First Aid for Nurses TK Indrani
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table.
A
Abdominal hernia
first aid measures 200
or rupture 200
Abdominal wound 195
Accident victim, lifting 139f
Accidents involving dangerous substances 186
Airway, patency of 9f
Asphyxia 32
causes 32
rules for treatment of 33
signs 33
symptoms 33
Asphyxia and first aid 23
carbon monoxide poisoning 30
choking 31
drowning 26
fires 28
hanging, strangling and throttling 25
signs 25
smoke inhalation 27
suffocation 29
by poisonous gas 29
by smoke 29
symptoms 25
treatment 25, 30
B
Bandage
ankle with triangular 153f
application of sling—elbow 157f
capeline 157f
elbow 157
foot 156
method 156
for back of chest 157
for chest 157
for elbow, roller 152f
hand 156
method 156
hip 157
large arm sling with triangular 146f
of triangular 154
other uses 157
roller 151
rules for application of roller 151
scalp/capeline 156
method 157
shoulder 157
St John's sling with triangular 155f
triangular 153
types of 151
Bandaging 149
for palm, roller 152t
for wrist joint connecting the forearm, roller 152f
fractured
arm with triangular bandage 145f
hip with triangular bandage 158f
joint 156
method 156
patterns used in 150
principles of 150
shifting patient after 158f
Bleeding
and first aid 99
arterial 99
capillary 99
first aid measures treatment 105
signs 103, 105
special forms of 107
symptoms 103, 105
types of 99
venous 99
Bleeding from ear 110
first aid measures 110
signs 110
symptoms 110
treatment 110
Bleeding from mouth 111
first aid measures 111
signs 111
symptoms 111
treatment 111
Bleeding in varicose veins 112
first aid measures 112
signs 112
symptoms 112
treatment 113
Bleeding internal 105, 106, 107
first aid measures 107
treatment 107
signs 106
symptoms 106
Bleeding major external 102
first aid measures 103
treatment 103
signs 103
symptoms 103
Bleeding minor external 105
first aid measures 105
treatment 105
signs 105
symptoms 105
Bleeding miscarriage 114
first aid measures 114
signs 114
symptoms 114
treatment 115
Bleeding nose bleeds 109
first aid measures 109
signs 109
symptoms 109
treatment 109
Bleeding scalp wounds 108
first aid measures 108
signs 108
symptoms 108
treatment 108
Bleeding vaginal 113
first aid measures 113
symptoms 113
treatment 114
Blood clots 100
Blood loss controlling 100
direct pressure 101
indirect pressure 101
pressure points 102
Boils 128
signs 128
symptoms 128
treatment 128
Bruises 121
first aid measures 121
signs 121
symptoms 121
treatment 121
Burn
area of 164
chemical 163
classification of 163
cold 163
depth of 164
deep 164
intermediate 164
superficial 164
dry 163
electrical 163, 170
first aid measures 172
signs 171
symptoms 171
treatment 172
radiation 163
rule of nines for assessment of 165
types of 162
Burn and scalds
first aid in 160
treatment of 162
Burn caused by corrosive chemicals, treatment of 162
Burn dry 165
first aid measures 166
signs 165
symptoms 165
treatment 166
Burn general approach 160
Burn in eye
chemical 169
first aid measures 169
signs 169
symptoms 169
treatment 170
Burn in mouth and throat 167
first aid measures 168
signs 167
symptoms 167
treatment 168
Burn in skin
chemical 168
first aid measures 169
signs 168
symptoms 168
treatment 169
Burnt, when face 161
C
Casualties in war, labeling of 218
Chest compression, external 70f
Civil defense 214
principles of first aid in war 214
Civil defense types of warfare 215
biological warfare 217
bombing 215
chemical warfare 216
nuclear weapons 215
Community resources 205
Crush injuries 126
first aid measures 126
signs 126
symptoms 126
treatment 126
Cyclone 211
after 212
approaches 211
before 211
D
Diabetic and insulin coma, signs of 83t
Disaster
ambulance service in 234
causes of 224
effects of 227
fire prevention 226
first aiders, impact of 238
management 222, 227, 228
coordinated response of emergency services 232
