Principles of Pediatric and Neonatal Emergencies Piyush Gupta
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flow chart, and t refer to table.
A
Abdomen 446, 818
Abdominal compartment syndrome 554
Abdominal pain 262, 427, 446, 517, 545, 637, 643, 804
disorder, functional 803
severe 392
syndrome 803
Abdominal skiagram, plain 781
Abdominal wall defects 778, 779, 781
Abetalipoproteinemia 354
Ablett classification 472, 472t
Abnormal uterine bleeding 521
causes of 521b
ABO blood group 137t
system 136
Abscess 297, 840
appendicular 800
Absolute neutrophil count 405
Absorption atelectasis 67
Academia
presence of 130
severe 122
Accidental ingestion 628
Accidental injury 522, 655
Accidental rupture 654, 658
Acclimitization 567
Acetaminophen 267, 604, 610, 611, 929
dose of 612
half-life of 610
poisoning 369
biochemical abnormalities in 611t
hematological abnormalities in 611t
toxicity 610
Acetazolamide 343
Acetylcholine 586
Acetylsalicylic acid 126
Achalasia 422
Acid
elimination of 123
source of 126
transporting system 123
Acid-base 562
disorder 124, 124t
disturbance 122
homeostasis influences 122
imbalance 357
status 572
Acidemia 124, 732
chronic 125
Acidosis 116, 125, 132fc, 188, 242, 243, 254, 326, 353, 354, 410, 674
absence of 92
acute respiratory 124, 130
chronic respiratory 124, 129, 130
correction 256
presence of 56
Acinetobacter 330
Acrodynia 642
Activated charcoal 603, 636
Activated partial thromboplastin time 399, 742
Acute abdomen 413, 484, 524, 796
causes of 800
common causes of 798t
Acute abdominal pain 796, 797b, 800
classification of 796b
Acute adrenal crisis 423
management of 424
Acute asthma 153, 154, 165, 935, 938
clinical management of 163t
home-based management of 164
management of 188, 188fc
Acute compartment syndrome 844
Acute dialysis 271
quality initiative 266
Acute encephalitis 335, 336, 336t, 346
syndrome 297, 307, 336, 346
Acute febrile encephalopathy 297, 298t, 300, 301t, 303t
etiology of 298t
management of 306t
Acute flaccid paralysis 317, 319t, 321fc, 322, 322t
causes of 318t
Acute hemolysis 398
diagnosis of 399fc
Acute keratitis 852
etiology of 852b
Acute kidney 302f
Acute kidney injury 266, 266t, 272t, 274, 371, 440, 444, 484, 762, 763, 764t, 903
causes of 268t
classification of 763, 763t
complications of 271t
incidence of 371
investigations in 269t
network 266
Acute liver failure 309, 364, 365, 367t, 368, 372
etiology of 365t, 367t
Acute myocarditis 454
management of 215
Acute osteomyelitis 839
diagnosis of 840
Acute peritoneal dialysis
catheter for 904
contraindications of 904b
indications for 903t
Acute respiratory
disorders 34
distress syndrome 78, 82, 91, 444, 475, 477, 562, 634
failure 81, 110
illnesses 35
infections 174
Acute seizure 280
causes of 282t
Acute severe asthma 82, 153-155, 161, 165
management of 156
Acute skin failure 500, 513
consequences of 500fc
Acute tubular
injury 644
necrosis 107, 268
Acyanotic heart disease, classification of 252fc
Acyclovir 267, 306, 345, 929
Addison's disease 422, 427
Adenoids 83
Adenoma sebaceum 283
Adenovirus 179, 298, 336, 338, 339, 461, 858
Adequate oxygenation, maintenance of 211
Adjunct therapy 177, 331
Adjuvant therapies 73, 733
Adnexal torsion 517
Adrenal crisis
management of 425t
prevention of 426t
Adrenal hypoplasia congenita 421, 425
Adrenal insufficiency 111, 420, 422, 423, 425fc, 426t
acquired 422
acute 420, 538
diagnosis of 423
etiology of primary 421t
primary 420
secondary 422
Adrenaline 57, 97, 149
Adrenalitis, autoimmune 422
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 344, 420
Adrenoleukodystrophy 424, 425
protein 422
X-linked 422
Advanced life support 15, 599, 757
effective 50
group 24
Advanced pediatric life support 15
Aedes aegypti mosquito 460, 464
Aeromonas hydrophila 471
Age-appropriate tracheostomy tube 900t
Agitation, moderate to severe 607
Agranulocytosis 478
Air
bronchogram 672f
embolism 67, 143
entrainment 64
principle of 64f
leaks 92, 93
oxygen blender 66f
Airway 26, 36, 56, 57, 70, 71, 156, 284, 288, 292, 479, 815
adjuncts 39
care of 611
clear 36, 665
clearance techniques 195, 196t
compromise 478
prevent 648
congenital 156
constriction, small 35
hemangiomas 81, 171
maintenance 816
management 34, 81
advanced 46
obstruction 79, 147
complete 41, 172
extrathoracic 78
pressure 89, 90
release ventilation 90
prevention of 47
protection 474
receptors 78
secretions 99
securing 583
severe obstruction of 858
stabilization 649
stabilize 644
stable 82
Akathisia, severe 530
Alacrima 422
Alanine aminotransferase 475, 493
Albumin 372
infusion 733
Albuterol 930
Alcohol intoxication 530
Aldosterone antagonists 214
Algid malaria 440, 444
Aliskiren 212
Alkalemia 122, 124
correction of 131
Alkali therapy 127
Alkaline 968
Alkalinization 603
Alkaloids 606
Alkalosis 133fc, 674
acute respiratory 124
Allergic conditions 98
Allergic diseases 99
Allergic reactions 95, 142
Allergies, past history of 100
Allgrove's syndrome 422
Alloimmune thrombocytopenia 738
Allopurinol 267, 408, 512
All-trans retinoic acid 407
Alport syndrome 276
Alprostadil 253, 920, 928
Aluminum hydroxide 127
Aluminum phosphide 629, 632
poisoning 632
Alveolar dead space 86
Alveolar disease 82
Alveolar hypoxia 790
Alveolar ventilation 86, 130
rate of 122
Alveolization 85
Alveolo-arterial oxygen
difference, calculation of 80, 130
gradient 129
calculation of 130
Amanita muscaria 607
Amanita phalloides 607
Amantadine 345
Ambient temperature, low 772
Amblyopia
risk of 849
therapy, postoperative 850
American Academy of Pediatrics 15, 175, 259, 706
Committee 487
American College of Cardiology 201
American College of Critical Care Medicine 15
guidelines 74fc
American College of Emergency Physicians 15
American Heart Association 15
guidelines 59, 201
American Society of Hematology Guidelines 397
Amikacin 330, 556
Amino acid 718
disorders 711
metabolism defects 704
Amino transferase levels 478
Aminocaproic acid 522
Aminoglycosides 267, 595
Aminophylline 161
Amiodarone 57, 60, 225, 226, 920, 928
Ammonia 347, 366, 720
nitrogen 965
scavengers 719
Amoxicillin 183, 184, 853, 856
clavulanic acid 838
Amphotericin B 267
Ampicillin 330
cloxacillin 838
Anal fissure 379
Analgesia 145, 148t
principles of 146
Analgesics 276
Anaphylactic reaction 95, 100
Anaphylactic shock 75
treatment for 590
Anaphylaxis 95-98, 100, 101, 101fc, 142, 170, 171
acute episode of 100
agent of 100
emergency action plan 100
incidence of 95
mediator of 96, 96t
medication-triggered 101
non-immune mediated 97
signs of 98
symptoms of 98
treatment in 99
Andersen-Tawil syndrome 242, 245f
Anemia 67, 131, 210, 283, 314, 521, 640
aplastic 142
autoimmune hemolytic 398
severe 440, 444, 652, 766, 909
Anencephaly 654
Anesthesia 145, 889
general 146
preoperative 900
Anesthetic agent 147
Angina pain 257
Angioedema 505, 583
Angiography, conventional 381
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 214-216, 267, 268, 763
Angiotensin receptor blocker 214, 216, 267, 268
Animal bites 594, 597
and management, category of 596t
history of 595
management of 595
Animal toxins 318
Anion gap acidosis
low 125
normal 125
Annular erythema of infancy 506
Anomalous left coronary artery 216, 257
Anorectal fissure 379
Anorectal malformations 778, 779
Anterior horn cell 195, 317, 318
Antiarrhythmic drugs 942
Antibacterial therapy 476
Antibiotics 162, 178, 183, 306, 330, 361, 363, 650, 666, 675
duration of 184
indications for 361
instillation 907
therapy 183, 329, 330t, 802
selection of 329
Antibodies 887
Anticholinergics 160, 604
activity 601
blockade 607
toxicity 607
Anticholinesterase agents 83
Anticoagulants 214, 276
Anticoagulation 543
drugs 897
empiric dosage 923
Anticonvulsants 305, 832
therapy 666
Anti-D formation 137
Anti-diphtheritic serum 479
Antidote therapy 607
specific 603
Anti-epileptic drugs 696, 697t
Antifibrinolytic agents 522
Antifungal eyedrops 852
Antigen
A 137
B 137
detection, rapid 167
presenting cells 474
testing, use of 143
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease 268
Antihistamine 392, 590
second-generation 507t
Antihypertensive, choice of 261
Antimalarial combination therapy 441
Antimicrobial agents 267
Antimicrobial therapy 183, 184t, 838
duration of 329
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies 268, 541
Antinuclear antibody 367
Anti-phospholipid syndrome 542
Antiplatelet drugs 857
Antipyretics 183, 392, 571
therapy 566
Anti-rabies
clinics 594
serum 490, 597
vaccine 491, 596
Anti-retroviral
prophylaxis 495
therapy 495
Anti-rickettsial drugs 488t
Anti-seizure medications 293
Anti-smooth muscle antibody 367
Anti-streptolysin O 207
Anti-thymocyte globulin 541
Antitubercular drugs 527
Antitubercular treatment 802
Antivenom 582, 583
indications of 582t
reactions 583
treatment 582
Antivirals 178
chemotherapy 345t
therapy 344
Anuria 392, 405, 408
Anxiety 131, 846
Anxiolysis 146
Aorta, coarctation of 204, 213, 214, 216, 253, 254, 759f
Aortic arch, interruption of 213
Aortic valve, balloon dilatation of 254
Aorto-arteritis, nonspecific 204, 216
Aortoenteric fistula 376
Apgar scoring 654t
Apheresis 135
Aphthous ulcers
management of 861
recurrent 861
Aplastic crisis 391
Apnea 49, 147, 176-178, 662, 665, 689
Appendicitis
acute 800
treatment of acute 800
Appendix testis 808
Apt-Downey test 376
Arachidonic acid metabolites 551
Arboviruses 301, 339
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum 463
Argininosuccinic acid 348
Arrhythmia 55, 57, 210, 214, 233, 251, 257,314, 587, 635, 732, 749
nonspecific 218
supraventricular 218, 249
treatment of 51, 758
ventricular 218
Arrhythmogenic channelopathies 219t
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy 221
Arsenic 318, 604, 643
concentration 644
Artemether 441, 443
Artemisinin combination therapy 441, 445
Arterial blood
gas 80, 351, 405, 674, 692
analysis 74, 667
pressure monitoring 74
invasive 261
Arterial cannulation, sites for 881
Arterial lactate 351
levels 75
Arterial oxygen, partial pressure of 86
Artery thrombosis 268, 276
Artesunate 306, 441-443
Arthralgia 181
Arthritis 278, 325, 326
acute septic 836, 837
Artificial blood 139
substitute 139
Artificial skin 558
Ascitic fluid leak 890
Ascitic tap 888b
Ascorbic acid 354
Aseptic non-touch technique 915
Ash-leaf macules 283
Ashyxia 652
Aspartate 586
aminotransferase 493
transaminase 372
Aspergillosis 836
allergic bronchopulmonary 154
Aspergillus 298, 336
fumigatus 179
Asphyxia 202, 680
Aspiration 895f
diagnostic 889
pneumonia 181, 317
syndromes 156
Aspirin 267, 857, 930
Assist control mechanical ventilation 89
Assisted autogenic drainage 196
Asthma 80, 82, 91, 93, 129, 153-155, 174, 178, 187
bronchial 153
causation of 153
diagnosis of 153
exacerbation 153
risk factors for severe 187
global initiative for 153
life-threatening acute 163
management 153
mild acute 163
moderate acute 163
pathogenesis of 187
severe 91
acute 163
uncontrolled 187
Ataxia 392, 601
Atelectasis 78, 405
risk of 85
Atelectrauma 91, 92
Atenolol 429, 930
Atlantoaxial joint, dislocation of 538
Atlantoaxial subluxation, classification of 544t
Atracurium 97, 315
Atresia 754
choanae 857
Atrial contractions, premature 218
Atrial fibrillation 218, 226, 227f, 235, 236f, 576, 635
Atrial flutter 218, 232, 233f
atypical 234f
Atrial septal defect 216
Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia 207f, 235
Atrioventricular septal defect 206, 209f, 216
Atropine 149, 151, 590, 631, 852, 920
Attack, acute 153
Aural foreign bodies 856
Autism spectrum disorders 530
Autogenic drainage 197
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome 422, 424, 425
Autonomic instability, control of 474
Autonomic storm 586
symptoms of 590
Autonomic system 586
Autosomal dominant hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 118
Avulsion, complete 862
Axillary temperature 771
Axonal injury, diffuse 826
Azithromycin 184, 300, 306, 488
B
Bacillary dysentery 386
Bacilli 478
subtilis 733
Back pain 403
Bacteremia, risk of 400
Bacteria 179
Bacterial agents 178
Bacterial cell wall 331
Bacterial contamination 143
Bacterial infection 178, 461, 667
secondary 178, 326
Bacterial keratitis, treatment in 852
Bacteroides fragilis 393
Bag mask ventilation 39, 40f, 41, 46, 658
technique 40f, 41
Balamuthia 298, 299
Ball valve mechanism 172
Balloon 786
enteroscopy
double 381
single 381
occluded retrograde trans–venous obliteration 383
procedure 254
tamponade 383
Barbiturate 110, 831
coma 296, 370, 831
Barium swallow 650f
Barking cough 169
Barotrauma 190
Bartonela quintana 461
Bartter's syndrome 119, 128
diagnosis of 129
Basal cistern hemorrhage 295
Basal exudates 304f
Basal ganglia 301, 305f
encephalitis 301
bilateral 299f
Basal metabolic rate 773
Basal skull fracture 854f
Basic life support 52, 172
Beats per minute 659
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome 778
Behavioral observations 534
Behavioral problems 325
Benzodiazepines 148, 444, 473, 531, 603, 604, 636, 696, 697
short-acting 697
Beta agonists, short-acting 158, 187
Beta-hemolytic, group A 476
Beta-2 agonist, short acting 158
Beta-blockers 214, 215, 604
drugs 115
therapy 702
Beta-hydroxy-butyric acid 412
Beta-ketothiolase deficiency 349
Beta-lactam 267
antibiotics 97
Bicarbonate 125, 411, 412, 416
therapy, excessive 128
Bickerstaff encephalitis 301
Bifidobacterium 733
Biliary tract disease 801
Bilirubin 372, 723
conjugation of 723
encephalopathy 726, 733
chronic post-kernicteric 728
metabolism of 724f
production 723
excessive 723
transport 723
Biochemical tests 589
Biochemistry 351, 885, 965
Biological skin substitutes 557
Biomarkers 269
role of 764, 832
Biosynthetic substitute 558
Biotin 354, 698
thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease 301
Biotinidase deficiency 354
Biphasic anaphylaxis 97
Birth
asphyxia 772
injuries 655
management of 660
trauma 848
weight 495
infants, low 493
Bite varies, type of 594
Bite wounds 596
Biventricular function, normal 224f
Bladder 808
exstrophy of 786
injury, concomitant 808
outlet obstruction 805, 806
Blades, types of 43f
Blalock-Taussig shunt 257, 759
modified 257
Blastomycosis 336
Bleach 646
Bleeding 268, 276, 662, 665
abnormal 440
anovulatory 521
causes of 737t
determine cause of 377
determine severity of 376
disorders 394
screening tests in 742t
episodes, prevalence of 736
from gingiva 865
from nose 856
identify site of 376
management of 450
manifestations, severe 447
neonate 397, 398fc, 398t, 736, 745f
pattern 522
postextraction 865
tendencies 883
Blended oxygen 66
Blepharospasm 850, 852
Blindness, risk of 849
Blood 269, 406, 714
amount of 379
antegrade flow of 68
brain barrier 107
cell count 886t
chloride levels 125
choice of 909
component 135, 136, 138
therapy 135
component, mixing of 910
count 963
complete 80, 176, 286, 394, 674, 798
culture 181, 286, 328, 667
examination 667
exchange transfusion 731, 908
gas 38, 106, 177, 347, 415, 602, 720
analysis 158, 254, 682
analysis reports 131t
glucose 126, 286, 314, 411, 681
concentration 792
levels 885
levels, very low 704
using strips 415
group 136, 137, 667
recipient 137
systems, minor 137
in stools 663
investigations 764, 798
leukodepletion of 144
loss
causes of 818
severe 67
picture, general 394
pressure 71, 72, 99, 156, 261, 381, 412, 415, 600, 679, 680
diastolic 259
elevated 259
acute 264
high 128
low 128
normal 128
rapid fall in 262
systolic 68, 259
product 136, 731
content of 138t
transfusion 73, 142
spotting 276, 278
sugar 347, 602, 666
levels 528
monitoring of 706t
transfusion 119, 135, 136, 391, 554
reactions, acute 391
urea 106, 126, 329
volume of 104, 910
Blunt head trauma 819b
Blurred vision 392, 405
Body
chemistry, severe disturbances of 909
odor 714
resistance of 574
water 103
weight loss, percentage of 359
Bolam test 26
Bone
blood supply of 839
fractures 287
marrow aspiration, Giemsa stain of 539f
marrow examination 504
resorption, reducing 119
window 823f
Bordetella pertussis 179
Bormanone 637
Borrelia 461
Botulism 318, 319, 322, 471, 479
Bowel angina 538, 545
Bowel function 797
Boyle's law 792
Brachial plexitis 318
Bradyarrhythmias 218, 245, 248, 752, 758
Bradycardia 172, 208f, 218, 262, 587, 588, 600, 630, 732, 921
severe 590, 608
Bradykinin 145
Brain 569, 703
abscess 110
multiple 299f
dead 292
edema, diffuse 828f
herniation, impending signs of 311
injury 57, 564, 760
secondary 562, 832
ischemia 310
magnetic resonance imaging of 303, 302f, 303f, 305f, 349, 694
MRI of
tissue 335
oxygen 830
trauma 829, 830
