Yearbook of Anesthesiology-9 Raminder Sehgal, Anjan Trikha
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table
A
Abdominal compartment syndrome 117
Abdominal distension 126
Abdominal examination 126
Abnormal maternal-fetal antigen-antibody reaction 37
Acarbose 231
Acclimatization 323
leads 314
period of 318
Acetaminophen 391
Acetazolamide 324
Acetylcholine 157
Acidosis 117
Acinetobacter 332, 340
Acromioclavicular joint 354, 356
Acromion process 355, 356
Active warming mechanisms 198
Acute coronary syndrome 216, 319
Acute high-altitude illness 308, 310
Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure 281
Acute mountain sickness 308
Acute respiratory
distress syndrome 122
failure, treatment of 174
Adaptive support ventilation 179
Adipocyte 70
subcutaneous 70
Adjunctive therapy 122
Adjustable pressure limiting valve 346
Adrenergic receptors 366
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 228
Afferent thermal sensing 191
Agitation 372, 391
Air
blower 329
conditioning
compressor 329
engineers 330
emboli, retrograde ascent of 101
handling unit 329
hunger 309
lock phenomenon 102
sampling 346
warming appliance 332
Airborne
particles 340
pathogenic agents 149
Airway 40, 71
compromise, surgery for 287
manipulation 277
obstruction 58, 79
trauma, risk of 294
Alarm fatigue 155
Albumin levels 126
Alfentanil 168, 193
Allergies 146, 149
Alpha glucosidase 231
Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid 157
Alveolar anesthetic concentration 365
Alzheimer's disease 27
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 206
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists 234, 237
American Association of Nurse Anesthesiologist 151
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 70, 166
American College of Physicians 234, 237
American Diabetes Association 226, 230, 234
Consensus Statement on Inpatient Glycemic Control 237
American Heart Association 219, 378
American National Standards Institute 330
American National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 28
American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 116
American Society of Anesthesiologists 31, 87, 92, 150, 196, 221, 247
American Society of Heating Refrigerating 330
American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians 209
Amino acid 121
glutamine 123
Analgesia 250
neuraxial 71
Anaphylactic reactions 368
Anaphylaxis 59, 60, 368
severe 368
Anemia 87, 221
Anesthesia 4, 88, 248, 363
considerations 272
devices 345
disinfection of 348
effect of 157
equipment 341, 345
for cesarean section 77
for labor 71
for neurovascular procedures 256
indications in 284
induction of 79, 264
inhalational 293
local infiltration 249
maintenance of 267
medication errors in 10
neuraxial 193
obstetric 288
practice of 10
procedures in 284
types of 227
work area 347
Anesthesiologists
bacterial contamination of 137
health hazards for 145
Anesthetic
agents, mechanism of action of 158t
drugs 29, 228
machine, alarms on 8
management 47
practice 13
technique 29
workforce, large proportion of 150
Aneurysm 256
common site of 257
development of 257
endovascular management of 266
posterior circulation 259
rupture 257, 258, 266
intraoperative 266
site of 257, 259
Angiography 219
coronary 215
intraoperative 265
pre-embolization 272f
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 220
Anterior cruciate ligament 209
Antiangiogenic proteins 38
Antibiotic prophylaxis 346
Anticholinesterase inhibitors 55
Anticipate 70
Anticoagulation 268
myth of 60
Antihypertensives 50
Antioxidant 123
therapy 40
Apnea 164
Apoptosis 165
Arrhythmia
causation of 366
ventricular 215
Arterial air embolism 101
Arterial blood 312
gas analysis reveals 104
oxygen saturation of 309
pressure 258
Arterial gas embolism 104
Arterial oxygen saturation 181
Arterial waveform-derived cardiac output 219
Arteriovenous malformation 256, 268, 273
clinical features 270
diagnosis 271
grading of 269
incidence 269
management strategies 271
radio intervention 271
surgical excision of brain 271
with elevated risk of bleeding and rebleeding 270
Artery
anterior communicating 259
posterior communicating 259
Arthritis 25
Arthroscopy 357
Aspiration
and development, risk of 120
prophylaxis 49
Aspirin 250
therapy 39
Associations of Perioperative Registered Nurses 345
Atelectasis 58, 79
Atopy 149
Atrial septal defects 316
Atropine 228
Attention-deficit disorder 162
Australia and New Zealand College of Anaesthesia 12
Automated external defibrillators 134
Automatic tube compensation 177, 178
Autonomic instability 372
Awake fiberoptic intubation 286
Axilla 340
Axillary nerve 354, 355, 356, 359
