Handbook of Forensic Analytical Toxicology AK Jaiswal, Tabin Millo
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abdominal pain 86
Abortion 568
Abrus precatorius 174, 175
Absorbance accuracy 372
Absorption bands, designation of 346
Absorption burner system, parts of 390
Absorption cell 389
Abuse, drug of 46, 47
Accidents 494
Accreditation 514, 515
benefits of 515
body 515
history of 503
process 516
Acepromazine 106, 274
Acetaldehyde 57, 100, 578
Acetic acid 155, 158, 181, 204, 335, 336
Acetone 57, 101
Acetonitrile 54, 295, 316
Acetophenazine 106, 107
Acetophos 52, 90
Acetylated cellulose 197
Acetylene flame 392
Acidic drug 296, 338
Acidic silica gel plates 197
Acidified aqueous cinchonine 579
Acids 155
and bases
classification of 155t
color tests for 155
attacks, prevent 572
classification of 155
test for 156
Acne 139
Aconitine 120
analysis of 380
Aconitum napellus 174, 178
Acute barbiturate intoxication, symptoms of 65
Acyl benzenes, derivatives of 361
Acylation 257
Adsorption chromatography 186
Adsorptive stripping voltammetry 407, 408
Aerodrome management 498
Agent, preparation of reducing 434
Agglutination test 176
Agitation 335
Agricultural samples, different elements in 398
Air-acetylene
elements 390
flame 391
Alcohol 296, 494
consumption of 494
metabolism 501
peak of 271f
postsampling formation of 499
use of 499
Alcometer testing 496
Aldosteronism, primary 397
Aldrin 97
endosulfan 90
Alicyclic dienes 354
Alizarin 579
reagent 579
test 136
Alkaline
distillation 59
fast blue B salt 204
solution of beta-naphthol 579
Alkaloids 69, 88, 120, 336
color tests for 120
extraction for 69
isolation methods for 69
Alkaly 161
test for 161
Alkyl substituents 354
Allobarbital 117, 271
Allobarbitone 65, 116
Alpha-naphthylamine test 164, 172
Alprazolam 272
Alumina 186, 188
plates 197
Aluminium 128, 136
analysis of 438
Aluminon reagent 579
test 136
Aluminum chloride 204
test 96
Aluminum foil-lined lids 46
Aluminum nitrate, amount of 438
Aluminum phosphide 98
Aluminum silicate 188
Alvarez reaction test 121, 178
Amanita
muscaria 83
phalloides 83
Amethocaine 274
Amino acid 315
Amitriptyline 272, 273, 532
Ammonia 155, 162, 425
Ammonium
acetate 579
buffer, preparation of 426, 431
carbonate 579
chloride 579
hydroxide 162, 336, 579
test 101
mercury thiocyanate 133, 579
oxalate 579
test 162
peroxydisulfate test 138
persulfate solution 578
phosphate 579
sulfate 579
sulfide solution test 139
thiocyanate 134, 579
Ammonium molybdate 204
quinine sulfate 579
test 172
reagent 579
solution 578
test 90, 92, 93, 95, 129, 172
Amobarbital 271
Amobarbitone 65, 116
Amperometric detector 312
functions 312
Amphetamine 147, 151, 273, 333, 532, 540
Ampicillin 140
Analytical column, regeneration of 316
Analytical toxicology, forensic application of 1
Anemia 86
Anesthetic gases 48
Aniline 57
E- and b-bands of 347f
isolation of 87
Anisidine phthalate 204
Anodic stripping voltammetry 405, 407
Antazoline hydrochloride
solution 579
test 157
Antemortem ingestion 540
Anthrax 139
Antiallergens 334
Antibiotics 78
color tests for 139
isolation of 84
Antidepressants 272, 334
identification of 272
quantification of 272
second-generation 334
Antihistamines 274, 334
identification of 274
quantification of 274
Antimony 128, 130
chloride 204
pentachloride test 176
Apiezon grease 234, 240
Apoatropine 69
Appetite, loss of 87
Aprobarbitone 65
Apron 557f
Aprotic solvents 316
Aqueous layer 74
Arecoline 69
Argemone mexicana 174, 181
Argon ionization detector 241, 246, 246f
Arsenic 128, 129
analysis of 433, 435t
bulletin of 420
Ascorbic acid, aqueous solution of 578
Assessor role 518
Asynchronous noise 328
Atomic absorption 311
burner system 390f
instruments, types of 386
process 384, 385f
technique 384
Atomic absorption spectrometry 383, 399, 403
advantages of 384
applications of 396
disadvantages of 384
principle of 383
Atomic emission 311
process 385f
spectroscopy 36
Atomic fluorescence 311
Atomic spectroscopic detector 311
Atrocin 69
Atropa belladonna 147, 153
Atropine 69, 147, 153
Audit 505
criteria 505
evidence 505
findings 505
first-party 509
principles of 509
second-party 509
third-party 509
types 509
Audit program 505, 512
objectives, establishing 511
parts of 512
records, managing and maintaining 513
Automatic thin-layer chromatography sprayer 195f
Autopsy 39
report 554
Auxiliary electrode 411, 412f, 419
Auxochrome 351
increment 358t
Avenin 52, 90
Azacyclonol 61, 107, 274
B
Bacillus anthracis 139
Bacterial infections 139
types of 139
Balanced pressure system 264, 264f
Bam Ford's test 175
Bandwidth, determination of 369f
Barbitone 65, 116
Barbiturate 88, 117, 147, 150, 198, 201, 532
analysis of 221, 222t
color tests for 116
extraction methods for 65
identification of 271
isolation methods for 65
quantification of 271
test for 117
Barium 128, 137, 399
chloride 171, 579
test 158, 167, 173
hydroxide 155, 162
sulfate test 171
Baseline flatness, test for 368f
Basic drugs, analysis of 221, 273
Bauxite 188
B-bands 346
Beer's law 343, 346f
graphical representation of 386f
Beer–Lambert law 343
Benactyzine 61
Benedict's reagent 579
Benedict's test 141, 145
Benzene 57, 102, 199, 335
hexachloride 268
Benzidine 579
solution test 164
Benzocaine 274
Benzoctamine 106, 108
Benzodiazepine 42, 61, 116, 147, 150, 335, 379, 532, 569
analysis of 272
drugs of 379
derivatives, absorption of 379t
Benzoinoxime test 134
Benzphetamine 273
Benzyl alcohol 57
Berberine 69, 120, 122
Beta-naphthol test 102
