How to Write the Thesis and Thesis Protocol: A Primer for Medical, Dental, and Nursing Courses Piyush Gupta, Dheeraj Shah
Abbreviations 175
glossary of 21
in the title 47
Acknowledgments 20
Acronyms 175
Accountability 98
Aim 13, 60
vs. objectives 60, 61t
Aim and objectives 13, 6065
aligning with title 62
in a manuscript-based thesis 210
in protocol 199
steps to formulate 64t
translating research question to 61
Allocation concealment 40, 80
Alpha error 87
Alternate hypothesis 28
Analytical studies 36
Ancillary data 128, 129
Animations 190
Annexure 16
in protocol 201
Appendices 16, 21
Applied research 26
Area under the curve 38
Assent 99
Authorship 169b, 205
in a graph 135
Bar chart 136f
Baseline data 80, 124
Basic research 26
Beneficence 97
Beta error 87
Bibliography 154
in a manuscript-based thesis 211
Binary logistic regression analysis 115
Binding 22
Blinding 40, 80
Block randomization 40
Boolean operators 55, 56
Boxplot 135f
of a graph 135
Case record form 22, 106108, 200, 212
Case studies 44t
Case-control study 36, 37f, 44t
objective of 63
Categorical data 110
Central tendency
measures of 111
of consent 102b
of participation 99
of thesis 20f
Charts 189
Citing 154
Clinical informatics 58
Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI)
ClipArt 190
Clipboard 55
Cluster randomization 40
Cochrane collaboration 41
Cochrane database of systematic reviews 57
Cochrane library 57
Cohen's d 89
Cohort 36
Cohort study 36, 37f, 44t
objective of 63
Collective nouns 178
Columns 134
Comma 176
Comma separated lists 177
Comparison group 79
Complete plagiarism 167t
Conclusion 15, 143147
do's and don'ts 144
errors in writing 145
essential elements of 143
sample 144
styles of 146t
using tense in 145t
in a manuscript-based thesis 211
Confidence interval 86, 120
Confidence level 120
Confidence limits
for calculating sample size 92
Confidentiality 101b
Confounder 37
Consent form 22
CONSORT 44, 77
flow diagram 126f
Consortium for academic and research ethics (CARE) 58
Continuous data 110
Control group 79
selection of 37
Convenience sampling 79
Correlation 113
and regression 115b
Correlation coefficient 113, 114b
Cover design 19f, 22
Cover page 197
Crossover study design 42
Cross-reference 154
Cross-sectional study 36, 37, 37f, 44t
Cryptomnesia 166
acquisition of 103
categorical vs. numerical 110
collection 81
fabrication 168
falsification 168
management 200
monitoring 81
ownership 103
paired vs. unpaired 110
type of 124
Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) 104
Data sheet 22
Data slicing 206
Data-based manuscripts 210
Databases 53t
Decimal 129
Declaration 19, 20f
Declaration of Helsinki 104
Demographic data 125
Descriptive research question 28
Descriptive studies 35
Diagnostic studies 37, 43t, 77
Diagnostic test 121
Digital presenter 194f
Direct plagiarism 167t
Discussion 138142
checklist 141
components of 15
contents of 138
elements of 139
how to organize 140
in a manuscript-based thesis 211
of thesis paper 205
purpose of 138
about mean 88
measures of 111
Dissertation 2
Distributive justice 98
Dropout rates 90
Effect size 43t, 88, 89
Efficacy studies 43t
Electronic case record form 108
Embase 53t
Environmental protection 98
elements of writing 175184
problems in writing 182
Epi Info 91, 91f
Essentiality 98
Ethics 97105
in methods 78
in patient care and research 103
Ethics committee 104
Ethical writing 166
levels of 42
Exclusion criteria 79
Expected frequency
for calculating sample size 91
Experimental studies 34, 44t
Experimental study design 39
Exposure 36
Fabrication 168
False negative 38t, 121
False positive 38t, 121
Falsification 168
examples of 169b
Feasibility sampling 79
Filters 54
serif vs. sans-serif 188f
size, for slides 188
of table 134
Forest plot 42
Gaussian distribution 112f
Ghost authorship 169
Glossary 21
Good clinical practice guidelines 104
Google 51
Google Scholar 52, 53t, 57
Google slides 196
Grab bag conclusion 146t
Graph 132f, 134
components of 135
considerations for 134
in PowerPoint 189
selecting appropriate 135
Guru 5
Haiku deck 195
Harvard style 157
Headers and footers 191
and subheadings 23
of table 134
Health informatics 58
Hypothesis 26, 28
elements of 28
framing of 29
studies to test 86
types of 28b
Hypothesis testing
concept of 116
steps of 117
ICMJE style 157, 158
Inclusion criteria 78
Index 21
Index test 38
IndMED 58
Inferential research question 28
Informed consent 98
Informed consent document 99
Informed consent form 100b
in protocol 200
Institutional arrangements 98
Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) 104
Intellectual theft 167t
International conference on harmonization (ICH) 104
as source of literature 51
citation 159
Interquartile range (IQR) 111
Intervention 48, 80
Interventional studies 77
components of 13
funnel approach 67
in a manuscript-based thesis 210
in summary 149
of protocol 198
of thesis paper 204
purpose of 66
structure of 67
what not to include in 67
when to write 66
name, abbreviating 159
selection of 203
Keyboard shortcuts 192
Keynote 196
Law 97
Legally acceptable/authorized representative (LAR) 99
of graph 135
Levels of evidence (LOE) 42
for different research questions 43t
hierarchy of 43f
Linear correlation 113
Lists 177
critical analysis of 73
primary, secondary, tertiary 51, 69
scholarly vs. nonscholarly 51
sorting and prioritizing 72
sources of 51
Literature review. Also See Review of literature
chronological 71
conceptual 71
goal of 71
methodological 71
organization of 71
writing the 73
Literature search 5159
Logistic regression 115
Manipulation 166
Manuscript based thesis 203, 208211
components of 210b
format of 209
traditional thesis vs. 209t
Margin of error 87
Master chart 22
Matched control 110
Material and methods 14, 7684
checklist for 83b
components of 76
in a manuscript-based thesis 210
in protocol 199
in summary 149
of thesis paper 204
tips for writing 14, 82
what not be include in 84
Mathew effect 52
Maximization of benefit 98
Mean 111
Measures of dispersion 88
Median 111
Medical information 52f
Medical informatics 58
Medline 53
Mendeley 160162
Mentee 7
Mentor 7
Mentoring 5, 6t,
Mentor–Mentee relationship 29
do's and don'ts of 7
Mentorship program 7
MeSH 56
MeSH database 56
MeSH-based search 54f, 56
Meta-analysis 41, 77
Methodology oriented literature review 70
Misattribution 167t
Misquotation 166
Misrepresentation 166
Mixed-methods study 42
Mode 111
Model protocol 197
Modifiers 179
Morals 97
Multinomial logistic regression analysis 115
Multiple regression 115
My bibliography 55
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) 54
National guidelines for biomedical and health research in 2017 104
National institute of health (NIH) 54
National library of medicine (NLM) 54
Negative predictive value (NPV) 38t, 122
Nested case–control study 42
NLM catalog 57
Non-linear correlation 113
Nonexploitation 98
Nonmaleficence 97
Nonrandomized study 39
Nonresponse rate 90
Null hypothesis 28, 117
Numbers 178
Nuremberg code of 1947 103
Objectives 60
essential elements of 63
primary and secondary 61
SMART 13, 63
Observational studies 33, 35, 77
Odds ratio (OR) 115
Optional thesis 24
Outcome 36
Outcome data 126, 129
of a single group 126
of categorical variables 127
of more than one group 127
Outcome measures 81
in protocol 200
estimated value of 87
Outcome oriented literature review 70
P value 117, 128
Pagination 23
Paired data 110
Paragraph 182
Paraphrasing 165, 171
appropriate and inappropriate 171b
Parenthesis 55
Participant 78
Participant data 124, 129
Participant flow 125, 126f
Patient information sheet 22, 99
Patient information sheet, additional elements 102
essential elements of 101
Photographs 136
Photomicrographs 136
comparison in 29f
in conclusion 143
in objectives 63
intervention on 29f
outcome in 29f
population in 29f
Picture 190
Pilson's law 12
Plagiarism 166
Delhi University Guidelines 173b
how to avoid 170
types of 167
UGC guidelines 172t
Plagiarism check software 171
Plurals 178
Population 48, 78, 109
for calculating sample size 91
Positive predictive value (PPV) 38t, 122
Post-hoc analysis 128
Power 88,120
PowerPoint 185196
alternatives to 195
Predictive value 122
defining contents of 186
finalization of 195
preparing 192
Prevalence study 43t
Prezi 195
Primary literature 51, 69
Primary outcome 81
and sample size 87
Primum non nocere 97
Privacy 98
Professional competence 98
Protocol. See Thesis Protocol
PS2 software 92, 93f
Publication ethics 206
Publication misconduct 165174
reasons for 170b
types of 166
PubMed 53
clipboard in 55
filters in 54
my bibliography in 55
opening page 54f
other features of 57
parentheses in 55
quotation marks in 55
search 53, 55f
truncation in 55
PubMed mobile 57
Qualitative research 26
Qualitative studies 33
Quantitative data 110
Quantitative studies 33
Quotation marks 55
Randomization 39, 80
Randomized controlled trial 40
objectives of 63
parallel group 41f
Receiver operating characteristic (RoC) curve 38, 39f
References 15, 154164
for a book chapter 159
for a journal article 158
Harvard style 157
how to write 156
ICMJE style
