Pediatric Drug Doses GL Chattri
INDEX
Page numbers followed by t refer to table.
A
Abacavir 123
Acetaminophen 5
toxicity 59
Acetazolamide 155
Acetylcysteine 59
Acetylsalicylic acid 1
Acid-base
disorder 228t
imbalance 163
Acne 36, 185
drug 185
vulgaris 47
Acrodermatitis enteropathica 173
Actinomyces 34
Acute gout 3
arthritis 86
Acute iron
intoxication 145
poisoning 145
Acyclovir 137, 226
Adapalene 185
Adefovir 138
Adenine 138
Adenosine 17, 226
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital 152
Adrenal insufficiency 152
Adrenaline 11, 187
Adrenocortical insufficiency 151
Adrenocorticotropin hormone 176
Albendazole 88
Albumin 178
Alfacalcidol 174
Allergy 93
conjunctivitis 92, 95
problem 153
rhinitis 12, 92, 93, 95
Allopurinol 86
Alprazolam 206
Amantadine 138
Amebiasis 115
Amikacin 22, 128, 226
Amiloride 155, 156
Aminocaproic acid 159
Aminoglycosides 21
nephrotoxicity 22
Aminophylline 11, 226
Amiodarone 17
Amitriptyline 56
Amlodipine 97
Amniocentesis 165
Amoxicillin 37, 38
Amphotericin B 80, 115, 226
Ampicillin 38, 39, 226
Amprenavir 124
Amrinone 143
Amyl nitrite 60
Analgesic 1
Anaphylactic reaction 179, 187
Anaphylaxis 133
Ankylosing spondylitis 2, 3
Anthelmintics 88
Antiarrhythmics 17
Antiasthmatics 11
Antibiotics 21
Anticoagulants 54
Antidepressant 56, 58
Antidiphtheric serum 134
Antidotes 59, 64
Antiemetic 65
therapy 73
Antiepileptics 69
Antifungal agent 80
Antigout agents 86
Antihemophilic factor 159
Antihistamines 92
Antihypertensives 97
Antileprotics 105
Antimalarials, drugs for 112
Antimicrobials, miscellaneous 47
Antimyasthenics 113
Antiprotozoals 115
Antipsychotics 118
Antiretrovirals 122
Antisecretory 135
Antisnake venom 133
Antispasmodics drugs 131
Antithyroid agent 190
Antitoxins 133
Antitubercular drugs 126
Antiulcers 135
Antivirals 137
Anxiety 73
Anxiolytics 118
Aripiprazole 56
Arrhythmia 101
etiology of 17
Arteether 108
Artemether 108
Arterial blood gases 229t
Artesunate 108
Arthritis 5
juvenile chronic 151
Ascariasis 89
Ascorbic acid 203
Aspergilosis 81
Astemizole 92
Asthma 13, 151, 153, 194
bronchodilator in 15
bronchospasm in 14
chronic 13
long-term control of 11, 12
therapy of 12
treatment of 13, 14, 16
Atenolol 97
Atomoxetin 118, 206
Atopic dermatitis 151
Atorvastatin 206
Atrial fibrillation 19
Atrial tachyarrhythmias 19
Atropine 59, 226
sulfate 18
toxicity 63
Attack, acute 110
Attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome 119
Auranofin 2
Autism spectrum disorder 56
Azatadine 92
Azathioprine 206
Azelaic acid 185
Azelastine 92
Azithromycin 35
Aztreonam 47
B
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin 192
Baclofen 63
Bacterial infection, acute 166
Bacterial meningitis 151
Bacteroids 34
Bambuterol 11
Beclomethasone 12
Bedaquiline 128
Benzocaine 9
Benzodiazepine toxicity 62
Benzoyl peroxide 185
Benztropine 60
Benzyl benzoate 180
Beparine 55
Betamethasone 150
Biotin 200
Biotinidase deficiency, primary 200
Bipolar disorders 58
Bisacodyl 169
Bleeding
disorders, history of 1
drugs for controlling 159
Blood cells, kind of 147
Botulinum A toxin 182
Bronchial asthma 12, 95
treatment of 11
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 141, 194
Bronchospasm 187
Budesonide 12
Bumetanide 155, 156
Bupropion 57
Burns, degree of 51
C
Caffeine citrate 207
Calamine lotion 186, 207
Calcium
deficiency 161
folinate 64
gluconate 64, 161, 226
phosphate 161, 174
polystyrene sulfonate 207
Camplylobacter 27
Candida 80
Candidal oral thrush 82
Candidiasis 81
Capreomycin 128
Captopril 98
Carbamazepine 69
Carbapenem 25
Carbenicillin 39
Carbimazole 190
Carbon monoxide poisoning 62
Cardiac arrest 161, 163, 187
Cardiac failure 158
Cardiac shocks 143
Cardiovascular disease 1
Carnitine 174
deficiency, treatment of 174
Carvedilol 98
Caspofungin 81
Cefaclor 28
Cefadroxil 27
Cefazolin 27, 226
Cefdinir 31
Cefditoren pivoxil 28
Cefepime 31, 226
Cefixime 32
Cefoperazone 30
Cefotaxime 29, 226
Cefpirome 33
Cefpodoxime 32
Cefprozil 32
Ceftazidime 31, 226
Ceftibuten 33
Ceftizoxime 33
Ceftriaxone 29, 226
Cefuroxime 28, 227
Celecoxib 2
Central nervous system 115, 162
Cephalexin 33
Cephalosporins 27
Cerebral edema 151, 178
Cerebral malaria 108
Cerebral spasticity, treatment of 182
Cetirizine 93