tumor 111, 341
window 823f
Brainstem 78
dysfunction 292
evoked response audiometry 727
integrity of 291
Breakthrough cancer pain 923
Breastfeeding 776
problems 663
Breathing 26, 36, 56, 71, 156, 284, 288, 292, 479, 644, 653-655, 815, 817
adequacy of 52
apneustic 290
assessment of 79
count, single 320
difficulty 662
holding spells 284
inadequate control of 37
type of 88
Bridge therapy 213
British Thoracic Society 157
Broad-spectrum empirical antibiotics 840
Broken neck sign 581
Bronchiectasis 181
Bronchiolitis 35, 82, 175, 176, 176f, 178, 181, 185
acute 66
admission criteria of 177
course of 176
differential diagnosis of 176t
management of 177
mild cases of 177
obliterans 513
risk factors of 175t
severe 176
Bronchodilators 390
Bronchomalacia 169
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 175, 180, 187, 189, 191fc, 670
classification 190t
Bronchorrhea 630
Bronchoscopy 78
flexible 169, 172, 172f
Bronchospasm 91, 99, 262, 583, 630, 921
Brudzinski's sign 325
Brugada sign 241
Brugada syndrome 219, 245
Bruises 869
B-type natriuretic peptide 207
Buffy coat removal, manual 138
Bulbar weakness 320
Bumetanide 698
Bundle branch
block 219
reentrant 239, 241
Buphthalmos 850, 850f
Bupivacaine 149
Burkitt's lymphoma 407
Burn 548
care of 577
classification of depth of 559f
critical 553
depth 550
extremity 554
fourth degree 551
injury 549, 551, 552, 558
assessment of 553
zones of 549f
marks 869
minor 553
moderate 553
pour water on 552
second degree 550
size 549
thermal 67, 577
wound
excision 557
management of 556
minor 553
Butterfly needle 874f
C
Cadmium 644
complex 645
generates 644
Café-au-lait macules 283
Caffeine 190
Cairo-Bishop grading classification 407, 407t
Calcification, abdominal 783f
Calcineurin inhibitors 267
Calcium 271, 407, 415
absorption, reducing 119
channel blocker 245, 264, 604, 865
chloride 921
disodium 640
edetate 641
gluconate 116, 271, 921
homeostasis, disorders of 117
infusion 912
oxalate monohydrate stones 811
sensing receptor problem 117
Calculate free water deficit 112
Calorie test 291
Calorimetric methods 105
Camphonone 637
Camphor 637
amount of 637
poisoning 637
Campylobacter jejuni 317, 361
Candidiasis 283, 478
congenital cutaneous 509, 510
cutaneous 509
Candle dripping sign 169
Cannulation, steps in 875
Capillary blood 414
Capillary refill 71
time 68, 773
Capnocytophaga 595
Captopril 211, 591, 930
Carbamate 604, 629
poisoning 630
Carbamazepine 510, 512, 698, 931
Carbamoylphosphate synthetase 348, 717
Carbohydrate
diet, high 810
metabolism 704
Carbon dioxide 45, 64, 123
Carbon monoxide 558
poisoning 67
Carbonic acid
bicarbonate 123
concentration 123
Carcinoma 647
Cardiac arrest 49, 50
causes of 55, 55t
management of 52, 53fc
pathophysiological pathway of 50f
phases of 50
prevention of 50
signs of 51
Cardiac arrhythmia 115, 119, 218, 408, 630, 749
drug induced 603
risk of 99
Cardiac emergency 153, 251
Cardiac failure 109, 142, 259
congestive 268, 675
Cardiac function 679
abnormality of 68
rapid evaluation of 36
Cardiac glycoside 245, 607
Cardiac intensive care unit 218
Cardiac malformations 654, 747
Cardiac monitoring
hospitalization for 578
indications 577
Cardiac output 68, 73, 74, 679
Cardiac resynchronization therapy 214, 216
Cardiac surgery, post-operative 59
Cardiac tamponade 404, 538
Cardiac transplantation 214, 215
Cardiomyopathy 215
acquired 51
idiopathic dilated 203
Cardiopulmonary adaptation 652
Cardiopulmonary arrest 49
Cardiopulmonary impairment 147
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 4, 11, 20, 38, 49, 561, 576, 921
Cardiorespiratory arrest 108
Cardiorespiratory effects 575
Cardiorespiratory resuscitation 579
Cardiotoxic plants 607
Cardiovascular collapse 750
Cardiovascular effects 93, 562, 586
Cardiovascular function, monitoring of 577
Cardiovascular signs 582
Cardiovascular system 96, 429
Carjaval's formula 555
Carotid massage 758
Carotid sinus massage 225
Carvedilol 211
Cat scratch disease 460
Cataract 714
Catastrophic anti-phospholipid syndrome 542, 543b
Catecholamine 145
excess 119
theory 255
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 219, 221
Catheter
pull-push technique, single 911f
selection 874
tip
confirming position of 917
localization 919f
position 916, 917
Cauda equina syndrome 318
Causative organisms 393t
Cefazolin 852
Cefepime 330
Cefixime 931
Cefotaxime 184, 330, 544, 931
Ceftazidime 185, 330
Ceftriaxone 184, 330, 332, 544, 849, 931
Cell membrane 104
Cellular functions, complete recovery of 51
Cellular metabolism 579, 845
Cellulitis 454, 506
Center of disease control criteria 520
Central hypoventilation 82
syndrome 82
Central nervous system 58, 111, 195, 309, 336, 405, 542, 606, 635, 654, 882
complications 473
dysfunction 571
effects 93, 562
examination 693
infections 83, 309
manifestations 588
symptoms 392
tuberculosis 300
Central vascular access 876
devices 877f
Central venous
access devices 877, 877t
catheterization 878t
Central venous pressure 577
Cephalic tetanus 472
Cephalosporin
first generation 838
resistant 330
susceptible 330
Cerbera odollam 608
Cerebellar 295
ataxia, acute 341, 342
Purkinje cell 569
Cerebellum 826
herniation of 337
Cerebral autoregulation 260f, 309, 822
Cerebral autoregulation, loss of 653
Cerebral blood 49
flow 292, 296, 309
Cerebral contusions 825
Cerebral dysgenesis 699
Cerebral edema 108, 314, 369, 414, 417, 569
diffuse 295
Cerebral folate transporter deficiency 354
Cerebral function monitoring 694
Cerebral herniation, signs of 293t
Cerebral hyperemia 822
Cerebral infarction 542
Cerebral ischemia 831
secondary 344
Cerebral malaria 440, 443
Cerebral malformation 700
Cerebral metabolic rate 296
Cerebral metabolism 562
Cerebral palsy 699
Cerebral perfusion 51
maintenance of 344
pressure 294, 309, 830
Cerebral salt 343
wasting 110, 111
syndrome of 110, 111
Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis 687
Cerebral swelling, diffuse 826
Cerebral vascular disorders 341
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 542
Cerebritis 832f
Cerebrospinal fluid 106, 286, 302, 309, 323, 333, 338, 455, 492, 692
analysis 885
cell count 286
collection of 884
drainage 830
examination 715
gamma globulin level 887
Cerebrovascular accident 255, 258
Cerebrovascular pathophysiology 822
Cerebrum 78
Ceruloplasmin 966
Cervical
abscesses 859
collar 820
inline stabilization, manual 816f
lymphadenopathy 465
neck trauma 821
spine
immobilization 816
instability of 543
unstabilization of 816
X-ray 544f
vertebra, first 34
Cervicofacial infections 859
Cetirizine 507, 931
Cetrimide 596
Chain fatty acid, very-long 422, 425
Chancroid 460
Chandipura virus 336
encephalitis 335
Chaotic atrial tachycardia, multifocal 231, 232f
Charcoal
activated 931
hemoperfusion 612
multi-dose activated 636
Check blood ketones 418
Chelating agents 641t, 644, 645
Chelation therapy 640, 642
Chemical restraint, pharmacological agents for 531t
Chemoprophylaxis 185, 332, 497
Chemoreceptors 78
Chemosis 581
Chemotherapeutic agents 267
Chemotherapy 318, 403
Chest
Brilliant transillumination of 654f, 672f
compressions 52, 656
effective 52
computed tomography of 158, 785
expansion 36
infection 210
pain 181
physiotherapy 177, 183
radiograph 38, 205, 205f, 206f, 402, 404, 405, 784f
retraction 454, 670
skiagram 667
syndrome, acute 390
wall 34, 78
deformities 129
hypoplasia 807
oscillation therapy, high frequency 196, 197
restriction 78
X-ray 176, 182, 254, 542f, 672, 755f
Cheyne-Stokes
breathing 337
respiration 290
Chickenpox 460, 461, 468, 469
Chikungunya 298, 303, 460, 464
fever 464
skin manifestation of 465f
virus 461
Child and adolescent substance use 535
Child sexual abuse 534, 534b, 867, 868, 870
Childhood periodic syndromes 284
Chin-lift maneuver 38
Chlamydia 336
infection 182
pneumonia 179, 183
protocol for 871
psittaci 460
trachomatis 179, 520
Chloral hydrate 932
Chloramphenicol 488
Chlorhexidine 568
Chloride 104, 966
losing diarrhea 128
resistant alkalosis 128
responsive alkalosis 128
Chloroquine 439
Chlorpropamide 110
Choanal atresia 77, 857
Cholestatic jaundice 713
Cholesterol 966
synthesis disorders 421
Cholinergic syndrome 601
Cholinesterase inhibitors 245
Chorioamnionitis 190
Chromatographic purification 142
Chromosomal disorders 283
Chronic obstructive disease 110
Chronic respiratory
alkalosis 124
disorders 34, 187, 198
failure 77
Chylothorax 657
Cidofovir 267
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary 156, 187
Ciprofloxacin 556, 932
Circulating blood flow and volume, inappropriate distribution of 68
Circulation 26, 71, 156, 284, 288, 292, 479, 644, 793, 815
Circulatory blood volume, inadequate 68
Circulatory collapse 444
Cisplatin 267, 318
Citrate 361
phosphate-dextrose with adenine 135
salts 127
Clarithromycin 488
Clavulanic acid 183, 853
Clichy criteria 372
Clinical Establishment Act 7
Clitoral hypertrophy 812f
Clockwise loop around cavotricuspid isthmus 234f
Clonazepam 534, 932
Clonic seizures 689
multifocal 689
Clonidine 262, 264, 932
Clostridial myonecrosis 67
Clostridium 471
botulinum 471, 479
difficile 380, 471
tetani 83, 471, 473
Clotting disorders 276
Cloxacillin 330
Coagulation defects 397
Coagulation disorders 376, 739, 740
Coagulation screening 741
Coagulation studies 682
Coagulation system 712
Coagulation tests, interpretation of 742
Co-amoxiclav 183, 184
Coarse facies 283, 713
Cobalamin 354
Cobra 580
Coccidioidomycosis 336
Coiled spring sign 801
Cold stress 773
Colitis, allergic 379
Collagen
destruction 836
vascular diseases 461
Collateral ventilation 36
absence of 85
Collodion membrane 501f
Coloboma 857
Colonic atresia 782
Colonic obstruction 780f
Colopathy 379
Color urine 278t
Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale 532
Coma 288, 405, 601, 662
assessment of depth of 293
barbiturate induced 315
correctable cause of 293
etiology of 289t
four score neurological scale in 291f
sequelae of 288
type of 349
Comatose patient, management of 292
Commission on Accreditation of Medical Transport Systems 25
Communication 27, 31, 793
effective team 59t
Community Health Center 26
Community-acquired infections 838
Compartment syndrome 844
pathophysiology of 844
Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome 365
Complex clinical syndrome 201
Computed tomography 300, 311, 337
angiography 377, 381
findings 295
guided technique 893
thorax 673
Conduct disorders 530
Confusion 262, 392
Congenital anomalies 669, 737, 812
Congenital ascites, causes of 806
Congenital cataract 849
causes of 850b
Congenital glaucoma, late presenting 850f
Congenital heart disease, duct dependent 748
Congenital malformations, major 652, 658
Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction 849
Conjunctivitis
acute 848
allergic 99
chlamydial 849
mild 849
Consciousness 156, 288, 305f
altered level of 368
level of 41, 289
pathological state of 288
state of 79, 288t
Consumer Protection Act 7
Contact burns 575
Contact dermatitis 506
Continuous cardio-respiratory monitoring 254
Continuous flow method 732
Continuous glucose monitoring system 418
Continuous positive airway pressure 65, 81, 659, 674, 792
Continuous pulse rate 99
Continuous renal replacement therapy 272, 273, 371
Convulsions 255, 444, 662
control of 666
Cool extremities 68
Coomb's test 142
Copes obturator test 800
Copes psoas test 800
Cord compression 319, 322
Cord during delivery 654
Core temperature 564
Core body temperature 566
Corneal enlargement 850
Corneal melting 852
Corneal perforation 854f
Corneal sensations, reduced 852
Corneal ulcer 852
bacterial 852f
Coronary aneurysm, rupture of 538
Coronary artery disease 216
Corrosive ingestion 647t
clinical manifestations of 647t
management of 649t
severity of 646
Corrosive injury 650
endoscopic grading of 648t
grading of 647t
Corrosive management, acute 648
Corrosive poisoning 646
Corticosteroid 170, 306, 344, 832
insufficiency, critical illness-related 426
therapy, inhaled 160
Corticotropin
releasing hormone 420, 425
stimulation test 423
Cortisol 411
binding globulin 423
deficiency 111
Corynebacterium 595
diphtheria 471, 477, 497
Co-trimoxazole preventive therapy 495
Cough 174, 181, 187, 583
adequacy of 195
assist 197
augmenting devices 195t
peak flow 195
strength 195t
Counterclockwise loop around cavotricuspid isthmus 234f
Counter-immunoelectrophoresis 327
Cow milk protein allergy 376, 385
Coxsackievirus 337, 460, 462
Cranial nerve palsies 325
Cranial sonography 328
Craniovertebral junction 821
C-reactive protein 4, 286, 672, 837, 966
Creatine kinase 576, 966
isoenzymes 966
Creatinine 106, 181, 126, 415, 967
clearance, estimated 266
Cricoid cartilage 77
Cricoid ring 35
Cricothyroid membrane 35, 46
Cricothyrotomy 81
Crigler-Najjar syndrome 712
Critical aortic stenosis 253, 751
Critical care operational delivery network 25
Crohn's disease 376, 379, 380f
Croup 170, 174
management of 170
Crown, fracture of 862, 862f, 863f
Cryoablation 225
Cryoprecipitate 144, 744
concentrate 140
Cryotherapy 851
Cryptococcus 299, 328, 886
neoformans 336, 465
Cryptosporidium 361
Crystalloids 72
Culex tritaeniorhynchus 336
Culex vishnui 336
Cullen sign 802
Curling ulcers 556
Curreri's formula 555
Cushing's syndrome 128, 422, 426
Cyanide 604
poisoning 67
toxicity 262
Cyanosis 79, 251, 254, 255, 283, 655, 665, 749, 750, 753
central 176, 204
Cyanotic spell 255, 255f, 256fc
classical 255
Cyclophosphamide 110, 276
Cycloplegics 852
Cyclosporine 267
Cylclopentolate 852
Cysticidal therapy 285
Cystinosis 351
Cystogram 808
Cytokines 145
leukotriene 96, 97
production, alteration of 612
storm 446
Cytomegalovirus 179, 303, 317, 336, 339, 345, 367, 393, 671
polyradiculopathy 319, 322
D
Dacryocele 851
Dacryocystitis
acute 849, 851
chronic 849
Dactylitis 390
Dalton's law 790
Daptomycin 477
Datura
poisoning 606
stramonium 606
De novo synthesis 96
Deafness 276
Death
causes of 576
notification of 5
Decompressive craniectomy 315, 825f, 831
Deep encephalopathy 302f
Deep neck space infections 859
Defecation 630
Defibrillation 55
Dehydration 36, 111, 176, 254, 268, 356, 363, 390, 411, 414, 503, 567, 774
and shock, management of 434
assessment of 358t
degree of 414
fever 772
recurrent episodes of 351
treatment of 357
Delirium 405, 527, 530, 601, 607
Demyelination 301
cerebral white matter suggestive of 303f
Dendritic cells 96
Dengue 298, 301, 303, 449fc, 460
convalescent rash of 464f
fever 446, 448, 464, 484
course of 447
treatment of severe 450fc
hemorrhagic fever 449
infection 446, 448
severe 447, 449
shock syndrome 450
virus 298, 336, 461
with warning signs 446, 449
without warning signs 446
Dental abscess 859
Dental emergencies 861
Dental extraction 141
Dento-alveolar abscess 864
Deoxygenated
blood 255
hemoglobin 251
Depressive disorder 533b
Dermatitis, atopic 502
Dermatological emergencies 499, 500
causes of 500, 501, 501b
Dermatomyositis 318, 538
Dermoid cyst after cystectomy 518f
Desloratadine 507
Desmopressin 932
Detoxification phase 599
Developmental cataract 850f
Dexamethasone 159, 404, 932
Dexmedetomidine 148, 150, 151
Dextran 97
Dextrose 272, 368, 921
gel 707
Diabetes 125
insipidus 113
mellitus 125, 427, 702
type 1 410
type 2 410
Diabetic ketoacidosis 410, 411
differential diagnosis of 411t
monitoring sheet 415t
pathophysiology of 412fc
Diagnostic tests, rapid 182, 327, 441, 445
Dialysate 905
Dialysis, primary goal of 272
Diaphragm 194
Diaphragmatic hernia 654
Diaphragmatic paralysis 655
Diarrhea 104, 111, 125, 262, 356, 361, 362, 427, 434, 435fc, 528, 663
acute 356, 357, 362
watery 363
comprehensive 362
invasive 357
pattern of 357
prevention of 357
rehydration therapy in acute 359t
secretory 357
Diarrheal dehydration 356
Diarrheal morbidity, risk factors for 362
Diarrheal mortality, risk factors for 362
Diazepam 444, 932
Diazoxide 262, 263, 933
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane 632
Dietary protein metabolism 123
Dieulafoy lesion 376, 385
Diffusion weighted imaging 296, 302f
Digital nerve block 151
Digital rectal thermometer 771f
Digitalis toxicity 242
Digits, gangrene of 484f
Digoxin 211, 214, 604, 933
immune fab 933
Dihydroergotamine 933
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker 263
Dilated cardiomyopathy 216, 243f
Dimercaprol 641
Dimercaptosuccinic acid 261, 802
Diminished left ventricular function 752
Dinitrophenylhydrazine 351
Dinoprostone 254
Diphenhydramine 532
Diphtheria 81, 170, 171, 318, 319, 322, 471, 477
antitoxin 171, 479
bacilli, lysogenic conversion of 478