Bettendorf's test 130
Bhang, test for 180
Bial's reagent 211
Bicarbonate test 134
Bidrin 90
Bifenthrin 90, 269, 333
Biological fluid 39, 55
bile 42
blood 39
body fluids 43
cerebrospinal fluid 43
urine 40
vitreous humor 41
Biological hazard 556
Biological material, waste disposal procedures for 29, 560
Biological tissues 44
Biomedical waste 560
classification of 562t
Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 560, 561
Birlane 90
Bismuth 128, 131
Blank analysis 417
Blood 55, 59, 61, 64
alcohol
concentration 498, 540
level 496
and urine 441
heavy metal in 434
chemicals in 1
during collection, dilution of 500
level, actual 500
microwave digestion of 488
serum, magnesium in 397
Blood-to-breadth ratio 500
Bonded stationary phase 304
Bone
and muscle tissue 46
marrow samples 47
Borate 163, 165
Boric acid 146, 434, 436
Brain tissue 403
Breath alcohol 501
analyzer 494
concentration 500
testing
device 495, 501
principle of 495
Breathalyzer 494, 496f, 501
calibration of 496
operators 497
types of 494
using photocell 497f
Bridged ethylene hybrid 322
Bromate 163, 167
Bromazepam 106, 108, 272
Bromide 163, 165, 205, 212, 312
Bromine solution 580
Bromine water 580
Bromocresol green 204
Bromophenol blue 205
Bromophos 52, 90
Brompheniramine 274
Bronchopneumonia 88
Brown sugar 147
Brucine 120, 121, 174, 179
test 157, 172
Buffer preparation 436, 438, 441, 443
Bulk property detectors 306
Burner heads 390, 401
Burns 564
Butacaine 274
Butaperazine 106, 108
Butobarbitone 65, 116
Butriptyline 272
C
Cadmium 128, 135
acetate 211
Caffeine 273
Calatropis
gigantean 174
procera 174
Calcium
analysis of 397
hydroxide 162, 188
oxalate 188
silicate 188
sulphate 188
Calcium carbonate 188
test 158
Calcium chloride 580
test 160, 166, 172
Calculate column's efficiency 290
Calibration method 397f
Calotropis gigantica 78, 82, 174
isolation of 82
Calotropis procera 78, 82, 174
isolation of 82
Camazepam 272
Cannabis sativa 174, 179
Capillary column 233, 234f, 237
Carbamates 52, 90, 199, 223, 535
pesticides 91, 269, 315, 333
Carbaryl 90
Carbofuran 90
Carbon
disulfide 57, 103
monoxide 46, 532
Carbon tetrachloride 57, 205, 478
carbon disulfide test 93
test 93, 97
Carbowax 240
Cardiac drugs, applied for 337
Cardiac glycosides 85
Cardiotoxic poisons 85
Carfenazine 106, 108, 274
Carrier gas 229
arrangement of 232f
Castiglioni's test 104
Catecholamines 311
Cathodic stripping voltammetry 407
Cause-and-effect relationships 508
Caustic potash test 101
Caustic soda test 138, 157
Cefaloridine 139, 140
Cell, type of 366
Cellulose plates 197
Central drugs laboratory 567
Central nervous system 46, 146
Ceramic materials 478
Cerebera thevetia 85
Cerebrospinal fluid 43
Cetirizine 334
Charas, test for 180
Chelating resins 303
Chelidonine 120, 122
Chemical 23f
criminology 338
hazard 556
interferences 395
list of 17t
substance 381
Chemiluminescent nitrogen detector 307, 313
Chiral detector 314
Chlamydia 139
psittaci 140
trachomatis 140
Chloral hydrate 57, 103, 378
Chloramphenicol 140
Chloranil reagent 206
Chlorate 163, 164
Chlordiazepoxide 106, 109, 380
azacyclonol 106
Chloride 165, 209
Chlorine water 580
test 165, 166
Chlorodiazepoxide 379
Chloroform 57, 102, 199
Chloroform-pyridine test 169
Chloroplatinic acid 580
test 161
Chloroprocaine 274
Chloropromazine hydrochloride 380
Chlorothion 90, 332
Chlorphenamine 334
Chlorpheniramine 273
Chlorpromazine 61, 106, 109, 274, 540
Chlorpyrifos 52, 90, 332
Chlortetracycline 141
Chlorthion 52
Chopper 389
Chromate 173
Chromatogram 251, 251f, 252f, 255f, 256f, 290f
development of 202, 203f, 218
Chromatographic column, types of 302
Chromatography 186
Chromic acid test 149
Chromium 128, 136
Chromophore 350, 351t
Chromosulfuric acid 213
Chromotropic acid 580
test 100, 136
Cinchona succirubra 336
Cinchonine 69
Cis and trans isomers 378
Claviceps purpurea 82, 336
Cleistanthus collinus 78, 81
Clindamycin 141
Clinical toxicology 219
Clobazam 106, 109, 272
Clofenotane 94
Clomipramine 272
Clomocycline 139, 141
Clonazepam 379, 539
Clopenthiol 106, 109
Clorazepate 379
Clorazepic acid 272
Coating efficiency 255
Cobalt acetate test 169
Cobalt acetate-o-toluidine reagent 205
Cobalt nitrate 580
test 138, 168, 169
Cobalt sulfate 580
Cobalt thiocyanate 205
solution 578, 580
test 151
Cobalt-acetate test 117
Cobaltous acetate solution 580
Cocaine 42, 69, 147, 149, 222, 274, 539
Code of criminal procedure 535, 567, 570
Codeine 120, 122, 148
Coiled column, packing of 238f
Cold start 419
Colocynth, isolation of 82
Column chromatography 186, 186f
Column coating 237
Column injection 300
Column lifetime and performance, maintenance of 303
Column packing 237, 305
Coma 86
Combined audit 510
Common biomedical waste treatment facility 561
Common drugs, identification of 333
Common solvents 240t
Complete toxicological analysis 40
Complexing reagent 439
Compressed air 391
Concentrated formic acid 152
Concentrated hydrochloric acid test 174
Concentrated sulfuric acid test 174
Conducting closing meeting, procedure for 523
Conductivity detector 312
Congo red 580
paper test 156
Coniferyl alcohol
reagent 580
test 145
Coniine 69
Conjugated compound 378
Control unit 267
Copper 128, 133
turning test 158
Copper sulfate 206, 580
pyridine test 168
solution 580
test 133, 144, 166, 169
Coramine 69
Corona detector 314, 314f
Corrected retention time 252
Cough syrups 499
Cresol 58
isolation of 86
Crime
examining scene of 547
investigation, field of 35
Croton tiglium 78, 174, 175