anterior approach 359
inferior axilla 359
posterior approach 359
B
Back pain, low 206, 207
Balloon
angioplasty 261
tipped blocker 294
Barbiturates 158
Barometric pressures, ambient 100
Baroreceptor reflex 229
Basal skull fracture 281
Bayley developmental scale 164
Benzodiazepines 92, 93, 158
use of 153
Benzylisoquinolinium fumarate diester 62
Beta-blockers 229
Biguanides 231
Biliary cirrhosis, primary 111
Biomarkers 93, 218
Biomedical waste 347
Biphasic positive airway pressure 80
Birth
trauma 72
weight, low 161
Blind approach 301
Blood 136, 314
brain barrier 370
glucose 226, 227, 228, 235, 235t, 240
concentrations 237t
levels 235
pressure 181
control of 43
diastolic 35, 36
management 261
non-invasive 50
systolic 35, 36, 175, 261
sugar 239
levels 227
vessels
embolic obstruction of 101
results 101
Bloodstream infection 122
Body
fluids, discoloration of 371
mass index 39, 69, 122
average 286
temperature, monitoring of 192
Bone loss 247
Bowel obstruction 117
Brachial plexus
block 358
costoclavicular 358
infraclavicular 359
retroclavicular 359
branches of 354f
cords 360
posterior cord 354
Bradycardia 102
Brain
natriuretic peptide 319
neurotransmitters in 157
relaxation 265
Breath, shortness of 371
Bronchial cuff of right-sided double-lumen tubes, modification of 299f
Bronchoconstriction 182
Bronchoscope, pediatric 294
Bronchospasm 62
B-type natriuretic peptide 185
C
Calabadion 63
Calcium 30, 128
channel blockers 391
deficiency 38
supplementation 40
Capnography 111
Carbon dioxide 99, 111, 279
arterial pressure of 309
breathed out, volume of 118
high partial pressure of 104
partial pressure of 74, 312
Cardiac depression, toxicity-induced 371
Cardiac diseases 378
Cardiac index 27
Cardiac ion channel dysfunction 371
Cardiac ischemic symptoms 215
Cardiac pathology, absence of 182
Cardiac surgery 238, 366, 372
Cardiac system 182
Cardiogenic acute pulmonary edema 283
Cardiomyopathy 72
Cardiopulmonary disease 378
Cardiovascular collapse 102
Cardiovascular disease 87
Cardiovascular drug poisoning 369
Cardiovascular manifestations 40
Cardiovascular system 27, 75, 260
Carlens tube with carinal hook 295f
Catecholamines 366
Central laboratory device 238
Central nervous system 36, 103, 256, 260, 391
disorders 161
manifestations 41
Central respiratory drive 176
Central venous catheter 106, 110
placement 221
Cerebral
circulation 313
edema 108
high-altitude 308
irritation 41
ischemia, delayed 260
oxygen delivery 313
perfusion 108
pressure 261, 262
salt wasting syndrome 261
vasospasm, balloon angioplasty of 273
veins 101
vessels 104
Cerebrospinal fluid 77, 195
drain, opening of 258
Cerebrovascular accidents 226
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists 151
Cervical
spine 100
superficial plexus 357
Cesarean delivery 71, 109
Challenging several traditional imaging techniques 135
Charge acidic groups 55
Chest
computerized tomography of 319
radiography 319
Chlorine, replacement of 62
Cholecalciferol 30
Chronic mountain sickness 308
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 178, 279
Chronic pain 87
management of 203
Circadian rhythm 191
Circle of Willis 257f, 258
Circulation 313
Cisatracurium 13
Claustrophobia 280
Clonus 372
Coagulation 268
profile 263
Cold ambient temperatures 316
Collapse
consolidation 182
prevention of 304
Coma 372
Complete blood count 89, 263
Compliance rate oxygenation and pressure index 176, 177
Comprehensive geriatric assessment 28
Computer-aided decision-making system and electronic reminders 333
Confusion 372
assessment method 90
Continuous femoral nerve blocks 248
Continuous positive airway pressure 72, 177, 279, 293, 321
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion 232, 233
Contraceptive
hormonal 61
use 61
Coracoid process 355, 356
Coronary artery 104
bypass grafting 367
disease 217, 247
revascularization prophylaxis trial 220
Corticosteroid, role of 185
Costoclavicular block 357
Cranial nerve deficit 259
C-reactive protein 93
Cricoid pressure 75
Critical care units 153
Cyanosis, central 317
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate 364
degradation of 322
Cyclooxygenase 250
inhibition 391
Cysteine 63
Cytochrome p450 370
D
Danish Birth Cohort Study 162
Daycare arthroplasty 244
Daycare surgery 238
bane of 85
context of 85
Daycare total joint arthroplasty 245
Deep breathing exercises 80
Deep venous thrombosis 250
prophylaxis 250
risk of 73
Deficit accumulation 23, 24
Degenerative diseases 203
Dehydroepiandrosterone 30
Delirium 86, 88
elderly at-risk instrument 92t
features of 86
precipitate 86
preventing 93t
risk factors for 94
screening 89
Delivery, timing of 42b
