Knee Arthroscopy: A Case Repository Sachin Tapasvi, Anshu Shekhar
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure.
Abrasion chondroplasty 260
Achilles tendon-bone 96
anterior horns 178
implant 178f
portion of 178f
posterior horns 178
Amoxicillin 109
Anatomical root reduction 234f
Anterior cruciate ligament 8f, 9f, 13f, 30, 33f, 42, 50f, 52, 54f, 59, 60f, 61f, 64f, 71f, 75f77f, 82, 86, 93, 107, 115f118f, 125, 147, 148f, 160f, 162, 178, 179, 193, 198, 212, 248, 259f, 267, 267f270f
acute 13
avulsion in child 12
avulsion with comminution 73
complete tear of 30f
deficient knees 130
graft 26f, 86f
rupture of 126f, 148f
indication for 20
intrasubstance rupture of 197f
primary repair 47
reconstruction 107f, 154f
early infection after 107
retear with
dilated tunnels 93
exaggerated tibial slope 86
revision 96f
tear 51f, 114
acute 19, 42f
in athletic sportsman 29
in football player 49
partial 59, 61
with high-grade pivot shift 81
with knee hyperextension 113
tibial avulsion of 68
type I 43
Anteromedial bundle 62
Anteromedial tibia 200f
Anteromedial tibial cortex 168f
Antibiotic treatment 109
Apley's test 165
Arthritic knee, young 183
Arthritis 141, 157f
Arthrofibrosis 103
Arthroscopic advancements 47
Arthroscopic curette 160f
Arthroscopic debridement 212
Arthroscopic medial meniscus posterior root repair 230
Arthroscopic microfracture 186
Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transfer 187
Arthroscopic tibial aimer 150f
Arthroscopy 207
Arthrotomy adjacent 175f
Articular cartilage 140f
damage 179
Asthma 192
Autogenous graft 95
Autografts, potential 57
Autologous cartilage implantation 269f
Autologous chondrocyte implantation 190, 218f, 268, 269f, 270, 270f
membrane-based 203
Autologous quadriceps tendon 20
Beta-tricalcium phosphate 245f
Bipolar chondral lesions 266
Blood-soaked sponge 100
Body mass index 93, 140, 165, 185, 192, 205, 215, 257, 266
bridge technique, central 178
contusion 126f
grafted femoral tunnel 99f
procedure 98f
with core 99f
marrow 219f
edema 198f
stock 69
wedge, artificial 223f
Bone-patella-bone autograft 82
Bone-patellar tendon-bone 28, 30, 52, 95, 120
graft 111f, 114, 202
tendon graft, after harvest completed 33f
Bone-to-bone fixation 82
Bony wedge from osteotomy 89f
Bow tie sign 133f
Calcium sulfate hemihydrate injectable resorbable bone cement 245f
Capsule complex, anterolateral 84
Cartilage and bone involvement 108
Cartilage damage 134
Cartilage degeneration, progression of 170
Chondral grafts 203
Chondral regeneration techniques 199
Chondromalacia 162, 249f
Clavulanic acid 109
Collateral ligament 3, 147
lateral 85
medial 52, 159f
superficial medial 213, 231, 231f
Complex regional pain syndrome 103
Conservative treatment, initial 5
Constitutional tibia vara 157
Corner injury, posterolateral 103
C-reactive protein 108
Crochet hook 236f
Cruciate ligament
anatomic anterior 90f
lateral 103
medial 103
posterior 103
perturbation program, brace and anterior 59
Cyst formation 157
Deformity, correction of 262f
Discoid meniscus 133, 138
complete 134
lateral 138, 217f
type of 137
unstable 136f
with tear, lateral 133
Distal femoral angle, mechanical lateral 229f
Distal femur angle, lateral 248f
Drawer test, anterior 197
Excision margin 134
plasty 154
surgery 115
Femoral avulsion, acute 42
Femoral bone tunnel 24
Femoral condyle
