Practical Manual of Pharmacology for Medical Students Dinesh Badyal
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abacavir 303
Abdomen, acute 161
Absorption 80, 213
Acetazolamide 303
Acetylcysteine 268
Acetylsalicylic acid 303
Actinomycin D 303
Activated charcoal 267, 303
Acyclovir 303
Adapted kalamazoo scale 122t
Adenosine 303
Administration and concentration time curve injection, route of 49f
Adrenaline 125, 302, 303
Adverse drug interactions, sites of 212t
Adverse drug reaction 122, 227, 232, 233, 233f
form 296
format 234f
monitoring 227
types of 227
Adverse effects-causality assessment 265
Advice about reporting 297
Albendazole 303
Alcohol 84
dependence 193
Allergic conjunctivitis 164
Allopurinol 303
All-trans retinoic acid 303
Alprostadil 303
Alteplase 303
Amantadine 84
Amikacin 239
Aminoglycosides 87
Aminosalicylic acid 303
Amiodarone 239, 303
Amitriptyline 303
Amlodipine 125, 303
Amoebic hepatic abscess 168
Amoxicillin 87, 303
Amphotericin B 303
Ampicillin 303
Ampoule 43f
Analgesics 82
Androgens 84
Anemia 153
Anesthetic agents 302
Angina pectoris 154
Angiotensin receptor blockers 125
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 84, 125
Animal house 97
Animal toxicity studies 96
Animal use
alternatives to 98
research and education, regulations for 99t
Antibiotic 82
stewardship program 280
Anticonvulsants 84
Antipsychotics antidepressants 82
Antithyroid 84
Aphthous ulcer 187
Apothecary system 9
Appropriate indication 141
Appropriate information 141
Appropriate monitoring 141
Appropriate patient 141
Arrhythmias 267
Artificial arm 284f
Aspirate drug solution 44
Aspiration 43f
Aspirin 84, 269
Assessment blueprint and plan 289
Assessment methods 282
Asthma
acute severe 156
episode of 155
Atenolol 87
Atropine 302
Autonomic nervous system 300
Autonomy of patients 108
Avoiding prescribing errors, tips for 208
Avoirdupois system 9
B
Benzodiazepines 84
Beta-blockers 125
Biological half-life 136
Bipolar disorder 183
Blood pressure, drugs on 125
Breast milk, drugs in 85
Bupivacaine 302
Burns 26
Buzz groups 278
C
Caenorhabditis elegans 100
Calcium
carbonate 30
channel blockers 125
Capsules
hard 34f
packed 35f
soft 34f
Carbamazepine 239, 240
Carcinogenicity studies 96
Cardiac conduction defects 267
Cardiovascular system 300
Case-based learning, steps in 204f
Causality 228
Cefazolin 87
Central animal house 97
Central Drugs Standard Control Organization 231
Central nervous system 300
Cerebral malaria 178
Chemotherapy 300
Chloramphenicol 84
Chloroquine 135
Clarify information 121
Clavulanic acid 303
Clinical pharmacology 4, 129
exercise form 255
Clinical pharmacy 4, 6
Clinical trials 259
phases of 260, 260t
regulations of 262
Coated preparations 37
Cohort studies 230
Collecting relevant articles 102fc
Commercial preparations 16
Common diseases, prescriptions for 153
Common dosage forms and routes of drug administration 32, 41, 57
Common guidelines for teachers 277
Common poisonings, management of 266
Communication 120
components of 120
teaching techniques 121f
Computer-assisted learning 125
Concentration-time curve 136f
Congestive heart failure 180
management of 280
Consent 109
Conventional drug delivery systems 65
Conversion between systems 10
Conversion within metric system 74
Convulsion 267
Coumarin anticoagulants 84
Counseling patient 244
COVID-19 122
Cream 62, 62f
Cyclophosphamide 84
Cytochrome P450 213
isoenzymes 214t
D
Dengue 179
Depression 182
Designing stations 282
Developmental toxicity studies 96
Diabetic ketoacidosis 191
Diarrhea 25
Diazoxide 84
Diethylstilbestrol 84
Digoxin 239
Direct medical costs 243
Direct nonmedical costs 243
Direct observation 282, 286
Direct-to-physician 247
Dispense mouthwash solution 28
Dispensing balance 6
and weights 7f
Dispensing bottle 8f
Dissolve dry medicine 44
Distribution calculation, volume of 134f
Disulfiram 84