phase of 228
principles of 230
mitigation 229
patient assessment 236
phases of 237
plan, principles of 229
preparedness 229
and planning 230
prevention 229
process 227
rescuers, tips for 245
scene 238, 239
shifting of patients 239
ambulance 239
triage 231
types of 223
victim, care of 231
E
Earthquake 208
after 209
before 208
during 209
Emergency in community and first aid 205
Emergency resuscitation 54
artificial
respiration: types and techniques 54
ventilation 69, 72
breathing 67
checking for circulation 70
circulation 69
drowning 64
electric shock 64
external
cardiac resuscitation 63
chest compression 69
chest compression steps 73
for children 73
Holger-Nielsen method 56
method of external chest compression 70
mouth-to-mouth
method 55
ventilation 67
ventilation and method 68
mouth-to-nose
method 56
ventilation 69
obstruction in air passages, method of removing 56, 59, 61, 6365, 6773
infant or young child or adult 56, 59, 61, 6365, 6773
respiratory resuscitation 54
resuscitation 65
for children 72
with two first aiders 71
Schafer's method of artificial respiration 61
Sylvesters’ method of artificial respiration 59
treatment 64
Emergency service agencies 205t
contact details 205t
Epistaxis 109
Explosion 226
prevention 227
Eye, chemical burns of 201
first aid measures 201
F
Famine relief 247
Fire 226
prevention 226
First aid
action at emergency 7
calling for assistance 10
concept of emergency 7
determining priorities 8
examination and diagnosis 11
for bites and stings 35
bee, wasp and hornet stings 45
cone-shaped shells 46
coral cuts 46
effects of extreme temperature 48
effects of snake venom 43
examination of snakes and snake bites 40
frostbite 46
insects 35
jellyfish sting 45
portuguese man-of-war 45
rabies and antirabic treatment in India 49
scorpion sting 44
sea urchin sting 46
snake 37
snake bites 37
snow blindness 48
snow blindness, radiation 48
snow blindness, Welder's flash 48
spiders 36
treatment 38
getting others to help you 9
golden rules 6
history taking 15t
in injuries to joints and muscles 147
dislocation 149
sprain 148
strain 147
in special cases 23, 23t
choking 23
drowning 23
hanging 23
strangulation 23
in war, problems of 217
crush injury 217
gas poisoning/burns 217
injuries from blast 218
radiation sickness 217
informing relatives 18
kit 219
levels of responsiveness 14
management of case 5
multiple casualties and injuries 10
outline of 3
removing clothing 18, 19
boots or shoes 19
coat or jacket 18
full face helmet 19
removing crash helmets 19
shirt or vest 19
socks 19
trousers 19
scope of 4
to carry out an examination 11
treatment 16
Floods 210
after 210
before 210
during 210
Foreign body
from eye, removing 198f
in ear 199
first aid measures 199
in eye 198
treatment measures 198
in nose 199
first aid measures 199
in stomach 200
in throat 200
first aid measures 200
fish-bone in 200
injuries and first aid 197
Four-handed seat 129f
Fracture
causes of 142, 143, 144
first aid
and bandaging 142
treatment of 143
of clavicle 145
of femur 147
of forearm 146
of lower leg 147
of patella 147
of pelvis 146
of ribs 144
of skull 144
of spine 144
of upper limb 145
signs of 143
symptoms of 143
treatment of 144
types of 142
H
Hemorrhage 99
Human crutch 136f
I
Insulin coma 83
treatment 83, 84, 85, 86, 87
L
Leg fracture, positioning for 147f
Lightning 213
indoors 213
outdoors 213
M
Mass casualty management 245
N
National and International Voluntary Agencies 206
Natural Calamities 206
Agencies 207
responsibilities 207
O
Open face helmet, removing 19
P
Palm bandaging with triangular bandage 145f
Person's clothing catches fire when 161
Poison
agricultural 190
treatment 190
and antidotes, common 181
corrosive 189
household 181
in India, common 191
industrial 186
irritants 189
mode of entry and action of 176, 177
nerve 190
signs 177