isolation of 79
Crotonic acid 79
Crystal test 105, 121, 179
Cupric acetate test 182
Cuprous iodide test 131
Customer focus 506
Cyanate 163, 168
Cyanide 46, 60, 104, 163, 168, 532, 534
analysis of 434, 437t
extraction method for 60
isolation method for 60
sulphide 312
voltammogram of 436
Cyanosis 86
Cyclizine 274
Cyclobarbital 118
Cyclobarbitone 65
Cyclohexane 199
Cyclopentobarbital 118
Cycloserine 142
Cyfluthrin 90, 269, 333
Cyolane 52, 90
Cypermethrin 269
D
Dasanit 52, 90
Datura fastuosa 174, 179
DDQ reagent 206
Delorazepam 272
Deltamethrin 90, 269, 333
Demeclocycline 139, 142
Demeton 52, 90
Denigès–Oliver's test 125, 181
Deoxyribonucleic acid 39
Derivatization 257
techniques 319
types of 319
Desflurane 335
Desipramine 272
Detection limit 394
Detectors, type of 245
Deuterium lamp 363
test 371, 371f
Developing solvent system 199t
Dextromethorphan 540
Diabetes 397
Diacetylmorphine 147
Diamorphine 536, 539
Diarrhea, causes of 84
Diazepam 106, 110, 379
Diazinon 52, 90, 94
Diazotization test 163
Diazotized 215
Dicalcium phosphate 188
Dicapthon 52, 90
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane 95, 268
analysis of 380
Dichlorofluorescein 206
Dichlorovinyl 333
Dichlorvos 90, 332
Dichromate 163, 173
test 98
Dieldrin 90, 97
Dielectric loss factor 478
Diethylene glycol succinate 241
Digestors, closed 486t
Digitalin test 176
Digitalis purpurea 174, 176
Digitoxin 174
test 176
Dille-Koppanyi
reagent 580
test 150
Dilute ferric chloride solution 580
Dilute solutions, preparation of 585
Dimefox 52, 90
Dimethoate 52, 90, 94, 332
Dimethothiazine 274
Dimethyl glyoxime 580
reagent test 136
Dimethylamphetamine 273
Dinitrobenzene 379
potassium hydroxide reagent test 150
reagent 580
Dinitro-p-diphenyl carbazide test 135
Dinitrophenyl hydrazine test 94
Dinitrotoluene 379
Dionine 69
Diphenhydramine 274
Diphenyl
carbazide tests 136
oxalate tablets 540
Diphenylamine 206
solution 580
test 156, 157
Diphenylcarbazide 580
Diphenylcarbazone 206, 580
test 131
Diphenylpyraline 274
Dipole rotation 478
Dipole-dipole interaction 287
Diquinolyl test 134
Direct gas-pressure system 300
Dispatch and forwarding samples 551
Disposables, use of 48
Disyston 52
Dithizone 207, 209
solution 580
test 135
Dizziness 86
loss of 87
Double-beam
atomic absorption spectrophotometer 387f
spectrophotometer 362
ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, technical specifications of 375
Doxepin 272
Doxycycline 139, 142
Dragendorff's reagent 206, 581
test 177
Dragendorff's test 126
Drinking after offence 499
Driving belt 413, 413f
Dropping mercury electrode 410
Drug
(price control) order 567, 569
abuse, analysis of 316
alcohol interactions 499
analysis of 45
and poisons, laws relating to 566
basic 296
designer 569
identification 47
of abuse, color tests for 146
standard, list of 30t
synergistic effect of 536
Drugs Act 566
Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendment) Act 566, 567
Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 567
Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 567, 568
Drugs Control Act 567, 568
Drugs Technical Advisory Board 567
Drunken driving 498
Dry ashing method 77
Dummy stopper 414, 414f
Duquenois–Levine
reagent 581
test 180
Dursban 52
Dynamic coating 238
E
E-bands 346
Ecgonine 69
Eddy diffusion 292, 293f
Edifenphos 52, 332
Effective theoretical plates 253
Ehrlich's reagent 154, 581
test 153
Ekatin 52
Electrochemical detector 311, 312f
Electrochemical stripping analysis techniques 406
Electrode 410, 436, 439
less discharge lamp 388, 389
test 416
washing of 417
Electrolyte 478
Electromagnetic spectrum 340, 340f
Electron capture detector 241, 243, 243f, 266, 282
Electron spin resonance spectroscopy 341
Electronic energy levels 348f
Electronic transitions, types of 347, 348f
Elixir 499
Emerson reagent 207
Encyclopedia britannica 481f
Endocyclic conjugated 354
Endosulfan 268
Endrin 90, 96
Enzymatic processes, disruptive of 75
Ephedrine 273
HCl 69
Equipment,
list of major 25t
list of minor 27t
Erdmann's reagent 581
Ergometrine 82, 120, 122
Ergot 174, 182
isolation of 82
Ergotamine 82, 120, 123
Ergotoxin 82
Erythromycin 139, 142
Erythroxylum coca 146
Estazolam 272
Ester test 99, 174
Ethanol 48, 204, 211
production 42
test 91
vapors, inhalation of 499
Ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution 578
Ether 335
Ethion 52
Ethomoxane 106, 110
Ethopropazine 61, 274
Ethyl
alcohol 58, 98, 534
benzoate test 149
methyl ketone reagent test 103
Ethylene
diamine nickel test 171
glycol polymer 240f
Ethylenediamine nickel reagent 581
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 441
Ethylmethyl ketone test 97
Euphoria, inducing 334
Evaporative light scattering detector 314
Evidential breath alcohol testing 500
E-waste rules 561
Exocyclic conjugated 354
Explosive 337
analysis of 275, 378
compounds, chromatogram of 275f
Expressing report, ways of 533
Eye 86
accident 564
witnesses, statements of 547
F
Facial paralysis 86
False-negative report, causes of 538
False-positive
breath 500
report, causes of 540
Faraday's law 312
Fast blue B
potassium hydroxide test 175
reagent 581
test 179
Fatigue 86
Feigl's test 133
Femur ring 46
Fenitrothion 52, 90
Fenpropathrin 90, 333
Fenthion 52, 90
Fenvalerate 90, 333
Ferric chloride 207, 581
acid test 183
solution 581
test 145, 158, 159, 169, 170, 176, 177, 182
Ferric salt reagent 581
Ferric salt test 181
Ferric thiocyanate test 168
Ferrous hydroxide
paper test 105
solution 581