Dementia 27, 91, 95
Depression 91
Desflurane 158
Dexamethasone 322, 324
mechanism of action of 322
Dexmedetomidine 158, 167, 193
Dextrose 121
Diabetes 87
Control and Complications Trial 227
gestational 72
mellitus 25, 71, 75, 226
Diaphoresis 372
Diarrhea 117
Diazepam 160
Digital subtraction angiography 263
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 232
Disinfection 341
levels of 345
low-level 345
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 41, 42, 46
Distractions 137
issues of 141
source of 138
Distress 215
Dizziness 310, 391
Dopamine 157
receptor antagonists 391
Double-lumen airway 300
Double-lumen endotracheal tubes 293, 296, 299, 304, 305
Double-lumen tubes
history of 295
left-sided 301
recent advances in 303
right-sided 298f
use of 294
Drowsiness 391
Drug errors, classification of 14t
Duchenne-Muscular dystrophy 58
Duke activity status index 378
Dysglycemia 226
Dysphagia postextubation, detection of 126
Dyspnea 287, 317
E
Eclampsia 34, 36
treatment of 46
Edema
subclinical pulmonary 319
subglottic 40
Edmonton frail scale 24
Ejection fraction 27
Electric blanket 198
Electrocardiogram 182, 260, 319
Electrocardiographic changes 106, 215, 218
Electrocardiography 134
Electroencephalogram 357
delta waves on 87
Electrolytes
like sodium, concentration of 126
monitoring 125
Electronic data, application of 333
Electronic medical records 135
Elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure 219
Elevated serum transaminases 36
Embolism 111
Emphasis 1
Employ regional anesthesia techniques 383
Encephalopathy, ifosfamide-induced 369
Endocannabinoids 157
Endocrine
abnormalities 183
function 70
Endometritis 73
Endorphins 157
Endothelial nitric oxide 314
Endotracheal tube, removal of 174
Endovascular therapy 273
Endovascular treatment 262, 272
End-tidal nitrogen 103, 105
Enhanced recovery after surgery 232 244
Enteral nutrition 115, 117b, 119
benefits of 117b
dosing of 119
Entonox 76
Enzymes, release of 101
Ephedrine 49
Epidural analgesia 47, 80, 193
block neuronal impulses 193
Epidural anesthesia 48, 78
Epithelial growth factor 204
Errors in medicine 1
active 2
causation of 8
changing approach to 7
classification of 2
description 3
fixation error 3
incidence 2
lapse 3
latent 4
mode 3
sequence 3
slips 3
Erythropoietin, release of 314
Ethanol 160
Ethylene oxide sterilization 345
Etomidate 158, 228
European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism 116
Exenatide 231
Experimental therapies 109
Expiratory positive airway pressure 321
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 117, 221
F
Facet joint 208
Fat
absorption of 120
globules of 102
Fatigue 310
Fatty acid, essential 128
Fatty tissue 28
Fentanyl 76, 160, 168, 267
Fetal
growth restriction 36
heart monitoring 50
macrosomia 72
surveillance 43
Fetus, delivery of 42
Fever, low-grade 317
Fiber 123
Fiberoptic bronchoscope guided 301
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy 302
Fire and accidents 147, 153
Fisher Scale Based on Computed Tomography Appearance for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 260t
Fixation errors, types of 3
Fluid
and electrolyte imbalance 261
management, role of 185
therapy 45
Food and Drug Administration 63, 151, 365
Forced expiratory volume 74
Forced-air blankets 198
Frail body 26
Frail organ system 26
Frailty 22
demographic and social factors 26
functional factors 25
implications of 26
index 24
pathophysiology of 25
physiological factors 25, 26
risk factors for 25
Functional neurological deficits 246
Functional residual capacity 282
G
G6PD deficiency 364, 372
Gabapentins 250
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 157, 158, 391
levels of 86
Gantacurium 62
Gas embolism 99, 100
clinical presentation 103
detection 104
differential diagnosis 106
epidemiology 99
etiology 100
management 107
pathophysiology 101
prevention 106
Gas flow controls 346
Gastric
aspirate 117
banding 57
emptying 78
residual volume 126
continuous monitoring of 120
Gastrointestinal endoscopy 100
Gastrointestinal system 75
Gastrostomy, percutaneous endoscopic 119
General and regional anesthetic techniques 293
General anesthesia 47, 71, 78, 163, 190, 193, 227, 267, 285
amount of 357
considerations 49
Genetic
and collagen disorders 257
and epigenetic variation 316
inheritance 37
Genicular nerve blocks 205
Geriatric nursing assessment and intervention 94
Gestations, multiple 69
Glasgow coma scale 260
score 259
Glenohumeral joint 356
capsule, quadrants of 355f
Glibenclamide 231
Glimepiride 231
Glipizide 231
Global Anesthesiology Server Network 136
Global positioning systems 133
Gloves, microperforation of 332