sources of various 194t
first aid measures 194t
swallowed 188
treatment of 188
symptoms 177
type of 189
Poisoning
aconite 193
symptoms 193
treatment 193
alcohol 184
first aid measures 185
signs 185
symptoms 185
treatment 185
and first aid 176
arsenic 191
symptoms 191
treatment 191
datura 191
symptoms 192
treatment 192
drug 183
signs 183
symptoms 183
treatment 184
food 187
first aid measures 188
rules for treatment of 178
signs 187, 188
symptoms 187, 188
treatment 188
Indian hemp 192
symptoms 193
treatment 193
salmonella 187
staphylococcal 187
Poisonous plants 182
first aid measures 182
Pulse checking
carotid 13f
radial 9f
R
Red Cross Society 206
Respiration, artificial 9f
S
Scalds 163, 165
Scalp 157f
Shock
signs of
primary 89t
secondary 89t
treatment 75
Sling 153
collar and cuff 154
improvised 154
large arm 153, 154
types 153
Snakes and snake bites, examination of 40
Snow blindness 174
first aid measures 174
signs 174
symptoms 174
treatment 175
Spinal injury patient, lifting of 144f
Splint using 159
Splinters 197
first aid measures 197
signs 197
symptoms 197
treatment 198
Splints 158
Stretcher by four bearers, carrying loaded 131f
Sunburn 173
first aid measures 174
signs 173
symptoms 173
treatment 174
Symbols for making casualties and interpretation 218t
T
Transport of injured persons 129
and first aid 129
carries for one first aider 135
cradle method 135
drag method 135
fireman's lift 136
human crutch 136
pick-a-back 136
carries for two first aiders 137
chair method 138, 139, 140, 141
fore and aft carry 137
hand seat 137
lifting casualty in wheelchair 138
carrying casualties 132
closing stretcher 140
different types 140
Fireman's lift and carry 132
fore and aft method 133
hand seats 133
human crutch 132
lifting casualties 134
in stretcher 139
methods adopted 129
opening stretcher 140
pick-a-back 132
scoop stretcher 141
standard stretcher 140
stick method 134
stretcher 134, 139
exercise 130
support by
single helper 129
two helper 129
testing stretcher 140
trolley bed 141
utila folding stretcher 141
U
Ulcer 127
acute 127
chronic 127
treat patient with 127t
treatment for acute 128
types 127
Unconsciousness 75
abdominal thrust 93
anaphylactic shock 87
treatment 88
apoplexy 79
treatment 79
causes of shock 89
treatment 89
choking casualty 91
common causes of 76
degrees of 75
diabetic coma and insulin overdose 83
treatment 83, 84, 85, 86, 87
epilepsy 79
treatment 80
fainting 83
treatment 84
for choking children 92
for conscious choking casualty 91
for infants 94
for unconscious
casualty 93
choking casualty 91
heart attacks 86
treatment for first kind 86
treatment for second kind 87
heat exhaustion 82
treatment 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88
heatstroke 82
diabetic coma 83
diabetic coma and insulin overdose 83
treatment 82
hysterical attacks 80
treatment 81
infantile convulsions 81
treatment 81
shock 88
stroke 85
treatment 86
thrust for children 93
treatment 76
epilepsy 79, 80
hysterical attacks 80, 81
typical incident 94
Upper limb injury by one person, carrying patient of 136f
W
Welder's flash and radiation 174
Wound abdominal 124
first aid measures 125
signs 125
symptoms 125
treatment 125
Wound abrasions 116
signs 116
treatment 116
Wound and first aid 116
Wound contused 118
first aid measures 118
treatment 119
signs 118
symptoms 118
Wound eye 119
first aid measures 119
treatment 120
signs 119
symptoms 119
Wound gunshot 119
Wound incised 117
Wound infected 122, 123
first aid measures 122
signs 122
symptoms 122
tetanus infection 123
treatment 122
Wound lacerated 117
Wound penetrating chest 123
first aid measures 124
signs 123
symptoms 123
treatment 124
Wound punctured 117
signs 117
treatment 117
Wound to palm of hand 120
first aid measures 120
treatment 120
signs 120
symptoms 120
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