importance of 154
in protocol 200
key-terms for 154
numbering of 158
of thesis paper 205
selection of 156
sources of 155
styles for writing 157
Vancouver style 157
Reference list 154
Reference managers 160
Referencing software 58
Regression analysis 114
Rehearsing 194
Relative risk (RR) 116
Reporting guidelines 43
categories of 27t
fields of 27
for the practicing physician 1
importance of 1
in postgraduate courses 14
opportunities for 2
planning and conducting 103
reporting of 103
responsible conduct of 103
types of 26
Research question 11, 2632
characteristics of 30b
descriptive vs. inferential 28
developing a 31f
elements of 28
framing 29
good vs. bad 30
Respect for autonomy 97
Results 124130
components of 14
in a manuscript-based thesis 211
in discussion 139
in summary 149
of thesis paper 205
presentation of 129f
sequence of presentation 128
structure of 132
what to include in 131
Review of literature 6975
components of 70
in a manuscript-based thesis 210
in protocol 199
mistakes in writing 74
process of 72
tips for writing 13
Right to refuse or withdraw 101b
Risk minimization 98
ROC curve 38
Rows 134
Salami publication 206
Sample 109
Sample size 81, 82, 8596
adjusting the 89
Epi Info for calculating 94
for a case-control study 93f
for a randomized trial 94f
for prevalence study 86
for studies involving hypothesis testing 88
formulae for 90
how to calculate 86
PS2 software for calculating 93
software for calculating 90, 90b
why to calculate 85
Sampling 79
in graph 135
Scatter plot 136f
Scholarly literature 51
Secondary literature 51
Secondary outcome measures 81
Self-plagiarism 167t
Semicolon 177
Sensitivity 38t, 121
Sentence 181
Sequence generation 80
Sequential sampling 79
Setting 48
Sherlock Holmes conclusion 146t
Shishya 5
Simple randomization 39, 79
Simple regression 114
Six by six rule 188
Skewed data 112
Slides 185
10 points for making 192b
background of 189
bad 193f
editing of 192
layout 187
Smart art graphic 190
Social data 125
Social responsibility 98
for literature search 53
for plagiarism check 171
for sample size 90, 93, 94
Source-based plagiarism 167t
Specificity 38t, 121
Spelling 176
Standard deviation (SD) 111
for calculating sample size 88
Standard test 38
STARD 43, 77
Statistical analysis 82, 109123
in the text 133
in protocol 200
Statistical tests 118, 119f
significance of 128
Stop words 56
Stratified randomization 39
Stratified sampling 79
STROBE 43, 77
Structured summary 148
Studies of diagnostic accuracy 37
Study design 3344, 76
additional 41
case–control vs. cohort 35t
choosing the 34
limitations and strengths 44t
outline of 34f
qualitative vs. quantitative 33
reporting guidelines for 77
Study period 78
Study setting 78
Summary 148153
4-point checklist 149t
10-point checklist 149t
attributes of a good 152
do's and don'ts of 152
elements of 149
format for writing 148
in the thesis 152
of protocol 198
structured vs. unstructured
and supervisee 6
as a mentor 6
expectations from 6,8
expectations of 8
Swag 196
Systematic random sampling 79
Systematic reviews 41, 77
2 × 2 38t
components of 134
considerations for 134
in PowerPoint 189
presentation of 134
Table of contents 21
sample of 21f
Tertiary literature 51, 70
Text 132
Text-based search 54f, 55, 56
Thesis protocol 12, 197201
elements of 198
summary of 198
Thesis 1025
10 essential components of 18
advantages and disadvantages of 3
author names in 158
content of 13
converting into a scientific paper 3, 16, 202207
in postgraduate courses 3
margins of 23
optional 24
paper quality of 22
preparing final 23
rationale for 14
rectification in 24
role of 3
spine of 22f
submission of 23
time guidelines for submission 24
timetable for 12
typing and formatting 22
vs. dissertation 2
vs. scientific paper 202t
Three-word challenge 188
Title 4550
abbreviations in 47
elements of 47, 48
importance of 45
of thesis paper 204
what all to include 48
when to write 49
Title page 19, 198
sample of 19f
selection of 11
Totality of responsibility 98
Translation plagiarism 167t
Transparency 98
Trial registration 104
True negative 38t, 121
True positive 38t, 121
Truncation 55
Type I error 87, 118, 119t, 119f
Type II error 88, 118, 119t, 119f
Typographical errors 176
UGC guidelines on academic integrity 172
UGC guidelines on prevention of plagiarism 172
Universal declaration on bioethics and human rights (2005) 104
University grants commission regulation 2018 172
Unpaired data 110
Unstructured summary 148
of conducting research 103
Vancouver style 157, 158
and data 110
dependent vs. independent 111
