
Entomogenous fungi 6
Entomophthorales species 554, 556, 604t, 890
Entomophthoramycosis 556, 597, 599f, 835t
Environmental protection agency 501
Enzymes 404
Eosinophil count, absolute 747
Eosinophilia 527, 724
Eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis 739
Epicoccum
nigrum 787
species 785, 787, 787f, 789
Epidemiological cut off 881883
Epidermophyton 889
floccosum 28, 112, 173, 174, 183, 187f, 671
species 163, 185
Epithelioid histiocytes, masses of 233
Epithelioid macrophages 712f
Epithet 915
Epizootic lymphangitis 322
Epsilometer test (Etest) 883
Equine phycomycosis 834
Ergometrine 766
Ergosterol quantitation method 885
Ergot alkaloids 766
Ergotamine 767
Erythematous annular
borders 175f
lesions 172
Erythrasma 180f
Escherichia coli 218
Esophagitis 408
Etymology 915
Eucalyptus camaldulensis 439
Eukaryota 29, 475
Eukaryotes 46, 47
Eukaryotic organisms 29
Eumycetoma 146, 203, 206, 206t, 214f, 215t, 218
black grain 204
grains 211
of foot 211f
Eumycota 24
Euphractus sexcintus 304
European blastomycosis 434
European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing 874
European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 874
Exoantigen 837
tests 871
Exogenous endophthalmitis 648
Exophiala 257, 850, 880
dermatitidis 40, 150, 252, 262, 279, 281, 281f
genus 284
jeanselmei 204, 215, 216, 279, 281, 282f
species 257, 284, 913
spinifera 252, 279
werneckii 283
Expiratory volume, forced 724
Exserohilum 271, 740, 787
rostratum 271, 726
conidia of 282f
species 282, 640, 788
Extensive hypopigmented patches 132f
Extensive nodulo-plaque lesions 255f
Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis 478
Eye 75
Eyeball 639
Eyeglass-shaped cells 239
F
Facial swelling 600f
Fantastic fungi 773
Farm fungicide 115
Farmer's lung
causative agents of 723t
disease 722
Favic chandelier 180, 915
Faviform 915
Favus 166, 167, 915
Fetal bovine kidney, primary 772
Feulgen reaction 862
Filamentous bacteria 216
Gram-positive 212f
Filamentous fungi 647, 878
Filamentous septate hyphae, long 746f
Filobasidiella
bacillispora 436
neoformans 436, 442
of basidiomycetes 51f
Fine needle aspiration cytology 713, 818
Fission 25, 915
yeast 915
Five-kingdom classification
animalia 47
fungi 47
monera 47
plantae 47
protista 47
Five-kingdom system 46
Floccose 915
Florida horse leeches 834
Flowcytometry 884
Fluconazole 109, 189
Flucytosine 111, 675
Fluorescein dye 643f
Fluorescence
activated cell sorting 884
antibody, direct 480
in situ hybridization 813
resonance energy transfer 89
Fluorescent
antibody stain 866
antibody staining 80
brightener wet mount 76f
septate hyphae 531f
Foamy histiocytes, sheets of 318f
Focal pulmonary lesions 453
Folliculitis 134
Fonsecaea 257, 258, 640
compacta 252, 258, 261f
pedrosoi 251, 252, 253, 254, 258, 259, 259f, 640, 918
species 284
Food
adulteration, prevention of 773
and agriculture organization 773
Foot cell 781, 525, 915
Formazan 815
Fourier transform infrared 803
Freeze-drying 890
Fumonisins 767
Fungal
agents 204, 215
causative 204
antigens 86t
cell 422
target sites of 104f
wall polysaccharides 30t
corneal ulcer 6, 639, 641, 642f645f
perforated 642f
culture 80, 135, 149, 180, 239, 257, 279, 303, 318, 347, 365, 386, 411, 449, 481, 500, 514, 567, 643, 650, 673, 713, 717, 745
collections 891
drying of 890
interpretation of 82
media 847
debris 749f
dimorphism 35
disease 7t, 59, 86, 302
burden of 8
classification of 11
diagnosis of 71
magnitude 6
re-emerging 9
endophthalmitis 647
genera 257
granuloma 529f, 530f
immunity 65
immunogens 60t
infection 5, 17, 60t, 63t, 93t
encountered 103
healthcare-associated 622
index of suspicion 17
of cornea 639
outbreaks 17
study forum 904
surveillance of 14
isolates, identification of 82
keratitis 639
mass 671f
metabolites, detection of 538
morphology 24
pathogens, common 60t
reagents 856
registries 19
repositories 18
rhinosinusitis 737, 741t, 742f, 745f, 747f, 748f
categorization of 738
classification of 738t
slide culture 82, 869
stains 856, 876
taxonomy 8, 39
vaccines 64
Fungi 3, 10, 30, 31t, 43, 128, 494, 770, 915, 811, 829, 830t
Absidia-like 569
allergenic 11
ball 527, 527f
cell wall of 30f
classification of 46, 52t
culture collections of 888
dimorphic 27, 35, 36, 60, 299
ecology of 6
egg 829
epidemiological markers of 92
harmful properties of 13
imperfecti 1, 34, 48, 52, 914, 917
taxonomy of 34
opportunistic 60
plasmalemma of 30f
preservation of 888
rectangular arthrospores of 32f
reference laboratory 891
septate hyphae of 26f
significance of 12
test 883
testing laboratory 892
true 203
useful properties of 12
yeast-like 176
zoological 44
Fungicide 915
FungiScope 19
Fusaproliferin 769
Fusariosis 687
Fusarium 26, 189, 614, 640, 683, 739, 740, 762, 763, 764, 769, 848, 880, 915, 919
chlamydosporum 689f
culmorum 769
graminearum 769
oxysporum 178, 687, 688
sacchari 646f
solani 640, 687
species complex 687
species 79, 110, 204, 218, 533, 640, 642, 645, 648, 683, 689f
sporotrichioides 769
verticillioides 687, 767
Fuseaux 916
Fusiform 916
G
Galactose 452
Gall bladder 499
Galleria mellonella 87, 872
Ganoderma lucidum 769
Gas
liquid chromatography 772
production 418
Gastric mucormycosis 562
Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis 605
Gastrointestinal mucormycosis 559, 561, 562
Genome sequence typing 622
Genus
Apophysomyces 555
Aspergillus, ascospores of 51f
Basidiobolus 606
Cryptococcus 436, 437
Cunninghamella 557
Glomerella 646
Malassezia, taxonomy of 128
Mucor 556
Rhizomucor 556
Saksenaea 557
Geomyces 696
pannorum 696
Geotrichosis 618
Geotrichum 615, 790, 913
candidum 618f, 696
hyphae of 619f
yeast of 618f
capitatum 619
species 157, 615, 619, 619t, 789
Germ tube 413f, 916
test (GTT) 417, 868
Giant cells 414 916
of granuloma 712f
Giant cutaneous 816
Gibberella 769
Giemsa staining 277f, 616
Gilchrist's disease 342
Gilled mushroom 770
Glabrous skin 170f
Glenosporella loboi 297
Glenosporopsis amazonica 297
Gliocladium roseum 13
Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections (GAFFI) 8
Glomeromycota 47, 48, 554, 555
phylum 53
Glucose 418
yeast extract 357
Glycoprotein 477
major surface 477
Gomara 131
Gomori's methenamine silver stain 863
Graft-versus-host disease 613
Grain eumycetoma, white 204
Gram's smear 410
Gram's stain 860
Granular bacteriosis 218
Granular dermatitis 834
Granule 916
Granuloma
trichophyticum 169
tricofitico 162
Granulomatous
disease, chronic 622
mycoses 64
reaction 214f, 254, 511, 748f
type of 233
Graphium 683
eumorphum 31
species 686f
Greenish mycelial colonies 690f
Greyish white mycelial colonies 187f
Gridley's fungal stain 863
Griseofulvin 106, 675
microsize 189
Grocott-Gomori's methenamine 78
silver 742
Guiana dolphins 300
Guillermo seeber 811
Guinea pigs 188
Guizotia abyssinica 82, 850, 851
agar 438
Gymnothecia 916
Gymnothecium 916
H
Haemophilus influenzae 59
Hair 162
bait technique 869
invasion, types of 169t
perforation test 182, 868
Hairbrush sampling technique 182
Hairy pus 561
Haloprogin 113
Hamycin 106
Hansenula anomala 614
Hansenula polymorpha 13
Haploid 916
Haplomycosis 707, 708
Haplosporangium 708
bisporale 707
parvum 707, 708
Helianthus annuus 451
Helicobacter pylori infection 12
Helicostylum lucknowense 573
Helminthosporium species 787, 788
Hematogenous dissemination 408
Hematoxylin stain 861
Hemoglobin agar 849
Hendersonula toruloidea 149, 187
Herbarium 916
Heterokaryon 916
Heterotrophs 3
Hilum 916
Histo spots 316
Histoplasma 312, 318, 360, 613, 695, 709, 713, 715, 791, 870
capsulatum 14, 16, 36, 47, 48, 60, 65, 75, 80, 81, 241, 302, 311314, 317f, 320, 321f, 343, 346, 347, 366, 381, 383, 513, 648, 649, 713, 714, 717, 727, 792, 849, 851, 853, 871