Glucagon-like peptide 1 232
agonists 231
Glucose
insulin-potassium 235
monitoring 125
Glutamate 391
Glutamine 123
Glycemic control 240
Glycemic goals in perioperative period 229
Glycemic management in
intraoperative period 234
postoperative period 236
Glycosylated fibronectin serum levels 38
Gordon-green double-lumen tube 296, 296f
Guanylate cyclase activity 365
Gut ischemia 117
H
Hammer blow 258
Hand hygiene 347
nonperformance of 333
Hand sanitizers 140
Hazards 152
Headache 41, 258, 309, 310
Hearing 92
disability 155
impairment 94
Heart
disease, ischemic 75
failure 247
acute decompensated 318
congestive 44, 75
incidence of 27
Heat shock protein 316
Heating gel pad 198
Heating ventilation and air conditioning system 328, 329
Hemodialysis 125
Hemoglobin 43
concentration 314
molecule 364
normal 364
Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome 34, 36, 42, 51
Hemorrhage
hepatic 36
postpartum 73
pulmonary 182
subarachnoid 257t
Hepatic dysfunction 36, 122
Hepatic failure 125
Hepatitis
B viruses 149
C viruses 149
Hiatal hernia 75
High pulmonary
capillary permeability 314
vascular resistance 311
High-altitude pulmonary edema 308, 311, 314, 317, 319
clinical presentation 317
differential diagnosis 319
investigations 318
pathophysiology 314
prevention 323
treatment 320
High-flow nasal cannula, role of 185
High-flow nasal oxygen 277279, 289
components of 280f
equipment for 278
in critical care, indications of 281
Hindsight bias 8
Hip fracture 379
Histamine 62, 368
Hormone angiotensin 70
Human error, causes of 6
Human immunodeficiency virus 136, 149
Humeral head 356
Hunt and Hess classification 259t
Hyaluronic acid, intra-articular 205
Hydralazine 44
Hydrocephalus 260
Hydrogen sulfide 370
toxicity 370
Hyperactivity disorder 162
Hyperbaric chambers 320
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy 109
Hyperdynamic circulation 40
Hyperglycemia 226, 240
management of 226
perioperative 226
Hypernatremia 261
Hyperreflexia 41, 372
Hypersensitivity 59, 60
Hypertension 35, 71, 391
acute management of 44
chronic 35, 43
gestational 35
high-altitude pulmonary 308
in pregnancy 35
postpartum 37
pregnancy-induced 34, 35, 39, 51, 72
primary pulmonary 316
refractory 50
Hyperthermia 372
Hyperuricemia 41
Hypocaloric feeding 115
Hypoglycemia 236, 391
Hypoglycemic episodes 226
Hypokalemia 183
Hypomagnesemia 183
Hyponatremia 391
exercise-associated 319
Hypophosphatemia 123, 183
Hypotension 218, 386
deliberate 384, 387
intraoperative 385
Hypothalamic ischemia 261
Hypothermia 193
inadvertent perioperative 190, 194
intraoperative 196
Hypothesis 22
system integration failure 86
Hypoxemia 58, 283, 364
arterial 317
worsening 117
Hypoxia 218
alveolar 314
inducible factor 314, 316
perinatal 161
prevention of 284
treatment in 277
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction 308
Hysteroscopy 110
I
Iatrogenic pressure 100
Ifosfamide 370
toxicity 369
Immobilization 94
Immune modulators 123
Immunoglobulin E 149
Inclusion 94
Indian armed forces acclimatization schedule 312t
Induction 263
Infections 149
control measure 329
healthcare-associated 332
Inflammation, chronic 73
Inflammatory cell 70
Inflow ducts 329
Infraspinous fossa 356
Inhalational agent 29, 76, 228
Injury 173
Inspired oxygen, fraction of 176, 181, 279
Insulin
infusion 235t
intermediate-acting 233
regimen 233
subcutaneous 234
Integrated multiple variables index 176
Intensive care 363
unit 92, 115, 127, 145, 173, 194, 230, 248, 278, 283, 377, 379
Interleukin 70, 217
Internal carotid artery, intercavernous 259
International Commission on Radiological Protection 148
International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial 262
Interscalene block 353
Interventional neuroradiology, evolvement of 256
Intervertebral disk degeneration 203
Intestinal contents, aspiration of 117
Intra-abdominal pressure 77, 126
Intra-aortic balloon pump 221
Intra-arterial stenting 261
Intra-arterial vasodilator therapy 261
Intracranial aneurysm 256, 258, 259t
management of 274
specific features of 259t
Intracranial pressure 261, 262, 273
Intradiskal injection 207, 208
Intraoperative blood pressure 387
fluctuations, effect of 385
management 385
Intrapulmonary shunting 101
Intrauterine
devices 61
growth restriction 42
Intravenous administration sets 107
Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure 279
Invasive blood pressure monitoring 50
Invasive central hemodynamic monitoring 50
Ionizing radiation 267
Ipsilateral phrenic nerve 353
Iron, oxidation of 364
Ischemia
causes of 219
reperfusion injury 369
Ischemic angina pain 215
Ischemic evaluation, perioperative 220
Isocaloric feeding 115