post-exposure prophylaxis for 497
tetanus-pertussis 492
Diphtheritic myocarditis 478
Direct Coombs test 729
Disability 815, 817
adjusted life years 187
Disastrous bleeding 740
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 268, 325, 377, 392, 398, 399, 405, 440, 444, 448, 647, 738
Dissociative disorder 527
Dissociative sedation 146
Distal collecting tubule 126
Distal humerus 842
Distal intestinal obstructive syndrome 192, 193
Distension, abdominal 780, 798
Distributive shock 69
Diuresis 408, 603
Diuretics 128, 211, 214, 267, 766
continuous infusion of 215
infusions 75
Diurnal variation 320
Diving reflex 562
Dizziness 262, 570, 631
D-lactic acid 126
Dobutamine 75, 590, 922, 928
Doll's eye response 291
Domperidone 442
Donor blood group, type of 909
Donor platelet, random 139
Dopamine 603, 922, 928
receptor 263
Double volume exchange transfusion 731, 910
Down syndrome 77, 169
Downes and Vidyasagar score 670t
Doxycycline 300, 485-488, 933
Drain cleaner 646
Dress syndrome 465f
Dressing technique 556
Drooling 647
Drowning 561, 563b
management of 563
risk factors for 561
Drowsiness 411, 413, 662
Drug 318, 422
and Cosmetic Act 7
assisted intubation 816
hypersensitivity rash 461
levels 292
overdose 610
causes of 610
rash 464
reactions 284, 469, 501, 510
role of 766
specific 148
therapy 522, 589, 656
Dry mouth 262
Dry mucous membranes 108
Dry powder inhalers 159
Duct dependent
circulations 252
lesions 257
lesions, classification of 253fc
pulmonary circulation 254, 749
systemic circulation 253
Ductal circulation, restoration of 756
Ductal systemic circulation 748f
Ductus arteriosus 748f
Dumb rabies 318
Duodenal atresia 778, 779
double bubble appearance of 782f
Duodenal obstruction, congenital 779
Duodenal ulcer 376
Duodenitis 376
Duplication cyst 379
Dwell time 272
Dwell volume 272
Dwellings, crevices of 585
Dynamic hyperinflation 91, 188, 189
Dyselectrolytemia 242, 287
severe 812
Dysentery 357
management of 361
Dysgenesis, adrenal 421
Dyspepsia 803
Dysphagia 478, 647
Dyspnea 392, 405, 647
Dysrhythmias 608
Dystonia 350
Dysuria 277, 278, 804, 811
history of 278
E
Ear
abnormalities 857
lobe, gangrene of 484f
nose and throat emergencies 856
Early morning cortisol 423
Early warning score 22, 51
Ebola virus 299, 461
Ebstein's anomaly 222, 235f, 248, 752
Ebstein's barr virus 298, 303
E-C clamp technique 40
Echocardiogram 206
Echocardiographic technique 893
Echocardiography 254, 589
Echovirus 337, 460, 462
Eclabium 501f
Ectopic atrial tachycardia 205, 218, 227, 230f-232f
Ectropion 501f
Eczema 187
Edema 278, 483, 648f
acute
hemorrhagic 506
pulmonary 588
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 521
Eikenella corrodens 595
Ejection systolic murmur 255
Elapidae 580
Elastic deformation 821
Elbow 843f
Electric burns 548, 549f, 575
types of 575
Electric current 573
with voltage 574t
Electric injury 573, 579
Electric shock 52, 573, 578
injury 575t
Electrical injury prevention 578t
Electrocardiogram 205, 207f, 209f, 210f, 292, 602
Electrocardiography 254, 404
Electroclinical seizure 689
Electroencephalogram 292, 337, 339
Electroencephalography 281, 282, 303, 694
Electrolyte 126, 177, 181, 207, 347, 416, 528, 562, 602, 720
abnormalities 83, 320, 503, 577
composition 103
correction of 357
disturbance 106t, 360, 430, 564
estimation 80
homeostasis 266
imbalance 765, 891
management of 437
Electromagnetic waves 566
Elemental form 642
Elemental mercury 641
Emergency airway management 34
Emergency care, cost of 22
Emergency consultations, causes of 85
Emergency department 3, 16t, 218, 526
care 846
management in 82, 636
physical design of 18
Emergency endotracheal intubation 42
Emergency liver transplantation 371
Emergency medical service 8, 14
Emergency procedures 873
Emergency room
care 563
preventing delay in 667
drugs 920
management 479
Emergency systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt 257
Emergency treatment 529
Emergent ophthalmic disease 848
Emerging viruses 298
Emesis 630
Emotional development 867
Emphasis 272
Empiric antimicrobials, choice of 294
Employ brain protective strategies 563
Empyema 180, 181, 297, 325
Enalapril 211
Enalaprilat 262
Encephalitis 297, 299f, 300, 306f, 335
acute necrotizing 303
autoimmune 301, 302
diagnosis of 335
lethargica 301
Encephalomyelitis, acute disseminated 286, 301, 303, 306, 339, 340, 341, 344, 882
Encephalopathy 259, 260, 299, 302f, 303f, 305f, 349, 542, 591
acute necrotizing 301, 302f
mitochondrial 350
syndrome, posterior reversible 310
End organ dysfunction, management of 571
Endocrine 58, 581
deficiency 704
emergencies 410
hypertension 426
Endoscopic sclerotherapy 382
Endoscopic therapy 382, 383
Endoscopic variceal ligation 382
Endoscopy 377, 380, 647
consists, principle of 647
Endotracheal intubation 41, 71, 78, 177, 657f, 658
Endotracheal tube 44, 44t, 45
placement of 43
size 171
End-tidal carbon dioxide 53
Enoxaparin 934
Entamoeba histolytica 357
Enteral feeding 353
Enteric fever 460
Enteritis 454
Enterococcus faecalis 393, 556
Enterohepatic circulation 723
Enteroviruses 179, 298, 299, 303, 336, 338, 339, 461, 462, 468, 469
Envenomation, signs of 581
Environmental heavy metal poisoning 645
Enzyme 122
carbonic anhydrase 123
linked immunosorbent assay 327, 339, 486
Enzymology 716
tissue biopsy for 716
Eosinophil 96
Eosinophilia 469, 511
and systemic symptoms, drug reactions with 461, 468, 510
Epidemic louse-borne 460
Epidermal nevus 283
Epidural hematoma 824
Epiglottis 34, 35
Epiglottitis 81, 167, 168, 170, 171
Epilepsy 280, 325, 561, 932
etiology 281, 282
categories of 282t
postneonatal 699
syndrome 280, 688
Epinephrine 56, 57, 99, 99t, 100, 411, 586, 656, 922, 928
doses of 100
high dose 56
injections, doses of 99
nebulization 178
receive 99
Epiphora 849
Episode
acute 154
prevention of acute severe 164
Epstein-Barr virus 317, 336, 338, 339, 367, 459-461
Equine encephalitis viruses 336
Equine rabies immunoglobulin 489, 597
Equipment, preparing 904
Erb's paralysis 655, 660
Erosive esophagitis 376
Erupting tooth, location of 864f
Eruption gingivitis 861, 863
Erysipelas 506
Erythema 869
edematous lesion halo of 506f
infectiosum 462, 468, 469
multiforme 465, 506, 512, 513t
nodosum 464
Erythematous
plaques 501f
rash 476
Erythrocytapheresis 912
Erythrocyte
count 963
sedimentation rate 964
Erythrocytic schizogony 439
Erythroderma 501, 504fc, 514
causes of 501
childhood 502t
diffuse 466
drug induced 502
management of 504
Erythromycin 171, 377
Eschar 483, 483f, 488
Escherichia coli 69, 179, 324, 357, 393, 454, 460, 520
Esmolol 262, 263
Esophageal atresia 757, 778, 779, 784, 786
chest skiagram of 784f
Esophageal burn, severe 647
Esophageal injury 646
Esophageal perforation 602
Esophageal stricture 513
short segment 650f
Esophageal varices 376, 378f, 382
Esophagitis 376, 377
Esophagus 170, 648f, 650f
part of 650
Esotropia 855
Estrogen 423, 522
conjugated 522
progestin therapy 522
Ethyl pyruvate 612
Ethylene glycol 125, 604
Etomidate 42, 148, 150
Euthermia 682
Euvolemia 757
Ewing's sarcoma 403, 840
Exanthematous fevers, causes of 467
Exanthems 283
Excess histamine production 98
Exchange transfusion 730, 744, 908, 911
indications for 730
procedure 731
Exercise stress testing 223f
Exertional heatstroke 569
Exfoliative dermatitis 501
Exhaustion, signs of 176
Exogenous organic acids 125
Exomphalos 778, 786
large 786
Exotropia 855
Expiratory time 90
Exstrophy-Epispadias complex 804, 812
complete 812f
Extensive burns 551
management of 559
Extensive meningeal enhancement 305f
External jugular vein 878
cannulation of 879f
catheterization 878
Extracellular compartment 119
Extracellular fluid 103
volume 111, 356
Extracorporeal detoxification 719
Extracorporeal liver assist device 364
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 59, 214, 215, 238, 675
Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction 377
Extravaginal torsion 808
Extravascular hemolysis 399, 399t
Extremity compartment syndrome 554
Extubation 92
Eye 601, 758
movement 290
sleep, non-rapid 284
signs 581
swelling of 97
Eyeball pressure 758
Eyelashes after firecracker injury, singeing of 854f
F
Face
presentation 660
swelling of 97
Facial dysmorphism 283
Facial nerve palsy 581
Facial pain, causes of referred 864
Facial puffiness 276
Failure to thrive 283
Fallopian tube, torsion of 518f
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency 421
Fanconi syndrome 351
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome 351
Fasciotomy 845f
Fasting guidelines 147t
Fatal anaphylactic reactions 97
Fatigability 320
Fatigue 30, 569
Fats, partial metabolism of 123
Fatty acid oxidation
defect 348, 367, 704
disorders 349
inhibition, severe 336
Febrile encephalopathy 297
pathophysiology of acute 299
Febrile illness, acute 483
Febrile neutropenia 393, 393t, 405, 406
classification of 406t
management of high-risk 407fc
Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions 137, 142, 392, 400
Febrile seizures 326
simple 297
Fecal losses 114
Feed intolerance 732
Feeding 344, 793
continuous enteral 352
management of 438
Femoral catheter single lumen 904
Femoral vein cannulation 876, 879f
Fenoldopam 263
Fentanyl 149, 151, 189, 922
Fetal anemia 658
Fetal circulation 748f
Fetal hydrops 714
Fetal hyperglycemia 702
Fetal kidneys 805
Feto-maternal
blood group incompatibility 723
hemorrhage 652
Fever 174, 303f, 305f, 332, 389, 392, 405, 453, 475, 488, 567, 568t, 771, 774, 804
absence of 544
acute rheumatic 210, 214, 463, 468, 469
differential diagnosis of 466t
high 568
history of 180
management of 456fc
with rash 459, 470
common causes of 461t
with sickle cell anemia 389
without focus 453
without localizing signs 453, 454
Fexofenadine 507
Fiberoptic intubation, flexible 47
Fiberoptic laryngoscopy 169
Fibrin 478
degradation product 399
Fibrinogen 740
degradation products 742
Fibroblast growth factors 805
Fibrosis 647
cystic 128, 156, 175, 180, 187, 191, 193fc, 194fc
Fire 67
Firecrackers 559
First aid 552
First line therapy 312
Fishbone diagram 32, 32f
Fistula, bronchopulmonary 180
Fitz Hugh Curtis syndrome 520
Flaccid 317
paralysis 115
Flame burns 559, 575
Flank pain 277
Flecainide 226, 228
Fludrocortisone 111
Fluid 415
accumulation 446
and electrolyte 103, 369
average losses of 415t
disturbances 103, 106, 343
management of 270
therapy 554
and toxin removal 272
attenuated inversion recovery 341f
choice of 71, 449
collection, severe 838f
creep 554
deficit, estimated 359
drainage, stoppage of 898
loss, history of 112
management 430, 591, 765
overload 271, 451, 766
management of 450
requirements 105t
responsiveness, assessment of 72t
resuscitation 368, 414
retention 262
therapy 295, 359
Flumazenil 294, 657, 923
Fluorescent antibody, direct 339
Fluoroquinolones 488
Fluoroscopic technique 893
Fluoxetine 534
Flush syndromes 98
Fluticasone 934
Focal clonic seizures 689
Focal infections 297
Focal myoclonic seizures 690
Focal onset seizure types 281t
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 276
Focal seizures 280
Focal tonic seizures 689
Foley balloon 522
Foley catheter 786
drainage 519
Folic acid 354, 437
Folinic acid 354, 698
Food borne botulism 480
Foreign body 81, 180, 376, 521, 856
aspiration 167, 172, 181
causing airway obstruction 38
inhalation 155, 158, 167
Fortified topical antibiotics 852
Fossa contusion, posterior 827f
Fracture 652, 660
compound depressed 823f
fragments, gross displacement of 843f
humerus 660f
pathological 841
supracondylar humerus 844f
Free fatty acids 718
Fresh frozen plasma 135, 743
Frozen red cell concentrate 139
Fructose 1,6 diphosphatase deficiency 349
Fumigants 629
Fungal corneal ulcer, signs of 852
Fungicides 628, 629
Funnel-shaped dilatation 783
Furosemide 211, 212, 934
G
Galactosemia 367, 713
Gallbladder hydrops 454
Ganciclovir 267, 345
Gangrene 538, 801
Garre's abscess 841
Gartland classification 843t
Gas 329
chromatography mass spectrometry 304
conservation of 63
exchange, adequate 86
expansion 792
Gasless abdomen 784
Gasoline 635
Gastric antral vascular ectasia 376
Gastric contents 180
Gastric decompression 785
Gastric drainage 128
Gastric lavage 602, 632, 644
Gastric mucosa 381
Gastric outlet obstruction, symptoms of 650
Gastric overinflation 40
Gastric ulcer 376
Gastric varices 376, 378f, 383
Gastritis 376
Gastroenteritis 411
acute 268
Gastroesophageal reflux disease 180, 181
Gastrograffin 785
Gastrointestinal aspiration, prolonged 119
Gastrointestinal bleeding 141, 375, 387, 538
dosages for 382t
management of 381
Gastrointestinal decontamination 602, 608
Gastrointestinal disorders 180
functional 803
Gastrointestinal duplication 376
Gastrointestinal emergencies 356, 664
Gastrointestinal irritant 635
Gastrointestinal losses 114
Gastrointestinal manifestations 430, 647
Gastrointestinal secretions 106
Gastrointestinal symptoms 392, 480, 640
history of 180
Gastrointestinal system 96
Gastrointestinal tract 58, 125, 375, 563, 637, 678
Gastroschisis 658, 778, 781f, 786
Genital anomalies 857
Genital injuries 522, 523
Genital trauma 517
Genitalia, ambiguous 812
Genitourinary
injury 807
symptoms 392, 797
system, abnormality of 275
trauma 807
diagnosis of 278
management of 809fc
Gentamicin 185, 556
Geographical areas 460
Germ cell tumor 402, 403
malignant 518f
Gestational age infants, small for 709
Gestational alloimmune liver disease 365
Gestational diabetes 702
Giannotti-Crosti syndrome 461
Giant temporal arteritis 538
Giardia lamblia 357
Giardiasis 935
Gingival enlargement, drug induced 865, 865f
Gingivitis, mild 863
Gingivostomatitis, acute herpetic 862
Gitelman syndrome 119, 128
diagnosis of 129
Glasgow coma
scale 283, 293, 332, 415, 829
score 289, 290t
Glaucoma
common syndromic associations of 850b
congenital 850
Gliosis, reactive 576
Glomerular filtration rate 267, 357, 412, 762
estimated 266
Glomerular hematuria 278t
Glomerulonephritis 268
acute postinfectious 276
post-streptococcal 277
Glossitis 283
Glottic landmarks 44f
Glottis edema 899
Glucagon 411
dose of 100
infusion 100
side effect of 100
Glucocorticoid 73
Gluconeogenesis 703
Glucose 116, 351, 360, 720, 967
6-phosphate dehydrogenase 638
consumption 703
decreased production of 704
impaired conversion of 704
infusion rate calculation 928
tolerance test 967
transporter-1 deficiency syndrome 349
Glutamate 586
Glutaric aciduria 354
Glutathione synthetase deficiency 354
Glycogen storage disorders 349
Glycogenolysis 703
Glycohemoglobin 967
Glycopyrrolate 149, 151
Glycosuria, reveal 640
Glycosylation, congenital disorders of 713
Gonorrhea, protocol for 871
Gore-tex graft 257
Gram stain 326, 327, 852
culture 327
Gram-negative
bacillus 595
organisms 185
septic shock 685
Gram-positive organisms 185
Granulocytes 175, 180
infusion 142
Granulomatous disorders 457
Gratification behavior 284
Grave's disease, neonatal 427
Graves’ disease 427
Gravity assisted drainage 196
Great arteries
corrected transposition of 216
transposition of 206f, 217, 664, 748f
Greenstick fractures 818
Grey turner sign 802
Growth hormone 114, 411
Grunting 454
Guedel airway 39
Guillain-Barré syndrome 83, 110, 129, 317, 318, 319, 321, 322, 341, 882
Guntheroth's theory 255
Gynecological emergencies 517
H
Haddon's matrix 578, 578t
Haemophilus influenzae 167, 179, 298, 302, 323, 330, 341, 389, 454, 492, 544, 836, 839, 858, 886
Haemophilus parainfluenzae 167
Hair
dye 97
follicles 553
mount 504
Haloperidol 934
Halting toxin production 475
Hand-foot-mouth disease 462, 463f
Hantavirus 461
Haptoglobin, absent serum 399
Harmful alcohol use 535b
Hartnup disease 354
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 304
responsive encephalopathy 302
Hastening elimination of toxin 603
Hawkinsuria 354
Head
and neck bleeding 141
computed tomography 694
injury 110, 111, 150, 472
tilt chin lift maneuver 38f
trauma, abusive 825
Headache 181, 262, 263, 392, 405, 528, 569, 631, 829
post-procedural 884
Healed burn wound, care of 558
Hearing 57
loss 325
Heart
rate 5t, 71, 80, 156, 223f, 381, 415, 653, 654, 656, 680, 752, 773
sounds 781
transplantation 215
Heart block 232f, 246, 247f, 630
complete 247
congenital 538
complete 208f, 248f, 753f
first degree 245, 246, 249
second-degree 245, 246, 247f
Heart defect 857
congenital 671
Heart disease
congenital 156, 175, 180, 201, 213, 216, 242, 251, 664, 671b, 747, 750t, 751, 751t, 752t
cyanotic 283
critical 747, 749
cyanotic 252fc
structural congenital 251
Heart failure 201-203, 204t, 205, 206, 207f, 210t, 212, 214, 216, 262, 751, 752t