mycelial colonies of 312f
var. duboisii 853
species 318, 319, 386, 920
Histoplasmin skin test 319
Histoplasmosis 311, 319f
capsulati 314
chronic 319
classic 322
disseminated 316
duboisii 321
farciminosi 322
Holomorph 916
Homothallic fungi 27
Honeycomb-like adiaconidia 712f
Hormodendrum pedroso 251
Hormographiella 696
aspergillata 683, 696, 762
species 683
Horta's contribution 145
Hortaea
acidophila 146
werneckii 145148, 150, 150f, 151, 272
Hospital infection 622
Hulle cells 537, 916
Human
infection, natural 507
rectal tumor 812
Humoral immunity 61
Hyaline 916
fungi 269
hyphomycetes 640, 741, 780, 781
septate hyphae 718f
Hyalohyphomycetes 687t
Hyalohyphomycosis 682, 783
type of 524
Hydrolytic enzymes, secretion of 404
Hydrophilic fungus 300
Hydrophilic protistan 811
Hymenomycetes 890
Hypercalcemia 347
Hyperkeratosis of
fingers, diffuse 174f
palm, diffuse 174f
Hyperpigmented patches 132f
Hypersensitivity
delayed-type 319
pneumonitis 722
reactions 527t
Hyphae 157f, 417f, 620f, 916
broad, non-septate 602f
Hyphochytrium 55
Hyphomyces destruens 829
Hyphomycetes 52, 53, 146, 230, 252, 269, 358, 709, 890
Hyphomycosis destruens 828, 829
Hypopigmented scaly lesions 131f
Hypopyon 916
I
Index Fungorum 45
Ibotenic acid 771
Iceberg, tip of 716
‘Id’ reactions 722
candidiasis 409
dermatophytosis 169, 173, 178
Idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease 816
Ignis sacer 767
Imidazoles 108
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome 62, 314, 455, 717
Immunity 59, 130, 165, 205, 232, 253, 272, 300, 344, 360, 440, 477, 497, 510, 525, 558, 710, 799, 814, 832
acquired 59
mechanisms of 59
Immunization 483
Immunofluorescence assays 480, 500
Immunohistochemistry 85
Immunology 83
Immunotherapy 423, 838
Imperfect fungi 916
In vitro tests 86
India ink stain 857
Indian childhood cirrhosis 766
Indian Council of Medical Research 892
Indian Medlars Centre 910
Infection
healthcare-associated 613
single source 622
Infectious diseases 405
Inocybe 771
fastigiata 771
Inositol 452
Insoluble antifungal drugs, list of 877t
International Agency for Research on Cancer 765
International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 738, 798, 904
Interstitial plasma cell pneumonia 473, 476
Intestinal microsporidiosis 498
Intestinal mucosa 499
Intracellular Histoplasma capsulatum 318f
Intracranial Aspergillus
granuloma 529f
Intracranial mucormycosis 564f
Intracystic bodies 475
Intranasal steroids 728
Invasive aspergillosis 527, 738
Invasive disease 738
Invasive fungal infections 613
Irregular septate
branching hyphae 279f
hyphae 277f
Isavuconazole 111
Itraconazole 110, 189
J
Jock itch 173
Juvenile type of disease 383
K
Kaposi's sarcoma 479
Karyogamy 32, 916
Kelley's agar 318
Keloidal blastomycosis 297
Keratinomyces 163
Keratinous debris 671
Keratitis 916
Keratomycosis 146, 639, 640t, 647t, 916
nigricans palmaris 145
Kerion 166, 167, 916
celsi 167
Kernig's sign 443
Ketoconazole 109, 675
Khaki-colored mycelial growth 187f
Kidneys 499
Killing yeasts, in vitro 344
Kingdom Chromista 55
Kingdom fungi 53t
classification of 47t
Kinyoun's method 860
Kinyoun's staining 211
Klebsiella pneumoniae 59, 441, 857
Knot body 28
Kodsi's classification 406
Kodua poisoning 766
Kunkers 832, 834
L
Lacazia loboi 44, 201, 299, 300, 303, 382, 828
budding yeast of 303f
Lacaziosis 44, 297, 302
like disease 297, 302
Lactophenol cotton blue
mount 869
stain 858
Lactose 418, 452
Lagenidiosis 828, 838
Lagenidium 797, 828, 838, 839
ajelloi 838
albertoi 838
giganteum 834, 838, 839
species 828
Lamellar keratectomy 647
Lanose 916
Laryngeal disease 346
Laryngitis 408
Latex particle agglutination 367
Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) 8
Lecythophora hoffmannii 670
Legionella 316
Leishmania donovani 311, 316, 511, 514, 717
Leptosphaeria senegalensis 204
Leukoplakia 408, 409
Lichen planus 409
Lichtheimia 558, 569, 781, 913
corymbifera 44, 556, 558, 561, 562, 569, 570f, 571, 575
ramosa 569
species 568, 569
sporangia of 557f
Life-threatening disease 304
Liposomal-encapsulated amphotericin B 105
Liquid chromatography
high performance 117
high pressure 772
Liquid gold, tears of 131
Liver 499
Loboa loboi, See Lacazia loboi
Lobo's disease 297, 298
Lobomyces loboi 297
Lobomycosis 297
Loculoascomycetes fungi 252
Lomentospora 614, 683, 685, 687
prolificans 44, 684, 687f
Lowenstein-Jensen medium 216, 851
Lung cavities 361
Lutz's mycosis 379
Lutz-Splendore-de Almeida disease 379
Lycoperdonosis 727
Lymphadenopathy 347
Lymphatic lesions 384
Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis 233, 233f, 234f
Lymphoma 477
Lyophilization 890, 916
M
Macroconidia 32, 32f, 183f186f, 312
clubbed-shaped 187f
formation, types of 182f
sickle shaped 689f
spindle-shaped 186f
Macroconidium 916
Macular scaly lesions 131f
Madura foot 203
Maduramycosis 203
Madurella 204, 851
grisea 215, 216
mycetomatis 204, 212, 215
culture of 216f
mycelial growth of 214f
species 64
Magnusiomyces 615
capitatus 44, 615, 619, 619t, 620f
hyphae of 619f
pseudohyphae of 619f
species 619
yeast-like colonies of 620f
infections 614, 619
species 615
Majocchi's dermatophytic granuloma 170f
Majocchi's granuloma 162, 169, 210
Malassezia 42, 51, 128, 138, 155, 670, 852, 859, 918
allergens 134
arunalokei 128
dermatis 128, 129
folliculitis 134f
furfur 125, 127129, 137, 179, 650
globosa 128, 129, 136, 854
japonica 128, 129
nana 129
pachydermatis 129, 134, 889
slooffiae 128, 129
species 36, 129t, 135, 136f, 137, 138, 614
colonies of 136f
sympodialis 128, 129
yamatoensis 128, 129
Malasseziaceae 128
Malasseziales 128
Malasseziomycetes 128
Malasseziosis 127, 130
Malbranchea 366, 781, 791, 792, 915
species 791, 792f
Malt extract agar 852
Maltose 418, 452
Manihot esculenta 814
Maple bark Stripper's disease 726
Mariner's wheel 299
Mass spectrometry 117
Masson-Fontana
silver staining 864
stain 278
Maxillary sinus 737
right 749f
Mayer's mucicarmine 819f
stain 864
May-Grunwald Giemsa 819, 861
stain 861
Medicopsis romeroi 44, 205
Medlar bodies 251, 253, 919
Medical Mycology, AIDS 10
in India 17
Meiosporic fungi 48
Melanin 441, 865
production 441
role of 64
Melbourne Code 45
Melibiose 452
Meningitis 405, 408
Meristospore 606, 916
Merogony 496, 498
Merosporangia 573, 781
Merosporangium 557, 916
Mesocricetus auratus 304, 388, 506
Mesomycetozoea 54, 811, 813
Metabolites, detection of 421
MIC testing 879
Miconazole 108, 151
Microbial Type Culture Collection 892
Microconidia 32, 32f, 183f186f, 270, 312
formation, types of 182f
Microconidium 916
Microcycle conidiation 917
Microdilution 877
Microfungus collection 891
Microspore, phylum 54, 494
Microsporidia 474
Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis 498
Microsporidiosis 494, 499
Microsporidium 8, 54, 495, 858, 860
ceylonensis 495, 496
Microsporum 28, 912
audouinii 28, 168, 169, 179, 183
canis 28, 65, 165, 168, 169, 179, 183, 186f, 188, 650, 671, 868
distortum 165, 179
ferrugineum 165, 179
gypseum 32f, 163, 167, 169, 179, 186f, 188, 783
infections 168
persicolor 164
species 178, 183, 210
Miliary 347
coccidioidomycosis 362
Miltefosine 114
Mimicking blastomycosis 347t
Mimicking diseases 347
Mimicking tinea nigra, chemical dye 148f
Mites, control of 793
Mitospore 917
Mitosporic fungi 34, 48, 52
Molecular
beacons 90
methods 241
taxonomy 40
techniques 537
tools 188
typing 538
Molluscum contagiosum-like lesions 512f
Moniliaceae 709
Moniliasis 401
Moniliform 917
Moniliformin 769
Monod's sign 527
Monokaryon 917
Mononucleate 708, 713
Monosporium apiospermum 683
Morpholines 112
Mortierella 53t, 829
wolfii 567
Morula 798, 802
Mucocutaneous
candidiasis, chronic 406
histoplasmosis 315
lesions 384
Mucoid 620f