Ferrous sulfate 581
test 157, 169, 170
Fertilizer, microwave digestion of 490
Filtration method, coating by 236
First aid box 563, 563f
contents of 563f
First aid emergency treatment 562
Fischer–Morris test 152
Flame 390
function of 390
ionization detector 241, 242f, 266, 282
photometric detector 241, 245, 245f, 266, 282
process 391f
system 401
test 132, 137, 161, 162
Flavone reagent 207
Flaxedil 69
Flow-metering stem 391
Fluanisone 106, 110
Fluorescein sodium salt 206
Fluorescence
index 307
test 183
Fluorescent plates 197
Fluoride 163, 166
Fluorimetric detector 311, 311f
Fluphenazine 61
Flurazepam 272, 379
Forensic application 221
Forensic chemistry 403
Forensic sample 333
barium in 399
lead in 399
tin in 399
Forensic science 398
laboratories 575
Forensic scientists 2
Forensic toxicology 35
laboratory, layout of 36f
reporting 532
Formaldehyde 58, 100, 207
solution 581
Formaldehyde-sulfuric acid 207
reagent 581
test 151, 154
test 108116, 146
Formic acid 155, 158, 336
Formothion 52
Forrest reagent 208, 581
test 154
Forrest test 107, 108, 111, 113, 115, 116
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy 36
FPN reagent 581
test 154
FPN test 107, 113, 114
Froehde's reagent 581
test 152154, 182
Froehde's test 124, 125, 148, 174, 180
Fuchsin test 170
Fuchsine reagent 581
Fujiwara test 102, 103, 140
Fume hood 191, 192f
Fuming nitric acid 125
Functional group, detection of 376
Functionalized silica materials 303
Furfural acid 207
Furfuraldehyde 111, 112
reagent 581
Furfural-sulfuric acid test 184
G
Ganja, test for 180
Gardona 52, 90, 199
Gas chromatographic conditions
with derivatization 272
without derivatization 272
Gas chromatography 228, 249
derivatization 257
headspace technique 263f
mass spectroscopy 36
troubleshooting in 276
Gas density balance detector 241, 247, 247f
Gas-liquid chromatography 229, 229f, 241, 251, 258, 259f, 262, 265, 270, 276, 276t, 277, 277t, 282, 331
forensic applications of 267
solid support for 235
techniques of 229
Gelsemium 69
General drug screening 533
Generate microwave energy 481
Gentamicin 139, 143
Gentian violet-bromine 208
Gerrard's test 154
Gibb's reagent 208
Glacial acetic acid 183, 211
Glass capillaries 193, 194f
Glass carbon electrodes 406
Glass indicating oxygen traps 261
Glass thin-layer chromatography sprayer 194f
Glasswares 12, 16f
list of 13t
Glassy carbon electrode 411, 412f
Glassy materials 478
Glucuronic acid 42
Glutaraldehyde 539
Glutathione 42
Glycoprotein 311
Glymidine 275
Gold chloride test 149, 178
Gonorrhea 139
Gradient device 299
Gradient separation 295
Graphite furnace
atomic absorption 479
system 401
Griess reagent 208
Group test 133
Guaiacum copper sulfate test 105, 159
Guard column 258, 303
Gum disease 139
Gunzberg's reagent 581
Gunzberg's test 157
Guthion 52
Gutzeit test 129
H
Haemophilus influenzae 140
Hair 403
and nail 47
microwave digestion of 489
Halogen containing pyrethroids 269
Handling microwave digestor 484
Handmade plates 195
Handmade thin-layer chromatography plates 196f
Hanging mercury drop electrode 411, 427, 432, 435, 437, 439, 442
Hard plastics, use of 48
Hazardous chemical 560
Hazardous wastes 561
Headache 86
loss of 87
Headspace
gas chromatography 263
sampler 267
Heart damage 86
Heavy metal 47
monitoring of 405
Helium ionization detector 241, 247, 248f
Henry's law 496
Hepatic metabolism 147
Hepatic portal system 44
Heptabarbitone 65, 116
Herbicides 296
drug 338
Heroin 42, 120, 123, 147, 222, 536, 539
brown 338
Heteroannular diene 354, 356
Heterocyclic compounds 147
Hexacyanoferrate 163, 169, 170
Hexamethyldisilazane 235
Hexane 199
Hexylcaine 274
High capacity oxygen traps 260
High strength silica 322
High-performance liquid chromatography 36, 276t, 287, 288, 295fc, 296f, 297f, 309, 314, 317, 323, 328t
column 301, 301f
detectors 306, 307t
elution techniques in 295
forensic applications of 332
guard column 304f
instrument setup 325fc
normal-phase 294fc
pumps, types of 300
relevance of 331
solvents 29, 34f
list of 33t
system, technical specifications for 317
theory of 288
types of 294
High-pressure liquid chromatography 299
Hollow cathode lamp 388, 388f
process 388f
Holmium perchlorate solution 371f
test 370
Homatropine 69
Homicidal poisoning deaths 547
Homicides 494
Homoannular dienes 354
Human resource 1
Husemann's test 125, 180
Hydrastine 120, 123
Hydrastinine 120, 123
Hydride generation system 400
Hydrobromic acid 155157, 238, 336, 482, 483
Hydrocarbons 495
Hydrochloric acid 155, 215, 336
test 91, 106, 134, 138, 150, 181, 184
Hydrocyanic acid 58, 60, 98, 155, 159, 336, 478, 481, 483
Hydrogen
discharge lamps 363
peroxide 213, 398, 478, 482, 483
test 173
sulfide 581
test 132, 135
Hydroiodic acid 155, 156, 336
Hydrophobic interactions 287
Hydroquinine 120, 124
acid, solution of 578
test 95
Hydroxyamphetamine 273
Hydroxylamine 208
hydrochloride 581
Hydroxylapatite 188
Hydroxyzine 61, 274
Hygroscopic alkaloid 83
Hyoscine 69
Hyoscyamine 69
Hyperchromic effect 352
Hypochlorites 163, 168
Hypochromic effect 352
I
Ibogaine 120, 124
Illicit drug 316
Imidan 52
Imipramine 61, 380
Implementing Audit Program 512
Impotency 568
Indian Evidence Act 567, 571
Indian Penal Code 567, 570
Indigo solution 582
Indigo test 164
Indole 582
test 164
Infertility 568
Infrared
photometric system 496f
radiation 340
Injection port 231
Injection sites 47
Injector septa 258
Insecticides 296
color tests for 90
drug 338
isolation methods for 52
Insomnia 335
Iodate 163, 167
Iodide 163, 166
nitrite 312