acute 214
therapy for 210
causes of 201, 202t, 751
neonatal 751t
classification of 208
clinical features of 203
congestive 181, 251, 257, 260
conventional therapy of 216
epidemiology of 203
management of 208, 213, 215t
chronic 214
neonatal 213
prevalence of 203
severe 225
staging severity of 207
therapy for acute 210
treat chronic 211t
treatment
for acute 211t
for chronic 214t
treatment of 214
Heart rhythm
abnormalities 249
primary 218
Heartbeat 576, 653
Heat cramps 568
Heat edema 568
Heat exhaustion 569, 569t
Heat injury 776f
risk factors for 567
Heat syncope 568
Heatstroke 569, 569t, 570, 572
classic 569
diagnosis of 570
Heavy metal 319, 322, 639
exposure 639
poisoning 639
Heliox 161, 178
Hemagglutination inhibition 339
Hemangioma 658
Hemarthrosis 141
Hematemesis 375, 376, 647, 797
Hematochezia 376, 378
Hematocrit 667, 963
Hematological abnormalities 586
Hematological emergencies 389, 404
Hematological system 430
Hematology 351, 962, 963
Hematoma, retroperitoneal 808
Hemato-oncological emergencies 389
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 138
Hematuria 275-279, 545, 642, 805, 808, 811
benign familial 276
causes of 276t
recurrent 276
evaluation of 277fc
gross 141, 275
microscopic 275, 276, 278
recurrent 276
Hemiparesis 325
Hemiplegia 576, 579
Hemobilia 375, 376, 377, 385
Hemochezia 797
Hemochromatosis, neonatal 365, 367, 369
Hemodialysis 272, 603, 612
continuous venovenous 273
Hemodynamic
compromise, stages of 678
instability 797, 883
monitoring 883
status, stable 451
Hemoglobin 37, 122, 207, 639, 667, 672, 964
Hemoglobinemia 399
Hemoglobinuria 399, 554, 577
Hemogram 380
complete 504, 682
Hemolysis 638
naphthalene-induced 637
Hemolytic disease 664
Hemolytic reactions, acute 142, 391
Hemolytic syndrome, atypical 259
Hemolytic uremic syndrome 268, 276, 297, 379, 396, 484, 485
Hemoperfusion 603
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 540
Hemophagocytosis, active 539f
Hemophilia 394, 397, 739
mild 397
moderate 397, 739
severe 397, 739
Hemoptysis 192
management of 193fc
mild to moderate 192
Hemorrhage 109, 268, 740, 865
adrenal 422
conjunctival 581
history of maternal
antepartum 658
intrapartum 658
intraventricular 268, 295, 687, 825
occipital 295
placental 268
protocols, major 744
subdural 687
Hemorrhagic
bullae 512f
disease 379, 737
infarcts 295
shock, management of 817
strokes 686
Hemorrhoids 379, 380
Hemosiderinuria 399
Hemosuccus pancreaticus 375-377, 385
Hemothorax 817, 880
Henipaviruses 298
Henoch-Scholein purpura 276, 277, 376, 377, 379, 460, 461, 484, 506, 538, 545
Heparin 907, 923
flush 923
Hepatic dysfunction 287, 351, 571
Hepatic effects 93
Hepatic encephalopathy 283, 365, 369
grades of 366t
Hepatic failure 613
fulminant 364, 372t
Hepatic involvement 713
Hepatic metabolites, reactive 637
Hepatitis 369, 484
A infection 367
autoimmune 367
B 143, 369, 460
immuneglobulin 492, 493
infection 367, 493
post-exposure prophylaxis for 492
vaccine 492, 493
virus 461, 492
C 143, 460
infection 367
congenital alloimmune 367
D infection 367
Hepatorenal syndrome 268
Hepatotoxicity, fulminant 611
Herbicides 628, 629
Hereditary angioedema 506
types of 506t
Hereditary fructose intolerance 718
Hereditary orotic aciduria 354
Hernia, congenital diaphragmatic 658, 673f, 778, 779, 784f
Herniation, types of 293
Herpes simplex 336, 338, 460
encephalitis 301, 340, 341f, 344
virus 179, 298, 301-303, 337, 369, 461, 848
acquired 454
Herpes zoster 462f
Herpetic ulcers 862
Heterogeneous
hypointensities 304f
syndrome 267
Hexachlorocyclohexane 632
High flow nasal cannula 81, 177, 792
High-tension wires 574
Hip
arthrotomy of 838f
joints, bilateral 545f
Hirschsprung's disease 779, 782, 783f, 785
Hirschsprung's enterocolitis 379, 797
Histamine 96, 551, 845
intravenous administration of 96
Histoplasma capsulatum 465
Histoplasmosis 336
Hodgkin's disease 110
Hodgkin's lymphoma 402
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency 354
Holter tracing 208f, 230f, 231f
Homatropine 852
Homocystinuria 268, 350, 354
Hormonal defects 723
Hormonal regulation 703
Hormone
counter-regulatory 411
excess 704
release, inhibition of 429
Hospital Ethics Committees 12
Hospital-acquired pneumonia 178, 185
treatment of 185t
Host injury, mechanism of 471t
Hottentotta tamulus 590
Human albumin 142
Human body 103, 566
temperature 566
Human botulism immune globulin 480
Human brain microvascular endothelial cells 324
Human diploid cell vaccine 491
Human herpesvirus 298, 303, 336, 365, 367, 461
Human immunodeficiency virus 216, 298, 303, 318, 319, 322, 336, 339, 460, 461, 494
infection, timing of 494
transmission, risk of 494b
Human metapneumovirus 179
Human plasma 142
Human rabies immunoglobulin 489, 597
Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 143
Humerus, supracondylar fractures of 843t
Hyaline membrane disease 189, 652, 664, 669
Hyaluronic acid 718
Hydralazine 262, 591
Hydration 177, 256, 408, 415
adequate 211, 393, 858
status, assessment of 357
Hydrocarbon 634, 635
absorption of 636
exposure 634
ingestions 634
inhaled 635
poisoning 634, 636fc
solvents 634
toxicity 638
Hydrocephalus 325, 654, 827f
acute 83, 301
post-traumatic 826
Hydrochloric acid 646
Hydrocortisone 424, 426, 934
Hydrogen
fluoride 646
ion 122
causes of 646
donor of 122
Hydronephrosis
antenatal 812
severe bilateral 812
Hydrops
fetalis 657
neonatal 714
Hydrothorax 576
Hydroureteronephrosis, severe 806
Hydroxocobalamin 262, 934
Hydroxychloroquine 935
Hygroma, cystic 658
Hymenoptera 95
venom 97
Hyperaldosteronism, primary 128, 129, 426
Hyperammonemia 349, 350, 366, 608, 711-713, 719
diagnosis of 717fc
Hyperbaric oxygen 66
indications for 67t
therapy 846
Hyperbilirubinemia 712, 722, 729, 911
etiology of neonatal 722
risk factors for 723
severe 725f
unconjugated 399, 909
Hypercalcemia 118, 243
etiology of 118, 118t
inhibits, severe 118
management of 119t
signs of 118t
symptomatic 119
symptoms of 118, 118t
Hypercalciuria 276
Hypercapnia 78, 129, 131, 176
Hypercarbia 77
Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis 104
Hypercortisolemia 426
Hypercyanotic spell 255
Hyperekplexia 284, 690
Hyperemia 648f
circumferential 648f
zone of 549
Hyperesthesia 800
Hyperglycemia 51, 107, 262, 412, 418, 503, 551, 586, 731, 802
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state 410, 411, 418
Hyperinflated lung fields, bilateral 176f
Hyperinflation, bilateral 80
Hyperinsulinemic state 704
Hyperinsulinism 702
congenital 702
Hyperintense cysts 299f
Hyperkalemia 111, 115, 143, 262, 263, 270, 271, 407, 408, 418, 424, 732, 765, 766, 914
cardiac effects of 116
causes of 115, 115t
periodic paralysis 115
treatment of 116, 116t
Hyperlacrimation 852
Hyperlactatemia 350
Hyperleukocytosis 392, 404
Hypermagnesemia 119, 318
Hypermetabolism 555
Hypernatremia 111-113, 127, 360, 503, 765
causes of 111t
management of 112
risk of 127
severe 113
symptomatic 271
Hypernatremic dehydration 111
Hypernatremic hypovolemia, risk for 112
Hyperosmolar therapy 314, 369, 830
Hyper-osmotherapy, role of 293
Hyperoxaluria, primary 354
Hyperoxia 66
test 251, 253, 253t, 254, 258, 671
Hyperparasitemia 440
Hyperparathyroidism, evidence of 811
Hyperphosphatemia 407, 408, 766
Hyperplasia, congenital adrenal 421, 424, 425, 812, 812f
Hyperpyrexia 427, 444, 566, 601
effects of 567
Hypersensitivity
disorders 457
reaction 95, 180, 922
Hypertension 129, 216, 259, 270, 278, 426, 586, 587, 590, 600, 603, 766
causes of severe 260t
chronic 264
severe 260f
essential 261
malignant 268
portal 377
primary 261
severe 259, 260, 264, 265
staging of 259t
Hypertensive crises 259, 933
management of 261fc
Hypertensive emergency 259, 260, 264, 271, 538, 926
management of 262t
Hypertensive gastropathy, portal 376
Hypertensive urgency 259, 265
therapy for 265
Hyperthermia 51, 57, 242, 294, 503, 567, 568t, 586, 771-774
prevention of 776
Hypertonic saline 293, 296, 830
nebulization 177
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 221, 223f
Hypertrophic pyloric
muscle 784f
stenosis 779
Hypertrophy
atrial 233
compensatory work 779
right ventricular 209f
Hyperuricemia 407
Hyperventilation 51, 131, 314, 337, 343, 412, 831
central neurogenic 290
compensatory 124
spontaneous 369
Hypervitaminosis
A 118
D 118
Hypoalbuminemia 119, 503
Hypoaldosteronism 114
Hypocalcemia 81, 83, 116, 117, 117t, 127, 128, 143, 202, 206, 210f, 211, 243, 407, 408, 476, 666, 686, 732, 802, 914
causes of 117
classification of 117t
correct 696
etiology of 117t
management of 117
symptoms of 117, 119, 704
Hypocapnia 296, 412
Hypocarbia 405
Hypoglycemia 83, 172, 202, 211, 254, 287, 326, 336, 349, 368, 434, 440, 443, 444, 570, 600, 664, 686, 701-705, 705t, 709, 713, 772, 785, 794
asymptomatic 707
causes of neonatal 702
classification of 703t
diagnosis of 718fc
face of 703
management of neonatal 708fc
neonatal 701, 706t
prevention of 709
prolonged neonatal 702
recurrent 350fc
refractory 704t, 709
screening for 705
symptomatic 707
treatment of 707
Hypokalemia 114, 127, 128, 243, 318, 360, 418, 503
causes of 114t
pathophysiology of 413fc
severe 128
Hypokalemic paralysis 321, 538
Hypomagnesemia 117, 119, 914
clinical manifestations of 119t
symptoms of 119
treatment of 119, 119t
Hyponatremia 107, 108, 109fc, 111, 116, 270, 271, 329, 360, 366, 415, 430, 686, 765, 766
acquired 105
causes of 107t
chronic 108
development of 108
severe 108
symptomatic 271
Hyponatremic dehydration 107, 108
Hypoparathyroidism 117
Hypoperfusion 822
Hypophosphatemia 318
Hypoplastic heart syndrome 208, 216, 253, 751, 752
Hypopyon 852, 852f
Hyporeflexia 581
Hypotension 57, 96, 129, 142, 172, 262, 267, 287, 329, 475, 569, 583, 588, 600, 767, 794, 890
management of 431
Hypothalamic disorders 111
Hypothalamic pituitary-ovarian axis 422, 521
Hypothalamic thermostat 568
Hypothalamus 420, 568
anterior 566, 567
Hypothermia 37, 83, 119, 143, 202, 242, 243, 314, 369, 429, 503, 553, 562, 600, 770, 770b, 772, 773, 776f, 794, 831, 913
management of 564
mild 296
moderate 773, 831
pre-hospital 57
prevention of 774
rewarming for 563
severe 562, 774
Hypothyroidism 77
Hypotonia 581, 713
Hypotonic fluid loss 111
Hypoventilation 147, 194, 429
syndromes 187
Hypovolemia 104, 267, 268, 329, 555, 577
Hypovolemic shock 69, 576, 678
Hypoxemia 61, 77, 80, 86, 130, 131, 176, 178, 405, 635, 794
causes of 79
estimation of 80
Hypoxia 188, 202, 242, 390, 392, 405, 562, 773, 832
prevent 61
profound 243
Hypoxic brain injury 287
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy 296, 347, 686, 687
Hysteria 579
I
Iatrogenic respiratory alkalosis 131
Ibuprofen 267, 568, 935
Ichthyosiform erythroderma, congenital 501f
Ichthyosis 502
Icterus 283
Idiopathic bronchiectasis 156
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 395, 484
Idiopathic urethritis 278
Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation 218, 219
Ifosfamide 267
Ileal atresia, supine abdominal radiograph of 782f
Ileocecal mass 802
Iliac fossa, right 800
Immature kidneys 762
Immune
deficiency, primary 299f
mediated disease 268
thrombocytopenia 485
purpura 396
Immunization
passive 489
pre-exposure 597
Immunochromatographic tests 441
Immunodeficiency
disorders 175, 179
history of 180
secondary 283
syndromes 503
Immunofluorescence 176
assay 485, 486
Immunofluorescent antibody, indirect 339
Immunomodulation 476
Immunoperoxidase assay 485, 486
Imperforate anus 783f
Incubation period 460
Indian Academy of Pediatrics 358, 361
Indian Council of Medical Research 11
Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations 7
Indinavir 267
Indwelling catheters 918
Infant
breastfeeding, assessment of 663t
preterm 765
Infantile botulism 480
Infantile epileptic encephalopathy, early 688
Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 779
Infantile seborrheic dermatitis 503
Infarction 243, 310
Infection 95, 109, 268, 287, 314, 350, 370, 422, 501, 502, 663, 801, 885, 918
chlamydial 933
congenital 509, 850
emerging 299
management of 437, 811
secondary 503
signs of 595
Infectious colitis 379
Infectious diseases 439
Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines 393, 406
Infectious mononucleosis 463, 468, 478
Infective endocarditis 276
Inflammation, signs of 22
Inflammatory 318
bowel disease 379, 380, 465, 811
diseases 935
disorders 503
edema 857
myopathy 318
Infliximab 97
Influenza 300, 301, 338, 339, 345
A 179, 299, 461
B 179, 461
pneumonia 185
virus 174, 299, 336
with oseltamivir, treatment of 185t
Infusion 905
Ingested corrosive, types of 646
Inguinal hernia, complicated 801
Inhalation, solution for 922
Inhalational exposure 634
Inhalational injuries 558
In-hospital cardiac arrest 59
Injury
characteristics 822
concussion 829
endoscopic grading of 647
mode of 821
prevention 819
specific mortality 814
Inorganic acids 678
Inorganic arsenic salts 643
Inorganic compounds
acute ingestion of 642
ingestion of 642
Inotropes 212
Inotropic agents 73
Inotropic support 675, 757
Insect bites 506
Insecticide 628, 629
chemicals, non-persistent 628
poisonings 628
Inspiratory flow 89
Inspiratory time 90f
Inspired oxygen, fraction of 90f
Insulin 116, 353, 411, 415, 907, 924
bolus intravenous dose of 416
deficiency 115
dependent diabetes mellitus 410
lack of 115
with dextrose 271
Intact ventricular septum 216, 254, 747, 748f, 749f
Intellectual disability 530, 699
Intensive care 29, 564
unit 162, 183, 368, 375, 589
Interalveolar channels 78
Inter-costal drainage
catheter 904
tube, insertion of 898f
Intercostal muscles act 35
Intercurrent viral infection 326
Inter-hospital transfer guidelines 25
Interhospital transport 25
Interleukin-18 269
Intermittent hemodialysis 272, 273
Intermittent inotrope infusion 214
Intermittent mandatory ventilation 88
Internal jugular vein 878
cannulation of 879f
International Association of Study of Liver Disease 364
International Association of Study of Pain 145
International League Against Epilepsy 280
International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation 655
International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference 678t
International Society of Thrombosis and Hemophilia 397
Interstitial lung diseases 187
Interstitial nephritis 268
Intervertebral disc diseases 403
Intestinal calcium absorption 117
Intestinal enzyme 722
Intestinal obstruction 779, 778, 797
complications of 781
neonatal 787
Intestinal permeability 569
Intestinal ulceration 513
Intra-abdominal hemorrhage 808
Intra-abdominal organs, perforation of 890
Intra-arterial access 881f
Intracardiac defibrillator 216
Intracellular fluid 103
Intracellular space 113
Intracerebral hemorrhage 111
Intra-compartmental pressures 845
Intracranial bleeding 141, 581
Intracranial hemorrhage 83, 309, 741, 825
risk of 392
Intracranial hypertension 90, 309, 313fc
moderate 830
symptoms of 311
Intracranial infections 110, 687
Intracranial pressure 5, 292-294, 296, 309t, 325, 326, 330, 342, 343, 564, 883
causes of 310t
control of factors aggravating 342
monitoring 370, 830
methods 310
physiological basis of 309
symptoms of 311t
Intracranial structures 298
Intracranial surgery 111
Intracranial tension 292
Intracranial tension 882
Intraluminal stent 257
Intramuscular injections 740
Intraoral swellings 864
Intraparenchymal monitoring 830
Intrapartum glucose infusion 702
Intrapulmonary shunting 61
Intrathecal baclofen 473
Intrathecal tetanus immunoglobulin 473
Intrathoracic obstruction 78
Intrathoracic pressure 154
Intrauterine
growth retardation 190
intervention 806
Intravascular hemolysis 399, 399t
Intravenous
access 211, 785
analgesics 577
antibiotics 82, 192
bolus administration 264
cannulation, steps of 876f
catheter 147
enalaprilat 263
fluids 106t, 675, 709, 733, 775
infusion 449f
therapy 358, 363
furosemide 263
immunoglobulin 307, 344, 397, 457, 477, 487, 540, 733
maintenance fluids 590
methyl-prednisolone 541
penicillin 171
proton pump inhibitors 383
therapy 707
Intrusion 862
Intubating laryngeal mask airway 817
Intubation 46
Intussusception 379, 538, 800
diagnosis of 801
types of 801
Invasive ventilation 85
strategies 189
Iodinated radiocontrast media 267
Ion channels 586
Ipratropium bromide 935
Iris
coloboma 850f
prolapse firecracker injury 854f
Iron 604, 639
overload 143
Irregular heart rate 218, 220
Irritable bowel syndrome 803
Ischemia 242, 243
acute traumatic 67
Ischemic complications 261
Ischemic heart disease 216
Ischemic injury 846
Ischemic stroke 687
Isoniazid 365, 604
Isoproterenol 924