Diuretics 125
Dosage adjustment 85, 239
Dosage form 66fc, 207
storage of 67
Dose 71
fraction method 87
Drop rate, calculations of 75
Drosophila melanogaster 100
Drug 3, 46, 85, 87
administration
routes of 12
time of 11
adrenergic 125
and therapeutic range 239t
antiepileptic 239
appropriate 141
autobiography of 288
avoided in children 81t
cardiac 82
causing hemolysis 88
characteristics 37
choice of 208
classified 16
combinations, fixed-dose 72, 143
common 84t
de-addiction 280
delivery
new techniques for 65
systems 38f
discoveries, major 98t
disposition, factors affecting 80
doses and dilutions, calculation of 71
during labor 83
effective groups of 151
estimation methods 238
formulations, evaluation of 264
given to labor 83
in pregnancy 83
information
center 250
sources of 249
inject 4749
interaction 214fc
effects of 215
problem-based 212, 217
labeling of 16
nomenclature 18
poisoning, hemodialysis in 135
prescription-only 16
promotion, ethical criteria for 247
promotional literature 247
critical appraisal of 247
redistribution of 136f
release pattern 38f
requiring dose 87t
schedules 19
and acts 19
sources of 32
treatment, adherence to 244
use 80
Dry run 283
Dusting powder 61
Dysmenorrhea 162
E
Ear drops 58, 58f
Educational objectives 204
Electronic
balance 7f
material 103
prescriptions 152
Elixir 35
Emulsions 36
Enalapril 125
Endocrinology 300
Environmental factors affecting dosage form 68
Epidural injections 50
Ergotamine 84
Essential medicine 140
concept 141
Established cell cultures 99
Estrogens 84
Ethics
and animals 96
and humans 108
Evidence-based medicine 104
pillars 104f
Excretion 81, 215
Exercises in class 152
Experimental pharmacology 4
Eye
drops 57, 57f
ointment 58
F
Facilitator, role of 203
Facilitator's guide 204, 205t
Factors affecting oral route 36
Falciparum 177
Famotidine 87
Female reproduction 96
Fever, high-grade 26
First-pass metabolism 86, 134, 134f
Fishbowl 278
Fluorouracil 303
Food-drug interactions 215
Formative assessment 289
Formulations 11
G
Gargles and mouthwashes 64
Gastric pH, increased 80
Gastrointestinal tract 132, 300
Gather information 121
Gel 61f
and lotions 61
General anesthetics 302
Generalized tonic-clonic 181
Genetic variations 87
Genotoxicity studies 96
Gentamicin 239
Glaucoma, chronic simple 188
Glomerular filtration rate 87
Glucose 25
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient 88
Glycopyrrolate 302
Golden rules in children 81
Good clinical practice 262
Gouty arthritis, acute 172
Griseofulvin 84
H
Half-life 135
Halothane 302
Hard soap 30
Healthcare facility, level of 142
Heat stroke 26
Hepatic blood supply 86
Hepatic disease 85
Hepatic extraction 137f
Hepatotoxic drugs 86
Herpes zoster 165
High-fidelity simulations 114
Horseshoe groups 279
Humidity 68
Hypernasality studies 96
Hypertension 157
essential 157
Hypoalbuminemia 86
Hypoglycemia 266
Hypotension 267
Hypothermia 267
Hypoventilation 266
I
In vitro techniques 99
Inactive ingredients 17
Information 109
critical evaluation of 104
of patient, application of 104
sources of 249
Ingested toxins, terminating exposure to 267
Ingredient, active 17
Inhalation 63f, 214
Inhaler, use of 63f
Injections 41
Insecticides 271
Insomnia 186
Institute Ethics Committees 262
Institutional Animal Ethics Committee 97
Instruments 6
Insulin 50
syringe 50
Intangible costs 243
Internet 251
Intestinal amebiasis 169
Intra-arterial injections 50
Intra-articular injection 50, 50f
Intramuscular gluteal region injection 115
Intramuscular injection 46, 117f, 285t
assessment 117
procedure, contraindications to 47
risks of 115
sites for 48f
Intrathecal injections 50
Intravenous
fluid 42f
infusion 42f
injection 42, 45f
route, inject by 45
Invertebrate animals 100
Iron deficiency anemia 153
Isoenzymes 214
Isoflurane 302
Isotretinoin 84
J
Jellies 61
Jigsaw 278
K
Ketamine 302
L
Lactation 84, 85