Chancroid 36
Charcoal 60, 208
Chelating agents 145
Chickenpox vaccine 198
Chlamydia 45, 46
Chloramphenicol 48
Chlordiazepoxide 118
Chlorhexidine 208
Chloroquine 109, 115
resistant falciparum malaria 108, 111
Chlorothiazide 155
Chlorpheniramine maleate 93
Chlorpromazine 60, 68, 118
Chlorthalidone 156
Chlorzoxazone 183
Cholecalciferol 204
Cholera 36
Cholestyramine resin 208
Chronic iron 145
Ciclesonide 12
Cidofovir 138
Cimetidine 164
Cinnarizine 209
Ciprofloxacin 43
Clarithromycin 35, 105, 129
Clavulanic acid 38, 43
Clemastine fumarate 93
Clindamycin 34, 111, 112
Clobazam 70
Clobetasone 151, 186
Clofazimine 105, 129
Clonazepam 70
Clonidine 98, 119
Clostridium difficile 27, 52
Clotrimazole 81
Cloxacillin 39
Codeine 6
Colchicine 86
Colistimethate sodium 48
Colistin sulfate 48
Collagen diseases 153
Colony-stimulating factors 147
Colostrum 209
Coma 170
Congestive heart failure 199
Conjunctivitis 45, 92
Constipation 170
Control blood pressure 97
Corneal ulcers 45
Corticosteroids 150
Cortisone 151
Corynebacterium 49
Cough, nonproductive 6
Crotamiton 180
Crystalline penicillin 40
Cyanide kit 60
Cyanocobalamin 200
Cyanotic spells 101
Cyclophosphamide 209
Cycloserine 126, 129, 201
Cyclosporin 209
Cyproheptadine hydrochloride 93
Cystic fibrosis 3
D
Dantrolene 183
Dapsone 105, 106
Daptomycin 48
Deferasirox 145
Deferiprone 60, 145
Deflazacort 151
Delamanid 129
Delisprin tablet 1
Delusions 121
Demeclocycline 46
Dental caries, prevention of 172
Dental pain 5
Depression 5658
Desferrioxamine 60, 145
Desloratadine 94
Desmopressin 176, 210
Dexamethasone 68, 151, 227
Dextran 179
Dextromethorphan 210
Dextrose 162
Dhatura poisoning 63
Diabetes insipidus 144, 176
Diazepam 71, 227
Diazoxide 99
Diclofenac sodium 2
Dicyclomine 131
Didanosine 123
Diethylcarbamazine 89
Digitalis glycoside toxicity 61
Digoxin 143, 227
immune fab 61
Diloxanide furoate 115
Diltiazem 99
Dimenhydrinate 65
Dimercaprol 61, 146
Dimercaptosuccinic acid 61
Dimethicone, activated 218
Diphenhydramine 61, 94
Diphtheria 36, 192
and tetanus 192
prophylaxis 192
antitoxin 134
Disopyramide 19
Diuretics 155
Dobutamine 102, 187, 222, 223
Domperidone 65
Dopamine 102, 188, 222, 223
Dosage 18
Down's syndrome 194
Doxapram 210
Doxepin 57
Doxophylline 13
Doxycycline 46, 111, 112
D-penicillamine 61, 146
Drip calculations 222t
Drotaverine 131
Drug extravasation, treatment for 223t
Duodenal ulcer 136
Dystonic reaction, acute 60
E
Ear infection 45
Ebastine 94
Ecosprin tablet 1
Edmonston-Zagreb strain vaccine 195
Edrophonium 64, 113
Efavirenz 124
Enalapril 99
Endogenous depression 56
Endorphins 6
Enoxaparin 54
Enterobacter 22, 23
Enterobiasis 89
Enterobius 88
Enuresis 57
Eosinophilia 34
Ephedrine 188
Epilepsy, partial 75
Epinephrine 11, 102, 187, 222, 223
Ertapenem 26
Erythromycin 36
Erythropoietin 147
Esomeprazole 135
Ethacrynic acid 156
Ethambutol 127
Ethamsylate 159
Ethanol 62
Ethionamide 127
Ethosuximide 71
Ethylene glycol 62
Etodolac 2
Etoricoxib 3
Eukephlins 6
Excessive bleeding, treatment of 159
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis 126
Eye infection 45, 46
F
Factor IX 160
Falciparum malaria 107
Famciclovir 138
Famotidine 164
Fat emulsion 175
Febrile neutropenia
high-risk of 149
prevention of 147
Fentanyl 7
Fexofenadine 94
Filariasis 89
Filgrastim 147
Flouroquinolones 105
Fluconazole 81
Flucytosine 82
Fludrocortisone 152
Flumazenil 62
Flunarizine 211
Fluoride 172
Fluoxetine 57
Fluticasone 13
Folic acid 201
Formoterol 13
Foscarnet 139
Fosfomycin 49
Fosphenytoin 72, 227
Framycetin 22
Furazolidone 49
Furosemide 156
Fusidic acid 49
Fusobacterium 34
G
Gabapentin 72
Gamma benzene hexachloride 181
Ganciclovir 139
Gas gangrene antitoxin 134
Gastric ulcer 136
Gastroesophageal reflux disease 135
Gastrografin 211
Gastrointestinal bleeding 1
Gatifloxacin 44
Gelatin 179
Gentamicin 227
Gentian violet 82
Giardia 49
Giardiasis 88, 115
Glucagon 62, 211
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 106
Glycopyrrolate 212
Gonadotropin releasing hormone 177
Gouty arthritis
chronic 86
prevention of 87
Gram-negative
bacilli 22, 24
organisms 31
Gram-positive
organisms 31
Staphylococcus 23
Granisetron 66
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor 148