Mucomembranous Aspergillus bronchitis 723
Mucor 27, 556
circinelloides 386, 556, 564
racemosus 556, 917
species 49f, 563, 571, 781
sporangia of 557f
Mucorales 554, 556
Mucormycetes 26f, 30, 33, 72, 412f
fungi 780
non-septate hyphae of 76f, 78f, 565f, 566f
Mucormycosis 85f, 554556, 575, 835t
agents 80
Mulberry-like erosions 384
Multi-drug resistant infection 607
Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis 137
Muriform 256f, 257f, 785
bodies 251, 254, 917
cells 252, 253, 269
conidia 724f, 785f
macroconidia 270
Muscarine poisoning 771
Muscle 499
Mushroom poisoning 769
Mycelia 348f, 917
sterilia 35, 53
Mycelial colonies
black 259f
white 184f
Mycelial fungal strain 870
Mycelial fungi 876
Mycelial growth 718f
Mycelial-to-yeast conversion, in vitro 348
Mycelium 26, 917
Mycetism 762, 769
Mycetismus 762, 769, 770
Mycetoma 41, 203, 214, 917
classification of 206
grains of 213f
of foot 207f, 208f
of hand 208f
Mycetomata 917
Mycobacterium
leprae 303
tuberculosis 851
ulcerans 605
Mycobiome 917
Mycobiota 917
MycoBank 45
Mycocladus corymbiferus See Lichtheimia 556, 571
Mycological cure 77
Mycological techniques, conventional 868
Mycology 128, 158, 163, 230, 252, 495, 682, 708, 714, 740, 770, 917
Mycopathologia 380
Mycophagy 770, 917
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 316
Mycorrhiza 917
Mycosis 9, 146, 613, 637, 722, 762, 917
deep 11
fungoides 3, 356
healthcare-associated 622
mucorina 554
of ocular adnexa 650
superficial 11, 72, 146
Mycotic
diseases 36, 36t
granuloma, organized mixed 254
keratitis 639
Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy 768
Mycotoxicoses 762, 764
Mycotoxin 762, 770
conference 763
detection of 772
prevention and control of 763
Myelogenous, chronic 477
Myospherulosis 712, 917
Myrothecium 769
N
Naegleria 858
Naftifine 107
Nail 162
plates, destruction of 176f
Nannizziopsis vriesii 696
Nasal
cavity 749f
crust, debris of 29f
lesions 347
rhinosporidiosis 815
National AIDS Control Organisation 509
National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (NCPF) 891
yeasts cultures 891
National Committee for Clinical and Laboratory Standards 874, 876
National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (NCCPF) 892
National Fungal Culture Collection of India 892
National Informatics Centre 910
Nattrassia mangiferae 270, 282, 920
Necrotizing reaction 511
Neoscytalidium
dimidiatum 44, 178, 187, 187f, 188f, 282
hyalinum 188
species 188
Neuro-paracoccidioidomycosis 385
Neurospora crassa 13
Neutral red stain 859
Neutrophil
chemotaxis 242
count, absolute 738
Niger seed agar 850
Nigrosin stain 857
Nigrospora
conidia of 788f
species 788
Nikkomycin 114
Nivalenol 768
Nocardia 209, 851, 860, 863
asteroides 204, 205, 216, 217, 851
brasiliensis 204, 205, 216, 217
caviae 204, 205, 216, 217
otitidiscaviarum 217
species 206, 209f, 211, 212f
Nocardiopsis dassonvillei 204, 216
Nodular organ 28, 180, 917
Nodules consisting of hyphae 157f
Nodulo-ulcerative lesions 233, 233f, 234f
Non-albicans Candida species 402, 416, 422
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema 479
Non-dermatophyte fungi 176
Non-dermatophytic
dermatomycosis 178
fungal species 187
Non-immune host factors 63
Non-invasive
colonization 527
disease 738
Non-neoformans Cryptococcus species 437, 454
Non-septate hyphae 554, 557f, 565f, 602, 835f
Non-sporulating mold 283
North American blastomycosis 342
Nosema
bombycis 497
ocularum 496
Nosocomial
candidiasis 409
fungemia 622
infections 622
Nova plantarum genera 4
Nucleic acid amplification test 366
Nucleus 31
Nutrition 36
Nystatin 105
O
Oatmeal agar 852
Ochratoxins 767
Ochroconis gallopavum 269, 271, 282, 283f
Ocular
candidiasis 407
Histoplasma syndrome 312
pythiosis 833
rhinosporidiosis 816
Oculomycosis 639
Oculosporidiosis 815, 816
Oidium 917
Ontogenic classification 34
Ontogeny 917
Onychocola canadensis 146, 176
Onychomadesis 917
Onychomycosis 146, 162, 175, 176f, 176t, 407
classification of 176
white superficial 177
Onygenaceae 313, 343, 715
Onygenales 299, 313, 343, 709, 715
Oogamy 830, 917
Oogonium 829, 917
Oomycetes 830t, 831
Oomycota 831
phylum 54
Oospore 831, 917
Ophiostoma stenoceras 230, 231
Opportunist fungi 11
Opportunistic mycoses 11, 399
Oral
candidiasis 405
ketoconazole 242
potassium iodide 607
Orellanine 772
Orellanus syndrome 772
Oropharyngeal thrush 408
Oropharynx 816f
Oryctolagus cuniculus 837
Osseous
blastomycosis 345
cryptococcosis 443, 444
Osteomyelitis 346, 405, 408
Ostiolate 917
Otitis externa 669
malignant 669
Otomycosis 669, 670, 671f, 671t
Ouchterlony's technique 871
Oxiconazole 109
P
Paecilomyces 640, 683, 687, 690692, 768, 783, 880, 918
lilacinus 691, 783
species 515, 640, 648, 683, 783
variotii 691, 692, 783
Pal's sunflower seed agar 451
Palmer surface, staining of 148f
Pancreas 499
Papilla 918
Paracoccidioides 379, 380, 713, 804
brasiliensis 36, 80, 300, 366, 379, 380, 380f, 381, 382, 385, 386f, 387f, 388, 389, 650, 791, 803, 871
lutzii 379, 381
species 309, 381, 613
Paracoccidioidoma 385
Paracoccidioidomycosis 379381, 383, 383t, 384
immunodiagnosis of 386
Paranasal sinus 741
mycosis 529
phaeohyphomycosis 275
Parasitophorous vacuole 498
Parenteral nutrition, total 409
Parenthesome 915
Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome 384
Paris mushroom 770
Paronychia 407, 918
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria 833
Paspalum scrobiculatum 766
Patchy alopecia 167f
Pathogenic fungi 11
isolation of 872
Pectinate body 28, 180
Pedicellate sporangiola of Thamnostylum piriforme 575f
Penetrating keratoplasty 642f
Penicillate 918
phialides 692f, 693f, 783f
Penicillium 26, 27, 50, 507, 515, 640, 683, 687, 692, 723, 762764, 768, 782, 783, 851, 916, 918
aurantiogriseum 766
brevicompactum 690
camemberti 766
chrysogenum 12, 689, 690, 725
citrinum 690
commune 690, 766
decumbens 690
dupontii 690
expansum 768
funiculosum 690
glaucum 690
griseofulvum 106, 689, 766
marneffei 506, 507, 690
notatum 4
patulum 768
puberulum 765
purpurogenum 690
species 12, 34, 103, 640, 683, 690f, 782
verrucosum 768
Pentamidine isethionate 482
Peptone-yeast-glucose 839
Peptostreptococcus species 218
Pericarditis 408
Peridium 918
Periodic acid-Schiff stain 862
Perithecia 918
Perithecium 918
Perleche 408
Permanent immunodiffusion mount 871
Perosporomycetes 918
Petriellidium boydii 683
Phaeoacremonium parasiticum 282
Phaeoannellomyces 145
Phaeohyphomycosis 79f, 146, 251, 252, 269, 682
superficial 145
Phaeohyphomycotic cyst 270
Phaeoid 918
causative 146
fungal genera 257t
fungi 251, 258f, 644f, 780, 784
septate hyphae of 748f
hyphomycetes 640, 741
septate hyphae 785f
Phalloid syndrome 771
Phalloidin 771
Phalloin 771
Phenoloxidase test 850
Phenotypic switching 404
Phialemonium curvatum 270
Phialide 918
Phialoconidium 918
Phialophora 64, 257, 850, 918
parasitica 270
species 34, 258, 284
type 258
verrucosa 36, 251254, 258, 261f
PHOL stain 859
Phoma
conidia of 789f
hibernica 270, 789
minutella 270
sorghina 270
species 170, 788
Phospholipase 441
Phragmoconidia 918
Phycomycetes 811
Phylogenetic systematic 918
Phylogeny 918
Phyte 919
Phytone yeast-extract agar 713
Pichia anomala 614, 860
Piedra 154, 162
black 146, 154, 158, 159f
types of 154
Trichosporon species 157f
white 154, 155
Piedraia hortae 34, 48, 159, 159f, 160
Pigment, brick-red 514
Pimaricin 106
Pityriasis
amiantacea 169
versicolor 131, 131f, 132f
Pityrosporum orbiculare 128
Plant taxonomy 43
Plasmalemma 30, 31
Plasmogamy 32
Plectomycetes 53, 313, 343, 715
Pleistophora ronneafiei 496
Pleospora 789
Pleurococcus beigelii 154
Pleurostomophora richardsiae 44
Pneumocystis 473, 474, 478, 858, 863
carinii 4, 40, 473
strains 474
jirovecii 4, 8, 40, 43, 46, 473, 476, 477, 650, 866, 910