Lamivudine 303
Learning period 203
Learning session 206f
Length of therapy 207
Lignocaine 239, 302
Liniments 61
Lipid 75, 303
Liposomal amphotericin B 303
Liquid preparations, advantages of 35
Lithium 84, 87, 239
Loading dose 71, 72f
Local anesthetics 302
Local toxicity studies 96
Losartan 125
Lotions 61
Low-fidelity simulations 114
Lozenges 37
M
Maintenance dose 72
Malaria 177
Male fertility studies 96
Management skills 122
Measuring cylinder and flask 7, 7f
Medical representatives 247
Medium-fidelity simulations 114
Membrane controlled 51
Mercaptopurine 303
Metabolism 80, 213
induction of 214fc
inhibition of 214fc
Metered dose inhaler 63f
Methanol 270
Methotrexate 84
Metoprolol 125
Metric system 9
Microorganisms 32
Migraine, acute attack of 163
Minerals 32
Minimum lethal dose 71
Misoprostol 84
Module 115, 122
evaluation of 118
Molecular pharmacology 4
Morphine 208
Mortar and pestle 7, 7f
Mouthwash 29f
Multibacillary leprosy 173
Myasthenia gravis 185
Myocardial infarction 189
N
Nasal drops 58
Nasal sprays 59, 59f
National Coordination Centre for Pharmacovigilance Programme 297
National Formulary 152
National List of Essential Medicines 301
National Pharmacovigilance Program 231
Nebulizer 63, 63f
Netilmicin 239
New drug 3, 260
application 260
delivery
formulation 265
systems 65, 66
development 259
development process
stages in 260f
steps of 259fc
Nitrous oxide 302
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 160
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 84, 213
Nontechnical skill 114
Nursing mothers 84
O
Ointments 60, 62
OPC poisoning 271
Opioid 84
poisoning 269
Oral candidiasis 166
Oral capsules 34
Oral hypoglycemics 84
Oral liquids 35
Oral pills 34
Oral powder 34
Oral rehydration salt 24, 26
homemade 26
packet 24f
super 26
Oral-special preparations 37
Organ 132
cultures 99
Organophosphorus compound poisoning, management of 122
Osmolarity oral rehydration solution, reduced 26
Osmotic laxatives 267
Osteoporosis, management of 280
Over the counter drugs 16
labeling of 17f
Overtreatment, avoidance of 82
Oxygen 68, 302
P
Paracetamol poisoning 268
Parkinsonism 184
Partial seizures 181
Pastes 60
Patch 51f
Patient consent form 110, 111
Patient information sheet 111
Paucibacillary leprosy 174
P-drug 151, 152
Peptic ulcer 159
pH 68
Pharmaceutical calculations 10
Pharmaceutical chemistry 5
Pharmaceutical containers 8
Pharmaceutics 5
Pharmacodynamic changes 82
Pharmacognosy 4
Pharmacokinetic changes 81
Pharmacokinetic parameters and calculations 132
Pharmacological action 25, 27, 28
of salts 25
Pharmacology 3
assessment in 300
branches of 3
case-based learning in 202
innovative exercises in 287
internal assessment in 290f
modules in 288
poetry writing on 288
soft skills in 120
technical skill in 115
terminologies in 3
Pharmacopeia 18
Pharmacotherapeutics 4
Pharmacovigilance 5
Pharmacy 4
formulations 24
Phenobarbitone 240
Phenytoin 135, 239, 240
trapezoidal rule for 134f
Pill tile 8
Pilot testing 283
Plasma
concentration
curve 133f
data, interpretation of 239
time curve 132f
level monitoring 85
Plasma-protein binding, decreased 80
Poison 4
with drugs 268
Poster designing in groups 287f
Poster making 287
Potassium permanganate, solution of 27
Powder 35f
Pregnancy 83, 84
Premanufactured medicines, labels on 16f
Premarketing clinical trials 229
Prescription
critical evaluation of 207
evaluation, parameters of 208
writing, common errors in 207
Prilocaine 302
Primary syphilis 170
Prodrugs 86
Progestins 84
Propofol 302
Proportion calculation 11
Prudence 46
P-treatment 152
Q
Quiz 287
R
Radioiodine 84
Rational drug use 140
Real prescription 210f, 211f
Reference management, software for 104
Renal disease 86, 87
Renal dysfunction, interval adjustment in 87t
Repeated dose toxicity 96
Reporting form for consumers 298
Research
basics of 101
project, components of 101f