Griseofulvin 82
Guaifenesin 212
Guillain-Barre syndrome 166
H
H2 antagonists 164
Haemophilus 30
influenzae 192, 193
Hallucination 121
Haloperidol 119
Hamycin 82
Hansen disease 105
Heart disease
chronic 194
congenital 141
cyanotic congenital 194
Heart failure 144
Helminth infections 115
Hemolytic anemia 145
Hemorrhage, transplacental 165
Hemorrhagic disease 205
Hemorrhoids 9
Heparin 54, 55
Hepatic encephalopathy 51, 170
Hepatitis
A 193
B 193
prophylaxis 193
Herpes simplex conjunctivitis 142
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency 200
Hookworm infections 89
Human anti-D immunoglobulin 165
Human cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin 165
Human hepatitis B immunoglobulin 166
Human immunodeficiency virus 122
Human papillomovirus
infection 194
vaccine 194
Human rabies immunoglobulin 167
Human tetanus immunoglobulin 167
Hydatid disease 88
Hydralazine 100, 201
Hydrochlorothiazide 157
Hydrocortisone 152, 227
Hydrogen sulfide 60
Hydroxycarbamide 212
Hydroxyurea 212
Hydroxyzine 68, 95
Hyoscine butylbromide 132
Hyperbaric oxygen 62
Hyperinsulinemia 177
Hyperkalemia 161
treatment of 162
Hypermagnesemia 162
Hypertension 97, 100
treatment of 97
Hypocalcemia 161, 162
treatment of 174
Hypokalemia 162
Hyponatremia 157
acute symptomatic 163
Hypoparathyroidism 174
Hypoproteinemia 178
Hypotension 162
treatment of 188
Hypovolemia 178
I
Ibuprofen 3
Idiopathic arthritis, juvenile 4
Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis 101
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, treatment of 165
Idiopathic urticaria, chronic 93
Idoxuridine 139
Imipenem 26
Imipramine 57
Immunodeficiency syndrome 166
Immunoglobulins 165
Indinavir 125
Indomethacin 3
Infantile spasms 75, 153, 176
Inflammatory disorder 6
Influenza
A virus infection, treatment of 138
virus vaccine 194
Initial ventilator settings 230t
Insomnia 75
Inspired oxygen, fraction of 229t
Insulin 213
Intactable epilepsy 167
Interferon alfa 140
Intestinal amebiasis 116
Intra-abdominal infection 115
Intracranial pressure, increased 157
Intractable migraine, severe 67
Intralipid 213
Intramuscular adrenaline 133
Intravenous medication 226t
Intubation drugs, rapid sequence 230t
Ipratropium 13
Iron 172
Isoniazid 127, 201
Isoprinosine 140
Isoproterenol 222
Ispaghula husk 170
Itraconazole 83
Ivermectin 88, 89
J
Japanese encephalitis 195
Jaundice, neonatal 178
Junctional ectopic tachycardia 20
K
Kanamycin 129
sulfate 23
Kawasaki disease 166
Keratitis 142
Ketamine 214, 227
Ketoconazole 83
Ketorolac 4
Ketotifen 95
Klebsiella 22, 23, 2528, 30
pneumoniae 33
L
Labetalol 100
Lactase enzyme 132
Lactulose 170
Lamivudine 123, 140
Lamotrigine 73
Lansoprazole 135
Laxatives 169
Lead poisoning 61
Legionella 36
Leishmaniasis 117
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 73
Leprosy 105
Levamisole 89
Levetiracetam 73
Levocet rizine 95
Levofloxacin 44, 105, 129
Levosalbutamol 11
Lidocaine 9, 19, 222
Life-threatening
hyperkalemia 163
ventricular arrhythmias 17
Lincomycin 34
Lincosamides 34
Linezolid 50, 129
Liothyronine 190, 191
Liquid paraffin 170
Lisinopril 100
Lithium 58
Loperamide 214
Lopinavir 125
Loratadine 95
Lorazepam 73, 68, 227
Losartan potassium 100
Low cardiac output states, treatment of 143
Lumefantrine 108
Lung disease, chronic 141
Lyme disease 47
Lymphatic filariasis 89
M
Macrolides 34
Magnesium 173
sulfate 162
Maintenance therapy 13
Malaria
prevention of 112
prophylaxis 110
severe 107
therapy of 107
treatment of 107, 110
Mania 120
Manic episodes, acute 58
Mannitol 157
Measles 195
mumps and rubella 195
prophylaxis 195
Mebendazole 89
Meclizine 66
Meconium aspiration syndrome 230
Mefenamic acid 4
Mefloquine 110
Megaloblastic anemia 200
Melatonin 119
Meloxicam 4
Meningitis, treatment of 29
Meperidine 8
Meropenem 26, 227
Metabolic acidosis 163, 228
Metabolic alkalosis 228
Methemoglobinemia 60, 62
Methocarbamol 184
Methotrexate 214
Methyl alcohol ingestion 62
Methyldopa 101
Methylene blue 62
Methylphenidate 119
Methylprednisolone 153, 227
Metoclopramide 66, 227
Metolazone 157
Metoprolol 101
Metronidazole 115, 227
Mexiletine 19
Micafungin 83
Miconazole 83
Microcytic hypochromic anemia, treatment of 172
Midazolam 74, 227