Visme 195
Voluntariness 98
Writing malpractice 166
Chapter Notes

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fm1How to Write the Thesis and Thesis Protocol A Primer for Medical, Dental, and Nursing Coursesfm2
fm3How to Write the Thesis and Thesis Protocol A Primer for Medical, Dental, and Nursing Courses
Editors Piyush Gupta MD FIAP FNNF FAMS Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital New Delhi, India Dheeraj Shah MD FIAP MNAMS Professor Department of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital New Delhi, India
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© 2021, Piyush Gupta
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How to Write the Thesis and Thesis Protocol:
A Primer for Medical, Dental, and Nursing Courses / Piyush Gupta, Dheeraj Shah
First Edition : 2014
Second Edition : 2021
Printed at:
  • Aashima Dabas MD
  • Associate Professor
  • Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Alpana Raizada MD FICP
  • Associate Professor
  • Department of Medicine
  • University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Amir Maroof Khan MD FAIMER (CMCL)
  • Associate Professor
  • Department of Community Medicine
  • University College of Medical Sciences
  • New Delhi, India
  • Bhupendra Kumar Jain MS FAMS FAIS FCLS
  • Former Director Professor and Head
  • Department of Surgery and Medical Superintendent, University College of Medical Sciences, and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Devendra Mishra MD FIAP
  • Professor
  • Departments of Pediatrics and Medical Education
  • Maulana Azad Medical College
  • New Delhi, India
  • Dheeraj Shah MD FIAP MNAMS
  • Professor
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Jaya Shankar Kaushik MD
  • Professor
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • Pt B D Sharma Postgraduate
  • Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Rohtak, Haryana, India
  • Kirtisudha Mishra MD DNB FIPNA FISPN
  • Associate Professor
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
  • New Delhi, India
  • Naveen Sharma MS
  • Professor
  • Department of General Surgery
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Jodhpur, India
  • Navjeevan Singh MD
  • Former Director-Professor
  • Department of Pathology, and
  • Co-ordinator of the Medical Education Unit
  • University College of Medical Sciences
  • New Delhi, India
  • Nidhi Bedi MD
  • Associate Professor
  • Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences
  • New Delhi, India
  • Nitin Agarwal MS MNAMS FIAGES
  • Professor
  • Transplant Unit
  • Department of Surgery
  • ABVIMS and RML Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Vice Chancellor
  • Pt B D Sharma University of Health Sciences
  • Rohtak, Haryana, India
  • Pankaj Kumar Garg MS MCh FACS FRCS
  • Additional Professor
  • Department of Surgical Oncology
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Rishikesh, India
  • Piyush Gupta MD FAMS FNNF FIAP
  • Professor and Head
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Pooja Dewan MD FIAP
  • Professor
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Rehan Ul Haq MS MAMS
  • Professor and Head
  • Department of Orthopaedics
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Bhopal, India
  • Romit Saxena MD IFPCCM EPIC Dip
  • Assistant Professor
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • Maulana Azad Medical College
  • New Delhi, India
  • Sahiba Kukreja MD
  • Professor and Head
  • Department of Biochemistry, Dean (UG)
  • Director (Biomedical Research)
  • Sri Guru Ram Das University of Health Sciences
  • Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Sanjay Gupta MS FRCS
  • Director Professor and Head
  • Department of Surgery
  • University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Sharmila Banerjee Mukherjee MD
  • Professor
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • Lady Hardinge Medical College and
  • Associated Hospitals
  • New Delhi, India
  • Siddarth Ramji MD
  • Director-Professor
  • Department of Neonatology
  • Maulana Azad Medical College
  • New Delhi, India
  • Somashekhar Nimbalkar MD
  • Associate Dean (Research), Head
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • Pramukhswami Medical College
  • Karamsad, Gujarat, India
  • SV Madhu MD DM (Endocrinology)
  • Director-Professor and Head
  • Department of Endocrinology
  • University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