cysts, cluster of 480f
life cycle of 475, 476f
pneumonia 89, 443
taxonomy of 474
pneumonia 389, 473, 477
species 72
Pneumocystosis 473
PNS mycosis 146
Polyene 103
antibiotics 103, 104
Polyhexamethylene biguanide 499
Polymerase chain reaction 87, 719
Polyvinyl alcohol 859
Poroconidia 918
Potassium
hydroxide wet mount 856
iodide 112, 201, 242
saturated solution of 837
Potato dextrose agar 852, 878
Pradimicin 106
Prickly Acacia nilotica 298f
Prokaryotes 46, 47
Prophylaxis 455
primary 482
Propionibacterium acnes 218
Protein, major basic 739
Proteinase 421
Proteus vulgaris 218
Protista 797, 798, 829, 831
Prototheca 797799, 804806, 828, 854, 859, 913, 914
isolation medium 805
species 80, 363, 364, 798, 918
sporangiospores of 802f
yeast-like colonies of 803f
wickerhamii 797806
sporangiospores of 804f
zopfii 797, 798, 799, 800, 803, 804, 805, 806
sporangiospores of 804f
yeast-like colonies of 803f
Protothecal olecranon bursitis 800, 800f
Protothecosis 797, 798, 801
Protozoa 474, 494, 831
Proximal subungual onychomycosis 177
Pseudallescheria 683, 684
angusta 683
boydii 31, 39, 46, 48, 204, 209, 215, 217, 683685, 687
infection 108
species 79
Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 253
Pseudofungal infections 795
Pseudofungi 797
Pseudohyphae 26f, 76f, 78, 417t, 918
Pseudomonas 530
aeruginosa 218, 672
Pseudomycelium 918
Pseudomycetoma 210
Pseudosepta 787
Psophiacreptans 271
Psorospermiosis 811
Pulmonary
aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing 528
aspergillosis, semi-invasive 528
blastomycosis 345
candidiasis 405, 408
coccidioidomycosis 361
cryptococcosis 443
disease 526
chronic 345
histoplasmosis
acute 315
chronic 315
infiltrates 527, 724
mucormycosis 559, 560, 561f
pneumocystosis 478
residual lesions, chronic 361
Pulse therapy 138
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis 137
Purpureocillium 683, 687, 690692, 783
lilacinum See Paecilomyces lilacinus 44, 640, 691, 691f, 692f, 783
marquandii 691, 783
Pusillus 918
Pycnidia 918
Pycnidiospore 918
Pycnidium 28, 789, 918
Pyrenochaeta 217
mackinnonii 205
Pyrenomycetes 53, 890
Pyrenophora 787
Pyriform 918
Pythiaceae 831
Pythiales 831
Pythiosis 828, 829, 835t
arteritis 833
insidiosi 834
Pythium 797, 828, 829, 918, 920
aphanidermatum 828, 830, 833
gracile 829
insidiosum 26, 55, 77, 564, 828839
culture mount of 836f
growth of 836f
vaccines 838
wet mount of 835f
zoospores 870
species of Oomycetes 830f
Q
Quality management system 891
Quantamatrix multiplexed assay platform 92
Quercus acutissimia 697
R
Rabbit eye, infection of 284
Rachis 918
Racquet/Racket hypha 28, 28f, 180, 919
Raffinose 452
Ramichloridium mackenziei 270
Rasamsonia 44
Rattus
niditus 510
norvegicus 510
rattus 510
Refractive laser epithelial keratomileusis 642
Renispora flavissima 318
Replicate conidia 604
Respiratory disease, type of 346
Restriction fragment length polymorphism 538, 772
Reye's syndrome 766
Reynolds-Braude phenomenon 417
Rhexolytic cleavage 919
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis 559
Rhinocladiella 257
aquaspersa 252, 259, 261f
mackenziei 44, 270, 271
similis 259
species 284
type 258
Rhino-orbital mucormycosis 560f
Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis 560f
Rhinopoma hardwickei hardwickei 343
Rhinosinusitis, chronic 737
Rhinosporidioma 816
Rhinosporidiosis 811, 814
bony involvement of 817
pedunculated giant mass of 817f
polypoid mass of 815f, 816f
Rhinosporidium 811, 818, 918
kinealyi 811
seeberi 40, 78, 80, 303, 364, 651, 712, 797, 802, 804, 811814, 818, 828, 915, 919
ruptured sporangium of 812f
sporangia of 219f, 818f, 819f
sporangium of 819f
Rhizoids 571, 919
Rhizomucor
pusillus 556, 571, 575, 747
tauricus 556
Rhizomys
pruinosus 509
sinensis 506
species 509
sumatrensis 509
Rhizopus 556, 781, 880
arrhizus 556, 572f, 575, 740, 782f
homothallicus 572f
of mucormycetes 49f
microsporus 572f, 575, 782f
species 49f, 563, 571, 781
sporangia of 557f
Rhodotorula 854, 859, 914
glutinis 621
infections 614, 620
rubra 614
species 113, 621, 790
yeast-like colonies of 621f
Rhytidhysteron rufulum 271
Ribosomal vaccines 65
Rice starch agar 849
Rings within ring 171
Ringworm 162, 163, 166, 919
Rose Gardener's disease 229
Rose Handler's disease 229
Rose Thorn disease 229
S
Sabouraud's dextrose agar 556f, 621f, 685f, 692, 697f, 847, 784f
plate 535f, 836f
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae 12, 13, 474, 621, 790f, 860
infections 614, 621
species 12, 790
Saksenaea 558, 561, 563, 836, 853
erythrospora, white mycelial growth of 573f
loutrophoriformis 573f
oblongispora 572
species 556, 567
vasiformis 555, 573f
complex 571
Salicylic acid 151, 675
Salmonella typhimurium 517
San Joaquin valley fever 361
Sandal ringworm 174
Sanger's sequencing 90
Saprochaete capitata 619
Sapronosis 509, 919
Saprophyte 919
Sarocladium
kiliense 44, 693f, 694, 694f, 781
species 683
Scalp hairs 159
Scedosporiosis 684
Scedosporium 26, 271, 614, 640, 683, 684, 685, 687, 739, 880
apiospermum 31, 39, 110, 209, 217, 640, 683, 684, 685f, 686f, 834
aurantiacum 683
boydii 683, 684
dehoogii 683
inflatum 684
minutisporum 683
prolificans See Lomentospora 684
species 79, 113, 533, 683
Schenck's disease 229
Schizogony 36, 496, 498, 507
Schizomycosis 218
Schizophyllaceae 697
Schizophyllum commune 51, 683, 697, 697f, 762, 914
Schizosaccharomyces 915
pombe 474, 915
species 25, 507
Schmorl's melanin stain 865
Sclerotia 919
Sclerotic body 251, 253, 256f, 257f, 919
Sclerotic cells 253
Sclerotium 766, 919
Scopulariopsis 683, 690, 848
brevicaulis 164, 177, 692, 692f, 693f, 727, 783, 783f
brumptii 271, 683, 693f, 692, 727, 783
species 271, 683, 687, 783
Scopus 909
Scotch technique 77
Scotch test 385
Scutulum 919
Scytalidium
dimidiatum 149, 187, 920
hyalinum 187
lignicola 187
species 81, 696
Seborrheic dermatitis 133
Selenium sulfide 113
Semen culture 74
Sepedonium 781, 792
species 318, 792, 792f
Septate branching hyphae 279f
Septate fungal hyphae 673f, 746f
Septate hyaline hyphae 181f
Septate hyphae 30, 79f, 180f, 211f, 644f 645f, 746f, 747f, 784f
black-colored branching 645f
Septicemia 408
Septum 919
Serological tests 84, 241, 319, 367, 388, 871
Serology 83
Serum
precipitins 527
therapy 455
Setosphaeria 787
Sexual
reproduction 32, 919
sporulation 567
Shield cell 919
Sialic acids 441
Singapore ear 669
Sinobronchial allergic mycosis (SAM) 725
Sinus 206
mycetoma 739
opening of 206
Skin 74, 162, 499
involvement 453
lesions, keloid-like 301
prick test 725
test 85, 241, 367, 388, 422, 538
Society for Indian Human and Animal Mycologists (SIHAM) 904
Soil extract agar 853
Solid organ transplantation 362
Solitary adiaspiromycosis 711
Solitary lesion 445
Sordaria fimicola 13
Sotalia guianensis 300, 302
South American blastomycosis 379
Sphagnum moss 231
Spherical conidia 348f, 787f
Spherule 805, 912, 919
Spherulin 366
Spiral hyphae 28, 28f, 919
Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon 347, 598, 601, 602f, 832
Splendore-Hoeppli reaction 919
Sporangia 50f, 798, 804f, 813, 819, 919
thick-walled 802f
Sporangiole 919
Sporangiophores 32, 49f, 557f, 573, 781, 919
Sporangium 32, 49f, 555, 557, 802, 919
Sporocyst 475
Sporodochium 919
Sporon 155
Sporophore 919
Sporoplasm 496
Sporothrix 201, 233, 240, 850, 919
brasiliensis 232
cyanescens 231
infection 232
luriei 241, 712
schenckii 14, 16, 46, 80, 229231, 240, 240f, 241, 241f, 284, 648, 791, 880, 914
complex 230
mycelial colonies of 240f
species 114, 229
Sporotrichin 242
Sporotrichosis 229, 231
Sporozoa 474, 812
Sporozoite 475
Sporulation
patterns, types of 258f
types of 240f
Squalene epoxidase 107
St. Anthony's fire, 764t, 767
Stachybotryotoxicosis 763