chondral defect, medial 198
lateral 33f, 37f, 61f, 117f, 149f, 153f, 251f, 268f
subchondral fracture, classical lateral 198f
Femoral fixation 202f
Femoral graft
fixation 118f
location 94f
Femoral insertion point 90f
Femoral tunnel 36f
length of 26f
placement of 102
Femoral valgus angle, normal lateral distal 257f
Femorotibial compartment, medial 249f
Femorotibial varus, mechanical 229f
Femur tunnel placement 63f, 117f
Fibrocartilage formation 219f
Fibular collateral ligament 44f
Flexion 186f
Focal chondral defect, single 185
configuration of 74
fragment 76f
fragmentation of 70f
Fujisawa point 216f, 225
Gaächter criteria, infection staging to 109
Gait abnormality, hyperextension 103
Genu varum
bilateral 228f
deformity 229f
Ghost sign 230f
Gracilis tendons 28
against intercondylar notch 56f
fracture of 98
impingement 114, 115
myxoid degeneration of 251f
passage 26
selection 114
soaking 111
tension 109
thickness of 21f
tibia fixation of 65f, 119f
Graft fixation 62, 115
inadequate 103
Graft harvest 200f
and preparation 20
Graft placement 115
facilitate 33f
Hamstring dominant sports 202
Hamstrings tendons 52, 120
Hardware failure 103
Hematoma formation 245f
Heparin tube 108f
anteroposterior radiograph 171f
axis 205f, 248f, 250
Hohmann retractor 221f, 251f
Horn of lateral meniscus, anterior 64f, 117f
Horn of meniscus, anterior 252f
Hyperflexion 247
Iatrogenic articular cartilage damage 232f
Iatrogenic medial meniscal ramp lesion 6f
Incising patellar tendon 175f
Infection 103
International Cartilage Repair Society 194, 218f
International Knee Documentation Committee 144
score 67
Intra-anterior cruciate ligament bone speck 77f
effusion, moderate 19
fracture 224f
Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis 111
Ipsilateral hamstring graft 268f
Jaws, self-capturing 153f
convergence angle 229f
deterioration, mild 171f
line convergence angle 261f
Kaplan fiber system 84
arthritis 258
grade 165f, 166, 229f, 246
arthritis, treatment of 264
arthroplasty 264
demonstrating, arthroscopy of 14f
flexion 232f
hyperextension 114, 121
hyperflexed 35f
incision, anterior 31f
injury 164, 255
kinematics 121
lateral radiograph of 94f
left 68, 165f, 168f
ligamentous anatomy 83f
normal 78f
physical examination of left 93
preservation surgery 217
replacement, unicompartmental 207
right 31f, 93
scorpion 137
snapping of 133
stable 141
tibial tunnel preparation, right 142f
X-rays of right 49f
Knee arthroscopy 232f
right 6f, 82f, 83f, 128f, 129f, 141f, 149f, 208f, 251f
Knee joint
aspiration 108
mid-sagittal section of 115f
X-ray, right 266f
Knee pain 171
anterior 192, 194
Knee-ankle anteroposterior radiograph 172
K-wire, placing 71
Lachman's test 12, 81, 125, 197, 266
Laminar spreader, posterior 242f
Laxity, high-grade 82
Leukocyte, total 108f
Levofloxacin 109
anterolateral 84, 115, 119f, 131
capsular 114f
laxity 113
Ligamentous injuries, absence of 173
Locking complaints 133
Loose body 157f
Lysholm score 67, 144, 255
Magnetic resonance imaging 20, 143, 157, 230f, 246
cartilage mapping 269f, 270f
coronal 206f
of knee 86f, 186f
Mason-Allen configuration 250f
Mason-Allen stitch 169
modified 170
Mattress suture 236f
McMurray's test 59, 113, 133, 156, 165, 216, 228
positive 171
Mechanical axis, restoration of 262f
Medial collateral ligament, distal attachment of superficial 208f
Medial joint line 140