Isotonic saline 71
Isovaleric acidemia 351
Isovolemic blood exchange transfusion 913
Isovolemic phlebotomy 913
Isoxsuprine 702
Isradipine 262
Itai-Itai disease 644
Itraconazole 852
J
Japanese B encephalitis 298, 301, 335, 338-340, 346
virus 301, 336
Jaundice 440, 713, 726t, 741, 773
causes of pathological 723t
prevention of severe 733
prolonged 725
relevance in neonatal 726t
severe 662
neonatal 722
Jaw stiffness 262
Jaw thrust maneuver 39f, 816f
Jehova witnesses 139
Jejunoileal atresia 779
Jitteriness 284, 690, 690t
Josephson sign 241
Jugular vein, right internal 878
Jugular venous pressure 216
Junctional arrhythmias 218
Junctional bradycardia 248
Junctional ectopic tachycardia 218, 236
Junctional rhythms 635
Juvenile dermatomyositis 460, 461, 538, 539
Juvenile diabetes 410
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 540t
systemic onset 461, 539
K
Kangaroo mother care 434, 775, 793
Kawasaki disease 457, 460, 461, 464, 464f, 465, 468, 469, 484, 509, 538, 545
diagnosis of 454
Kayexalate 765
Kayser-Fleischer ring 366
Kearns-Sayre syndrome 354
Keratinocyte culture techniques 558
Keratomalacia 852
Kernig's sign 325
Ketamine 42, 148, 149, 151, 170, 189, 257, 924
Ketoacidosis 125, 349
moderate 350
Ketoacids 126, 412
Ketogenesis 703
Ketogenic diet 698, 811
Ketone body 347, 967
concentration 703
Ketonemia 410
Ketones 411, 415, 720
Ketonuria 351, 410
Ketosis 349, 352, 410
Ketotic hypoglycemia 704
Kidney 278, 581, 764
congenital malformation of 268
disease 266, 276
advanced chronic 259
chronic 644, 903
function 112
tests 528
injury
molecule-1 269
suspecting acute 763
Kiesselbach's plexus 857
King's College Criteria 372
Kingella kingae 544, 836, 839
Kinins 551
Kissing burn 575
Klebsiella 69, 556, 841
pneumoniae 179, 185, 406, 839
Klumpke's paralysis 655
Knee chest position 256
Kocher criteria 837b
Koplik spots 461
Kothari theory 255
Kussmaul respiration 125, 413
Kyasanur Forest disease 336
Kyphoscoliosis 129
L
Labetalol 262, 263, 924
Lacerating trauma, management of 852
Laceration 660
Lacrimal sac
infections of 849
inflammation of 849
Lacrimal system infections 851
Lacrimation 630
Lactate 361, 720
Lactic acidosis 125, 127, 262, 444
primary 355
treatment of 127
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome 318
Lamotrigine 512
Laparoscopy, diagnostic 799
Laparotomy, exploratory 381
Larva migrans, cutaneous 460
Laryngeal infections, acute 858
Laryngeal mask airway 45f, 817f
Laryngeal web 81
Laryngomalacia 81, 171
Laryngoscope 34, 43, 43f, 44f, 46
Laryngospasm 170
Laryngotracheobronchitis 81, 167, 168, 174
Lassa virus 461
Latex agglutination 327, 886
Latissimus dorsi, lateral border of 895f
L-carnitine
role of 355
supplementation 355
therapy 719
Lead 318, 604, 639
exposure 320
Left atrial appendage 234
Left precordium 55
Left ventricular
dysfunction 206
function 221
output 96
Leigh syndrome 301, 347
Leiomyoma 376
Leishmaniasis 460
Leptospira 461
Leptospirosis 268, 276, 460
Lethargy 663
Leukapheresis 405
Leukemia 403
acute
lymphoblastic 392, 402, 403, 854
myelogenous 404
myeloid 392
promyelocytic 407
chronic myelogenous 404
Leukocoria 849
Leukocyte count 964
Leukocytoclastic vasculitis 461, 545
Leukocytosis 518
Leukodepletion 137, 144
methods for 138
Leukoencephalopathy, acute 301, 302f
Leukostasis 404
Leukotriene receptor antagonists 161
Levetiracetam 697, 698
Levocetirizine 507
Levosimendan 211
Lid laceration 854f
Liddle syndrome 265
Lidocaine 57, 150, 697, 698, 924, 928
Life-saving therapies 600t
Life-threatening symptoms, severe 98
Ligament of Treitz 375
Lightning, prevention during 579
Lignocaine 60, 149
Limb
edema 276
movements 689
salvation of 577
Limonene 634
Limpness 255
Linezolid 330, 477
Lipocalin 269
Lipoid adrenal hyperplasia 421
Lipolysis 551, 703
Lips, swelling of 97
Listeria
encephalitis 301
monocytogenes 324, 330, 454, 457, 461
Litchi encephalitis 336
Litchi encephalopathy 609
Litchi sinensis 609
Liver
biopsy 611
cell failure 739
disease, chronic 365, 377
failure 125
chronic 365
pathogenesis of acute 366f
pediatric acute 364
function 364
monitoring of 572
tests 286, 292, 347, 528, 644, 802
injury, pathogenesis of 365
involvement 477
kidney microsomal antigen 367
support systems 371
transplantation 371
Lobar emphysema, congenital 675, 778, 779, 784
Lobar pneumonia 576
Local analgesia 884
Local anesthetics 149t, 150
eutectic mixture of 151
Local bleeding 885
Local pain 885
Localized tetanus 472
Loin-pain hematuria syndrome 277
Loop diuretics 119, 267
Loratadine 507
Lorazepam 925
Losartan 211
Low molecular weight heparin 488, 543
Low oxygen saturation, persistently 176
Low voltage injury victims 577
Lower abdomen 808
pain 517
Lower airway obstruction 37
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding 375, 378, 385t, 386fc
causes of 379t, 380f
management of 385
Lower limb 881
Lower respiratory
disorders 36
system 96
tract
infections 174
inflammation of 175
Ludwig's angina 859
Lumbar disc 318
Lumbar puncture 286, 294, 302, 326, 328, 667, 882
contraindications for 883t
indications for 882t
site of 882
tray 884f
Lumbosacral plexopathy 318
Lumefantrine 441
Lund and Browder chart 550f
Lung 563
abscess 181
and airway sounds 37
and respiratory pump support 81
anomaly, congenital 175
disease 79
chronic 175, 180
during decompression 60
expansion, asymmetric 80
function tests 155
injury 92
acute 91
direct 67
ventilator-induced 91, 92
parenchyma 178, 181
disease 37, 174
ultrasound 182
ventilation, single 47
volumes stretching pulmonary vasculature 188
Lupus erythematous, neonatal 544
Lyme carditis 247
Lyme disease 318, 460, 466
Lyme neuroborreliosis 319, 322
Lymphadenopathy 511, 864
generalized 283, 465
Lymphangioma 658
Lymphoblastic lymphoma 403
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus 336, 339
Lymphocytosis, atypical 511
Lymphohistiocytosis 367
Lymphoid tissues 96
Lymphoma 376, 403
Lymphoreticular malignancy 283
M
Machine breaths 89
Macintosh blade 43f
Macrocirculatory discordance 75
Macroglossia 83, 658
Macrolides 183, 184, 595
antibiotics 390
Macrophage 180
activation syndrome 538, 539, 546
Macular rash 466
Magill forceps 47, 172
Magnesium
deficiency 119
disorders of 119
sulfate 57, 160
toxicity 657
Magnetic resonance imaging 337, 341, 341f, 403
Maintenance therapy 428
Malaise 569
generalized 181
Malaria 268, 276, 297, 298, 439, 440
complications of 444t
parasite 441
severe 440, 443t
treatment of severe 442
Malformation
arteriovenous 379
congenital 46, 654, 738
Mallory-Weiss
lesion 385
syndrome 376
Malnourished children, management of severely 433
Malnutrition
rehydration solution for 360
severe 358
acute 433
Malrotation 779, 800
Mammalian bites 594
Mammary artery, internal 897
Mandibular fractures 864
Maneuver, reduction 844f
Mannitol 293, 294t, 343, 766
Manual exchange transfusion 912, 913
Maple syrup urine disease 349
Marburg virus 461
Maroon stools 379
Marriott sign 241
Mass 899
abdominal 278
Mast cell
activation 98
direct activation of 97
disorders 98
Mastocytosis 98, 506
Maxillary sinusitis 864
McBurney's sign 800
Mean arterial pressure 293
Measles 337, 461, 461f, 465, 468, 469
atypical 460
virus 336, 858
Mechanical devices 212
Mechanical ventilation 71, 81, 85, 87t, 130, 177, 189, 674
complications of 92
effects of 93t
indications of 81, 86
invasive 675
Meckel's diverticulum 379, 381, 801
Meconium
aspiration syndrome 652, 669, 671, 673f
delayed passage of 780
disease 779
ileus 778, 779, 786f
peritonitis 783f
stained amniotic fluid 654
Medial supracondylar ridge 842
Mediastinal mass, anterior 402f
Mediastinal syndrome, superior 401, 402
Medical Council of India 12
Medical gases 789
Medication
antidepressant 533
antihypertensive 267
use of 273
Medroxyprogesterone 522
Mefloquine 441, 442
Melena 375, 392, 797, 798
Membrane
preterm premature rupture of 671
prolonged rupture of 671
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis 276, 277
Meningitis 297, 303, 362, 454, 664, 687, 827f
acute bacterial 323, 325t, 330t
aseptic 484
bacterial 303, 327, 330t, 332
common causes of 327t
complications of 326
cryptococcal 299f, 301
Meningococcal meningitis 283, 323
Meningococcemia 455, 457, 460, 464, 468, 469
Meningococcus 323, 327
Meningoencephalitis 335, 483, 487, 488
acute 335, 336t
Menstrual bleeding
heavy 521, 522t
medical therapy for acute heavy 522t
Mental confusion 528
Mental health 535
Mental Health Care Act 529
recent 527
Mental illness, severe 530
Menthol 634
Mercury 641, 642
chemical forms of 641
vapors, inhalation of 642
Meropenem 185, 329, 330, 935
Merozoites 439
Meso rex bypass 386
Mesobuthus 586
Mesobuthus tamulus 585, 590
Metabolic abnormalities, treat 811
Metabolic acidosis 115, 124-127, 270, 271, 287, 349, 361, 412, 440, 444, 647, 716fc, 719, 766, 773
causes of 125, 125t
mild 125
non-anion gap 126
severe 127, 271, 418
Metabolic acids 123
Metabolic alkalosis 124, 127, 128, 128t, 129
etiology of 129
Metabolic coma, structural and 289t
Metabolic complications 407
Metabolic defects 723
Metabolic derangement 318, 571
correction of 757
severe 129
Metabolic disorders 292, 348fc, 421, 503
Metabolic encephalopathies 347
Metabolic liver disease 367
Metabolic myopathies 195
Metabolic tests 886
Metabolism 297
inborn errors of 125, 347, 664, 688, 711
Metabolites, urinary excretion of 628
Metal toxicity, treatment of heavy 645
Metallic
object 549
structure 579
Metalloporphyrins 733
Metaneb 197
device 198f
use of 198f
Metaphyseal blood vessels 836
Metaphysis, typical rat-bite appearance of 841f
Metered dose inhaler 164
Methanol 125, 604
Methemoglobin 37
Methemoglobinemia 262, 263, 399, 601, 604, 608, 637, 638
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 171, 179, 184, 508
Methimazole 429
Methionine 612
synthase deficiency 354
Methotrexate 267
Methyl
mercury 642
prednisolone, high dose 650
tetra hydrofolate reductase 714
Methylene blue 935
Methylenecyclopropylglycine 336
Methylmalonic academia 351, 352, 354
Methylmercury 641, 642
Methylprednisolone
pulse 306
sodium succinate 925
Metoclopramide 377, 935
Metolazone 212
Metoprolol 211, 256
Metronidazole 853, 863, 935
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia 399
Microbiological evaluation 338
Microcirculatory discordance 75
Micrognathia 83
Micronutrient deficiency, management of 437
Microscopic hematuria, persistent 275
Midazolam 42, 148, 151, 189, 444, 697, 925
Middle ear infections, chronic 472
Midgut volvulus 779, 781, 787
Midline catheters 874f
Migraine
abdominal 803
headache 933
variants 284
Miliaria 568
crystallina 568
profunda 568
pustulosa 568
rubra 568
Milk alkali syndrome 128
Miller blade 43f
Milrinone 75, 211, 212
Mimic hematuria 278t
Mineralocorticoid 73, 111
Minimal sedation 146
Minoxidil 262, 264
Miosis 601, 630
Mitochondrial genome 711
Mitochondrial hepatopathies 367
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy 714
Mitochondriopathies 355
Mitomycin-C 267
Mitotane 423
Mitral regurgitation 216
Mitral valve 216
Mixed venous oxygen saturation 74
Modes of transport 790t
Molecular adsorbent recirculating system 364
Molecular weight toxins, high 471
Monocytes 96
Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia 239
Mononucleosis 469
Moraxella 595
catarrhalis 167, 179
Morgan theory 255
Morphine 148, 149, 256
infusion 474
sulfate 936
Mortality
neonatal 661
pediatric
index of 22
risk of 22
Mosquito-borne flavivirus 317
Motor axonal neuropathy, acute 317
Motor deficits 325, 699
Motor examination 292
Motor neuron, lower 321
Motor paralysis 576
Motor vehicle collisions 814
Mucormycosis 854f
Mucosal bleeds 446
Mucosal edema 91
Mucosal membrane lesions 465
Mucus plugs 46
Mullerian abnormalities, obstructive 524
Mullerian anomalies 519
Multifocal myoclonic seizures 690
Multiple fractures 819
Multiple ingestions 600
Multi-system disorders 546, 569
Multi-system tissue 566
Mumps 338
encephalitis 301
virus 336
Murk-Jansen syndrome 118
Muscaria 607
Muscarinic receptors 606
Muscle 195, 317, 318
accessory 194
cramps 408
spasm 403
strength, assessment of 292
tone 654
weakness 403
severe 115
Muscular dystrophy 129, 195
Muscular paralysis 538
Muscular system 581
Muscular weakness 115
Musculoskeletal diseases, benign 403
Musculoskeletal system 818
Mushroom poisoning 369
clinical phases of 608t
treatment in 608
Myasthenia 320
gravis 129, 195, 318, 319, 322
crisis 321
Mycobacteria growth indicator tube 286
Mycobacterium 886
leprae 460
tuberculosis 341
Mycoplasma 181-183, 336
pneumoniae 179, 182, 317, 335, 341, 345, 460, 464, 468, 469, 511
Mydriasis 586
Myelitis, acute flaccid 320
Myeloblasts 404
Myelodysplastic syndrome 396
Myelopathy
acute 319, 322
compressive 320
Myesthenia gravis 83
Myocardial dysfunction 73, 125, 587, 590, 591, 760
treat 563
Myocardial infarction 405
Myocardial ischemia 562
Myocardial oxygen 56
Myocardial pump failure 653
Myocarditis 202, 214, 215, 247, 249, 300, 478, 487, 488, 538
neonatal 213
Myocardium 56
neonatal 747
Myoclonic epilepsy 349
Myoclonic seizures 689
generalized 690
Myoclonus 528
Myocyte dysfunction 202
Myoglobin 639
Myoglobinuria 554
persistence of 577
Myopathy 319, 322
congenital 195
Myopericarditis 243
Myotonic dystrophy 195
Myxedema 429, 430
coma 429
management of 431t
N
N-acetylcysteine 612
efficacy of 612
N-acetylglutamate synthetase 348
Nails, shedding of 513
Naloxone 294, 657, 925
Naphthalene 637
toxicity 637
Naproxen 267
Nasal cannula 63, 665, 817
Nasal catheter 817
Nasal flaring 670
Nasal obstruction, neonatal 857
Nasal passages, suctioning of 38
Nasoenteric tube 650
Nasogastric
aspiration 376
decompression 666
drainage 268
feeds 177
suction 128
tube 736, 904
Nasopharyngeal
airway 39, 39f
secretions 176
tube 39
Nasopharynx 324
Nasotracheal intubation 47, 816, 858
Natamycin 852
National Family Health Survey 433
National Human Rights Commission 7
National Strategic Plan Malaria Elimination 441
National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme 297
Natural anti-D antibodies 137
Natural killer cells 175
Natural rubber latex 97
Nausea 262, 408, 569, 631, 637
Near fatal anaphylactic reactions 97
Near infrared spectroscopy 73
Nebulized
beta-adrenergic agonists 178
corticosteroids 178
Neck
flexor 318
muscles 821
pain 829
rigidity 332
Necrotic lesions 301
Necrotic tissue 478
Necrotizing enterocolitis 379, 732, 772, 778, 779, 782
Necrotizing pneumonias 181
Neglected tropical diseases 580
Neisseria 595
gonorrhoea 520, 544
meningitidis 323, 324, 330, 341, 389, 422, 454, 460, 461, 466, 485
infections 464
Nelson's severity index scoring system 499t
Neonatal and childhood illness, integrated management of 357
Neonatal ascites, diagnosis of 807fc
Neonatal autoimmune thrombocytopenia 738
Neonatal brain 822
Neonatal cardiac emergencies 747, 749
Neonatal coagulation, physiology of 736
Neonatal conjunctivitis 848
Neonatal convulsion 686
benign familial 688
Neonatal emergency 652, 660
transport 24
Neonatal intensive care unit 659, 694, 770
Neonatal intestinal obstruction, causes of 779t
Neonatal jaundice 722
early detection of 734fc
Neonatal medical care 788
Neonatal resuscitation 659fc
equipment required for 655t
Neonatal seizures 686, 694, 699, 719
acute management of 695fc
classification of 689
etiologies of 687t
Neonatal shock 684fc, 685
categories of 680t
causes of 679
differential diagnosis of 681
etiologies of 679t, 680t
Neonatal transport 788, 789
equipment list required for 791t
indications for 788, 789t
process 794fc
status of 788
Neoplasms 402, 857
Neostigmine 83, 583
Nephrolithiasis 276
Nephropathy 268
Nephrotic syndrome 268
burns 268
congenital 764
sepsis 268
Nephrotoxic drugs 267t
Nephrotoxic medications, stopping 767
Nerium indicum 608
Nerium oleander 608
Nerve 318
fibers 195
injuries 660
palsies 652
roots 318
Nervous system 640
Nesiritide 212, 214
Netilmicin 556
Neuroblastoma 402, 854
Neurocutaneous syndrome 283
Neurocysticercosis, non-calcified granuloma of 285
Neurodevelopmental
disabilities 644
sequelae 704
Neurogenic
bladder 805
pulmonary edema 287
shock 75
Neuroimaging 57, 294, 339, 693, 827
Neurologic
complications 107
evaluation 829
examination 563
function, rapid evaluation of 36
status 415
assessment of 817
Neurological complications, pathophysiology of 107
Neurological deficit 538
Neurological disabilities 180
Neurological disorders 175
Neurological dysfunction 686
bilirubin induced 726, 728t
Neurological emergencies 280
neonatal 686
Neurological impairment 699
Neurometabolic disorders 355
Neuromuscular blockers 473