Reserpine 84
Rheumatoid arthritis 192
Ribavirin 84
Right drug and formulation, selection of 143
Rotahaler 63, 63f
care of 64
parts of 64f
S
Saccharin 30
Salicylates 84, 239, 269
Sampling, time of 237
Sandwich type 51
Schedule “H” warning 16f
Sedative-hypnotics 82
Select essential medicines 142
Self-directed learning 279, 295
advantages of 279
session steps 280f
Seminars 287
Session, conduct of 203
Sevoflurane 302
Share information 121
Simulated modules, components of 115
Skills teaching 300
Small-group discussion 277
Smart drugs 65
Snowball groups 278
Sodium
bicarbonate 29, 30
chloride 25, 28
nitroprusside 126
valproate 239
Soft skill 114, 120
Spatula 8, 8f
Spironolactone 87
Sprays 62
Stakeholder's perspectives 244
Status epilepticus 158
Steady state 136f
Stem cells 99
Sterility 46
Sting bites, management of 273
Storage conditions 27
Streptomycin 135
Subcutaneous injections 48, 49f
Sulfonamides 84
Supportive care 266
Supportive management 272
Suppository 59f
Sustained-release preparations 37
Swine flu 190
Symposia 250
Syrup 35, 35f
Systemic toxicity studies 96
T
Tablets 33f
chewable 37
coated 37
dispersible 37
effervescent 37, 37f
oral 33
packed 35f
scored and unscored 33f
Target level dose 71
Task trainer 114
Teaching-learning
and assessment 275
method 25, 277
Team building skills 122
Technical skill 114
advantages of 118
assessments of 117, 117f
performance 115f
rating scale for 117f
session, components of 116f
Temperature 68
Tetracycline 84
Thalidomide 84, 110
Theophylline 239
Therapeutic drug monitoring 237
indications for 238t
procedure 239
Therapeutic uses 25, 27
Thiazides 125
Thiopentone 302
Thymol 30
Tissue 132f
slices 99
Titrated dose 71
Tobacco smoking 84
Tobramycin 239
Tooth powder 29
Total body water, increased 80
Toxic effect 227
Toxicity
single-dose 96
with drugs 265
Toxicology 4
Transdermal delivery 51f
Transdermal injections 51
Trapezoidal rule 133, 133f
Tricyclic antidepressants 82, 271
Trimethoprim 84
Troy system 9
Tuberculosis 175
Typhoid 171
U
Urinary tract infection 176
Uterus with placenta, fetus in 83f
V
Vaginal candidiasis 167
Vaginal pessaries 60
Vaginal tablet 60
Vancomycin 239
Variable gastric and intestinal transit time 80
Volume depletion 266
Vulvovaginitis 167
W
Wash bottle 8
Waste 46
World Health Organization 227
Writing good prescription, tips for 208
Z
Z-technique 48
×
Chapter Notes

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Practical Manual of Pharmacology for Medical Students
Practical Manual of Pharmacology for Medical Students
As per the Competency-based Medical Education Curriculum (NMC)
Third Edition
Dinesh Badyal MBBS MD (PGI) MHPE (UK) FAIMER Fellow (USA) Dip Clin Res Department of Pharmacology Department of Medical Education Christian Medical College Ludhiana, Punjab, India
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Headquarters
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Phone: +91-11-43574357
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Phone: +44 20 3170 8910
Fax: +44 (0)20 3008 6180
© 2021, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
The views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) of the book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. The CD/DVD-ROM (if any) provided in the sealed envelope with this book is complimentary and free of cost. Not meant for sale.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com
Practical Manual of Pharmacology for Medical Students
First Edition: 2003
Second Edition: 2018
Third Edition: 2021
9789390595020
Printed at
My Beloved Students
(Who have been my teachers too)
Preface to the Third Edition
“For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them”—Aristotle
New curriculum of MBBS in India implemented from 2019 has provided opportunities to innovate in teaching-learning and assessment in pharmacology.