Isoflurane 158, 160
Isophosphoramide mustard 370
Isoquinolinium muscle 62
J
James reason's Swiss cheese model of causation of errors 5
Jet ventilation, high-frequency 304
Joint Association of Obstetric Anesthesiologists 288
Joint British Diabetes Societies 230
Inpatient Care Group 239
K
Ketamine 158, 160, 228
Ketoacidosis, diabetic 226, 239
Ketonemia 239
Kidney
disease, chronic 246
injury, acute 122, 385
Knee arthroplasty, unicompartmental 245
L
Labetalol 44, 267
Labor analgesia 46, 76
Lake Louise acute mountain sickness score 310t
Lake Louise criteria for
classification of high altitude 309t
clinical diagnosis of high-altitude pulmonary edema 309t
Laminar airflow 332t
plenum 329
Laminectomy 100
Laparoscopy 111
Laryngoscope's light bulb, failure of 134
Latex allergy 149
Latissimus dorsi 355
Left ventricle impairs ventricular filling 102
Left ventricular
dysfunction 40
failure 40
Leukocytes 203
Leukomethylene blue 363
Leukotrienes 368
Ligamental injuries, multitudes of 203
Light weight portable hyperbaric chambers 320
Light-headedness 310
Lignocaine 267
Linagliptin 231, 232
Lipids 121
Lipophilic cavity 55
Liraglutide 231
Liver 373
function 125
tests 126
Local anesthetic toxicity, occurrence of 353
Long chain triglyceride 128
Low back pain, chronic 206, 209
Low bispectral index 29
Low minimum alveolar concentration 29
Low molecular weight heparins 80, 250
Lung 182
conditions, chronic 182
diseases 378
injury, acute 373
water, excessive 182
M
Magnesium sulfate 45, 50, 51
Major adverse cardiac event 220, 378
Major cardiovascular surgery 366
MallinckrodtTM double-lumen tubes 297, 298f
Malnutrition
patients at risk of 116
universal screening tool 116
Malpractice claims 147, 152
Maternal stabilization 51
Maxillofacial trauma 281
Maximum allowable concentration 330
Maximum inspiratory pressure 175
Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids Study 163, 165
Mayo Clinic-Olmstead County Studies 162
Mean arterial pressure 262
Mechanical ventilation 173, 178fc, 181fc, 383
stages of 174
Medication
dispensation of 16
errors, analysis of 13
Medium chain triglyceride 128
Melatonin 160
Memory
disturbance 259
failure of 12
Mental
hazards 147, 150
health 378
status 372
Meperidine 76
Metabolic abnormalities 117, 183
Metabolic disturbance, core of 70
Metformin 231
Methemoglobin 364, 366
formation of 364
levels of 364
Methemoglobinemia 364
treatment of 363, 365
Methylene blue 363, 364, 366, 367, 370, 372, 373
adverse effects 371
contraindications 372
current status of 363
historical background 363
mechanism of action 364
on anesthetics, effect of 365
physiochemical properties 363
Michigan Health System 15
Micronutrients 123, 126
deficiency of 122
Midazolam 151, 160
Miglitol 231
Military antishock trousers, use of 107
Milrinone 261
Minerals 30
Mini nutritional assessment 116
Minimum alveolar concentration 160, 267
Mitochondria, number of 314
Mobile 138
devices 135
health imaging 135
information technology applications in hospital scenario 134
phone 134
Modern double-lumen tubes 297
Monge disease 308
Monitoring nutritional therapy 126b
Mood 24
Morphine 168, 389
Mucociliary clearance function 279
Multicenter randomized controlled trial 282
Muscle
abdominal 24
mass 24
exaggerated loss of 28
relaxants 228
weakness 58, 173
Musculoskeletal system 28
Musculoskeletal tissues 209
Myasthenia gravis 58
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 136
Mydriasis 372
Myocardial infarction 29, 215, 216, 226, 378
Myocardial injury 216, 385, 386
after noncardiac surgery 216
Myocardial oxygen 215, 366
Myocardial potassium adenosine triphosphate 231
Myoclonus 372
Myoglobin 314
Myosin, dephosphorylation of 367
Myotonic dystrophy 58
N
Naruke tubeTM (Koken medicals) 300
Nasal bleeding, profuse 281
Nasal obstruction, severe 281
Nasal prongs 280
Nasopharynx 340
National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers 330, 331t
National Audit Project 277
National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement 148
National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program 227
National Institute for Health and Clinical Evidence Guidelines 196
National Institute for Health Care Excellence 206
National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 219, 244
Nausea 76, 391
Neostigmine 55, 382
Nephropathy, contrast-induced 273
Nervous system 27
Neural development, timeline of 158f
Neurological disturbances 36
Neuromuscular abnormalities 182
Neuromuscular blockade 58, 60
Neuromuscular blocking
agent 55, 56, 63
drugs, new reversal agents for 63t
Neuromuscular monitoring 382, 383
technique 382
Neuroradiological procedures 273t