  • Tejinder Singh MD DNB MHPE Dip Human Resource Management
  • Professor of Pediatrics and Medical Education
  • SGRD Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Upreet Dhaliwal MS CMCL-FAIMER Fellow
  • Former Director-Professor
  • Department of Ophthalmology
  • University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
  • New Delhi, India
I am delighted to learn that you are going ahead with the second edition of your highly in demand, an absolute must for all budding postgraduates and even their teachers and guides, the very apt book on “How to Write Thesis.” You have done a commendable job and this new edition with additional inputs will be liked even more by all postgraduate students and teachers in various Medical, Paramedical, Nursing, Biomedical, Biotechnical, and Pharmaceutical Institutions involved in conduct of research. In today's world of competence and competition, good research is a core issue.
Thesis writing is an integral part of postgraduate training. With increasing pool of trainees being admitted into various medical postgraduate courses every year, it is extremely important to impart them knowledge and skills related to thesis writing and the related intricacies of the process of research. With over 500 medical colleges running postgraduate training programs in various specialties and even higher number of institutions conducting Diplomate of National Board (DNB) postgraduate teaching, it is also imperative to create a large pool of faculty who can supervise and mentor these young postgraduate students.
This multiauthored book is very well planned with 28 chapters covering all aspects of protocol and thesis writing. Starting from explaining the rationale and planning of research and thesis writing, this treatise provides reader a smooth ride to various intricacies of thesis writing. Taking care of affective domain, the book provides excellent information about mentor-mentee relationship, and ethical principles in carrying out research and related publications. The book is written in a simple and instructional language and is replete with simple and understandable examples.
This book is so well written and is almost like a Bible. I am confident, it will be so much liked that it would be in possession of all postgraduates and PhD scholars of medical and allied sciences and their institutions. I heartily appreciate the enormous efforts put in by the editors and the acclaimed authors.
With best compliments and regards.
Professor (Mrs) S Chooramani Gopal
Padmashree Awardee
DR BC ROY Awardee
Distinguished Professor (Pediatric Surgery)
President, National Academy of Medical Sciences
Former Vice-Chancellor, K.G. Medical University, Lucknow
Former President, All India Association of Pediatric Surgeonsfm8
Conducting Medical Research is essential for the understanding of the problems that affect individuals, communities, or health systems. It allows for a systemic and scientific assessment of the problem and provides knowledge that allows for instituting a change in the practice of clinical medicine.
A thesis is seen as the culmination of research conducted as a postgraduate and is submitted as the final end product. Making the thesis submission mandatory for postgraduates need not be viewed as a statutory requirement for acquisition of postgraduate medical degree alone, but an opportunity to get exposure to conduct research. Such an opportunity encourages postgraduates to not only convert this thesis research into a publication in a scientific journal but also opens pathways in selecting future career and related research areas.
Each thesis is a unique piece of research, with an intent to extend the academic information in the area of specialization. The structure of the thesis explains the purpose, the previous research literature related to the topic of the study, the methods used, and the findings of the study conducted. The most difficult elements of writing a thesis include framing a research question and hypothesis, identifying appropriate material and relevant methods, collating the scientific literature, and using appropriate statistical tools for interpretation of data.
Currently, there is a void in the scope of medical literature which provides guidance to the postgraduate students regarding conducting a good quality research and about writing the thesis. Students are usually scared from the idea of thesis and teachers are left scratching their heads for want of innovative or meaningful research topics.