agents 315
Neuromuscular disease 129, 187, 196fc
Neuromuscular disorders 82, 194, 195t
Neuromuscular dysfunction 129
Neuromuscular excitability 117
Neuromuscular junction 318
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder 301
Neuronal death 576
Neuronal injury 292
Neuronal integrity 828
Neuropathy 478
acute 318
Neuropsychiatric features 430
Neurosonogram 694
Neurotoxic signs 582
Neurotoxin plant 607
Neurovascular injuries 842
Neutropenia 314
congenital 142
Neutropenic enterocolitis 406
Neutrophil 96, 478
gelatinase 269
Nevirapine 495, 512
prophylaxis 495t
New York Heart Association Class 207
Newborn, preterm 567, 670t
Nicardipine 262, 263, 265, 925
Nicotinamide 354
adenine dinucleotide phosphate 638
Nicotinic receptors 606
Nifedipine 262, 591, 936
Night terrors 284
Nikolsky sign 512
Nipah virus 298, 299, 301, 335
Nitric
acid 646
oxide
fractional exhaled 158
inhaled 675
prevents 100
synthetase 426
Nitroglycerin 590
Nitroprusside 590
sodium 926
Nonabsorbable sutures 810
Non-barbiturate hypnotic agent 150
Non-bilious vomiting 780
Non-cardiac organ dysfunction 683t
spectrum of 681t
Non-cardiogenic shock 587
Non-convulsive seizures 294
Non-epileptic events 284t
Nonexertional heatstroke 569
Non-glomerular hematuria 278t
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 402
Non-hypotonic hyponatremia, causes of 108t
Non-immune hemolysis 143
Non-infectious complications, several 135
Noninvasive mechanical ventilation 675
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation 83
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia 348
Non-narcotic analgesics 150
Non-rebreathing mask 63, 65f, 817
Non-shockable rhythm 56
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 267, 268, 375, 448, 512
Nonsteroidal inflammatory agent 331
Non-straddle blunt injury 523
Non-toxic substances 605t
Non-variceal bleeding 383
Norepinephrine 99, 256, 586, 603, 926
Norethindrone 936
acetate 522
Normocarbia 314
Normo-oxia 314
Normothermia 314
Normovolemia 314
Norwood staged operation 254
Nuclear scans 381
Nucleic acid testing 143
Nuebauer chamber 885f
Nutrition 271, 371, 555, 675, 718
management 766
mode of 353
Nutritional disorders 503
Nutritional management 362, 832
Nutritional rehabilitation 357
Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency 283
O
Obesity, extreme 129
Obstructed inguinal hernia 779
Obstructed labor 660
Obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection 254, 760
Obstruction 68, 679
right sided 759
Obstructive hydrocephalus 295
Obstructive lesions
left sided 748, 752
right-sided 254
Occupational therapy 558
Octreotide 382, 936
Ocular
diseases 848
emergencies 848, 851
neonatal 848
malignancies 854
misalignment 855
movements 689
trauma 853
Odollam poisoning 608
Ofloxacin 556
Ohm's law 573
Ohtahara syndrome 688
Oleander and suicide tree poisoning 608
Olecranon fossa 842
Oligemia 405
Oligoanuria 270
Oligoclonal bands 887
Oligohydramnios 812
Oliguria 392, 405, 408, 611
Omalizumab 101
Omeprazole 936
Ommaya gennarelli hypothesis 826
Omphalocele, large 659
Oncological emergency 401
Onconeural antibodies 302
Ondansetron 442, 936
Oolyneuropathy 319, 322
Oophorectomy 519
Open surgical technique 899
Ophthalmia neonatorum 848, 848f
Ophthalmoplegia 581
Opiates 95
Opioids 604
Optic nerve sheath diameter 311
Oral burns 647
Oral carbamyl glutamate 719
Oral cavity 654
Oral corticosteroids 159, 164, 178
Oral dexamethasone 159
Oral emergencies 861
Oral fluid therapy 105
Oral hypoglycemic agents 702
Oral mucous membrane bleeding 741
Oral N-acetylcysteine 612
Oral rehydration
solution 20, 358, 359
modified 436t
therapy 356, 358
Oral supplementation 115
Orbital cellulitis 853, 854f, 857
Orbital complications 857
Orbital rim, superior 853
Organ
dysfunction syndrome, multiple 366
involvement 511
system 58t
Organic acidemia 305f, 349, 351
total 711
Organic acids 125, 718
Organic brain syndrome 527
Organization of Pediatric Emergency Services 14
Organochlorine 629
poisoning 632
Organophosphate 604, 628-630
toxicity 318
Orientia tsutsugamushi 298
Ornithine transcarbamylase 367, 717
Orofacial pain 861
Orogastric lavage 637
Oropharyngeal
airway 39, 39f
irritation 637
Oropharynx 38
remove debris from 563
Orthopedic
conditions 836
emergencies 836
management 838
Orthostatic hypotension 262, 569
Oscillatory ventilation, high frequency 90, 92
Osmotic diarrhea 357
Osteomyelitis 67, 454, 545f, 839, 841f
chronic 841
Osteopetrosis 117
Otitis media 454
acute 856
Out-of-hospital arrests, pediatric 49
Ovarian conservation 524
Ovarian cysts 518f
Ovarian detorsion 519
Ovarian fibroma 518f
Ovarian torsion 517-519
Ovarian tumors 521
Oxcarbazepine 510
Oxidase system, functions 610
Oxidative stress 67
Oxygen 61, 82, 177, 183, 256
administration 61
analyzer 65
concentrator 66
conserving adaptation 563
consumption 35, 73, 566
content of blood 74
delivery 64t, 845
and consumption 61
device 62, 63t, 71
devices, low flow 63f
hood 65f
partial pressure of 252
percentages 64t
provide 636
quantity of 61
reduced 61
saturation 156, 183, 254, 564
trials, benefits of 190
sources 62
species, production of reactive 644
supply of 61
therapy 61, 159, 665, 675
complications of 66
limitations of 61
toxicity 190
using 62
Oxygenation 68, 86, 785, 793
adequate function 817
Oxyhemoglobin saturations 37
Oxyhood 64
P
Pacemaker implantation 249
Packed cell 488
transfusion 743
volume 447, 577
Packed red blood cell 137
concentrate 136
preparation of 135
Pain 131, 797, 800, 811, 845
acute 797
assessment tools 146
during dialysate flow 908
management, methods for 874t
neurophysiology of 145
pathophysiology of 796
perception 146
mechanism of 145
reduction of 145
referred 796, 864
relief 555, 589, 799
treatment of 390
Painful ulcer 861f
Palamneus swammerdami 585
Palivizumab 178, 190
Palliated congenital heart disease, complications of 257
Pallor 262, 846
severe 662
Palm and sole
involvement 465
rash involving 483f
stained 662
Palpable mass 801
Palpating left iliac fossa 800
Pamidronate 267
Pancreas, inflammation of 801
Pancreatic damage, acute 287
Pancreatitis, acute 585, 801
Pancuronium 315
Panda's eyes 854f
sign 340f
Panic attacks 528
Pantoprazole 556, 937
Pantothenic acid 354
Papillary dermis 550
Papilledema 260, 325
Papular urticarial 506
Paracentesis, abdominal 887, 889f
Paracetamol 568, 610, 613
Paradoxical intracellular acidosis 127
Paraesthesia 117
Parainfluenza virus 179, 858
Paraldehyde 125, 697
Paralysis 601, 846
with induction 42
Paralytic ileus 115, 287
Paramyxoviruses 339
Paraneoplastic syndromes 302
Para-pharyngeal abscess 170
Parapneumonic effusion 181
Para-pneumonic effusions 897
Parasternal approach 892
Parasympathetic nervous systems 592
Parathyroid hormone 117
Parenteral antibiotic 853
therapy 184
Parenteral infusion equipment 791
Parenteral nutrition, total 352, 353
Parent-to-child transmission, prevention of 494
Paresis 846
Paresthesia 115, 631, 846, 885
Parietal pain 796
Parietal peritoneum 800, 889
Paroxysmal
dyskinesias 284
hyperpnea 255
supraventricular reentry tachycardia 221
Partial exchange transfusion 910, 912
Partial rebreathing masks 63
Partial thromboplastin time 736
Parvo-viral infection 484
Parvovirus 461
B19 143, 460
391, 462, 468, 469
Pasteurella 595
multocida 520, 595
Pastia's sign 509
Patent ductus arteriosus 204, 216, 252
Patent foramen ovale 748f
Pathogenic bacteria 323
Peak end expiratory pressure 189
Peak expiratory flow 154
Peak inspiratory pressure 90f
Pectoralis major, lateral border of 895f
Pediatric airway 34, 46
difficult 46
causes of 46t
unique features of 34
Pediatric emergency 14, 280, 499
department 2t, 21
equipment 18t
service 14, 16
transport 24
warning score 52t
Pediatric Endocrine Society 706
Pediatric equipment guidelines 16t
Pediatric erythroderma 504t
Pediatric in-hospital arrests 49
Pediatric intensive care 49
society 25
unit 20, 22, 82, 85, 158, 167, 449, 563
environment 30
Pediatric medical emergencies 153
Pediatric oncological emergencies 401t
Pediatric psychiatric assessment 528
Pediatric psychiatric emergencies
management for 527
specific 530
Pediatric respiratory
assessment measure score 157, 165
system 34
Pediatric rheumatic disorders, spectrum of 538
Pediatric rheumatology 538, 540, 540t
emergencies in 538t
Pediatric transport service, specialist 25
Pediatric trauma
management of 819
unique characteristics of 815
Pedunculated polyp, large 380f
Pelvic
congestion 520
inflammatory disease 520, 520t
acute 933
treatment of 520t
pain 517
Pelvis, X-ray 545f
Pelviureteric junction 805
obstruction 806
bilateral 268
Penetrating injuries 814
Penetrating trauma 523
Penicillamine 641
Penicillin 330, 595, 863
G 608
resistant 330
sensitive 330
Pentobarbital coma 315
Peptic ulcer disease 376, 377, 384
Percutaneous cricothyrotomy 46, 47f
Percutaneous dilational technique 899
Percutaneous needle cricothyrotomy 46
Pericardial effusion 404
Pericardiocentesis 404, 891, 893
Pericarditis 326, 454
chronic constrictive 216
etiology of 892t
Perinatal hypoxia 267
Perineal trauma 808
Periodic discharges, lateralized 304
Periodic lateralized discharges 306f
Periodic paralyses 318
hyperkalemic 318
hypokalemic 318
Periorbital cellulitis 853
Peripheral blood
hematopoietic stem cells 139
picture 399
role of 399fc
Peripheral circulatory failure 325, 587, 588
Peripheral cyanosis 381
Peripheral intravenous cannula 874f
Peripheral perfusion 381
Peripheral postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist 264
Peripheral pulse 156
Peripheral smear 504
Peripheral vascular access 873
Peripheral venous access 873
types of 873
Peritoneal cavity 807
Peritoneal dialysis 272, 767, 903, 908
catheter leak 908
prescription for 272, 907
procedure for 904
steps of 768b
Peritonitis 802, 908
Peritonsillar abscess 81, 858
Periventricular hypodensity 295
Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia 227
Permeability 99
Permissive hypercapnia 90
Peroperative enteroscopy 381
Peroxisomal defects 421
Persistent coma, management of 295
Persistent hyperplastic vitreous 851
Persistent truncus arteriosus 206f
Pesticide 320, 628
categories of 629t
poisoning 628, 629, 629t
source of 628
proximity of 629
Pests, control 628
Petechiae 283
smear of 328
Petechial rash 483f
Pethidine 149
Pharmacologic management 158
Pharmacological agents 589
Pharmacological therapy 271, 382, 682
Pharyngitis, acute streptococcal 478
Pharynx 478
Phenobarbital 510, 512, 937
Phenobarbitone 697, 733
Phentolamine 262, 263, 937
Phenylephrine 928
Phenylketonuria 348
Phenytoin 267, 510, 512, 697, 865, 926
Phosphatase 968
Phosphate 412, 415, 416
absorption 117
Phosphorus 407, 968
Photophobia 850, 852
Phototherapy 729f
Phrenic nerve palsy 655
Physical injury 595
Physiological handicaps 770b
Physostigmine 607
Phytonadione 937
Pierre Robin
anomaly 654, 657
sequence 658
Pigmentary mosaicism 283
Pigtail catheter 897, 904
Pink disease 642
Piperacillin 185, 556, 937
Pit viper 580
Placebos 803
Plain skiagram 782
Plasma 103, 106, 140, 135, 136
adrenocorticotropic hormone levels 424
albumin concentration 125
anion gap 125
bicarbonate 122
derived clotting factor concentrates 141
exchange 371
fractions 140
glucose 706
leakage, severe 447
osmolality 104
protein 136
sodium 112
Plasmapheresis 270, 371
Plasmodium
falciparum 336
malaria, treatment of uncomplicated 442
vivax malaria, treatment of 442t
Plaster room 19
Plastic deformation 821
Plateau airway pressure 189
Plateau pressures 189
Platelet 138
activation factor 96
component 139
concentrates 136, 744
preparing 135
count 377, 644
cryopreservation 140
disorders 395
factor 96
function
analyzer 395
defects of 396fc
rich plasma 139
single donor 139
transfusion 400
thresholds 140
unit of 139, 140
Pleural effusion 181, 405
Pleural fluid culture and sensitivity 182
Pleural injury 576
Pleural tap 894
Plexus lesions 318
Pneumatoceles 180, 181
Pneumatosis intestinalis 783f
Pneumococcal antigen testing 182
Pneumococcal bacteremia 454
Pneumococcal vaccine 332
Pneumococcus 302, 327
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia 495
Pneumoni 78
Pneumonia 80, 82, 158, 174, 178, 180, 182, 326, 362, 454, 558, 664, 673f
atypical 181
bacterial 178, 183
community-acquired 178
complicated 184t
complications of 181
congenital 652, 654
management of 182
severe 129, 183
ventilator-associated 93
Pneumonitis 180, 484
Pneumoperitoneum 783f, 890
Pneumothorax 91, 654, 654f, 658, 672f, 778, 786, 817, 880
acute 192
spontaneous 192
management of spontaneous 194fc
right side 658f, 820
spontaneous 192
Poiseuille's law 167
Poison
science of 599
syndrome 601
Poisoned child 602t
Poisoning 599
antidote therapy for 604t
clinical manifestations of 600t
management of 600
non-drug related 634
plant
causing 607t
related 606
Poisonous plants 606
Poliomyelitis 84, 317-319, 322
Poliovirus 318, 337
Polyarteritis 318
nodosa 461
Polycystic ovarian syndrome 521
Polycythemia 283, 723, 909, 910
Polydipsia 118
Polyendocrinopathy, autoimmune 422
Polyethylene glycol 937
Polymerase chain reaction 176, 286, 302, 333, 441, 479, 485, 486, 802, 886
Polymicrobial infections 597
Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 242
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 327
Polymyositis 318
Polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating 318
Polyps 376, 379, 385
Polyradiculopathies, acute 318
Polysomnography 902
Polysplenia 247
Polystyrene sulfonate 116, 937
Polytetra-fluoroethylene, expanded 383
Polytrauma management 809fc
Polyurethane trocar catheters 904
Polyuria 118, 644, 713
Pompe disease 713
Poor feeding, history of 662
Porphyria 318, 320
acute intermittent 319, 322
Port wine stain 283
Positive end-expiratory pressure 90f, 564, 636, 656
Positive pressure and ventilation 81, 655, 656, 659, 665
Post-decompressive hydrocephalus 827f
Postmortem investigations 716
samples for 717t
Postpone bathing 776
Postural drainage 197f, 563
Potassium 407, 412, 416, 907
chloride 360, 938
disturbances 114f
homeostasis, disorders of 113
iodide 429
losses, inadequate replacement of 360
permanganate 632
Potential emergency 652
Povidone iodine 596
Pram scoring system 157t
Prazosin 589, 592
Pre-arrest phase 54t
Precipitating causes, treatment of 210
Precocious puberty 521
Prednisolone 938
Pregnancy 423
and lactation 486
Pre-hospital care 563
Pre-intubation optimization 42
Prematurity, retinopathy of 67, 851
Preoxygenation 42
Prepubertal bleeding 521
Preseptal cellulitis 857
Pressure 197, 845
regulated volume control 89, 189
volume curve 86f, 309
Preterm baby 657
resuscitation of 657
Priapism 405
Prickly heat 568
Primary Health Center 26
Prion diseases 336
Probiotic supplementation 803
Procainamide 938
Procalcitonin 672
Progressive cyanosis 750
Progressive glomerulonephritis, rapidly 259
Prokinetic, single dose of 377
Promethazine 149, 532
Propafenone 226, 228
Prophylactic
antibiotics 583
replacement therapy, short-term 740
Prophylaxis 497, 738
post-exposure 489, 492, 494, 596t, 939
Propionic acidemia 351, 352
Propofol 42, 149, 189
Propranolol 257, 429, 938
Proptosis 853, 855f
Prostaglandin 145, 258, 684, 805
E1 666, 756
infusion 210, 211
therapy 213
Protamine 97
Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 534, 867
Protein 353
bound heavy metals 645
C deficiency 268
energy malnutrition 119, 358
measurement of 885
S deficiency 268
Proteinuria 278, 545, 642
high risk of 644
Proteolysis 703
Proteus spp 556
Prothrombin 740
complex concentrates 141
time 399, 742
Proton pump inhibitor 267, 382, 385, 650
Protracted anaphylaxis 97
Proximal femur 839
Proximal humerus 839
Proximal tubular dysfunction 644
Prune-Belly syndrome 807
Pseudobradycardia 220f
Pseudobulbar paralysis 108
Pseudocysts 299f
Pseudohyponatremia 107
Pseudohypoparathyroidism 117
Pseudokidney sign 801
Pseudomembrane formation 478
Pseudomembranous colitis 379
antibiotics associated 935
Pseudomeningocele 827f
Pseudomonas 69, 330, 422, 556, 839, 840
aeruginosa 179, 185, 192, 193, 393, 406, 513, 836, 839
infections 557
meningitis 329
Psoriatic erythroderma 501f
Psychiatric disorder 527
Psychiatric emergencies 526
management of 527b
Psychogenic non-epileptic events 284
Psychological trauma 535
Psychosis 579
Psychosocial crisis 527
Ptosis 581
Pull-push technique 911
Pulmonary artery 216, 257
banding 216
hypertension 216
Pulmonary atresia 213, 254, 749f, 755f, 759
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 679
Pulmonary circulation 684
Pulmonary contusion, right sided 820