Migraine prophylaxis 56, 101, 103
Milrinone 144
Minerals 172
Minocycline 46, 105
Minoxidil 101
Mometasone 153
Montelukast 14
Morphine sulfate 7
Motion sickness 66, 93
Moxifloxacin 44, 105, 130
Mucor species 80
Multidrug-resistant
malaria 108
tuberculosis, drugs for 128
Mupirocin 50, 215
Muscle weakness 150
Musculoskeletal pain 4
Myalgia 5
Myasthenia gravis 113, 176
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 22
Mycoplasma 27, 46, 48
disease 47
Myotonia, congenital 19
Myotonic dystrophy 19
N
Nadifloxacin 44
Nalidixic acid 44
Naloxone 63
Naproxen 5
Narcotic analgesic 6
Nausea 66, 67
treatment of 65
Neisseria 43
Nelfinavir 125
Neomycin 23
Neoplastic disorders 153
Neostigmine 64, 113
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 3
Nephrotic syndrome 151, 153, 178
Netilmicin sulfate 24
Neuropathic pain 57
Nevirapine 124
Niacin 201
Niclosamide 90
Nicotinic acid 201
Nifedipine 101
Nimesulide 5
Nitazoxanide 115
Nitrazepam 75
Nitrofurantoin 50
Nitroglycerin 199
Nitroprusside 102, 199
Nocturnal enuresis 56
Non-myeloid malignancies, treatment of 147
Non-narcotic analgesic 1
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 124
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, treatment of 135
Non-stimulant drug 118
Norepinephrine 188, 223
Norfloxacin 45
Nortriptyline 58
Nucleoside 122
Nutritional biotin deficiency 200
Nutritional supplement 174, 200
Nystatin 84
O
Obsessive-compulsive disorder 57, 58
Octreotide 63, 177
Ofloxacin 45, 105
Olanzepine 120, 215
Omeprazole 135
Onchocerciasis 89
Ondansetron 67, 227
Oral polio vaccine 196
Oral rehydration solution 215
Ornidazole 116
Oseltamivir 140
Osteoarthritis 2, 3
Osteomalacia 174
Osteoporosis 150
Otitis externa 45
treatment of 50
Otitis media, acute 32
Oxcarbazepine 75
Oxymetazoline 189
Oxytetracycline 46
P
Pain 4, 5
management of 8
Palonosetron 67
Pancreatin 215
Pancuronium bromide 215
Panic disorder 58
Pantoprazole 136
Para-aminosalicylic acid 127
Paracetamol 5, 59, 183
Paraldehyde 75
Parenteral nutrition 229t
Paromomycin sulfate 116
Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia 19
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, treatment of 17
Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia 20
Peak inspiratory pressure 230
Pediculosis 89, 180
Pegfilgrastim 149
Penicillin 37
G aqueous 40
G benzathine 40
G procaine 41
V potassium 41
Pentamidine 116
Pentazocine 8
Peptic ulcer 150
Permethrin 181
Persistent pulmonary hypertension, treatment of 199
Pertussis 36, 192
Pethidine 8
Pharyngitis 32
Phenazopyridine 10
Pheniramine 96
Phenobarbital 75, 227
Phenothiazine-induced dystonic reactions 61
Phenoxybenzamine 102, 199
Phentolamine 102, 199
Phenylephrine 102, 189, 223
Phenytoin 1976, 227
Pheochromocytoma, treatment of 102
Pholcodine 216
Physostigmine 63
Phytomenadione 64
Pilocarpine 63
Pimozide 120
Pinworms 90
Piperacillin 42, 227
Piperazine 90
Piracetam 216
Piroxicam 6
Pituitary hormones 176
Plasma volume 178
Plasmodium falciparum 108
Pneumococcal vaccine 196
Poisoning 59
Polio vaccine, inactivated 194
Poliomyelitis prophylaxis 194
Polyarticular disease 151
Polyethylene glycol 171
Polymyxin B sulfate 50
Portal hypertension 199
Postanoxic myoclonus 73
Postherpetic neuralgia 9
Post-traumatic stress disorder 58
Potassium 173
chloride 162
sparing diuretics 155
Pralidoxime 63
Praziquantel 90
Prazocin 64, 103, 199
Prednisolone 153
Premature ventricular contractions 19
Prematurity, apnea of 11
Primaquine 110
Primidone 77
Probenecid 87
Procainamide 19
Prochlorperazine 67
Promethazine 68, 96
Propafenone hydrochloride 20
Propantheline bromide 132
Prophylaxis 194
Propionic acidemias 200
Propofol 216
Propranolol 20, 103
Propylthiouracil 190
Prostaglandin E1 217
Protamine 64, 160
Protease inhibitors 124
Proteus 22, 23, 25, 28
Prothinamide 130
Proton pump inhibitor 135
Pseudoephedrine 96, 189
Pseudomembranous colitis 34
Pseudomonas 22, 24, 25
aeruginosa 28
Psoriatic arthritis 2
Psychosis 119
Pulmonary edema 158
Pyrantel pamoate 91
Pyrazinamide 128
Pyridostigmine 114
Pyridoxine 64, 77, 201
dependent seizures 77
Pyrimethamine 110, 111
Q
Quinidine sulfate 20
Quinine 111
Quinolones 43
R
Rabies 196
prophylaxis against 196
Racecadotril 217