Iodine
solution 582
vapor 208
Iodoform test 98, 102
Iodoplatinate solution 209
Ion-exchange chromatography 287
Ionic conductance 478
Ionization 395
nature of 316
Iproniazid 272
Iron 208
Isocratic separation 295
Isoflurane 335
Isoniazid 539
Isopropanol 316
Isopropyl alcohol 58
Isopropylamine solution 578
J
Jamalgota 78, 79
Jumping baseline 331
K
Kaner, isolation of 85
K-bands 346
Keller's test 183
Kerosene 58
oil, isolation of 87
Ketones 495
Kidney 86
Kinetic function 375
Koppanyi–Zwikker
reagent 209, 582
test 117, 118, 143, 146
L
Laboratory accidents, emergency management of 564t
Laced drinks 499
Lambert's law 343
Lambert–Beer law 343, 345
application of 345
Lamp current optimization 396
Lanthanum chloride 399
Lanthanum nitrate solution 582
Lanthanum nitrate test 158
Laser light scattering detector 313
Lead 128, 134, 399
acetate
solution 582
test 103, 166, 173
assessor, role of 519
nitrate test 168, 170
Lead Acid Batteries [Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules 561
Leaves, microwave digestion of 489
Legal defense 498
Legal status 497
Legal's test 101
Levomepromazine 106, 110
Liebermann's reagent 582
Liebermann's test 94, 97, 106, 107, 110115, 119, 123, 124, 126, 128, 140, 141, 152
Light sources 388
Lime water test 160
Lindane 268
Lipophilic drugs 46
Liquid chromatography 228
mass spectroscopy 315
Liquid phase 240
Liquid-liquid chromatography 288
Lisdexamfetamine 333
Litmus
paper test 155, 161
solution 582
Liver 44, 86, 403
Local anesthetics 274
identification of 274
quantification of 274
Longitudinal diffusion 293
Loprazolam 272
Lorazepam 106, 111, 379
Loxapine 106, 111
Lymecycline 139, 143
Lysergic acid diethylamide 147, 338, 569
Lysergide 147, 154
M
Macrolide antibiotic 139
Mafenide 139, 143
Maggots 47
Magnesia 188
Magnesium 128, 138
peroxide test 156
silicate 188
sulfate 582
Magnetron 481
Malaria 139
Malathion 52, 90, 93, 332
Malonic acid 65
Mammalian toxicity 269
Management system 503
Managing audit program 510
Mandelin‘s test 148
Mandelin's reagent 209, 582
test 182
Mandelin's test 107, 110, 114, 116, 124, 128, 140, 143, 148
Mandrax 146
Manganese 128, 137
dioxide test 127
Manganous sulfate test 167
Manganous sulfate-phosphoric acid 582
test 164
Marquis reagent 151, 210, 582
test 151, 154
Marquis test 106116, 122124, 126128, 140143, 147, 148, 152, 153, 175, 180
Mask 557f
Mass detector 250
Mass transfer coefficient 293
Matrix interferences 395
Mayer's reagent 582
test 177
Mayer's test 126
Mebutamate 106, 111
Mecke's reagent 582
test 152, 153, 155
Mecke's test 125, 148
Meconic acid 181
Medazepam 106, 111
Menazon 52
Menstrual disorders 568
Mepazine 61
Meprobamate 106, 112
Mercuric chloride solution 582
Mercuric nitrate test 156
Mercuric oxide 441
Mercuric sulphate
solution 582
test 117, 118, 119
Mercuric sulfate-diphenylcarbazone test 150
Mercurous nitrate
reagent 210, 582
test 117, 119, 145, 162
Mercury 128, 131, 209
analysis of 441
arc lamps 364
drop catcher 414
electrode
capillary for 419
needles for 419
Mescaline 146, 147, 152, 273, 569
Metal in foodstuffs, drinks and beverages, analysis of 398
Metal ions, analysis of 415
Metallic elements, analysis of 396
Metallic poisons 88, 128, 534
color tests for 128
extraction methods for 75
isolation methods for 75
Metallic standard, list of 31t
Metals, analysis of different 416
Methacycline 139, 143
Methadone 539
Methamphetamine 147, 151, 333
Methanol 295, 316, 320, 336
Methanolic potassium hydroxide 582
solution 578
Methaqualone 146, 147, 151, 569
Methenamine 139, 143
Methohexital 118
Methoxyamphetamine 273
Methoxychlor 97
Methoxypromazine 61
Methyl
alcohol 58, 99, 534
chloride 478
orange 582
parathion 52, 90, 332
violet test 158
yellow 210
Methylamine 155
Methylcrotonic acid 79
Methyldemeton 52
Methylene
blue solution 582
blue test 156, 171
chloride 316
Methylenedioxyamphetamine 273
Methylephedrine 273
Methylphenidate 273
Methylphenobarbitone 65
Metrohm trace metal analyzer 409f
Mevinphos 90
Micro test 130
Microargon detector 249
Microbial cells, death of 84
Microdetector 250f
Microscopic test 179
Microwave
characteristics of 477
digester 425, 426t
material behavior of 477
Microwave digestion 476
method 77, 492
system 476
Microwave technology
over thermal convection, advantages of 479
principles of 477
Milk powder, microwave digestion of 490
Millon's reagent 582
Mipafox 52, 90
Miscellaneous poisons, extraction methods for 78
Mix dimethyl sulfoxide 316
Mixture, separation of 256
Mobile phase, miscibility chart of 298f
Modern liquid chromatograph 298f
Modern toxicology laboratory 1
area 3
case opening room 5
document record room 4
engineering specifications 10
equipment and machinery 24
extraction and isolation unit 8
human resource 1
physical facility 3
reference material 25
requirements 12
sample analysis 8
screening test unit 9
security 29
space requirement 3
toxicology museum 5
washing room 10
Modes for quantitative analysis 419
Moisture traps 260
Molar absorptivity 344
Molar extinction coefficient 344
Molybdatophosphoric acid 210
Monitoring audit program 513
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 334
Monochromator 364, 392, 393f, 401
Monocrotaline 120, 124
Monohydroxy phenol 80
Morphine 69, 120, 124, 146, 147, 222, 336, 539
analysis of 380
Morphothion 52, 90, 332
Motor Vehicle Act 498
Mouth alcohol 501
M-phenylenediamine 212
Multi-mode electrode 410, 410f, 427, 432, 435, 437, 439, 442
Municipal solid wastes 561
Muscle tissue 403
Mushrooms 78