Staib's agar 451
Stains, differential 859
Staphylococcus aureus 218, 409, 741, 748
Stemphylium 785, 787, 789
solani 789
species 789
Stenella araguata 145, 146, 150
Sterigmata 919
Sterol quantitation method 885
Stramenopila 829, 831
Streptococcus
pneumoniae 59, 441, 857
species 218
Streptomyces 863
griseus 912
natalensis 106
nodosus 104
noursei 105
pimprina 102, 106
somaliensis 204, 205, 216, 217
species 28, 103, 209
viridis 205
Strongyloides 712
Subcutaneous
basidiobolomycosis 605
mycoses 11, 73, 146, 201
phaeohyphomycosis 272, 273f, 275f
protothecosis 800
of arm 800f
pythiosis 833
Sucrose 418, 452
Sulfamethoxazole 482
Sulfonamides 114
Sulfur 218, 219
Sunflower seed agar 850
Superoxide dismutase secretions 441
Swamp cancer 831, 834
Swimmer's ear 669
Swollen vesicle 569
Symbioses 920
Sympodial geniculate growth 280
Synanamorph 920
Syncephalastrum 781, 916
racemosum 574f, 556, 572
species 781
Syngamy 920
Synnemata 920
Synthetic antifungals 103, 106
Systema naturae 40
Systemic antifungal therapy 675
Systemic disseminated protothecosis 800
Systemic infections 155
Systemic lupus erythematosus 801
Systemic Malassezia infections 134
Systemic mycoses 11, 73, 146, 309
Syzygium cumini 697
T
Talaromyces 42, 506, 507
albobiverticillius 508
genera 515
infection 231
marneffei 25, 44, 81, 316, 506, 507, 508, 513f, 527f, 690, 717, 718, 870, 915, 920
cells 511
conidia 511
gene 516
infection 613
mycelial growth of 514f
purpurogenus 508
Talaromycosis 4, 9, 10, 36t, 42, 44t, 316, 320, 322t, 399, 506523, 614, 690, 715, 716, 920
Taxonomic status 31
Taxonomy 920
T-cell-mediated response, acquired 60
Terbinafine 107, 189
Terminalia cattappa 439
Tetrazolium reduction medium 853
Thallic conidial development 34
Thallus 920
Thamnostylum 573
lucknowense 573
piriforme 573, 575f
species 573
Thermophilic fungi 37
Thielavia subthermophila 271
Thiocarbamates 103, 106
Thymidylate synthetase 111
Tilletiopsis minor 51, 53t, 683
Tinea 146, 162, 166, 920
atypica 172
barbae 166, 172
blanca 154
capitis 163, 166, 167, 179f
corporis 166, 169, 170f
cruris 166, 173, 173f
double-edged 171, 171f
faciei 172, 172f
favosa 167
glabrata circinata 169
glabrosa 169
gladiatorum 171
imbricata 166, 171
circular lesions of 171f
incognito 172
indecisiva 171
inguinalis 173
manuum 166, 173, 174f
nigra 145, 146, 149f
palmaris 145
pedis 166, 174
profunda 169
pseudoimbricata 171
circular lesions of 171f
sycosis 172
unguium 166, 174, 176f
versicolor 131
Tioconazole 109
Tissue 74
section 279f
Tolnaftate 106
Torulopsis species 12
Toxic aleukia, alimentary 763, 769
Toxicum 770
Toxigenic fungi 11
Toxins 60, 404
Toxoplasma gondii 316, 514, 717
Trachipleistophora
anthropopthera 496
hominis 495, 496
Transmission electron microscopy 499
Transverse fission 513
Transverse septa 150f, 724f
Trebouxiophyceae 798
Trehalose 452, 804, 805
Trematosphaeria grisea 44, 204, 205, 216
Triacetin 113
Triazoles 109
Trichobacteriosis axillaris 157
Trichoderma 695f, 769, 784, 784f
citrinoviride 694
harzianum 694
koningii 694
longibrachiatum 694, 695, 784
polysporum 13
pseudokoningii 694
species 683, 783
whitish mycelial colonies of 784f
viride 694
Tricholoma magnivelare 772
Trichomycosis 920
Trichophyton 162, 163, 178, 188, 912
concentricum 165
gourvilii 164
mentagrophytes 28, 28f, 112, 164, 165, 169, 172174, 184f, 188, 671, 854, 868
rubrum 112, 165, 168, 169, 173, 174, 177, 183, 184f, 671, 854, 868
syndrome 178
schoenleinii 28, 162, 165, 167, 168, 179, 183, 185f
simii 164
soudanense 164
species 163, 177, 178, 182, 183, 183f, 189
tonsurans 28, 165, 168, 169, 183, 185f
verrucosum 169, 172, 185f
infection 168, 190
violaceum 28, 165, 167, 168, 172, 183
arthrospores of 168f
yaoundei 164
Trichosporoideae 155
Trichosporon 113, 133, 155, 158, 614, 615, 619t, 790, 854, 859, 913
asahii 133, 155, 157f, 615, 618
infections 614
asteroides 155, 615
beigelii 154, 155, 614
cutaneum 154, 155, 618, 619
infections 87
inkin 155, 615, 618
arthrospores of 618f
isolates 615
mucoides 155, 618
ovoides 155, 614, 618
species 32f, 51, 79f, 155, 155t, 156, 157, 160, 614, 615, 617f, 618t, 619, 696, 790
pseudohyphae of 616f
rectangular arthrospores of 158f, 617f
Trichosporonosis 154, 614
nodosa 154
Trichothecenes 768
Trichothecium 769
species 784
Trimethoprim 482
Trophocyte 813
Trophozoite 475
Trypanosoma cruzi 114
Tubulinosema acridophagus 495, 496
Tumor mass 206
Turkey-X-disease 765
Tursiops
aduncus 300, 302
truncatus 297, 300, 302
U
Ulocladium 785, 787, 789
chartarum 789
species 282, 789, 790f
Umbonate 920
Uncinocarpus 791
Undecylenic acid 113
Uniseriate phialides 535f
Unitunicate pyrenomycetes 270
Urease
medium 853
production 441
test 182
rapid 854
Urinary tract 405
candidiasis 407
Urine culture 74
Ustilaginomycotina 128
Ustilago
maydis 13
species 790
Ustomycetes 53
V
Vaccine 455
Vaginal secretion 75
Vaginal smears 621
Valley fever 356, 368
Vascular invasion 558
Vascular systemic pythiosis 833
Vasiform 920
Vegetative hyphae 27
Vegetative structures 27
Verrucose 920
Verticillate 920
Verticillium 920
species 784, 784f
Vesicles 535f, 920
Villose 920
conidia 604
Vinyl adhesive tape 77, 385
Visceral
cryptococcosis 443, 444
lesions 385
type 219
Vittaforma corneae 495, 496
Voriconazole 110
Vulvovaginitis 406, 408
W
Wangiella dermatitidis See Exophiala der matitidis 36, 281
Water insoluble
antifungal drugs 878t
drugs 877, 878
Water soluble 861
drugs 111, 878, 879t
list of 877t
Welsh's regimen 218
Wessely's ring 642, 642f
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute 891
Wet mounts 75
Whitfield's ointment 112
White piedra 154, 155t
Wolff-Chaikoff effect 113
Wood pulp worker's disease 727
Wood trimmer's disease 561
Wood's lamp 179t, 920
examination 178, 179f
World Health Organization 773
Woronin bodies 31, 920
X
Xylohypha, See Cladophialophora bantiana
bantiana 280
emmonsia 280
Xylose 452
Y
Yeast 24, 25, 27, 52, 76f, 780, 789, 876, 920
black 27, 146, 147f, 257, 279, 281, 785
carbon base 853
cells 25f, 77f79f, 312, 363, 385, 386, 411, 411f, 413f
budding 26f, 448f, 449f
clusters of 136f
Gram-positive 410f
multiple 317f
of Candida species 411f
thick-walled oval 321f
extract phosphate agar 318
identification 417f
like fungi 640, 647, 741, 780, 789
multi-nucleated 347
nitrogen base 853
pasty colonies of black 147f
YeastOne Sensititre Assay 884
Z
Zearalenone 769
Ziehl-Neelsen staining 386
Zoonotic disease 3, 509
Zoophilic dermatophytes 164
Zoospore 831, 832, 920
induction of 870
Zoosporic fungus 831
Zygomycetes 55
Zygomycosis, See Mucormycosis Zygomycota 555
Zygomycotina 555
Zygospore 49, 49f, 555, 604, 606, 920
type of 555
Zymogen 30
Zymonema brasiliense 379
×
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Textbook of MEDICAL MYCOLOGY
Textbook of MEDICAL MYCOLOGY
Dr. Jagdish ChanderMD DNB MAMS Professor & Head Department of Microbiology Government Medical College Hospital Chandigarh, India
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© 2018, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
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Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
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Textbook of Medical Mycology
First Edition Published by: Interprint in July 1995
Second Edition Published by: Mehta Publishers in April 2002
Third Edition Published by: Mehta Publishers in October 2008
Fourth Edition: 2018
9789386261830
Printed at
Dedication
Dedicated to patients who died of fungal infections, as final diagnosis could not be timely ascertained during their lifetime and also to those who could not afford the cost of antifungal therapy thereby died despite establishment of fungal etiology while they were alive.