Neurotoxic substance 370
Neurovascular abnormalities, types of 256
Neurovascular lesions 274
Nicotinamide adenine 364
dinucleotide 370
phosphate 363
Nicotine 390
Nifedipine 44, 322324
Nimodipine 261
Nitric oxide 322, 364
synthase 364
Nitrogen 99
Nitroglycerine 44
Nitrous oxide 76, 158, 160
N-methyl-D-aspartate 157, 158, 160, 391
Noise effects 155
Noncardiac surgery 215, 386
Noncatecholamine 363
Nonintradiskal platelet-rich plasma injections 208
Non-invasive ventilation 184, 280
use of 184
Non-protein energy 128
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 205, 249, 392
Normoglycemia 230
North American Spine Society 208
Nosocomial infections, spread of 137
Numerical rating scale 207
Numerous venous channels, presence of 111
Nursing delirium screening scale 90
NUTRIC score 127
Nutrients, delivery of 126
Nutrition 24
in intensive care unit 115
monitoring 125
requirements 115
risk screening 116
therapy 115
Nutritional status, assessment of 116
O
Obese
parturient 70, 72, 79
issues and management of 68
Obesity 68, 69, 73, 74t, 79, 80, 246
in pregnancy 73fc
pathophysiology of 70
morbid 57
Obstetric management 42
antihypertensive therapy 43
route of delivery 43
timing of delivery 42
Obstructive coronary artery disease 216
Obstructive sleep apnea 71, 72t, 74
incidence of 88
Occupational health hazards 154
Omega 3 fatty acids 122
Operating room 153, 328, 332, 345, 347
biomedical waste management 345
cleaning 345
complex design 329
disinfection 345
Operation theater 145, 149
Operative delivery 47
Ophthalmic manifestations 41
Opioids 15, 93, 158, 228
anesthetic techniques 228
intravenous 47
parenteral 76
Optimal pain management 390
Oral glucose tolerance test 227
Oral hypoglycemic agent 231, 231t
Oral nifedipine 44
Orthotopic liver transplantation 369
Osmolarity 119
Osteoarthritis knee 203, 205, 206
Outpatient arthroplasty risk assessment 247
Oxidation 314
Oxygen 76, 321
arterial pressure of 309
delivery 289
flow 280
hemoglobin
affinity 314
dissociation curve 314
partial pressure of 74, 104
standard 282
supplemental 322
Oxygenation 176, 277
adequate 175
P
Pain
clinics 145
intensity 208
reassessment of 390
Pancreatitis, acute 125
Papworth bivent tube 303
Paracetamol 250
Paradoxical air embolism 100
Parenteral nutrition 115, 121
complications of 122b
components of 121
Parkinson's disease 87
Particulate air, high-efficiency 332, 347
Patent foramen ovale 101, 316
Peak plasma concentrations 28
Pectoral nerve, lateral 354356
Pediatric Anesthesia 157, 288
and Neurodevelopment Assessment Study 163, 164
Percutaneous coronary intervention 215
Perfusion 101
Perioperative glycemic control 230
Perioperative myocardial injury, pathophysiology of 217fc
Perioperative Quality Initiative 385
Consensus-building Conference 385
Peripheral capillary oxygen saturation 50
Peripheral vascular disease 87
Peritoneal desufflation 108
Pethidine 76
Pharmacological prophylaxis 323
Pharyngeal dead space, washout of 279
Phenotype method 23
Phenylephrine 261
Phosphate
levels 126
supplements 123
Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors 322
Physical hazards 146, 147
Pioglitazones 231
Placenta, delivery of 42
Plasma 60
Platelet derived growth factor 204
Platelet-rich plasma 203205, 209, 210
administration of 203
clinical
evidence of 205, 206
studies of 207
current use of 209
proposed mechanism of 204
role of 206
studies, limitations for 205
types of 204
Pleural effusion 182
Pneumonia 58, 182, 282
ventilator-associated 120, 173
Polysomnography 72
Polyurethane 297
Polyvinyl alcohol 272
Poor pregnancy outcomes 147, 150
Poor ventilatory response 314
PortexTM (Smith medicals) right-sided double-lumen tubes 299, 299f
Positive end-expiratory pressure 107, 175, 181, 383
Positive pressure ventilation 80, 100
Positron emission tomography 148
Postanesthesia care unit delirium 86
Postembolization angiography 272f
Posterior cord 355, 356
Postextubation stridor, treatment of 185
Postinduction hemodynamics 365
Postoperative cardiac
complications 215
computed tomography angiography 217
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction 28
chances of 95
Postoperative delirium 85
cognitive outcome of 95
development of 87, 87t
pathophysiology of 86
prediction of 91
prevention of 93
treatment of 93
workup for 89fc
Postoperative myocardial injury 215, 216
causes and management 215
Postoperative pulmonary complications 380, 381
Preanesthetic evaluation 46
Preanesthetic preparation 267
Precordial Doppler ultrasound 105
Predicted left main stem bronchus 301
diameter 301
Pre-eclampsia 3436, 39, 72
anesthetic management of 46
de novo 35
late onset 38