isolation of 83
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 140
N
N-1-naphthyl ethylenediamine dihydrochloride 582
Nails, microwave digestion of 489
Naphthalene 58, 78
isolation of 79
Naphthylethylenediamine
dihydrochloride test 92
hydrochloride test 94
Narceine 120, 126
Narcotic 198, 296
analysis of 222, 222t
drug 222, 636
identification of 270
quantification of 270
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 567, 569
National AIDS Control Organization 561
Nausea 86
Nealbarbitone 65
Nebulizer 401
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 140
Neopine 120, 126
Nerium odorum 85
Nessler's reagent 583
test 102, 103, 162, 176
Nessler's test 111, 112, 141143
Neurotransmitters 311
Neutral and acid distillation 59
Neutral hexane extract 535
Nickel 128, 136
amine reagent 210
Nicotiana tabacum 174, 177
Nicotine 69, 78, 120, 126
isolation of 83
Ninhydrin 211
reagent 151, 583
test 143
Nitrate 163
Nitrating mixture 584
reagent test 102
Nitrazepam 106, 112, 272, 539
Nitric acid 155, 157, 187, 211, 336, 478, 482, 483
test 121, 125, 148, 181
Nitric oxide 487
Nitrite 163
Nitrobenzene 58, 87
isolation of 86
Nitrofurantoin 144
Nitrofurazone 139, 144
Nitrogen
gas, bubbling of 409
phosphorus detector 266, 282
Nitrohydrochloric acid 482, 483
Nitronaphthalene test 135
Nitroprusside test 104
Nitrous acid 155, 160, 336, 392
Nitroxoline 144
Noisy baseline 328
Nonconformity, classification of 520
Nonoxidizing acid 483
Nonpolar stationary phase 305f
Nonsilanized capillary 413f
Nortriptyline 272
Novocaine 69
Nuclear magnetic resonance detector 313
O
O-cresol test 92
Odihydroxy 80
Oduvan, isolation of 81
Oleander 174
Open digestors 486t
Open tubular column 232
dynamic coating of 238f
O-phenylenediamine-trichloroacetic acid 212
O-phthalaldehyde 315
Opiates and narcotics 532
Opioid 47
Opium alkaloids 174, 180
Optics 375, 401
Optimization, techniques for 396
Orcinol 211
Organic compounds, basis of color in 353
Organic molecules
absorption by 347
electrons present in 347
Organochlorated insecticides 46
Organochlorine
compound 52, 535
insecticides 53, 268
Organochloro compound 90, 200, 223
Organochloro insecticides 91
Organophosphorus 199, 223
compound 52, 90, 535
insecticides 90, 268, 332
pesticides 90
Otitis media 139
O-toluidine 134, 215, 579
Oven and pneumatic control system 265
Oxalate 163, 172
Oxalic acid 99, 155, 160, 336, 578
Oxazepam 272, 379
Oxethazaine 274
Oxidation reaction 495
Oxidizing agents 398
Oxybuprocaine 274
Oxygen traps 260
Oxypertine 106, 112
P
Packed column 232, 233f, 237
Packing samples 550
Palet's reaction test 120, 178
Palladium chloride 583
solution 211
test 92, 93, 120, 141
Panchnama 552
P-anisaldehyde 204
P-anisidine hydrochloride 204
Papaver somniferum linn, capsules of 69
Paraffin oil 211
Paraldehyde 58
Paraoxon 52, 90, 332
Parathion 90, 92, 332
analysis of 380
Particular ion 313
P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde 206, 583
test 122, 178
Pecazine 106, 112
Penicillin 84
Penicillium 84
Pentobarbitone 65, 116
Perchloric acid 155, 156, 187, 487
test 161
Perfluoroalkoxy 476, 478, 482, 487
Pericyazine 106, 113, 274
Periodic table elements, list of 586
Periodontitis 139
Permanganate
crystal test 149
test 172
Permethrin 90, 333
Perphenazine 61, 106, 113
Pertussis 139
Pesticide 198, 296, 332
analysis of 223, 223t
color tests for 90
drug 338
identification of 332
isolation methods for 52
poisoning 332
standard, list of 30t
test for 92
Pethidine 69
Petrabenazine 106
Petroleum ether 199
Petroleum products
analysis of 275
chromatogram of 276f
Pharmacy Act 567, 568
Phenethylamine 146
Pheniramine 274
Phenmetrazine 273
Phenobarbital 119
Phenobarbitone 65
Phenol 58
Phenol-barbitone 116
Phenolphthalein 583
Phenothiazine 147, 274, 335, 380, 532
analysis of 274
drugs 154
Phentermine 273
Phenyl azide-sulfanilic acid test 96
Phenyl hydrazine
hydrochloric reagent 211
hydrochloride, aqueous solution of 578
Phenylhydrazine sulfonate 212
Phenylhydrazine-potassium ferricyanide test 100
Phenylhydrazine-sodium nitroprusside test 100
Phosalone 52, 332
Phosdrin 90
Phosphamidon 90, 332
Phosphate 163, 172
reduction of 540
Phosphide 532, 534
Phosphinon 90
Phosphomolybdic acid 212, 583
test 177
Phosphomolybdic test 126
Phosphoric acid 52, 99, 206, 207, 212, 215, 578
test 184
Phosphotungstic acid 212
Photocathode 392
Photocell 366, 366f
Photodiode array 307
detector 309, 310f, 318
Photoionization detector 241, 248, 249f
Photometric accuracy 372
test of 373f
Photomultiplier tube 365, 365f, 392
Photovoltaic cell 365, 366f
Phthalylsulfacetamide 144
Phthalylsulfathiazole 144
Physical hazard 556
Physostigmine 69
Picric acid 583
paper test 105
test 159
Pinacryptol yellow 212
Piperacetazine 106, 114
Plant poisons
applied for 336
color tests for 174
Plasma 316, 403
inductively coupled 36
Plastic containers 49f
Plasticware 22, 25f
list of 23t
Plates
after coating, treatment of 198
coating of 198
Platinum electrode 411
Pneumatic intensifier pumps 300
Poisoning
accidental 268
case of 1
Poisoning deaths
crime investigation of 547
investigation of 547
Poisons 316, 537, 564
act 566, 567
anions 532
chronic 47, 82
classification of 532
color tests for different 90
common 533
deaths 532
drugs 532
gases 532
isolation methods for 78
metals 532
miscellaneous substances 532
pesticides 532
presence of 1
samples, list of 5t
volatile substances 532
Polar stationary phase 304, 304f
Polarographic trace metal analyser, application of 445t