Ramipril 104
Ranitidine 164, 227
Rectal fissures 9
Red man syndrome 53
Renal failure
acute 157
chronic 161
Renal rickets 174
Respiratory acidosis 228
Respiratory alkalosis 228
Respiratory distress syndrome 230
Rh isoimmunization 165
Rheumatic carditis, treatment of 153
Rheumatic fever prophylaxis 40
Rheumatoid arthritis 24
Rheumatoid disorder 46
Ribavirin 141, 202
Riboflavin deficiency, treatment of 202
Ribonucleic acid 122
Rickets 204
Rickettsia 45
Rifampicin 105, 106, 128
Rifaximin 51
Rimantadine 141
Risperidone 120
Ritonavir 125
Rotavirus gastroenteritis prophylaxis 197
Roundworms 90
Roxithromycin 37
Rubella 197
infection prophylaxis 197
S
Saccharomyces boulardii 217
Salbutamol 11, 14
Salmeterol 15
Salmonella 43, 4, 49
Salts, values of 228t
Scabicidal agents 180
Scabies 89, 180
Schizophrenia 56, 120, 121
Scorpion bite 64
Seasonal allergic
conjunctivitis 4
rhinitis 14
Secnidazole 117
Sedatives 118
Seizures
management of 72
treatment of 69
Selenium sulfide 217
Sepsis, treatment of 29
Septic shock 151
Serratia 22, 23, 25
marcescens 46
Sertaconazole 84
Sertraline 58
Serum concentration monitoring 21
Shigella 23, 43, 49
Shock 199
treatment of 188
Sildenafil 218
Silver sufadiazine 51
Silymarin 218
Simethicone 218
Sinusitis 5
Sisomycin 24
Skeletal muscle relaxants 182
Skin
diseases 153
drug 185
peeling 185
Snakebite 133
Sodium
bicarbonate 64, 163
chloride 163
cromoglycate 15
nitrite 60
nitropruside 104
picosulfate 171
stibogluconate 117
thiosulfate 60
Soft tissue infection 27
Somatropin 177
Sore throat pain 9
Sotalol 20
Spinal cord lesions spasticity 182
Spironolactone 158
Sports injury 5
Staphylococcus 30, 33
aureus 25, 34, 50
haemolyticus 28
pyogenes 34
Status asthmaticus 152
Status epilepticus 72, 73
Stavudine 123
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 34
Stool softener agents 169
Streptococcus 30
pharyngitis 34, 40
Streptomycin 24
Stress ulcer, prevention of 136
Strongyloidosis 89
Sucralfate 136
Sucrose solution 219
Sulbactam 39
Sulfadoxine 110
Sulfamethoxazole 52
Sulfonylurea poisoning 63
Sympathomimetics 187
Systemic anaerobic infections 115
T
Tachyarrhythmias, supraventricular 20
Tachycardia, supraventricular 20
Tacrolimus 220
Taenia solium 88
Tapeworm infections, treatment of 90
Tazobactam 42
Teicoplanin 51
Terbinafine 84
Terbutaline 15
Tetanus 192, 198
antitoxin 134
diphtheria, pertussis 197
treatment of 134
Tetracycline 45, 47, 111
Theophylline 16
Thiamine 202
Thiazide diuretics 155
Thiobendazole 91
Thiopental 77
Thioridazine 120
Thromboembolic disorders, treatment of 54
Thrombophlebitis 5
Thyroid agent 190
Thyroidectomy 190
Thyrotoxicosis 190
Thyroxine 191
Tic disorders 120
Ticarcillin 42, 43
Tigecycline 47
Tinea infection 82
Tinidazole 117
Tinocardia 220
Tobramycin 25
Tolazoline 199
Tolnaftate 84
Tonic-clonic serizure 73
Tonsillitis 32
Toothache 9
Topiramate 78
Torsemide 158
Tourette syndrome 119, 120
Toxic shock 152
Tramadol hydrochloride 8
Tranexamic acid 160
Transfusional hemosiderosis 145
Transient redness 185
Trauma, abdominal 165
Traumatic ocular hyphema 159
Traveler's diarrhea 51
Tretinoin 186
Triamcinolone 154
Triamterene 158
Trichinosis 88
Trichuriasis 89
Trichuris trichiura 8
Triclofos 121
Trifluoperazine 68, 121
Trifluridine 142
Trigeminal neuralgia 182
Trimethoprim 52
Typhoid 198
U
Ulcer, chronic 51
Urinary analgesic 10
Urinary fibrinolysis 159
Urinary tract infection 27
Ursodeoxycholic acid 220
V
Valproate sodium 78
Vancomycin 52, 227
Varicella 198
zoster immunoglobulin 168
Vasopressin 144, 177, 223
Venous blood gases 229t
Venous thromboembolism, treatment of 54
Ventricular arrhythmias 9, 19, 20
Ventricular tachyarrhythmias 20
Ventricular tachycardia 19
Verapamil 104
Vertigo 66, 67
treatment of 65
Vigabatrin 79
Viral infection 166
Visceral larva migrans 88
Vitamin 200
A 136, 203
B1 202
B12 200
B2 202
B3 201
B6 201
C 203
D 136, 204
D deficiency 204
E 136, 204
K 64, 136, 205
Vomiting 66, 67
treatment of 65
Voriconazole 84
W
Warfarin 55
poisoning 64
Wernicke's encephalopathy 202
West syndrome 176
Wilson's disease 146
X
Xylometazoline 189
Y
Yellow fever 198
Z
Zafirlukast 16
Zanamivir 142
Zidovudine 124
Zileuton 16
Zinc 173
Zonisamide 79
Zosprin tablet 1
×
Chapter Notes