The emphasis has shifted to clinical pharmacology which is need of the hour. Pharmacology curriculum has been aligned with clinical subjects and more relevant clinical application based learning has been included. A much neglected communication part has been incorporated in many areas of pharmacology. Professionalism and ethics have been integrated in the pharmacology learning. Many simulation-based and hands on skills have been added to improve the procedural skills of the students. There is more dedicated time for small group activities to improve understanding of concepts and achievement of competencies.
The book has incorporated the pharmacology competencies in various chapters with careful distinction between sections. A new section has been added—Teaching-Learning and Assessment. There is a major change in the new curriculum where teachers will provide support in the form of feedback and remedial measures so that students achieve the desired competencies. This will be an ongoing process. Similarly, many competencies will be assessed during formative assessment throughout the year. The modules for simulation-based/hybrid models have been added for skills, learning and assessment. New chapters have been added for various technical and nontechnical skills in pharmacology. The thought-provoking examples and exercises have been added to all chapters.
The updates in the book have been aligned with new curriculum as well as based on feedback received from teachers and students. My heartfelt thanks to all the teachers and students.
Dinesh Badyal
Preface to the First Edition
We are what we repeatedly do, Excellence, then is not an act, but becomes a habitAristotle
To impart skills to budding doctors, practical pharmacology is an essential area of teaching. This practical manual describes what you do with your own hands which will help you throughout the life. This manual has been written keeping in view the desired shift in the pharmacology practical teaching from pharmacy-based redundant experiments to more meaningful, clinically relevant problem-based exercises. The topics covered in the manual have been carefully selected based on the most recent (2007) improvized problem-based curriculum design for pharmacology (Appendix 1). The book covers all essential components to impart the necessary skills required to students in the subject of pharmacology as per prevailing regulations in the country. The manual highlights the important skills to be imbibed by budding doctors which will aid in rational therapeutics.
The manual covers all feasible exercises in pharmacology. The manual is flexible enough to suggest various modifications for various medical colleges as per availability of material for practicals. A time schedule is also included (Appendix 2), which can be modified as per requirements. The exercises vary from simple demonstrations to computer simulation models. Special care is taken to keep the cost of material needed for practicals as low as possible. There are sufficient examples for students to apply the concepts learned in practicals. There are also new topics like ethics, which has become very important now after implementation of consumer protection act to doctors.
I hope that students and teachers benefit from this manual. Suggestions for improvements from teachers and students are most welcome.
Dinesh Badyal
Department of Pharmacology
Logbook Certificate
This is to certify that the candidate Mr/Ms....................................................................................
Roll no.............................................................., admitted in the year .............................................in the ............................................................................ Medical College, ..................................... has satisfactorily completed/has not completed all assignments/requirements mentioned in logbook in the Pharmacology period from ............................... to ....................................... The student is/is not eligible to appear for the summative (university) assessment.
 
 
 
Signature of Faculty Incharge
Signature of HOD
 
Date
 
This is to certify that the student has satisfactorily completed certifiable competencies in Pharmacology:
S. No.
Competency
PH 3.1
Write a rational, correct and legible generic prescription for a given condition and communicate the same to the patient.
PH 3.2
Perform and interpret a critical appraisal (audit) of a given
prescription.
PH 3.3
Perform a critical evaluation of the drug promotional literature.
PH 3.5
To prepare and explain a list of P-drugs for a given case/condition.
To be signed at end of phase
Signature of HOD
 
Date
Certifiable Competencies in Pharmacology
Competency number
Date attempted
First (F)
Repeat (R)
Remedial (Re)
Rating
B-Below expectations
M-Meets expectations
E-Exceeds expectations
Decision of faculty
Completed (C)
Repeat (R)
Remedial (Re)
Sign of faculty
and date
Feedback
Received
Sign of
learner
PH 3.1
No. required to certify = 5, Date completed =
1
2
3
4
5
PH 3.2
No. required to certify = 3, Date completed =
1
2
3
PH 3.3
No. required to certify = 3, Date completed =
1
2
3
PH 3.5
No. required to certify = 3, Date completed =
1
2
3
Self-directed Learning (SDL) Sessions in Pharmacology
Session no.
SDL Topic
Date
Signature of Incharge of SDL
Remarks if any
1
2
3
4
5
6
Attended:................/12
Seminars, Projects, Quizzes, Posters, etc.