Foreword
This is great pleasure on my part, both personally as well as the President of Society for Indian Human and Animal Mycologists (SIHAM) to write Foreword to the fourth edition of the Textbook of Medical Mycology.
When my friend, Dr. Jagdish Chander, requested me to write a Foreword for the new edition, I pointed out that the Textbook is already a popular one among the medical students as well as the doctors and it does not require the lacing of a Foreword. But he insisted. Now, after going through the manuscript of the Textbook, I am happy that I am writing the Foreword for this excellent piece of work, which I am sure, will have a far better impact than before among the students of medicine and the faculty of Medical Microbiology.
The fungal infections are becoming increasingly important in the recent years for a number of reasons. Ample opportunities for world travel for various reasons have increased the risks of acquisition of exotic fungal infections among the general population. Introduction of modern life-saving therapies, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive drugs, irradiation, along with the ominous AIDS pandemic, have contributed to the enormous increase in the incidence of opportunistic fungal infections among the susceptible hosts.
As a consequence, lots of new developments are taking place on different aspects of fungal infections. There are a number of novel sophisticated molecular techniques, which are being evolved for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various syndromes and identification of the fungal pathogens. Non-invasive imaging techniques are proving to be useful tools for an early diagnosis and assessment of the invasive fungal diseases. A number of effective topical and systemic antifungal agents are being added to the armamentarium of the clinicians. Therefore, to cope up with the changing scenario, medical professionals involved in the patient-care need updates on diagnostics and therapeutics on fungal diseases from time to time.
The author has done a commendable job of scanning the voluminous wealth of information and presenting it in a concise, lucid and palatable manner.
This fourth edition of the Textbook consists of Eight Sections, divided into 39 Chapters, which cover the entire spectrum of fungal infections, spanning from superficial to opportunistic infection along with the latest information on therapeutic modalities. The pseudofungal infections, mimicking typical fungal diseases, are also given in a separate Section. The Textbook encompasses interesting historical aspects pertaining to Medical Mycology and has valuable references for further reading by the students. It contains a very useful introductory chapter on the basics of medical mycology. The last Section has seven Appendices, pertaining to various procedural details mentioned in the text of the Book. One of them is exclusively devoted to the antifungal susceptibility testing.
This Textbook is ideally suited for medical students and junior doctors who are preparing themselves for the examinations and various entrance tests.
I strongly feel the present edition of this Textbook will also be appreciated by the students and teaching faculty in all the disciplines of medicine.
Prof. Niranjan Nayak
President
Society for Indian Human and Animal Mycologists
Professor, Department of Microbiology
Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal
Formerly Professor, Department of Ocular Microbiology
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Date: March 19, 2016
Place: Shimla (India)
Preface to the Fourth Edition
The primary objective of Textbook of Medical Mycology was to provide concise account of this subject to the students and health personnel having little or no background in this emerging field of medical sciences. The main emphasis was focused on epidemiological, clinical, immunological, pathological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of fungal diseases. This has been a Textbook of prime interest to microbiologists and allied specialists working in the field of infectious diseases. The first three editions of my concerted efforts were quite successful in achieving these goals during this period of last 22 years.
There are lot of developments during this period of eight and half years since publication of its third edition. There is tremendous increase in fungal infections in the recent past entailing explosion of published information on all the aspects of this upcoming field. This time it posed a challenging task in reality to keep pace with the latest developments, which has obligated me to revise the book as its fourth edition. This is extensively reorganized and updated edition. The entire text is backed by a up-to-date list of references for readers wanting further in-depth knowledge. At completion of every chapter, relevant literature is cited as Further Reading in the form of primary scientific papers and review articles published in biomedical journals. The data has been incorporated, based on literature available on fungal infections since the publication of its last edition in October 2008, commencing from January 2009 upto June 2017.
More number of colored clinical photographs including histopathological sections have been added to give a clearer picture of the lesions manifested in fungal diseases. At places, the line-drawings have also been made colored and some of the old photographs are as such retained. The non-invasive radiological techniques have advanced in localizing the underlying fungal infective process. Therefore, figures of relevant CT and MRI are inserted to delineate an in-depth understanding on the related issues.
Like other microbes, fungi also involve almost every organ of the body entailing invariably fatal outcome. Their importance has increased to a great extent as compared to the previous times when they used to be considered as merely contaminants. Therefore, keeping this fact in view, traditional fungal contaminants are being described in one of chapters on Mycology Laboratory Contaminants, which was removed in previous two editions.
The nomenclature pertaining to medical mycology is very versatile. Hence new names are being designated to some of the fungal diseases like Malasseziosis, Talaromycosis and Emergomycosis. For the convenience of discussion, Pseudofungal Infections have been kept in separate section. One Appendix is fully devoted to antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) to meet out the difficulties faced by the clinicians to choose appropriate drug in the management. Due to the addition of newer and separate chapters on Microsporidiosis, Entomophthoramycosis and Mycology Laboratory Contaminants, the total number of chapters becomes thirty-nine and there are seven Appendices.
The medical mycology is based on conventional methods of identification as the ‘gold standard’. However, the recently described molecular techniques have taken the lead in the diagnostic and taxonomical aspects. In this edition, more emphasis is although on conventional methods but at places, molecular techniques are referred briefly to highlight the issue. The clinicians will have a high index of suspicion about fungal infections after being acquainted to the book. The microbiologists as well as the pathologists will be able to substantiate their empirical approach in establishing the diagnosis by demonstrating either the causative fungus or its effects produced so that the specific therapeutic modalities are adopted well in time among the patients thereby their lives are saved from fatal fungal infections.
In nutshell, Textbook of Medical Mycology is now thoroughly revised and updated to include recently identified and emerging fungi and/or infections, innovative research and development of applications of new technology. However, there is always a scope of improvement hence I would like to welcome any constructive suggestions to make this textbook better in subsequent editions.
Date: June 30, 2017
Place: Chandigarh
Jagdish Chander
Preface to the First Edition
The incidence of fungal infections has increased largely. This may be because of the underlying predisposing factors like immunocompromised situations, such as the use of antimicrobial, immunosuppressive and anticancer agents, transplantations, endocrinal disorders, etc. Moreover, awareness about fungi among the medical personnel has increased, which has also contributed to an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the life-threatening fungal infections. The expansion of medical mycology has been so rapid and extensive that it has now attained the status of an independent and a full-fledged specialty. In the coming years too, an increase in the fungal infections is anticipated. It makes the task of writing a Textbook on the subject quite onerous. The aim is to provide a concise account of medical mycology for students and personnel working in microbiology laboratory with a little or no background in medical mycology. Therefore, I have undertaken this endeavor, which is based on my experience of teaching medical undergraduates and postgraduates.
Already many books on this subject are available, which are excellent but they are mainly for reference. Therefore, a comprehensive book is required for the medical and paramedical students. It is observed that even the postgraduates rely on photocopies of the old notes in medical mycology. This Textbook attempts to present the essential information on fungi and their medical importance. The emphasis is essentially on the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of fungal diseases. The Book is of prime interest to the medical microbiologists, especially medical mycologists and specialists working in the field of infectious diseases. It should prove useful for the microbiology students experiencing their first encounter with fungal agents of medical importance. It would also be of value to the clinicians concerned with these infections, particularly dermatologists.
All the chapters are organized in seven sections, as listed in the Table of Contents, including one section on Appendices. Their sequence is such that the readers will find it easier to trace the desired chapter. The application of mycology-related terms was essential in the text. Therefore, a Glossary of terms is given in one of the Appendices. The obsolete and rejected names of fungi/diseases have been excluded and only the latest and authentic ones are taken into consideration while writing the text.