Pulmonary disease 61, 80, 110, 131
intrinsic 129
Pulmonary disorders 110
Pulmonary edema 37, 85, 129, 142, 260, 270, 271, 440, 487, 587, 588, 591, 766
treat 588
Pulmonary effects 562
Pulmonary embolism 79, 576
Pulmonary exacerbations 192
Pulmonary function, monitoring of 577
Pulmonary hemorrhage 538, 542f, 736
Pulmonary hypertension 125, 175, 927
persistent 216, 754
Pulmonary hypoplasia 652
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema 93
Pulmonary over circulation 752
Pulmonary renal syndrome 538, 541
Pulmonary stenosis 216, 754
Pulmonary symptoms 392
Pulmonary toxicity 61, 635
Pulmonary vascular
congestion 588
resistance 188, 254
Pulmonary vasoconstriction 188, 653
Pulmonary venous drainage 752
Pulmonary-renal syndrome 541
Pulp inflammations 861
Pulpal tissue 862
Pulpitis, acute 863
Pulse 71
oximetry 37, 99, 181, 251, 671
oxygen saturation on 177
pressure 71
rate 436
volume 381, 680
Pulseless
electrical activity 49, 55, 55f
ventricular tachycardia 55f
Pulselessness 846
Puncture site, management of 884
Pupillary size and reactivity 290
Pupils, reactivity of 289
Purified chick embryo cell vaccine 491
Purpura 283
post-transfusion 143
Purpuric macules 512f
Purulent cervical discharge 798
Pus, drainage of 838
Pustulosis, acute generalized exanthematous 461, 511
Pyelonephritis 268
Pyloric atresia 779
Pyloric muscle
diameter 783
thickness 783
Pyloric stenosis 649f, 650f
congenital hypertrophic 783
Pyloric stricture, balloon dilatation of 649f
Pyogenic meningitis 305f
Pyrethrin 629, 631
Pyrethroid
insecticides 631
poisoning, management of 631
Pyridostigmine 83, 938
Pyridoxine 354, 698
dependency 354
Pyrimethamine 441, 442
Pyruvate dehydrogenase 349, 350
Q
QT syndrome
congenital long 249
long 219, 242
short 219
Quadriparesis 325
Quinine 276, 443
salt 443
Quinolones 267
R
Rabies 301, 336, 338, 339, 492t, 595
immunoglobulin 489, 491, 939
monoclonal antibody 491, 597
pep for 490t
post-exposure prophylaxis for 489
prevention 596
prophylaxis of 596
vaccination against 491
virus 298, 489
vaccine 939
zoonotic disease 489
Radial nerve 842
Radiant warmer, use of 268
Radiation
dose, lowest 819
injury 67
therapy 403, 404
Radiocontrast dye and exercise 95
Ranitidine 382, 556, 939
Rasburicase 408, 939
Rash 278, 475, 488
Reactions, severe 583
Reagent paper strips 706
Rebound tenderness 797
Recognition bundle 3, 15, 70
Rectal and pelvic examination 798
Rectal prolapse 379
Rectal temperature 771
Rectal thermometry 453
Rectal varices 379, 380
Rectal washouts 785
Rectourethral fistula, perineal appearance of 780f
Recurrent hemolytic anemia, severe 351
Red blood cell 135, 136, 275, 278, 455, 675
component transfusion 139
concentrates 136
enzyme abnormalities 723
membrane defects 723
washed 138
Red cell
antigen D 137
components 136
distribution 963
transfusion, indications for 139t
Red currant jelly stools 801
Red flag signs 155, 796, 797b
Referring hospital, responsibilities of 794
Reflex irritability 654
Reflolux 706
Reflux hypertensive crisis 265
Refractory anaphylaxis, treatment of 100
Regiscar dress scoring stystem 511t
Regular suctioning 177
Regurgitant lesions 202
Regurgitation, aortic 216
Rehabilitation 558
Rehydration 357, 358
fluid 359
phase 362
plan of 435
Reiter's syndrome 460
Removal from water 563
Renal angina
index 269, 269t
score 269
Renal artery stenosis 268
Renal biopsy 269
Renal cystic disease 276
Renal disturbance 430
Renal dysfunction 259, 262, 287, 314, 412, 571, 806fc
degree of 805
Renal effects 93
Renal emergencies 266
Renal failure 109, 125, 392, 478, 488, 538, 601, 845
acute 611
chronic 117
coexistent 210
Renal function 806
monitoring of 572, 577
test 142, 292, 347, 644, 682
Renal impairment 477
Renal injury 808
Renal insufficiency 263
Renal involvement 545, 582, 713
Renal losses 114
Renal parameters 286
Renal physiology, neonatal 762
Renal pressure-natriuresis 111
Renal replacement therapy 270, 271, 273, 444, 767, 903
Renal toxicity 142
Renal trauma, management of 810fc
Renal tubular
acidosis 104, 125, 126, 712, 713, 811
cells 478
dysfunction 640
necrosis, acute 418
Renal vein 268, 276
Renal water excretion, normalize 111
Renin-angiotensin 805
Renin-secreting tumor 128
Renovascular disease 128
Replacement therapy 577
Rescue breathing 563
Rescue therapy 576
Residual capacity, functional 86f, 562
Respiration 49, 411
depth of 255
mitochondrial 644
muscle of 78
normal 52
pattern of 289
Respiratory acidosis 127, 129, 130, 351, 773
causes of 129t
Respiratory activity, spontaneous 89
Respiratory alkalosis 131
causes of 131t
Respiratory center depression 256
abolishes hyperpnea, morphine induced 256
Respiratory conditions 669
Respiratory depression 657
Respiratory disease 34, 61
Respiratory distress 36, 52, 64, 77, 79, 81, 169, 444, 652, 654, 655, 657, 663, 664t, 671, 675, 676b, 676t, 749, 751, 754, 778, 781, 807
causes of 653t, 669, 669t
etiology of 673t, 675t
management of 674
recognition of 670
severe 665
severity of 670
surgical causes of 779t
syndrome 88, 664, 671, 772, 672f, 674fc
Respiratory effects 93, 635
Respiratory effort 36
Respiratory emergency 153
Respiratory equipment 18
Respiratory failure 49, 77, 82, 85, 176, 178, 287, 405, 591, 669
causes of 92
management of 195, 196fc
neonatal 670
pathogenesis of 670
pathophysiology of 670
type 1 77
type 2 77
Respiratory function, rapid evaluation of 36
Respiratory illnesses 187, 198, 801
Respiratory infection, upper 277
Respiratory insufficiency 56
Respiratory manifestations 647
Respiratory muscle 35
fatigue 78
paralysis 78
Respiratory pattern 290
Respiratory physiology 85
Respiratory problems, types of acute 37t
Respiratory rate 5t, 36, 156, 180, 415, 436, 773
higher 36
Respiratory support 81, 655, 675
equipment 791
noninvasive 177
Respiratory symptoms 797
Respiratory syncytial virus 174, 175, 858
Respiratory system 58, 123, 370, 429
upper 96
Respiratory tract
anatomy of 899
infection, upper 155, 169, 174, 864
Respiratory weakness 320
Response to fluids 72
Restlessness 528
Restrictive cardiomyopathy 216
Restrictive respiratory disease 78
Resuscitation 576, 655, 920
bay 20
bundle 3, 70
discontinuation of 657
room 19, 20
Reticulocytosis 391, 399
Reticuloendothelial system 722
Retina, neonatal 61
Retinal hemorrhage 259, 260, 405
Retroglottic airways 45
Reye's syndrome 300, 347, 351
Rh negative 137
Rhabdomyolysis 287, 473, 569
Rhabdomyosarcoma 854
Rhesus
blood typing 137
isoimmunization 658, 909
Rheumatic disorder 538
Rheumatic emergencies 538
Rheumatic fever 203, 216, 460
Rheumatic heart disease 203, 216
Rheumatoid arthritis 639
Rhinitis
allergic 99
bacterial 857
Rhinovirus 179
Riboflavin 354
Rickettsia 336
Rickettsial diseases 485b, 487
classification of 482t
pathophysiology of 483fc
Rickettsial fever 484
Rickettsial infection 461, 482, 484, 488
management of 486fc
Rifampicin 267, 330, 488, 939
prophylaxis 332
Rifampin 939
Right bundle branch block 228f
Right to life and dignity 7
Right ventricular outflow tract 239
Rimantadine 345
Ringer's lactate 105, 358, 360, 361, 450, 570
solution 127
Risperidone 939
Rocky mountain spotted fever 460, 485
Rocuronium 42, 97, 816, 926
Rodenticides 628, 629
Room air on pulse oximetry 176
Root cause analysis 32
Roseola infantum 460-462, 468, 469
Ross classification 210t
Rotavirus 336, 357, 362
Routine essential care after birth 656b
Rovsing sign 800
Rubella 337, 339, 460-462, 468, 469
virus 336
Rubeola 460
Rule of five 550, 551f
Rule of hand 550
Rule of nine 551f
Rule of palm 550
Rule out meningitis 10
Russel's viper 580
S
Safe blood transfusion services 136
Safety and medication errors 29
Salbutamol 178, 271, 702
inhalation 116
Salicylate 125, 126, 604
Saliva, drooling of 655, 781
Salivary glands 440
Salivation 630
Salmonella 357
typhi 460, 461, 839
Salpingitis 520
Salpingo-oophorectomy 519
Salt and water retention 262
Salt poisoning 111, 113
Sandifer syndrome 284
Sandpaper feel 463
Sarcoidosis 318, 465
Sarcoma 402
botryoides 521
Saw scaled viper 580, 582
Scalar waveforms 88f
Scald burn 575
Scalp vein needle 874f
Scaphoid abdomen 655, 671
Scar 579
Scarlet fever 463, 465, 468, 469, 509
treatment of 509
Schistocytes 399
Schistosoma 336
Schmidt syndrome 431
Scleroderma renal crisis 538
Sclerosis
amyotrophic lateral 129
multiple 882
Scoring systems in emergency department 22
Scorpion 585
antivenom 590
bite, treatment of 589
clinical features of 587f
envenomation 585, 589, 590, 591t
management of 591t
severity of 585, 588b
stings 585
venom 586
Scottish Inter-Collegiate Guideline Network 157
Scrotum 810
acute 808
empty 812f
Scrub typhus 298
Sealing puncture site 890
Sebaceous glands 553
Second line therapy 314
Secondary survey 599, 818
Sedation 145, 148t, 262, 883
conscious 146
deep 146
moderate 146
principles of 146
reduces release, morphine induced 256
role of 342
scores 147
Seizure 57, 83, 110, 262, 271, 280, 281, 285, 305f, 325, 326, 330, 370, 405, 542, 636, 690t, 829
acute symptomatic 281
classification of 280, 280f
control of 314, 343
disorder 244f, 811
etiology of 281
generalized 281
mimics 690
refractory 349, 355
neonatal 696, 697
subclinical 689
suspected neonatal 691t
types 281t
unclassified 281
unprovoked 281
Seldinger technique 876, 878f
Self-inflating bag 40
Sellick maneuver 44f
Sensorial disturbances 110
Sensorineural hearing loss 325, 326
Sensorium
irritability 68
lethargy 68
Sepsis 69, 83, 181, 202, 347, 376, 664, 702, 767, 772
associated encephalopathy 297
management of 757, 767
severe 70t
signs of 741
Septal deviation 857
Septic arthritis 454, 544, 838f
sequale of 545f
Septic hip 837
Septic shock 69, 70
management 74
Septicemia 362, 503
Serious bacterial infections 453
Serotonin 551, 845
syndrome 528
Serum
ammonia 292, 351
amylase 802
anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 304
bicarbonate 126
bilirubin 142, 667, 722
elevated 722
measurement of 728
calcium 423, 666
electrolytes 106, 286, 329, 667, 681
haptoglobin 638
reduced 399
haptoglobulin 142
osmolality 602
osmolality, low 107
protein and albumin 106
tryptase level 98
Severe disease, risk factors for 180
Sexual abuse 867, 867b, 868b
clinical features of 868
Sexual assault 521, 523, 524, 867
Sexually abuse child 867, 869
Shagreen patch 283
Shaken baby syndrome 821
Shigella 357
Shock 68, 70, 75, 98, 129, 436fc, 440, 444, 647, 652, 654, 662, 663, 665, 678, 682, 702, 750, 817
acute 204, 213
cardiogenic 69, 71, 75, 203, 225, 251, 562, 587, 679
clinical features of 71t
cold septic 72
compensated 71, 678
correct 636
end points of 73, 73t
etiologies of 69t
hypotensive 71
intensity 574
intravenous inotropes for 211
invasive monitoring 73
management of 436, 583, 658, 682, 683, 685
monitoring of 73
noninvasive methods 73
obstructive 69, 75
pathophysiology of 68
pharmacotherapy of 682
present 665
recognition of 70
refractory 71, 684
states 64
syndrome 538
treatment of 59, 785
types of 69, 69t
uncompensated 678
Shockable rhythm 55
Shoulder
roll 665
umbilical length 916
Shuddering attack 284
Shukla's method 916
Sick child
pediatrician contact with 1
transfer of 24
transport of 24
Sick day guidelines 418
Sick neonate 664
Sick newborn 661
Sickle cell
anemia 389, 391, 836
crisis 389
disease 390t, 909, 912, 913t
trait 389
Signs intracranial pressure 311t
Sildenafil 927
Silver
nitrate solution 556
sulfadiazine 556
Silverman-Anderson score 670t
Simultaneous exchange 911
Sinus
arrest 249f
arrhythmias 608
atrial node dysfunction 248
bradycardia 218, 248
secondary 248
severe 249f
node dysfunction 248, 249, 249f
node function, intrinsic anomalies of 248
tachycardia 218
Sinusitis 454
complications of 857
Sitaxentan 212
Sjogren syndrome 538
Skeletal infection, signs of 839
Sketelal dysostosis 283
Skin 71, 96
ashen pallor of 588
coagulation of 549
failure, pathophysiology of acute 500fc
generalized desquamation of 464f
grafting 557
compromised 67
lesion, type of 459
losses 114
rash 459t
types of 459t
substitutes 557
temperature 771
to skin contact 775
turgor 108
Skipped beats 218, 220
Skull fracture 822, 824f
growing 823
Slapped cheeks 462
Sleep
deprivation 30
myoclonus, benign 284, 690
Small bowel
bleeding 378
endoscopy 381
Small-for-gestational age 718
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome 422, 424
Smoke inhalation 67
Smooth muscle tissues 606
Snake
envenomation 580
signs of 580
venom 580
Snakebite 320, 580, 582t
pre-hospital management of 582b
prevent 583
systemic complications of 581b
Snow-storm appearance 206f
Sodium 104, 416, 937
bicarbonate 116, 127, 271, 927
channel blockers 245
chloride 360
excess 111
homeostasis, disorders of 106
hydroxide 646
hypochlorite 646
levels 412
nitroglycerin 262, 263
nitroprusside 262
reabsorption 111
resonium 271
Soft peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion 905
Soft silastic catheter 904
Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome 379, 380, 380f
Solute clearance, rapid 272
Somatostatin 382
Sore throat 181
Sound control 19, 473, 475
Spastic quadriplegia 108
Specific therapies 75, 213, 270, 353
Speech problem 392
Spermatic cord torsion 808
Spherocytes 399
Sphincter tone 798
Spinal compression syndrome 403
Spinal cord 78, 317, 318, 403
lower end of 883f
Spinal muscular atrophy 195
Spinal radiography 403
Spine, swelling over 654
Spironolactone 211, 212
Splenic rupture 440
Splenic sequestration, acute 391
Spontaneous breath 89
trials 92
Spontaneous circulation, post-return of 51
Squatting equivalents 256f
St Louis encephalitis virus 336
Stable accidental poisoned 605
Staphylococcal
enterotoxins 463, 474
exotoxins 474
pneumonia 184t
scalded skin syndrome 460, 463, 468, 469, 507
toxic shock syndrome 460, 474
Staphylococcus
aureus 167, 179, 181, 184, 298, 330, 393, 422, 461, 463, 471, 474, 507, 509, 513, 544, 556, 836, 839
pneumonia 180
epidermidis 393
infections 557
Start antibiotics 785
Startle disease 690
Starvation 125
Static compliance 85
Status asthmaticus 153
physiologic changes in 188
Status epilepticus 281, 286b, 926, 927, 932
classification of 281, 281t
complications of 285
drug therapy in 286t
refractory 925
Steeple sign 169
Stem cell therapy 214
Stenosis 77
aortic 216
Stereotypies 284
Steroid 159, 306, 331, 403, 457, 527, 543, 583, 684
biosynthesis, defects of 421
induced gastrointestinal bleed 538
role of 487
Steroidogenesis, adrenal 420
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein 420
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 461, 465f, 511, 512f, 513t
Stiff peritoneal dialysis catheter 904
Stiff-man syndrome, congenital 690
Stoma, site of 899
Stool examination, complete 380
Storage disorders 283, 712
Straddle injury 523
Strangulated hernia 805
Streptococcal
pyogenes 508
toxic shock syndrome 476, 477t
Streptococcus 595
agalactiae 324
pneumoniae 167, 178-181, 323, 324, 329, 330, 341, 389, 393, 454, 544, 839, 856, 886
pyogenes 179, 181, 393, 508, 839, 859
species 859
viridans 393
Stress 27, 350
cardiomyopathy 287
ulcers 377
Strict aseptic technique 904
Stridor 99, 167, 655
acute onset 169
age of onset of 168
causes of 168t, 170t
management of 169
rapidity of onset of 169
Stroke 309, 405
Stronger acid 123
Stupor 405
Subarachnoid hemorrhages, traumatic 825
Subclavian vein 878
cannulation of 879f
Subcutaneous tissues 446
Subdural
effusion 325, 326
empyema 326
hematoma 824, 825f
Subfalcine herniation 293
Subglottic stenosis 899
Sublingual nifedipine 264
Subluxation 862
Submucosal vascular thrombosis 646
Subpulmonary infundibulum 256
Substantia nigra 340f
Subtle seizures 689
Subtropical regions 585
Subxiphoid approach 892
Succinylcholine 42, 816, 927
Suction equipment 791
Sudden cardiac arrest, causes of 51t
Sudden infant death 347
Sudden tetanic spasms 574
Sugar 329
Suicidal behavior 532
Suicidal risk assessment 533t
Suicidality screening 532b
Sulfadoxine 441
pyrimethamine 439
Sulfamethoxazole 365, 512
Sulfasalazine 512
Sulfhydryl groups 642
Sulfonamides 267, 465
Sulfuric acid 646
Sumatriptan 939
Superwarfarins 604
Supplemental oxygen 675
Support vital functions 599
Supportive care 474, 477, 603
Supportive therapy 329, 416, 443, 476, 479
Supracondylar fracture 842
Supracondylar humerus fracture 842, 843, 843f
Supraglottic
airways 45
cyst 899
Supraventricular tachycardia, neonatal 758t
Surfactant administration 88
Surgery 214, 403
Surgical emergencies, neonatal 778
Surgical management 383
Sustained low efficiency dialysis 273
Suture room 19
Suxamethonium 97
Sweating 528, 566
Swelling, bilateral thalamic 302f
Swiss cheese model 31
Synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation 88
Syncope 255, 284
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone 155
causes of 110
secretion 107, 110, 288, 325, 343, 408
Syndromic causes 118
Synergism 151
Synovial fluid 106
Synthetic skin substitutes 558
Syphilis 298, 460
System related changes 31
Systemic acidosis 390
Systemic antibiotics 555, 556
Systemic causes 857
Systemic corticosteroid therapy 159
Systemic diseases 275
Systemic effects 575
Systemic envenomation, severe 591
Systemic hypoperfusion 253
Systemic infections 276
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome 22, 365, 804
Systemic lupus erythematosus 276, 302, 318, 460, 461, 465, 539
Systemic sclerosis 538
Systemic sepsis 841
Systemic vascular resistance 73, 254, 255, 257, 679
T
T cell receptor 474
Tachyarrhythmia 213, 427, 752, 753, 758
correct 257
pathogenesis of pediatric 218
Tachycardia 68, 96, 229f-231f, 262-264, 528, 569, 586-588, 600
bradycardia syndrome 248
induced cardiomyopathy 228, 231f
intra-atrial reentrant 233, 235f
reflex 262
supraventricular 218, 221, 753f
wide complex 240f
Tachyphylaxis 262
Tachypnea 68, 130, 174, 180, 180t, 405, 454, 600, 669, 670
Tacrolimus 267
Takayasu arteritis 204, 538
Tandem mass spectrometry 304, 348, 693
Tapping fluid 889
Targeted de-resuscitation 75
Taurine 108
Tazobactam 185, 937
Techniques in airway management 38
Teeth, upper posterior 864
Temperature 600, 793
control 294, 831
disturbances, classification of 770t
injuries 566
minor 568
predisposing factors for 567
measurement 771
Temporal gray matter 825
Temporomandibular ankylosis 83
Tenckhoff catheter, single cuff 904f
Tenderness, abdominal 446
Tenofovir 267
Tension pneumothorax 82, 896
Terbutaline 161, 702, 928, 940
Terlipressin 382
Tertiary care centers 788
Testis 808
Tetani 471
Tetanolysin 471
Tetanospasmin 471
Tetanus 83, 471, 595, 690
generalized 472
immune globulin 940
neonatal 472, 664, 666
prevention 596
severity of 472, 472t
Tetany 408
Tetracycline 488
Tetrahydrobiopterin 354
Tetraiodothyronine 428
Tetralogy of Fallot 217, 254, 255, 664
Thallium 318
Theophylline 161, 767
Therapeutic aspiration 889
Therapeutic enema 785
Therapeutic hypothermia 314
Therapeutic plasma exchange 543
Therapeutic procedures 145
Thermal
care 674
dysregulation 287
energy 573
issues 792
support equipment 791
Thermometry 567
Thermoneutral environment 771
Thermoregulation 566, 567t
Thiamine 354
Thiosulfate 262
Third line therapy 315
Thoracentesis 895
Thoracic inlet 858
Thoracic rib cage 808
Thoracic ultrasound-guided aspiration 895
Thoracocentesis 894
Thoracolumbar spine X-rays 818
Thoracoscopic surgery, video-assisted 181
Thorax 818
Thrombin C time 737
Thrombin time 742
Thrombocyte count 965
Thrombocytopenia 395, 396, 408, 478, 736, 738
childhood 396fc
drug related 377
early onset 738
heparin-induced 142
treatment of 738
Thromboembolic phenomenon 918
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 141, 268, 396, 399, 484, 485
Thrombus 538
Thumb sign 169
Thunderstorm 579
Thyroid
cancer 402
emergencies 427
hormone replacement therapy 431
stimulating immunoglobulin 427, 428
storm 427, 428
diagnosis of 428
medical management of 429t
Thyrotoxic crisis 427
Thyrotoxicosis 427
neonatal 427
Thyroxine 969
Tibial metaphysis, upper 841f
Tick paralysis 318, 319, 322
Tics 284
Tigecycline 477
Tilt-chin lift carries 816
Tinnitus 405
Tissue
culture vaccines, modern 489, 491
metabolic demands of 68
oxygen delivery 68
perfusion 61, 75
resistance 574
Tityus serrulatus scorpion 588
Tobramycin 556, 852
Tocolytic therapy 702
Toilet cleaner 646
Tolvaptan 212
Tone and tendon reflexes 292
Tongue, falling back of 665
Tonic clonic seizures 637
Tonsillitis 81
Tooth, fracture of 863
Topical therapy 556
Topiramate 697, 698
Torch infection 687
Torsades de pointes 219, 242, 244f, 430, 635
run of 244f
Torsemide 211, 212
Torsion 808
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection 216, 747
Total body
cooling 571
surface area 549, 553
water 103
Total leukocyte counts 644
Toxic
blood 610
disorders 339
epidermal necrolysis 461, 508, 511
hydrocarbons, highly 636
plants 606
shock syndrome 463, 465, 468, 469, 471, 475t, 508
Toxicity
acute 643, 644
chronic 643
common modes of 641
Toxicology
exposure 639
field of 599
screen 367, 602
Toxidrome 599, 600, 600t, 601t
Toxin 125, 320, 604
action, mechanism of 471
block 480
mediated diseases 471, 471t
neutralization 477, 479
removal of 354
screening 286
Toxins, neutralization of 473
Toxoplasma 336
Toxoplasmosis 886
T-piece resuscitator 656f
Trachea
foreign body in 170
upper part of 41
Tracheal stenosis 81, 169
Tracheal tube placement 41
Tracheitis, bacterial 167-171
Tracheoesophageal fistula 778, 779, 784, 786
Tracheomalacia 169
Tracheostomy 45, 899
care 901
complications of 901, 901t
high 899
landmarks 901f
low 899
mid 899
tube 46t, 900, 900f
types of 46f
types of 899
Tranexamic acid 522
Transaminitis 302f
Transcellular fluids 106
Transcranial Doppler 311
Transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse 495
Transcutaneous bilirubinometer 728, 729f
Transfusion
infectious complications of 143
reactions, delayed 143
related acute lung injury 142, 392
single volume exchange 731
transmitted
diseases 143
infections 136
Transient cranial nerve dysfunction 326
Transient hyperammone 348
Transient leukopenia 556
Transient neonatal hypoglycemia 702
Transient tachypnea 671, 672f
Transillumination of chest 672
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt 383
Transmission, mode of 497
Transmit infections 594
Transmit rabies 597
Transmural involvement 646
Transport incubator 790f
Transport team, pediatric 25
Transpulmonary pressure, excessive 93
Transverse lie 660
Transverse myelitis 318, 319, 321, 322, 538
Trauma 376, 521, 527, 801, 899
childhood 819
major 141
management, basic principles of 814
patients, multiple system 150
physical 597
Traumatic axonal injury 826, 828f
Traumatic brain injuries 296, 309, 819, 821, 833
Traumatic injuries 861, 862
Traumatic intrusion 862f
Treacher Collins syndrome 658
Trearing urticaria 507t
Treatment facility 359
Treponema pallidum 341
Triage 527, 814
Triamterene 267
Trichomonas, protocol for 871
Triclofos 148
sodium 148
Tricuspid atresia 216, 664, 749f
Tricuspid regurgitation 217
Tricyclic antidepressants 604
Triiodothyronine 969
Trimethoprim 365
Triple antibiotic cream 556
Triple-A syndrome 422
Trisodium citrate 360
Tromethamine 127
Truncal weakness 318
Trypanosomes 336
Tryptase 98
Tube thoracostomy 896
Tubercular meningitis 298, 301, 303, 327
Tubercules 802
Tuberculosis 110, 303
abdominal 802
adrenal 424
Tuberculous meningitis 110, 304f
Tubo-ovarian abscess 520
Tumor 309, 318, 376
lysis syndrome 393, 407, 927
pathophysiology of 408fc
necrosis factor 325
alpha 190
Tunica albuginea 810
Turpentine 634, 635
oil poisoning 638
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome 268
Tympanic membrane
displacement 312
rupture 576
Tympanic thermometry 567
Typhlitis 406
Typhoid 297
Typhus 460
Typical atrial flutter 234f
Typical cerebrospinal fluid 303t
Tyrosinemia 354, 367
Tzanck smear 508
U
Ulcer
disease 384
superficial 648f
traumatic 861
Ulceration, medication-induced 377
Ulcerative colitis 379
Ulcerative gingivitis, acute necrotizing 863
Ulnar nerve 842
Ultrasonography 278, 311, 888
Ultrasound abdomen 377
Umbilical artery 912f
catheterization 911, 915
causes of failed 916
removal of 918
Umbilical catheters 916t, 917f
Umbilical cord 658
Umbilical venous
cannulation 658
catheter 911f, 912f
complications of 917
removal of 918
Umbilical vessel 915f
catheter 917, 917t
complications with 918t
equipment required for 916t
indications of 915t
Umbilicus 801
Uncal herniation 293
Unconsciousness 663
Undescended testis 805
Unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis 83
Unintentional injuries 814
Uniphasic anaphylaxis 97
Unknown origin
fever of 453, 457
pyrexia of 457
Unstable airway 82
Upper airway 46
obstruction 37, 81
Upper anterior teeth, lateral luxation of 862f
Upper gastrointestinal
angioectasias 385
bleeding 375, 378f, 384fc
etiology of 376t
management of 382
non-ulcer 385t
non-variceal 385t
endoscopy 648f, 649, 649f
Upper humerus fracture, bilateral 826f
Upper limb 881
Upper molar roots, proximity of 864f
Upper motor neuron 321
Urapidil 264
Urate oxidase 408
Urea 181, 415
cycle
defect 367
disorders 350
Uremic pericarditis 271
Ureteral injuries, causes of 807
Ureteral obstruction 268
Ureteral trauma 808
Ureteropelvic obstruction 276
Urethral prolapse 521
Urethral stone 811
Urethral stricture 268
Urethral trauma 808
Urethral valve
posterior 268, 778, 786, 806f, 812
management of 806fc
Urethrography, retrograde 808
Urethrorrhagia 276
Uretropelvic junction obstruction 805
Uric acid 407
reduction 408
Urinalysis 278, 602, 970
Urinary ammonium 126
Urinary anion gap 126
Urinary ascites
congenital 804
treatment of neonatal 807fc
Urinary bladder 278
Urinary catheter patency 554
Urinary chloride 129
Urinary infection, control 811
Urinary investigations 798
Urinary mercury 642
Urinary osmolal gap 126
Urinary osmolality, measurement of 112
Urinary retention 519
Urinary tract 811
congenital malformation of 268
dilatation, upper 806fc
infection 276, 278, 454, 457, 802, 805, 810
Urination 630
Urine 269, 714
abnormal 714
absorption of 807
alkalinization of 408
dipstick 278
discoloration of 577
examination 106
gas chromatography 348
glucose 415
hemoglobin tests 644
ketone bodies 351
osmolality 106, 329
output 411, 678, 680
monitoring 583
protein 644
sodium concentration 111
test 351
volume 111
Urokinase 181
Urolithiasis 805
management of 811fc
pediatric 810
Urological emergencies 804t
suspected 804
Uropathy, obstructive 804-806
Urticaria 505, 506, 506f, 514, 583
acute 506, 507
and angioedema 501, 505, 514
causes of 506t
chronic 507
idiopathic 101
hemorrhagic lesions of 506
management of 507fc
Urticarial rash 97
Urticarial vasculitis 506
Uveitis 921
V
Vaccination 332
Vaginal adhesions 513
Vaginal bleeding 517
Vaginal discharge 520
Valproate 697, 698, 865
Valproic acid 927
Valvuloplasty 213
Vancomycin 185, 267, 306, 330, 393, 838, 940
resistant 330
Variceal bleeding 382
Varicella 929
pleomorphic rash of 462f
zoster 338
encephalitis 344
immune globulin 940
virus 179, 298, 303, 336, 337, 339, 367
Variola 336
Vascular abnormalities 276
Vascular access 56, 873
Vascular endothelium 589
Vascular malformation 156, 376, 377
Vascular ring 81
Vasculitic neuropathy 319, 322
Vasculitis 318, 538, 541
Vasoactive drugs 683t
Vasoactive therapy 72
Vasodilators 211, 212, 590
Vaso-occlusive crisis 390
Vasopressin 56, 57, 99, 928
Vasopressors 56, 658, 767
Vector-borne parasitic infectious disease 439
Vecuronium 42, 315, 816, 940
Vena cava
superior 749f, 876
syndrome, superior 401, 402
Venomous snakes 580
Veno-occlusive disease 367
Venous cannulation, steps in 876
Venous pressure 845
Venous thromboembolism 405
incidence of 405
Venovenous
hemodiafiltration 273
hemofiltration 273
Ventilation 313, 370, 564, 817
adequate 817
controllers 87
effective 656
failure of 78, 78t
high frequency 90, 675
minute 62, 85, 89
noninvasive 85, 162, 188, 189
perfusion
imbalance 79
scan 405
pressure
control 87, 88f, 89t
support 89
pressure-limited 189
support 654
volume control 88
with bag and mask, rate of 41t
Ventilator
mode 88, 189
parameters 189
settings 90
transport 790f
Ventricular assist devices 214
Ventricular contractions, premature 218, 219
Ventricular drainage, external 827f
Ventricular dysfunction 201
severe 214
Ventricular fibrillation 49, 55, 55f, 227f, 245f, 574, 635
Ventricular pre-excitation 226
Ventricular septal defect 214, 217, 751, 752, 759
Ventricular tachycardia 49, 55, 218, 635
Ventriculitis 325
Venturi devices 64t
Venturi mask 64, 64f
Venturi system, advantages of 64
Verapamil 941
Vertigo 569
Vesicoureteric junction 805
Vest therapy devices, different types of 198f
Vibrio cholerae 361
Vigabatrin 697, 698
Vigorous
neonates 655
respiratory muscle 78
shivering 571
Vincent angina 478
Vincristine 318
Viper bites 582
Viperidae 580
groups 580
Viral encephalitides, clinical features of 338t
Viral encephalitis 303, 304f, 339t, 341, 345t
Viral exanthematous illness 283
Viral hemorrhagic cystitis 276
Viral illnesses 35
Viral infection 141, 175, 318, 454, 461
positive identification of 337
Viral keratitis 852
Viral meningitis 327
Viral myositis 318
Viral pneumonias 180
Virus 179, 298, 345
infections, slow 336
Visceral injury, risk of 895
Visceral pain 796
Viscosity hydrocarbons, low 638
Vision 57
loss, acute 538
Visual impairment 325
Vital signs, normal 36t
Vitamin
B12
deficiency 430
disorders of 714
B6 810
C 437
D 437
deficiency 117
metabolism 117
E 354, 437
K 381, 437, 608, 737, 745, 937
deficiency 376
deficiency bleeding 737
prophylaxis 397
K1 666, 743
replacement 428
therapy 719
Vocal cord 35f
dysfunction 171
paralysis 81, 168, 170
Voice, hoarseness of 169, 647
Voiding cysto-urethrogram 805
Volkmann's ischemic contracture 846
Voltage gated potassium channels 301
Volume resuscitation 682
Volume-controlled ventilation 88f
Volvulus 800
Vomiting 128, 268, 262, 300, 418, 427, 569, 631, 647
bilious 780, 797
persistent 446
von Willebrand
disease 396, 397, 521, 739
factor 397, 737
Vulvo-vaginitis 521
W
Wallace's rule of nines 550
Warfarin 604, 941
Warm delivery room 775
Warm resuscitation 775
Warm septic shock 72
Warm transport 776
Waste material disposal 884
Water and electrolytes, loss of 357
Water balance, regulation of 104
Water loss 111
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome 422
Watery stools 358
Weaning 66, 92
failure 92
prerequisites for 92t
Wegener granulomatosis 461
Weil-Felix test 485
interpretation of 485t
Wenckebach pattern 235f, 246
West Nile
encephalitis 298
encephalomyelitis 319, 322
fever 299
virus 143, 299, 301, 317, 318, 336, 448
encephalitis 335
Wheeze 181, 187, 635
White blood
cell 138t, 455
corpuscle 563
White cell count 181, 372, 404
White reflex 850f
Whole blood 136, 138
clotting test 582
Whole bowel irrigation 603
Wild mushroom poisoning 607
Williams syndrome 118
Wilms tumor 278
Wilson's disease 366, 367, 371, 528
index 371, 372t
Wireless capsule endoscopy 381
Wolf-Chaikoff effect 428
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome 222, 225
Wolman disease 422, 424
Wood's theory 255
World Congress of Drowning 561
World Health Organization 297, 433, 523, 535, 639
Worm infestation 802
Worsen systemic toxicity 636
Worsening consciousness 829
Wound
care 489, 595
infection 595
treatment of 595
X
Xanthine oxidase inhibitor 408
Xanthochromia 885
Xanthurenic aciduria 354
Xenografts 557
Y
Yersinia
enterocolitica 461
pestis 460, 461
Z
Z score 546
Zika virus 460
Zinc
deficiency 361
sulfate 941
supplementation 357, 361
Zoledronic acid 267
Zubrow's charts 681
×
Chapter Notes

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Principles of Pediatric and Neonatal Emergencies
Principles of Pediatric and Neonatal Emergencies
4th Edition
Editor-in-Chief Piyush Gupta MD FIAP FNNF FAMS Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital New Delhi, India President-Elect, Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2020 Chief Academic Editors Arvind Bagga MD FIAP FAMS FISN Professor Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India Siddarth Ramji MD FNNF Director-Professsor Department of Neonatology Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak Hospital New Delhi, India Academic Editors Krishan Chugh MD MNAMS FISCCM Director and Head Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Fortis Memorial Research Institute Gurugram, Haryana, India Rakesh Lodha MD Professor Department of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India Executive Editors Pooja Dewan MD MNAMS FIAP Professor Division of Hemato-Oncology Department of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India Jaya Shankar Kaushik MD DNB DM Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences Rohtak, Haryana, India Managing Editor Dheeraj Shah MD FIAP MNAMS Professor Department of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital New Delhi, India Forewords Digant D Shastri, Bakul Jayant Parekh
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Principles of Pediatric and Neonatal Emergencies
First Edition: 1994
Second Edition: 2004
Third Edition: 2011
Fourth Edition: 2020
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