S. no.
Name of activity
Date
Signature of Teacher-in-charge/ Remarks if any
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Students should provide brief summary of activity
Main domain
Topic
No. of competencies
Number of competencies that require certification
Knowledge
Pharmacology
64
Nil
Skills
Clinical Pharmacy
04
Nil
Skills
Clinical Pharmacology
08
04 (PH 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5)
Skills
Experimental Pharmacology
02
Nil
Communication
Pharmacology
07
Nil
Topics in Pharmacology are 5 and total competencies are 85.
Competencies Covered in Book Chapterwise
Number
Competencies-Pharmacology
Chapters
Knowledge-Pharmacology
PH 1.1
Define and describe the principles of pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics.
1
PH 1.2
Describe the basis of evidence-based medicine and therapeutic drug monitoring.
14, 27, 30
PH 1.3
Enumerate and identify drug formulations and drug delivery system.
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 32
PH 1.7
Define, identify and describe the management of adverse drugs reactions (ADRs).
26
PH 1.8
Identify and describe the management of drug interactions.
25
PH 1.10
Describe parts of a correct, complete, and legible generic prescription. Identify errors in prescription and correct appropriately
22, 24
PH 1.11
Describe various routes of drug administration, e.g., oral, SC, IV, IM, SL
6, 7, 8
PH 1.12
Calculate the dosage of drugs using appropriate formulae for an individual patient, including children, elderly and patient with renal dysfunction.
9, 10, 20
PH 1.21
Describe the symptoms and management of methanol and ethanol poisonings.
33
PH 1.52
Describe management of common poisoning, insecticides, common sting and bites.
33
PH 1.55
Describe and discuss national health programmes: Immunization, tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria, HIV, filaria, kala-azar, diarrheal.
23
PH 1.56
Describe basic aspects of geriatric and pediatric pharmacology.
10
PH 1.63
Describe drug regulations, acts and other legal aspects.
4,15
PH 1.60
Describe and discuss pharmacogenomics and pharmacoeconomics.
28
PH 1.64
Describe overview of drug development, phases of clinical trials and good clinical practice.
15, 31
Skills-Clinical Pharmacy
PH 2.1
Demonstrate understanding of the use of various dosage forms (oral/local/parenteral; solid/liquid).
3, 6, 16, 35
PH 2.2
Prepare oral rehydration solution from ORS packet and explain its use.
5, 17
PH 2.3
Demonstrate the appropriate setting up of an intravenous drip in a simulated environment.
4, 7
PH 2.4
Demonstrate the correct method of calculation of drug dosage in patients including those used in special situations
3, 9, 10
Skills-Clinical Pharmacology
PH 3.1 (to be certified)
Write a rational, correct and legible generic prescription for a given condition and communicate the same to the patient.
17, 21, 22
PH 3.2 (to be certified)
Perform and interpret a critical appraisal (audit) of a given prescription.
24
PH 3.3 (to be certified)
Perform a critical evaluation of the drug promotional literature.
29
PH 3.4
To recognize and report an ADR.
26
PH 3.5 (to be certified)
To prepare and explain a list of P-drugs for a given case/condition.
22
PH 3.6
Demonstrate how to optimize interaction with pharmaceutical representative to get authentic information on drugs.
17, 29
PH 3.7
Prepare a list of essential medicines for a health care facility.
21
PH 3.8
Communicate effectively with a patient on the proper use of prescribed medication.
17
Skills-Experimental Pharmacology
PH 4.1
Administer drugs through various routes in a simulated environment using mannequins.
7, 8, 16
PH 4.2
Demonstrate the effects of drugs on blood pressure (vasopressor and vasodepressors with appropriate blockers) using computer-aided learning.
18
Communication-Pharmacology
PH 5.1
Communicate with the patient with empathy and ethics on all aspects of drug use.
15, 17, 30
PH 5.2
Communicate with the patient regarding optimal use of: a. drug therapy, b. devices and c. storage of medicines.
17, 35
PH 5.3
Motivate patients with chronic diseases to adhere to the prescribed management by the health care provider.
17, 28
PH 5.4
Explain to the patient the relationship between cost of treatment and patient compliance.
28
PH 5.6
Demonstrate ability to educate public and patients about various aspects of drug use including drug dependence and OTC drugs.
17
PH 5.7
Demonstrate an understanding of the legal and ethical aspects of prescribing drugs.
4, 15, 24