long-term implications of 42
management of 34
oncidence of 37
pathogenesis of 37
prophylaxis of 38
risk factors for 39, 39t
signs of 35
symptoms of 35
Pre-existing respiratory infection 316
Pregnancy 69
and obesity 73
normal 74t
thromboembolism in 73
Pre-high efficiency particulate air filters 329
Prematurity 161
Preoperative evaluation and anesthetic plan 262
Preoxygenation
adequate 74
and apneic oxygenation during intubation 284
Pressure support ventilation 177
Prevertebral fascia 360
Progesterone 312
Proinflammatory mediators 70
Prolonged weaning failure, management of 183
Prophylactic aspirin therapy 38
Propofol 158, 160, 193, 228, 265, 267
Proportional assist ventilation 179
Prostacyclin 37
Prostatectomy 100
Proteinuria 35
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 332
Psychoactive medicines 94
Psychosis 91
Pulmonary air 100
Pulmonary arterial pressure 313
Pulmonary artery catheter 105
Pulmonary catheters 50
Pulmonary edema 36
risk of 45
Pulmonary embolism 101
Pulmonary failure 124
Pulmonary function, adequate 175
Pulmonary hypertension 75, 323, 373
development of 314
Pulmonary vasodilator, production of 314
Pulse oximetry 106, 317
Pyramidal rigidity 372
Pyridostigmine 55
Q
QT prolongation 260
R
Radial arterial cannulation 49
Radiant heating 198
Radiation exposure 146, 148
Radio intervention 271
Randomized controlled trial 178, 209
Rapid ascent profiles 315
Rapid sequence induction/intubation 286
Rapid shallow breathing index 177
Reactive airway disease 319
Recent nasal trauma or surgery 281
Receptor agonists 391
Receptor antagonists 391
Red blood cell 92, 102, 364
Refeeding syndrome 122, 122b
Reflective blanket 199
Reflective clothing 199
Regional anesthesia 47, 164, 190, 248
considerations 48
Remifentanil 168
toxicity of 167
Renal dysfunction 36, 60
Renal failure 36, 124
Renal function 9
Renal replacement therapy, continuous 125
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone 316
Reported Edmonton Frail Scale 24
Respiration 182
Respiratory depression 76, 79
Respiratory distress 287
clinical signs of 281
Respiratory failure 58, 283
Respiratory intermediate intensive care units 184
Respiratory manifestations 40
Respiratory muscle
reserve 176
strength 176
Respiratory pathology, absence of 182
Respiratory rate 175
Respiratory symptoms 36
Respiratory system 27, 73, 79, 261
Resuscitation
algorithms 134
cardiopulmonary 109, 134
rooms 145
Reversal agent sugammadex 228
Revised cardiac risk index 219, 221
Richmond agitation-sedation scale 89, 90f
Robertshaw design 297
Robertshaw double-lumen tube, left-sided 297f
Robertshaw tube 296, 305
Robot-assisted medication preparation 16
Robotic preparation 16
Rocuronium 13
induced neuromuscular blockade 58
potency of 57
Roland-Morris disability questionnaire 208
Rosiglitazones 231
Rotator cuff repair 357
Royal College of Anaesthetists 277
RüschTM left-sided double-lumen tubes 298, 298f, 300
S
Sacroiliac joint 208
injection 208
Safety critical patient areas 139, 140
Salmeterol 324
Sarcopenia 24, 28
Scapula, spine of 356
Schizophrenia, psychotic illnesses like 91
Sedation 357
risk of 76
Seizure
lowering of 391
prophylaxis 45
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy 372
Sensory motor block 77
Sepsis 122, 124, 368
Sequential organ failure assessment 127
Serotonin 157
receptor agonists 391
toxicity 372
signs of 372
symptoms of 372
Serum creatinine levels 36
Severe pre-eclampsia 36t, 4042, 46, 48, 49
systemic manifestations of 40
Sevoflurane 158, 167
subclinical 160
SheridanTM (teleflex) 299
Shock 364
anaphylactic 368
hypovolemic 369
septic 368
vasodilatory 366, 368
vasoplegic 366
worsening 117
Short nutritional assessment questionnaire 116
Shoulder
dystocia 72, 73
innervation 354f
painful procedures 353
regional anesthesia 353
surgery, regional blocks for 353
SilbronchoTM 299
Simple ventilatory parameters 176
Simplified weaning index 176
Simulation techniques 134
Single shot spinal anesthesia 48
Sinusitis 173
Sitagliptin 231, 232
Sleep deprivation 94
Smart magnetic resonance imaging 134
SmartCareTM 180
Smartphone
and medical equipment 139
application 135
cost-effective ventilator 136
guidelines regarding safe use of 140
in anesthesia 133
Sniff position 79
Social networking sites, variety of 135
Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia 230, 234
Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 333
summary of 334t
Society of Critical Care Medicine 116
Society of Thoracic Surgeons 237
Sodium
channel blockers 391
nitroprusside 44
Soldiers deployed for counter-insurgency operations 311
Soluble endoglin 38
Soluble guanylyl cyclase 364
inhibition of 364