This book fills this gap and provides useful tools to improve thesis writing. It covers the basic information about conducting a good quality research and converting it into a quality thesis. There are chapters on each and every aspect of thesis with emphasis on important areas like protocol, elements of thesis headings including research designs, estimation of sample size, statistical analysis, and a separate chapter on references.
I congratulate Professor Piyush Gupta for bringing out the second edition of this book after the success of the first edition. I also compliment Dr Dheeraj Shah and all other authors for their contribution for the release of the second edition. This edition finds addition of new chapters namely “Converting Thesis into a Scientific Paper” and “Manuscript-based Thesis: A New Paradigm” I am sure that this book shall also encourage the young medical researchers to convert their thesis into scientific papers in national and international acclaimed journals.
Professor Pawanindra Lal
Executive Director, National Board of Examinations
Director Professor of Surgery, MAMC
New Delhi, Indiafm10
fm11Preface to the Second Edition
While the first edition of this book was inspired by a series of workshops on thesis writing organized for postgraduate students by our team, in this thoroughly revised second edition, we have attempted to accommodate the additional perceived needs and demands of students participating in workshops conducted by us since the publication of first edition. To achieve this, we provided a set of objectives and the desired content and flow to the author of each chapter, simultaneously providing them liberty to incorporate new ideas and examples. This process mandated inclusion of illustrious authors who are the best in the fields of medical education and research in the country. Though this revised edition essentially maintains the sequence of chapters as per the events in engaging with a thesis, each chapter is thoroughly revised with inclusion of plenty of examples from various medical and nonmedical subjects for easy understanding. We have included two new chapters—“Converting Thesis into a Scientific Paper” and “Manuscript-based Thesis: A New Paradigm”—in order to further stimulate the readers to culminate this process of thesis writing in form of a scientific paper in a reputed journal. We have tried to keep the language simple and conversational so as to achieve a better connect with the readers. An updated list of references for further reading is provided for readers to explore more details of the processes of research and thesis writing. A pleasing two-color format and inclusion of Key Messages and Concluding Paragraph with every chapter will result in better visual appeal and understanding. We hope that this book will continue to serve not only the needs of novice researchers such as undergraduate/postgraduate medical/nursing students and PhD students, but also of their supervisors and young research scientists who have to consolidate their research knowledge and skills for further dissemination and implementation.
Piyush Gupta
Dheeraj Shahfm12
fm13Preface to the First Edition
This book has evolved from a series of workshops organized for postgraduate students by the Medical Education Unit of the University College of Medical Sciences. The objective of the workshops was to introduce them to the basics of biomedical research as a prelude to writing a protocol for a thesis, and subsequently, to writing the thesis itself. As the number of postgraduate admissions increased exponentially in 2009, the three-day “thesis writing workshop” was split into two one-and-a-half day workshops; the first a protocol writing workshop at the beginning of first year of residency, and the second a thesis writing workshop, some three months prior to thesis submission.
To maintain the true character of a hands-on workshop, with more time for group exercises than for didactic lectures/presentations, each workshop was conducted for batches of only up to 35 participants. Four identical workshops in sequence over a week, gave us the opportunity to groom more workshop faculty, the result of which is visible in the depth of academic talent in the list of authors in this book. Today our institution can boast of at least three independent teams capable of conducting these workshops.
As word of our workshops spread, we began receiving requests from other institutions to conduct them for their students; however, it quickly became clear that we could not possibly do justice to too many each year. At the same time, there appeared to be a dearth of resources dealing with thesis writing—material that could serve as self-help tools for the beginner. In this setting, it appeared rational to write this book. As with our workshops, this book is written for the novice desirous of entering the research arena: for whom a thesis is mandatory, undergraduate students wishing to venture into research by way of summer projects and working with supportive faculty, and, in fact, any beginner in research. It can be used as a bench manual—to be referred to at every stage of working on a thesis. It may also be useful to thesis supervisors, and institutions wishing to design and administer their own training workshops similar to ours.
The text is organized into 26 chapters which follow the sequence of events in engaging with a thesis. A unique feature is the numerous examples in each chapter illustrating what to do, and often, what not to do. The language is simple, the style conversational, and we hope, easy to follow. A bibliography is provided at the end of each chapter for those wishing to delve further into the intricacies of biomedical research.
We hope the readers will find answers to many of their questions related to the thesis; that the book arouses their curiosity, propelling them to further their reading, and continues to be a useful reference whenever they contemplate research.
Piyush Gupta
Navjeevan Singhfm14