Polarographic vessel 409
Police investigating officers 552
Polyethylene 478, 481
Polypropylene 48
Polytetrafluoroethylene 46, 48, 250, 476, 478, 481, 487
Polyvinyl chloride 478
Porous layer
beds 305
open tubular 282
columns 234
Porous polymeric beds 305
Porphyroxine test 125
Portable breath analyzer 495f
Positive ion spectra 315
Postmortem 532
drug redistribution 537
Potasan 52, 90
Potassium
chloride 427, 432, 435, 439, 442
ferricyanide 578
fluoride 48
iodate starch reagent 211
oxalate 48
perchlorate 398
thiocyanate 583
Potassium antimonite
solution 583
test 161
Potassium chromate 583
solution test 138
Potassium cyanide 434, 583
test 135, 170
Potassium dichromate 213, 373f, 495, 578
solution test 372
sulfuric acid test 128
test 137
Potassium ferrocyanide
solution 583
test 132, 139
Potassium hydroxide 155, 161, 215, 434, 436
solution 578
test 91, 9496, 102, 144, 183
Potassium iodide 583
cinchonine test 132
sodium sulfite solution 583
starch paper test 168
test 134
Potassium nitrate 137, 373f
solution 583
test 373
Potassium permanganate 99, 171, 213, 495
chromotropic acid test 99
solution 578
test 160
Potentiometric detector 313
P-phenylenediamine test 134
Pramoxine 274
Prazepam 272, 379
Precoated plates 195
Precoated thin-layer chromatography plates 196f
Premixed burner 389
Pressurized loop system 265, 265f
Prilocaine 274
Procaine 69, 274
Prochlorperazine 61
Program for microwave digestion of
blood 488t
dried leaves 490
fertilizer 491t
hair 489t
milk powder 490t
nails 489t
sauce 492t
soil 491t
tissue 488t
urine 489t
Promazine 61, 274
hydrochloride 380
Promethazine 61, 274, 334
Proper biological samples, collection of 39
Propiomazine 274
Propoxycaine 274
Protriptyline 272
Proxymetacaine 274
Prussian blue test 104, 159, 168
Pseudoephedrine 273, 540
Psilocin 147, 153
Psilocybin 153, 569
Psychostimulant drug 333
Psychotropic drugs 272
Psychotropic substances 636
P-toluenesulfonic acid 215
Pulmonary edema 88
Pulse, differential 437
Pump
quaternary gradient 317
types of 295
Pyrazinamide 144
Pyrethroid 52, 90, 91, 200, 224, 269, 333, 535
Pyridine 155, 211
Pyrimidone test 163
Q
Quaaludes 146
Qualitative analysis 320, 377
Quality 504
assurance 504
audit 509
control 504
manager 504
manual 504
planning 504
Quality management
principles 506
system 504, 506
tool for 503
Quantitative analysis 320, 321, 377
Quartz glass 476
Quinine 69
R
Radiation sources 363
Radioactive wastes 560
Radiometric detector 314, 315f
R-bands 346
Readout system 393
Reagents 23f, 425, 482
detection 202
list of 17t
preparation of 578
Reciprocating pumps 300
Reference electrode 411, 412f, 419
Refractive index 307
detector 310, 310f, 318
Reinsch's test 129, 130, 131
Relationship management 508
Reserpine 61
Resins ion exchangers, silica-based 303
Resolution power 369
Resorcinol
reagent 583
test 103, 163
Respiratory expression 88
Retention factor 203
Retention time 251
Retention volume 251
Rheodyne injector 300
Rhodamine B 583
solution 213
test reagent 130
Rifamycin 145
Ring test 150
Rolitetracycline 145
Root cause analysis 517
Rotating disk electrode 411f
Rotation information, sign of 314
Round-the-clock pain 146
Roussin's test 178
Rubeanic acid 583
test 133
S
Safety goggles 557f
Salicylates 532
Salicylic acid 143
Saliva 403
Sample cells 364
Sample injection system 231f, 300
Sample preparation 425
Sample preservation and storage 48
Saturated caustic soda solution 583
Scene of crime 551
Schiff's reagent test 99, 100
Schindel Misser's test 177
Scopolamine 69
Scott test 149
Sealed viscera bottles 49f
Secbutabarbital 119
Secobarbital 271
Secobarbitone 65
Seizures 335
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 334
Semecarpus anacardium 78
isolation of 80
Sensitivity 393, 394
Septum injectors 300
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 334
Serum 316
Silanized capillary 413f
Silanizing agent 236f
Silica gel 186, 188, 188f, 189f, 197
G plates 197
testing of 198
plates, basic 197
with starch 197
Silicon
oil 240
polymer 240f
rubber gun 240
Silicotungstic acid test 177
Silver chloride 427, 432, 435, 439, 442, 443
Silver nitrate 92, 94, 213, 583
solution test 129
test 156, 157, 160, 165, 167, 170, 173
Silver sulfate 583
Silyl derivatives 257
Silylation 257
Simon's method 151
Simultaneous analysis, voltammogram of 442f
Single-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer 386f
Single-beam ultraviolet 363f
Skin 86
disinfection 499
Slurry method, coating by 237
Snakebite 47
Soap bubble meter 231f
Soap solution 584
Sodium 48
acetate 584
azide 213
bicarbonate solution 74
bismuthate test 137
bisulfate test 101
carbonate 137, 584
chloride 441
cobalt nitrite 584
hydrogen
phosphate test 138
tartrate solution 584
tartrate test 162
hydroxide 103, 155, 161, 425
solution 578
test 93, 162, 175
nitrite solution 578
nitroprusside test 93, 101, 141, 142, 144, 171, 578
phosphate 584
test 138
rhodizonate
reagent 584
test 171
Software 402
and data station 375
Soil, microwave digestion of 491
Solanidine 120, 127
Solanine 69, 120, 127
Solid support, treatment of 236f
Solid tissues, scarcity of 46
Solvent 23f, 48, 198
list of 17t
peak, tailing on 330
reservoir 297
Sophisticated analytical instrumental unit 9
Sparteine 69
Special test 176
Spectral bandwidth 345
Spectral interferences 394
Spectroscopy 341, 381
atomic 341
molecular 341
Spectrum bandwidth 369
Spray chamber 401
Spraying reagents, different 204t
Squalane 234
Stained soil 64
Stainless steel unions 259