Simple and self-explanatory illustrations, tables and flowcharts are inserted into the text. Each chapter, at its end, has a list of comprehensive up-to-date references as Further Reading. A list of reference books, which deals with fungal and related diseases, is given in Bibliography, as these books are not mentioned at the end of the chapters. The list of commonly used abbreviations is also given in the beginning of the Textbook.
The actinomycetes like Nocardia, Streptomyces and Actinomadura species are aerobic Gram-positive filamentous bacteria and not fungi but they cause manifestations, clinically resembling the fungal infections. Therefore, these are traditionally described along with the mycology text. In this Textbook, these organisms are described in Mycetoma and Allergic Diseases and not as full-fledged chapters. Pneumocystis carinii, which has been taxonomically a controversial organism and today knocking at the door of Medical Mycology, is described in a separate Chapter.
Basically, I have tried to focus on the fundamentals of fungi and diseases caused by them. It would be of interest to the broadest audience and I presume that my aim will be accomplished. I do not claim any perfection rather contrarily, I request my teachers, colleagues and students to write about its shortcomings and give their valuable suggestions as how to improve this Textbook in the subsequent editions.
Date: May 12, 1995
Place: Chandigarh
Jagdish Chander
Acknowledgments
I am grateful to Prof. Niranjan Nayak, formerly Professor, Department of Ocular Microbiology, AIIMS, New Delhi and President, Society for Indian Human and Animal Mycologists (SIHAM) and presently Professor, Department of Microbiology, Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal for his constant support while composing this Textbook and for writing the Foreword of this edition.
I wish to express my gratitude to Dr Uma Handa, Professor & Head and Dr Rajpal Singh Punia, Professor, Department of Pathology, Government Medical College Hospital (GMCH), Chandigarh for their encouragement during compilation of present work and providing histopathological photomicrographs. I am thankful to Dr Rajiv Kumar, Professor & Head, Department of Pharmacology, Dr Deepak Aggarwal, Pulmonary Medicine and Dr Vaibhav Saini, ENT for going through some of the chapters. From our Department thanks are due to our faculty i.e. Dr Nidhi Singla, Dr Lipika Gautam and Neelam Gulati for critically checking the manuscript and providing photomicrographs. I am thankful to all resident doctors of our Department i.e. Drs Hena Rani, Shailpreet Sidhu, Kiran Bala, Mandeep Kaur, Ruby Jain, Neha Bansal, Neha Jain, Preety Thakur, Gursimran Mohi, Shivani Sharma, Prapti Bora, Arpandeep Tuli, Nidhi Tejan, Yashik Bansal, Pooja Singh, Dimpi Bhankhur, Ranu Soni, Vibha Mehta, Swati Sharma, Pooja Mishra, Alisha Bhagat, Anku Goel, Annamalai Anushya, Pallavi Dhawan, Manharpreet Kaur and Mani Bhushan Kumar for going through the manuscript at various stages. I am thankful to all our technical staff, particularly, Ms. Ruby Suria Dharia (Judy) and Mr. Sheetal Kumar for their sustained efforts and wholehearted support at every step of the preparation of this textbook.
I am also grateful to Prof. Kusum Joshi, former Professor & Head, Prof. BD Radotra, Professor and Dr Ritambhra Nada, Professor, Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, for providing the histopathological photomicrographs. I am thankful to Prof. Meera Sharma, former Head, Department of Medical Microbiology, PGIMER for her constant inspiration while preparing the manuscript. I am also thankful to Prof. Pushpa Talwar, former Head, Department of Medical Microbiology, PGIMER, with whom I had the privilege to work with in the field of medical mycology and whom we have lost recently. I would like to pay sincere tribute to her through this book. Thanks are due to Dr Tarun Narang, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, PGIMER; Dr Gagandeep Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, New Delhi for critically reviewing some of the chapters.
A thorough reading of the manuscript by Dr Antarikshdeep, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (PGIMS), Rohtak (Haryana) is duly acknowledged as it was valuable and timely and gave a positive shape to this endeavor. I am also thankful to Prof. SM Singh, former Head, Department of Biological Sciences, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh; Dr Mahendra Pal, former Head, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, Anand, Gujarat; Dr PS Nirwan, former Professor & Head, Dr Vijaylatha Rastogi, Associate Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan; Dr Khuraijam Ranjana Devi, Professor, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal (Manipur) for going through some of the chapters and providing clinical photographs and photomicrographs. I am thankful to Dr DP Lochan, Director General Health Services (DGHS), Haryana for his constant inspiration, support and encouragement.
I am indebted to Prof. K R Joshi, former Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, Dr Sampurnanand Medical College, Jodhpur and Principal, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan; Prof. HS Randhawa, Director and Professor of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute (VPCI), New Delhi; Dr BM Hemashettar, former President, Society for Indian Human and Animal Mycologists; Prof. L N Mohapatra, former Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, New Delhi for encouraging me to bring out the new edition. He had written the Foreword of the very first edition of this Textbook in May 1995. During this period we lost him also and this book is a sincere tribute to him as well.
I extend my sincere thanks to Dr Deepinder Chhina, Professor & Head, Dr Rama Gupta, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Dayanand Medical College Hospital, Ludhiana (Punjab); Dr Santwana Verma, Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla (Himachal Pradesh); Dr. Shukla Das, Professor of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Dr Valinderjeet Singh Randhawa, Professor, Dr Charu Jain, Senior Resident, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi; Dr Geetanjali Sharma, Microbiologist, Central Food Laboratory (CFL-FSSAI), Kolkata; Dr K Umamaheswari, Dr ALM PGIBMS, University of Madras, Chennai for critically going through the manuscript and providing electron microscopy photographs of fungi.
I owe my gratefulness to Professor David W Denning, Professor of Medicine and Medical Mycology and Head, Regional Mycology Laboratory, Education and Research Centre, National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK for his encouraging support while writing this edition. My sincere thanks to Dr Elizabeth Johnson, Director, PHLS Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol, UK for encouragements in bringing out this book. Thanks to Dr Michael Petrou, Imperial College, London and Dr Vipul Rana Singh, Infectious Diseases specialist, Phoenix, Arizona (USA) for going through the manuscript and providing some of the clinical photographs. I am indebted to Prof. Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, University of Sao Paulo and Dr Renata Buccheri, Consultant, Infectious Diseases, Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas, Sao Paulo (Brazil) for helping me in procuring some of the photomicrographs.
I am also thankful to Prof. Josep Guarro, Prof. Alberto Miguel Stchigel Glikman and Prof. Jose Francisco Cano Lira, Mycology Unit, Medical School, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain) for encouraging me to bring out the new edition and providing some of the photomicrographs.
After submitting the entire manuscript to the press, while I was writing this Acknowledgment, I received the news that Dr Deanna Sutton has passed away on July 4, 2017. It is a big setback to the mycology community. Her teaching of basic mycology which we have incorporated in this book also and learning which we have grown in the subject are extraordinary. In this month of July, she jointly published a paper with us in Fungal Planet highlighting new species of Saksenaea (S.loutrophoriformis) simultaneously isolated from India and USA. I sincerely pay my tribute to the departed soul.
Thanks to the colleagues and students, who have critically gone through this edition of Textbook, for the encouragement they have given me and for the numerous probing questions, which they asked during this period, on the basis of which I was able to expand the material contained in the previous editions and to bring out the new one.
I would also like to thank the faculty and staff of our institute, whose support and help at various stages of the preparation of this edition have been valuable. I am also grateful to all those whose suggestions, comments and healthy criticisms were helpful in making this textbook precise and up-to-date.
The latest information on the subject in the form of textbooks, journals, both hard and electronic copies and other related material were provided from time to time by our Library Staff as well as PGIMER and I am indebted to all of them. I am also very thankful to the staff of our IT Centre for tackling the computer-related problems which cropped up while writing the manuscript.
My long-suffering family also deserves a special mention, particularly my wife, Anuradha, daughters Anjuman and Aarzoo as well as son Avijit for providing constant support, encouragement and whose forbearance allowed me to continue writing of this edition. I am very thankful to Mr R S Bains, Senior Advocate, Punjab and Haryana High Court, who stood by me at each and every step and I was able to accomplish writing of this edition.
I especially appreciate the constant support and encouragement of Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman) and Mr Ankit Vij (Group President) of Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi in publishing this Textbook and also Ms Chetna Malhotra Vohra (Associate Director - Content Strategy), Mr Vipin Kaushik (Team Leader, Typesetting Department) and Mr Rajeev Joshi (Team Leader, Graphic Department), who have been prompt, efficient and most helpful throughout in the completion of this endeavor.
There are many other contributors for this edition, whose names might have been inadvertently missed by me. I request that they do not feel offended in this regard. The love and affection of the students in microbiology and allied clinical areas have been a constant source of inspiration and encouragement. It is expected that the fourth edition of this textbook will also be able to fulfill its mission to pursue, promote and advance the cause of emerging biomedical science of mycology.