Medial knee
arthritis 205
osteoarthritis 169
Medial meniscus 34f, 159f162f, 232f
deficiency 249
extrusion 257
posterior root 141f, 230f, 234f
attachment 230f
tear 143, 165, 230f
ramp lesion 125
root repair 246
root tear 228
in runner 140
Medial proximal tibia 220f
Medial proximal tibial
angle 229f, 248f, 250, 257f
surface 220f
Medial tibial condyle 141f, 159f162f, 251, 251f, 252f
Medial tibial plateau articular surface 218f
Medication 165
Meniscal allograft 171f, 172f
transplantation 173, 179
contraindications for 173, 179
Meniscal extrusion 232f
Meniscal function
loss of medial 141
restore 141
Meniscal lesion
double vertical lateral 7f
progression of 5
Meniscal root 230
lateral 154
repair, lateral 154f
tear 247
after medial 167f
Meniscal suture, technique of 142f
Meniscal tear, posterior horn lateral 81f
Meniscal tissue 236f
preservation of 138
pain, post subtotal 248
post total lateral 171
subtotal medial 248
total 137
Meniscocapsular tear 128
Meniscus 123
allograft transplantation 250, 254
anterior roots of 250f
horn of medial 130
inferior leaves of 160f
posterior horn of 153f, 249f
medial 162f
radial tear of 137f
stabilization of 134
superior and inferior leaves of 160f
Meniscus posterior root 250f
lateral 149f, 153f
medial 233f, 238f
tear, lateral 147
Meniscus root
footprint of medial 235f
tear 149f
signs of medial 140f
Meniscus tear 158, 163
with parameniscal cyst, horizontal medial 156
Meniscus tissue, stable 134
Meniscus transplant 175f
contraindicate 173f
procedure 171f, 172
Metal wire loop 169
Microfracture 270
procedure 220f
Midshaft tibia 42
Miniaci technique 250
Monofilament loop suture 151f
Mosaicplasty 203
Motion, loss of 103
Motor vehicle accident 42
Myxoid degeneration 162
Myxoid tissue 160f
degenerative 160f
Necrotic tissue 108
Neurovascular injury, lower risk of 135
Neutrophils 108
Nicky's knot 128
Nonanatomic root repair 169
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 228
Obesity 103
Open wedge osteotomy, medial 261f
Osteoarthritis 212, 229f
advanced medial compartment 206f
outcome score 164, 255
progression of 144
Osteochondral allograft 270
transfer 186, 190, 270
system 187f
transplantation 270
Osteochondral cylinder transfer surgery 218f
Osteochondral defect 186f
Osteochondral lesion 186f, 189f, 266f
Osteochondritis dissecans 267f
Osteoinduction properties 223f
Osteophyte 172f
formation, central 198
lateral compartment 206f
Osteophytosis 207f
Osteotome, sharp broad 241f
Osteotomy 211f, 212, 234f, 254
biplanar 222f, 240f
guide 222f
pin 239f
plate 223f, 239f
procedure 220f, 224f, 225f
union, osteoconductive matrix for 245f
upper level of 88f
Pain 133
Pannus formation 233f
Parameniscal cyst 158, 160f
Patellar articular surface, mild incongruency of 216f
Patellar bone plug 32f
Patellar chondral fissuring with cartilage flap 193f
Patellar fracture, risk of 27
Patellar incongruency 225f
Patellar side harvest 32f
Patellar tendon 28, 31f
attachment 240f
defect, central 33f
distal 231f
Patellofemoral arthritis 225f
Patellofemoral chondral lesions, traumatic and chronic overload 194
Patellofemoral compartment right knee 207f
Patellofemoral ligament injury, medial 270
Patellofemoral osteoarthritis 228
Patient's weight-bearing 181
Payr's test 156
elevator, curved 232f
level of 13
Pes anserinus 245f
superior border of 239f
tendons 231f