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Analgesicschapter 1

NON-NARCOTIC ANALGESIC
These are used to control mild to moderate pain, fever and various inflammatory conditions. Most nonopioid analgesics inhibit prostaglandin synthesis peripherally for analgesic effect and centrally for antipyretic effect. Use cautiously in patients with a history of bleeding disorders, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, and severe hepatic, renal or cardiovascular (CV) disease. Administer salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) after meals or with food or an antacid to minimize gastric irritation. Patients on long-term therapy of aspirin, salicylates and NSAIDs may need to be withheld prior to surgery.
 
ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID
Uses: Treatment of inflammation, fever, and mild to moderate pain.
Dosage: PO
  • Pain and fever: 10–15 mg/kg/dose q 4-6 hr
  • Anti-inflammatory: 60–90 mg/kg/day in divided doses
  • Antiplatelet effect: 3–10 mg/kg/day, single daily dose
  • Kawasaki disease: 80–100 mg/kg/day divided q 6 hr
  • Rheumatic fever: 60–100 mg/kg/day divided q 6 hr
Brands: Ecosprin tablet—75, 150 and 325 mg. Delisprin tablet—75 and 150 mg. Zosprin tablet—100 and 150 mg.
  • Contraindicated in chickenpox or if there is flu-like symptom, hepatic failure, bleeding disorder, erosive gastritis, peptic ulcer, bronchial asthma. Discontinue the drug if hearing loss or tinnitus occurs.
 
2AURANOFIN
Uses: Management of active stage of classic or definite rheumatoid, psoriatic arthritis.
Dosage: PO
  • Starting: 0.1 mg/kg/day in two divided doses
  • Maintenance: 0.15 mg/kg/day (maximum: 0.2 mg/kg/day)
Brands: Capsule; Ridaura 3 mg; tablet; Goldar 3 mg.
  • Contraindicated in blood dyscrasias, congestive heart failure (CHF), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), leukopenia, urticaria, etc. Stop therapy if platelet count <100,000/mm3, white blood count (WBC) <4,000/mm3.
 
CELECOXIB
Uses: Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), ankylosing spondylitis.
Dosage: PO—> 2years: 10-25 kg; 50 mg twice daily. >25 kg; 100 mg twice daily.
Brands: 100, 200 mg cap; Celcib, Celib, Calcibra.
 
DICLOFENAC SODIUM
Uses: Mild to moderate pain, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).
Dosage: PO: 2–3 mg/kg/day divided q 4 hr.
Brands: 50 and 100 mg tablet; Agile MR, Diclofam, Diclomax.
  • Also available in topical formulation as gel; Diclonac, Nac, Voveran 1% gel; transdermal patch, Nupatch. Contraindicated in GI bleeding, ulcer disease, aspirin triad. Use with caution in hypertension, bronchial asthma, CHF, fluid retention, dehydration, etc.
 
ETODOLAC
Uses: Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, pain.
Dosage: PO: 0-20 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses (maximum: 100 mg/day).
Brands: 400 mg tablet; Etogesic, Etura.
 
3ETORICOXIB
Uses: Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute gout.
Dosage: PO—>16-18 years age, orally—osteroarthritis—30 mg once only. Rheumatoid and ankylosing spondylitis—90 mg once daily. Acute gout—120 mg once daily for 8 days.
Brands: 60, 90, 120 mg tablet; Etrobox, Etorax.
 
IBUPROFEN
Uses: Fever, pain, JRA, Cystic fibrosis, Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), migraine.
Dosage: PO
  • Fever, pain: 4–10 mg/kg/dose q 6–8 hr (maximum: 40 mg/kg/day)
  • JRA: 30–50 mg/kg/day in four divided doses (maximum: 2.4 g/day)
  • Cystic fibrosis: 20–30 mg/kg twice daily for 4 years
  • PDA: IV—initial dose of 10 mg/kg, followed at 24 hours intervals by two doses of 5 mg/kg
  • Migraine: 7.5–10 mg/kg/dose.
Brands: 100 mg/5 mL suspension; Bren, Ibugesic, Febrilix. 200 mg and 400 mg tablet; Brufen, Emflam, Ibugesic, Ibugin.
Combinations: Ibuprofen + Paracetamol:
  • 400 mg + 325 mg tablet—Anaflam, Combiflam, Ibucin, Zupar
  • 100 mg + 125/5 mL suspension—Anaflam, Zupar
  • 100 mg + 162.5 mg/5 mL suspension—Combiflam, Ibucin
Contraindicated in GI bleeding, ulcer disease, aspirin triad. Use with caution in CHF CHF, HT, dehydration, hepatic, and renal patients.
 