Date: July 7, 2017
Place: Chandigarh
Jagdish Chander
Acronyms and Abbreviations
ABCD
Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion
ABLC
Amphotericin B lipid complex
ABPA
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
ABPM
Allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses
AFAD
Allergic fungal airway disease
AFLP
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism
AFRS
Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis
AFST
Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
AmB
Amphotericin B
APACHE
Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (scores)
API
Analytical Profile Index
APMIS
Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Immuno-logica Scandinavica
AP-PCR
Arbitrarily primed PCR
ATCC
American Type Culture Collection
AUC
Area under curve
BAL
Bronchoalveolar lavage (fluid)
BCE
Brown Color Effect
BDG
Beta-D-Glucan
BHI
Brain-heart infusion (agar/broth)
BMBL
Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories
BMD
Broth microdilution
BLAST
Basic Local Alignment Search
BMT
Bone marrow transplant
BOD
Biochemical/Biological oxygen demand
BSA
Bird seed agar
BSL
Biohazard safety levels
CAB
Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences
CAPD
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CARD
Caspase-associated recruitment domain 9
CBS
Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (Now, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute)
CCSG
Coccidioidomycosis Cooperative Study Group
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Cf
Compare from
cfc
Continuous flow culture
CFPA
Chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis
CFU
Colony-forming unit
CFW
Calcofluor white (stain)
CGB
Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue
CHEF
Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis
CHHA
Cysteine-heart and hemoglobin agar
CIE
Counterimmunoelectrophoresis
CIOMS
Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences
CLSI
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (since January 1, 2005, formerly NCCLS)
CMA
Cornmeal agar
CMCC
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
CMI
Cell-mediated immunity
CMI
Commonwealth Mycological Institute
CNPA
Chronic Necrotizing Pulmonary Aspergillosis
CPA
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
CPA
Cyclopiazonic acid
CT
Computed tomography
CYP
Cytochrome P450 (enzymes)
D-AmB
Deoxycholate amphotericin B
DBB
Diazonium Blue B (dye)
DD
Double diffusion/disk diffusion
DHPS
Dihydropteroate synthase
DIM
Dermatophyte identification medium
DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung, Germany
DMSO
Dimethyl sulfoxide
DPX
Dibutylphthalate xylene
DRBC
Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol (agar)
DRIP
Dermocystidium, rosette agent, Ichthyo-phonus and Psorospermium (clade)
DTH
Delayed-type hypersensitivity
DTM
Dermatophyte test medium
e
Electronic (edition)
EAPCRI
European Aspergillus PCR Initiative
e.g.
exempli gratia - for example
ECIL
European Conference on Infections in Leukemia
ECMM
European Confederation of Med. Mycology
ed/edn
Editor(s)/Edition(s)
EDTA
Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid
EIA
Enzyme immunoassay
ELISA
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMBO
European Molecular Biology Organization
EORTC
European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer
et al
et alii ‘and others’ (more than one author)
EUCAST
European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
f. sp.
formae speciales/special form
FA
Fluorescent antibodies
FEMS
Fed. of European Microbiological Societies
FESS
Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
FFPE
Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded
FIRE
Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation
FISH
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
FNA
Fine needle aspiration (biopsy/cytology)
FSSAI
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
GAFFI
Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections
GalXM
Galactoxylomannan
GF
Gridley fungal (stain)
GLC
Gas liquid chromatography
GlcNAc
N-acetylglucosamine
GMS
Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver (stain)
Gr.
Greek
GTT
Germ tube test
GXM
Glucuronoxylomannan
GYE
Glucose-yeast extract (agar)
H&E
Hematoxylin and eosin (stain)
HA
Hemagglutination
HAI
Healthcare-associated infections
HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
HEPA
High efficiency particulate air (filter)
HPLC
High performance liquid chromatography
HRL
Histoplasmosis Reference Laboratory
HSCT
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Hsp
Heat shock proteins
i.e.
id est ‘that is’
IA
Invasive aspergillosis
IARC
International Agency for Research on Cancer
ICBN
Internat. Code of Botanical Nomenclature
ICN
International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants
ICTF
Internat. Committee on Taxonomy of Fungi
ICZN
Internat. Code of Zoological Nomenclature
ID
Immunodiffusion
IFA
Indirect fluorescent antibodies
IFD
Invasive fungal disease
IFI
Invasive fungal infection
IFN
Interferon
IFT
Invasive fungal tracheobronchitis
IGS
Intergenic Spacer Region
IHRB
Industrial Health Research Board
IL
Interleukin
IMA
International Mycological Association
IMC
International Mycological Congress
IMI
International Mycological Institute
IPA
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
IRIS
Immune Reconstitution Inflamm. Syndrome
ISHAM
International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (Founded in July 1954, Paris)
ITS
Internal Transcribed Spacer
ITIS
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
kDa
Kilo Dalton
KOH
Potassium hydroxide
LA
Latex agglutination
La.
Latin
L-AmB
Liposomal amphotericin B
LAMP
Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification
LCB/LPCB
Lactophenol cotton blue (mount)
Lf
Lactoferrin
LFA/D
Lateral Flow Assay/Device
LIFE
Leading International Fungal Education
LPA
Latex particle agglutination
LSD
Lysergic acid diethylamide
LSU
Large-subunit
M
Mycelial (Saprotrophic phase of fungus)
mAb
Monoclonal antibody
MALDI
Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization
MEA
Malt-extract agar
MEC
Minimum effective concentration
MFC
Minimum fungicidal concentration
MIC
Minimum inhibitory concentration
MFSS
Masson-Fontana silver stain
MGG
May-Grunwald Giemsa (stain)
MLEE
Multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis
MLSA
Multi-locus sequence analysis
MLST
Multi-locus sequence typing
MOPS
Morpholinopropane Sulfonic acid (buffer)
MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging
MRL
Mycology Reference Laboratory
MS
Mass spectrometry (also see MALDI TOF)
MSG
Mycoses Study Group
MTCC
Microbial Type Culture Collection
MTT
Methylthiazyl tetrazolium
NCBI
National Center for Biotech. Information
NCCLS
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (now CLSI since January 1, 2005)
NCPF
National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi
NCTC
National Collection of Type Cultures
NCYC
National Collection of Yeasts Cultures
NDM
Non-dermatophytic molds
NTDs
Neglected Tropical Diseases
NSM
Non-sporulating molds
NIH
National Institute of Health (USA)
OSHA
Occupational Safety & Health Administration
OTA
Ochratoxin A
PAGE
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PAP
Papanicolaou (stain)
PATH
Prospective Antifungal Therapy
PAS
Periodic acid-Schiff (stain)
PBS
Phosphate-buffered saline
PCM
Paracoccidioidomycosis
PCP
Pneumocystis pneumonia
PJP
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
PCR
Polymerase chain reaction
PDA
Potato dextrose agar
PDT
Photodynamic therapy
PFBK
Primary fetal bovine kidney
PFGE
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis
PFGGE
Pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis
PHLS
Public Health Laboratory Service (UK)
PHOL
Pal, Hasegawa, Ono, Lee (Stain)
PIM
Prototheca isolation medium
PIV
Pythium insidiosum vaccine
PMS
Pyrolysis-mass spectrometry
PNA
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA-FISH)
PNS
Paranasal sinuses
POCT
Point-of-Care Testing
ppb/ppm
Parts-per-billion (1×10−9)/million (1×10−6)
PRM
Peptidorhamnomannan (antigen)
PYG
Peptone-yeast extract glucose
QMAP
Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform
qPCR
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction
RAPD
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA
RFLP
Restriction fragment length polymorphism
RIA
Radioimmunoassay
RPLA
Reverse passive latex agglutination
RPMI
Roswell Park Memorial Institute (Medium)
RSA
Rice starch agar
RT-PCR
Reverse transcriptase-PCR
SAFS
Severe asthma associated fungal sensitivity
SAM
Sinobronchial Allergic Mycosis
S/Suppl
Supplement (Issue of journal)
SD
Seborrheic dermatitis
SDA, SGA
Sabouraud dextrose (glucose) agar
SDD
Susceptible dose-dependent
SDS
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
SIHAM
Society for Indian Human and Animal Mycologists (Founded in 1996, Jabalpur, MP)
SMX/SMZ
Sulfamethoxazole
SOD
Superoxide dismutase
SOT
Solid organ transplant
Sp/Spp.
Species (Singular/Pleural)
SSA
Sunflower seed agar
SSCP
Single-stranded conformation polymorphism
SSKI
Saturated solution of potassium iodide
SSU
Small-subunit
Syn.
Synonymous (name)
TDM
Therapeutic drug monitoring
TD-PCR
Touchdown polymerase chain reaction
TEM
Transmission electron microscopy
TLC
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLR
Toll-like receptors
TMP
Trimethoprim
TOF
Time of flight (MALDI TOF MS)
TRANSNET
Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network
TRM
Tetrazolium reduction medium
TSB
Tryptic soy broth
var.
Variety (of a fungal strain)
VFCE
Valley Fever Center for Excellence
vs.
Versus
WGST
Whole-Genome Sequence Typing
Y
Yeast or Parasitic phase of dimorphic fungi
YCB
Yeast carbon base
YEA
Yeast extract agar
YNB
Yeast nitrogen base
ZEN
Zearalenone (Mycotoxin)