Pes tendons 220f
Physical therapy 165
Pivot shift
high-grade 114, 155
quantitative 84
Platelet-rich plasma 66, 163
Polyetheretherketone carbon fiber interference screw 201f
Posterior cruciate ligament 5, 9, 34f, 36f, 37f, 44f, 101, 117f, 147, 160f, 217f, 251f, 259f
Potential autografts, sizes of 52f
Proton density, sagittal 42f
Proximal tibia
medial exposure of 261f
posterior aspect of 221f
posteromedial border of 221f
Proximal tibial angle, posterior 248f
Proximal tibial metaphysis 239f
Proximal tibial osteotomy 222f, 265
Proximal tibiofibular joint 221f
Quadriceps strengthening exercise 165
Quadriceps tendon 52, 114, 116f, 118f
patellar bone 96
Radiofrequency ablation 196, 268f, 270
Ramp lesion posterior portion 128f, 129f
Ramp lesion repair 127, 129f
Range of motion 16, 19, 42, 93, 113, 147, 266
Rifampicin 109
Right knee, medial compartment 206f
Rotational instability 125
Rotatory instability, anterolateral 84
Sartorius fascia 200f
Segond sign 29f
Semitendinosus tendon 201f
Septic arthritis 110f
Shuttling suture 38f
Sprain 52
Staphylococcus epidermidis 109
Subchondral bone 187f, 199f
plate 219f
Subchondral cyst formation 217f
Subchondral marrow edema 186f
Subchondral spongiosa bone 219f
Subperiosteal dissection 220f, 221f
Subtle medial pain 140
Suprapatellar pouch 23f
bridge technique 74
material, resorbable 22f
pullout technique, transtibial single-tunnel 230
retrieval and repair 128
shuttle 127
tape, ends of 238f
Suturing anterior cruciate ligament 45f
Swelling 133
Symmetric alignment 166
Symmetric joint space 8f
Synovitis 162
location of 137
morphology 57
occurs, type of 157
splits, horizontal 158f
type C 135
type of 134
Tegner activity scale 67
Tendon portal, high transpatellar 70f
Tenodesis, lateral extra-articular 82
Tibia 115
medial margin of 205f
posterior slope of 224f, 240f
tunnel placement 64f, 117f
Tibial bone plug 39f
Tibial bone tunnel 25
Tibial condyle 260f
lateral 149f, 153
Tibial cortex, posterior 88f
Tibial curve, proximal medial 224f
Tibial dilator 25f
Tibial drill guide 25f
Tibial eminence
fracture, large displaced anterior 69
fragment of 69f
Tibial fixation
of graft 201f
with post screw 154f
Tibial insertional footprint 51f
Tibial osteotomy
anterior closing-wedge high 87
high 203, 207, 213, 215, 264
Tibial plateau 128f
fracture 222f
measurements 171f, 172
Tibial side harvest 32f
Tibial slope, posterior 210f
Tibial spine
avulsion fractures 17
lateral 64f
Tibial tuberosity 209f, 222f, 231f
Tibial tunnel 39f, 115, 169
complete 25f
drilling 31f
guide wire 37f
position 88f
scar 107f
violating 89f
Tibiofemoral arthritis 94f
Tibiofemoral compartment 233f
joint deterioration 172f
Tibiofemoral joint space 171f
Tibiofibular joint 232f
bank's allograft 173
damage 108
Torn meniscus, repair of 135
Total knee replacement 207
Transosseous tunnel 152f
Transtibial pullout repair technique 144
Transtibial root fixation 250f
Transtibial tunnels, locations of 251f
Transverse skin incision 20f
Tricalcium phosphate 265
Tunnel placement 62
and fixation 115
Two-incision technique 95, 102
correction angle 216f
osseous malalignment 103
stress 232f
Vancomycin solution 111
deformity 271
malalignment 228, 246, 249, 261f
correction of 254
osseous malalignment 103
osteoarthritis 215, 257
Visual analog scale 255
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