INDOMETHACIN
Uses: PDA closure in neonates, rheumatoid arthritis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Dosage:
  • Neonates (PDA): IV; 0.2 mg/kg initially followed by two doses at 12–24 hours intervals
  • 4Rheumatoid/inflammatory disorders: PO: 1–2 mg/kg/day in 2–4 doses (maximum: 4 mg/kg/day)
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: PO—2 mg/kg/day (for patients having inadequate response to diuretics alone may benefit from its addition).
Brands: 25 and 50 mg capsule; Artisid, Indocap, Microcid, etc.
  • Contraindicated in premature neonates with NEC, impaired renal functions, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bleeding, thrombocytopenia. It may decrease the antihypertensive effect of diuretics. Hold enteral feeds for 12 hours after last dose.
 
KETOROLAC
Uses: Treatment of ocular itch associated with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.
Dosage: Children >3 years: 1 drop in eyes 4 times/day; up to 7 days.
Brands: 0.5% drop; Acular, Doloket, Ketanov, Ketodrop, etc.
Administration: Apply pressure over lacrimal sac for 2 minute after application to avoid absorption and systemic effects.
 
MEFENAMIC ACID
Uses: Fever, pain, rheumatoid disorders.
Dosage: PO—should not be given for >7 days.
  • Fever: 3 mg/kg/dose upto 3 times per day.
  • Rheumatoid disorder: 10–25 mg/kg/day q 6 hr.
Brands: 100, 250 and 500 mg tablet; 100 and 50 mg/5 mL suspension; Meftal, Ponstan.
Combinations:
  • Mefenamic + Paracetamol: 500 + 450 mg tablet; MeftalForte.
  • Mefenamic + Dicyclomine: 250 + 10 mg tablet; Meftalspas.
 
MELOXICAM
Uses: Pain, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, musculoskeletal pain.
5Dosage: PO: 12-18 years <50 kg, 7.5 mg; >50 kg 15 mg once daily. In renal failure maximum dose 7.5 mg once daily.
Brands: 15 mg tablet; M-Cam, Melflam.
 
NAPROXEN
Uses: Fever, pain, inflammation and rheumatoid disorders.
Dosage: PO—for children >2 years of age:
  • Pain: 5–7 mg/kg/dose q 8-12 hr
  • JRA/inflammatory disease: 10–15 mg/kg/day in two divided doses (maximum: 1,000 mg/day).
Brands: 250 mg tablet; Artagen, Nalyxan, Naprosyn.
 
NIMESULIDE
Uses: Pain, myalgia, arthritis, thrombophlebitis, dental pain, postoperative, sinusitis, sports injury.
Dosage: PO—children >12 years 5 mg/kg/day in 2-3 divided doses.
Brands: 50 mg/5 mL susp; 100 mg tab; Nimulid, Nimegesic.
 
PARACETAMOL/ACETAMINOPHEN
Uses: Mild to moderate pain and fever; migraine. Do not have an anti-inflammatory or antirheumatic effect.
Dosage:
  • Neonates: PO—rectal; 10–15 mg/kg/dose q 6-8 hr
  • Infants and children: PO—10–15 mg/kg/dose q 4-6 hr
  • Rectal: 10–20 mg/kg/dose q 4-6 hr
  • IM: 5 mg/kg/dose.
Brands: 150 mg/mL drops; 120 mg/5 mL syrup; 500 and 650 mg tablet; Calpol, Lanol. 80 and 170 mg suppository; Anamol, Junimol. 150 mg/mL injection; Fevastin, Febrinil, Mol.
  • Overdoses of paracetamol can be treated with acetylcysteine.
 
6PIROXICAM
Uses: Rheumatoid and inflammatory disorders.
Dosage: PO—0.2–0.3 mg/kg/day as single dose (maximum: 15 mg/kg/day).
Brands: 10 and 20 mg tablet and capsule; Brexic, Minicam, Paricam. Use with caution in infants and children.
 
TOLMETIN
Uses: Inflammatory and rheumatoid disorders (JRA).
Dosage: Children >2 years of age: PO
  • Anti-inflammatory: 15–20 mg/kg/day in 3–4 divided doses (maximum: 30 mg/kg/day)
  • Analgesic: 5–7 mg/kg/dose q 6–8 hr
Brands: 200 mg tablet; 400 mg capsule; Tolectin.
NARCOTIC ANALGESIC
Used for management of moderate to severe pain. Fentanyl is also used as a general anesthetic adjunct. Opioids binds to receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), where they acts as a agonists of endogenously occurring opioid peptides (eukephlins and endorphins). The result is alteration to the perception of and response to pain. Use cautiously in patients with undiagnosed abdominal pain, head trauma, liver disease. Use smaller doses in elderly and those with respiratory disease.
 
CODEINE
Uses: Mild-to-moderate pain; for nonproductive cough use in lower doses.
Dosage:
  • Pain: 0.5-1 mg/kg/dose q 4-6 hr (maximum: 60 mg/dose)
  • Cough: 1-1.5 mg/kg/daydivided q 4-6 hr (not recommended in children <2 years of age).
Brands: Codeine linctus; Codeine sulfate 15 mg + menthol, 0.2 mg/5 mL. Phensedyl, Codokuff; Codeine phosphate 10 mg + Chlorpheniramine 4 mg/5 mL. Lincotuss; Codeine phosphate 15 mg/5 mL.
  • 7Increase fluid and fiber intake to avoid constipation
  • Contraindicated in pre-existing respiratory illness, asthma, and raised intracranial pressure (ICP). It can causes constipation, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, sedation, dizziness.
 