Somnolence 79
Sparing phrenic nerve 353
Spetzler-Martin Grade of Arteriovenous Malformation 270t
Spetzler-Martin grading system 269
Spinal anesthesia 48, 77, 163
block neuronal impulses 193
study 163
Spinal fusion 100
Spinoglenoid notch 356
Spontaneous breathing
pattern of 176
trial 173, 177, 178fc, 181
Spontaneous intermittent mandatory ventilation 177
Spontaneous ventilation 287
Sputum smears 136
Stable metabolic status 175
Steam sterilization 345
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 332
Sterile cockpit rules 138
Sterilization
measures 341
techniques of OR 341
Steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular agents 55
Steroids, intra-articular injection of 205
Stethoscopes 106
Strain limited human attention span 141
Stress
ambience-related 147, 151
and burnout 147, 150
operative 382
Stroke 25
acute 273
history of 87
volume variation 219
Stromal vascular fraction 208
Subarachnoid hemorrhage 256, 273
diffuse deposits of 260
severity of 259
systemic manifestations of 260
Subomohyoid 358
Subscapular fossa 356
Substance abuse 147, 151, 257, 390
Sugammadex 55, 58, 60, 61, 63, 382
administration of 59
dose 56, 56t
reversal 63
rocuronium complex 60
use of 56
Sulfonylureas 231
Superficial cervical block 357
Superior labrum
anterior 357
posterior 357
Supraclavicular area 360
Supraclavicular nerves 357, 360
Suprascapular fossa 358
Suprascapular nerve 354356
block 358
Suprascapular notch 354, 356
Supraspinous fossa 356
Surgical clipping, anesthetic management of 262
Surgical site infection 195, 328
causes of 328
Swan-Ganz catheter 219
Synaptogenesis 165
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone 261
Systemic inflammatory response 102
Systemic lupus erythematosus 39
Systemic vascular resistance 40, 366
T
Tachycardia 221, 317, 372, 386
Tachypnea 317, 372
Testosterone 30
The 1800 rule 233
Thermal dysregulation, causes of 192
Thermal insulation mechanisms 199
Thermoluminescent dosimeter 267
Thermoregulation 190, 191
intraoperative 190
Thiazolidinediones 231
Thiopentone 228, 265
Third nerve palsy 259
Thrombocytopenia 36, 41
Thromboelastography 49
Thromboembolism 73
Thrombus 215
Tidal volume 175
Tissue 314
cytochrome oxidase 314
Total hip arthroplasty 244
Total intravenous anesthesia 134
advantage of 88
Total joint arthroplasty 244, 245, 252
program 245
Total knee
arthroplasty 244
replacement 205
Total parenteral nutrition 237
Tracheostomy 183
Traditional nerve blocks 353
Tramadol 391
advantage of 391
diclofenac, fixed-dose combination of 392
pharmacodynamic activity of 392
Tranexamic acid 249
Transcranial Doppler ultrasound 106
Transesophageal echocardiography 51, 105, 219, 316
Transforming growth factor-beta 204
Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange 285
Transthoracic echocardiography 377
Transverse abdominis plane block 80
Transverse humeral ligament 355
Trauma 124, 145
Tremor 371, 372
Tricyclic antidepressants 87
Triglycerides 126
Trophoblastic invasion, failure of 37
Tumor necrosis factor 217, 227
alpha 116
U
Ultrasonography 303
Ultrasound
limitations of 319
lung comets, presence of 319
Univent tube 294f
Upper airway 173
Upper extremity 359
distal part of 357
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, refractory 117
Urea 126
Urine dipstick 35
Uteroplacental blood flow 41
V
Vaginal rings 61
Variable rate insulin infusion 232
Vascular air embolism 99, 112
Vascular catheters 107
Vascular endothelial growth factor 204
Vasoplegia 366, 367
Vasoplegic syndrome 366, 367
Vasopressor 49, 364
Vasospasm, management of 261b
Venous air embolism 103
Venous thromboembolism 81, 250
Ventilation 312
Ventricular pressures 218
Ventricular septal defects 316
Venturi mask 277
Video laryngoscope 134
Visual aid 92
Visual analog scale 207, 389
Visual disturbances 36
Visual impairment 94
Vital capacity 175
Vitamin 30, 121
C 40
D deficiency 38
D supplementation 123
Viva-sight double-lumen tubes 304f
Volatile anesthetic gases 147
Vomiting 76, 371
W
Wander app 134
Warming, methods of 198
Waste gas exposure 146, 147, 154
Water distribution system 332
Weakness 310
Weaning 184
anticipation of 174
conventional methods of 177
different conventional modes of 178
failure 180
fluid management of 185
parameters
combination of 175
common 176t
protocol 180
readiness, assessment of 175
ventilator modes for 178
White blood cell 195
White coat hypertension 35
World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Grading for Intracranial Aneurysm 259t
World Federation of Neurosurgeons Scale 259
World Health Organization 22, 69, 136, 146
Wound infection 73
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