FENTANYL
Uses: Sedation, pain relief, preoperative medication, adjunct to anesthesia.
Dosage:
  • Neonates and infants: IV– intermittent dose are1–4 µg/kg/dose; may be repeated q 2-4 hr; continuous infusion: 0.5–5 µg/kg/h
  • Older infants and children (1–12 year) Pain; IM, IV: 1–3 µg/kg/dose; may be repeated after 30 minutes; continuous infusion: 1–5 µg/kg/h
  • Children >12 years; Pain: IM, IV: 0.5–1 µg/kg/dose; may be repeated after ½ to 1hour
  • Anesthesia: IM, IV: 2–50 µg/kg.
Brands: 50 µg/mL injection; Fendrop, Fenilate, Fent, Trofentyl. Patch of 25, 50 and 100 µg/h, Duragesic.
Administration: For IV administer slowly over 5–10 minutes. Rapid IV infusion may cause skeletal muscle rigidity, impaired ventilation, apnea, laryngospasm.
  • Contraindicated in raised ICP, severe respiratory depression, hepatic or renal problems. Physical and psychological dependence may occurs with prolonge use.
 
MORPHINE SULFATE
Uses: Pain relief; relieves dyspnea of left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema; preanesthetic medication.
Dosage:
  • Neonates: IV, IM, SC—continuous infusion: 0.01-0.03 mg/kg/h; intermittent dose: 0.05-0.1 mg/kg/dose q 2-4 hr
  • Infants and children: IV, IM, SC—0.1–0.2 mg/kg/dose q 2–4h (maximum: 15 mg/dose). PO—0.2–0.5 mg/kg/dose q 4-6 hr
  • >12 years: 3–4 mg; may be repeated after 5 minutes as required.
8Brands: 10 and 30 mg tablet; Duramor, Morcontin. 10 mg/mL injection; morphine sulfate.
Administration: Administer IV over 15–30 minutes at a final concentration of 0.5-5 mg/mL
  • Contraindicated in respiratory depression, GI obstruction, acute or severe asthma, liver or renal problems. Neonates and infants <3 months are more susceptible to respiratory depression.
 
PENTAZOCINE
Uses: Relief of moderate to severe pain, sedative prior to surgery.
Dosage: Efficacy and safety not confirmed below 12 years. Children >12 years: PO—50 mg/dose q 3-4 hr; (maximum: 600 mg/day). IV or IM dose is 1/3rd of PO dose.
Brands: 25 mg tablet; Fortwin. 30 mg/mL injection; Fortwin, Pentawin, Susevin.
 
PETHIDINE/MEPERIDINE
Uses: Pain, adjunct to anesthesia, and preoperative sedation.
Dosage: IV, IM: 1–1.5 mg/kg/dose q 3-4 hr as needed; 1–2 mg/kg as preoperative medication single dose (maximum: 100 mg/dose).
Brands: 50 mg/mL injection; Pethidine hydrochloride.
Administration: For IV, dilute to 1–10 mg/mL and to be given over 15–30 minutes.
  • Use with caution in head injury, raised ICP and in young children. Pethidine though used in combination with chlorpromazine and promethazine in lytic cocktail; this mixture may have a higher rate of adverse effects compared to alternative sedatives and analgesics.
 
TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE
Uses: Management of moderate to severe pain.
Dosage: PO/IV—children >14 years, 0.5-1 mg/kg q 8 hourly.
Brands: 50 mg tab; 100 mg injection; Anatram, Dolfi, Nobligan.
9TOPICAL ANALGESIC
 
BENZOCAINE
Uses: Toothache, sore throat pain, hemorrhoids, rectal fissures, minor burns, etc.
Dosage: Apply to affected area as needed. Mouth/throat, usage should not exceed 2 days.
Brand: 7.5% gel; T-JEL.
 
LIDOCAINE
Uses: Local anesthetic, relief of pain in postherpetic neuralgia, ventricular arrhythmias.
Dosage:
  • Topical: Apply as needed but maximum dose is 3 mg/kg/dose; do not repeat within 2 hours
  • Injectable local anesthetic: As needed but maximum dose is 4.5 mg/kg/dose; do not repeat within 2 hours
  • Arrhythmias: Loading dose 1 mg/kg; continuous infusion 20–50 µg/kg/min (20 µg/kg/min in patients with shock, mild CHF, liver disease, cardiac arrest)
  • Postherpetic neuralgia: Apply patch to affected areas (maximum: 3 patch).
Brands: Gesicain, Lignox: 5% injection; 2% jelly, 5% ointment, 4% topical solution. Xylocaine: 1%, 2% and 5% injection; 2% jelly, 5% ointment, spray, 4% topicalsolution, 2% viscous. Xylocard: 50 mL vial (1 mL = 21.3 mg), shield ointment.
Combinations: Shield ointment contains lidocaine 3%, Hydrocortisone acetate 0.25%, zinc oxide 5%, allantoin 0.5%.
Administration: For IV, dilution should be 8–20 mg/mL. Lidocaine solutions containing epinephrine should not be used for treatment of arrhythmias and preservative containing solutions should not be used for IV.
10URINARY ANALGESIC
 
PHENAZOPYRIDINE
Uses: Symptomatic relief of urinary burning, frequency and urgency associated with UTI or urologic procedures.
Dosage: PO—12 mg/kg/day divided q 8 hr
Brands: Pyridium 200 mg tablet
Combinations: Phenazopyridine + Nitrofurantoin: 200 + 50 mg tablet; Nephrogesic.
  • It is not an antibiotic and do not treat infections. May discoloration of urine to orange or red.