Standard addition
method 397f
technique 433f, 436f, 438f, 440f, 444f
Standard column hardware 302f
Standard solution, preparation of 434
Stannic chloride 213
Stannous chloride
aniline test 131
solution 584
Starch
iodide test 160, 163
paper test 167
solution 584
test 164
State Forensic Science Laboratories 575
Static coating 239
method 239f
Static mercury drop electrode 410
Stirrer 412f
Stomach
contents 44, 45
infections 140
wash 55, 63, 67, 72
Stop flow injectors 300
Stray light interference 372f
test 371
Streptococcus pneumoniae 140
Streptomyces 84
mediterranei 140
Streptomycin 84, 140, 145
Stripping methods 406
Stripping voltammetric
method, types of 407
techniques 405
Strychnine 120, 127, 174, 179, 336
analysis of 380
Substance
dipole moments of 478t
dopamine 147
Suicides 494
Sulfacetamide 275
Sulfadiazine 145, 275
Sulfadimidine 275
Sulfafurazole 275
Sulfamerazine 146, 275
Sulfamethizole 275
Sulfamethoxazole 275
Sulfamethoxydiazine 275
Sulfamethoxypyridazine 275
Sulfamoxole 275
Sulfanilic acid 164, 172, 584
test 161
Sulfaphenazole 275
Sulfapyridine 275
Sulfate 42, 163, 171
Sulfathiazole 275
Sulfide 163, 171
Sulfites 170
Sulfocyanate test 105, 160
Sulfonamide 78, 139
Sulfuric acid 143, 155, 158, 184, 187, 207, 213, 214, 336, 478, 482, 483, 487, 584
test 91, 96, 97, 106, 110, 111, 114, 115, 122, 142, 143, 158, 165, 183
Sulphite 163, 312
Sulphonamides
analysis of 275
isolation of 79
Sumithion 90, 93
Surgical gloves 557f
Suspensions, preparation of 197
Synchronous noise 328
Synthesize heroin 69
Syringe injection system 263, 264f
Syringe-type pumps 300
Systematic errors 476
T
Talbutal 65
Tartaric acid-ammonium molybdate reagent 584
Technical assessor, role of 519
Teflon 46, 48
Temperature, advantages of increase in 317
Tetrabenazine 114
Tetracycline 84, 139, 146
antibiotic 139
Tetrahydrofuran 295
Tetranitrodiphenyl 214
Tetrathion 52, 332
Tetrazolium blue 214
Thalleioquin test 124
Thallium 128, 138
analysis of 432t
determination of 429
Thebaine 120, 128
Theoretical plate 253, 290, 291f, 291t
calculation 291f
Therapeutic drug monitoring 316
Thermal conductivity detector 241, 244, 244f, 266, 282
Thermostated column compartment 317
Thialbarbital 120
Thimet 52
hin layer chromatography 186, 187, 216, 220
advantages of 216
chamber 189, 190f
glass plates 189f
spray cabinet 192
sprayer 194
Thin layer chromatography plate 187, 191f, 218f, 219f
heater 190
holder 190f
preparation of 197, 217f
substance on 201
types of 195
visualization of 219f
Thin-film membrane-polytetrafluoroethylene 482
Thin-layer plates, preparation of 217
Thiocyanate 163, 169
test 104
Thiopental 120
Thiopentone 65
Thiophos ME 52
Thiophosphoric acid 52
Thiopropazate 61
Thioproperazine 106, 116
Thioridazine 61, 106, 115, 274, 380
Thiosulfate 163, 170, 312
Third-party attestation 504
Thymol 214
Tin 128, 132
Tiotixene 106, 115
Tissue 46, 53, 61, 62, 66, 70
microwave digestion of 488
Tollen's reagent 214
test 100, 101
Toluene in hexane, resolution of 370f
Total consumption burner 389
Toxic
anions 163
color tests for 163
drug 316
effects 79
elements
in wine analysis, determination of 398
monitoring of 398
symptoms 83
Toxicological analysis 39, 44
Toxicological emergencies 320
Toxicological examination, steps in 533
Toxicology 398, 403
analysis, sample for 42
museum 5t
report 532, 554
legal standing of 535
objectives of 533
Toxins 320
Trace metal analyser 405
principle of 405
technical specifications of 419
Trace metal analysis 444
Tranquilizers 88, 198, 201
analysis of 221, 222t, 380
color tests for 106
isolation methods for 61
specific absorption of 380t
Treating anxiety 335
Tricalcium phosphate 188
Trichlorfon 332
Tricyclic antidepressants 42
Trifluoperazine 61, 274
Triflupromazine 61
Trimeprazine 61, 274
Trimerazine 274
Trimethoxyamphetamine 273
Trimethylsilyl 257
radical 235
Trimetozim 106, 115
Trimipramine 272
Trinitrobenzene 379
Trinitrotoluene 379
Tropine 69
Tungstophosphoric acid 215
Turmeric paper test 165
Turpentine oil 78, 106
isolation of 78
U
Ultra-performance liquid chromatography 322, 323
Ultrapure water 425, 434, 438, 443
Ultraviolet
absorption spectra 342
detector 308, 308f, 318
Ultraviolet visible
region 383
spectrophotometer 344, 374
calibration of 368
forensic applications of 379
spectroscopy 340, 342, 379
solvents for 376
Unconjugated compound 378
Uranyl acetate 138, 584
Urea 215
Urinary tract infections 139, 140
Urine 55, 59, 63, 67, 72, 403
microwave digestion of 489
specimen 40
Urotropine test 181
V
Vacuum degasser 318
Valve injection 300
Vamidothion 52
van Deemter plot 292f
Vanadium pentoxide 398
reagent 584
Vanadium reagent test 96
Vanillin 215
reagent 578, 584
test 117120
Vanilline-sulfuric acid test 184
Van-Urk's
reagent 584
test 175
Vapour generation accessory system 401
Venereal diseases 568
Vesparex 65
Vibrational spectroscopy 341
Vinylbital 271
Viscera 59, 550
Visualizing chromatogram 218
spraying reagents for 202
Vitali's test 121, 153, 179, 182
Vitamins 410
Vitreous humor 41
and urine 540
disadvantage of 42
Volatile poisons 48, 57, 88
color tests for 98
isolation methods for 57
Voltammetric conditions 432t, 435t, 437t
Voltammetric trace metal analyser
advantages of 418
characteristics of 415
detection limit of 417
limitations of 418
Voltammetric trace metal analysis 415, 419
Voltammetric vessel 409, 436
Voltammogram 437f, 444f
Vomit 55, 63, 67, 72, 86
stained garments 64, 68
Vortman's test 104, 159
W
Wall-coated open tubular columns 234
Warfarin, applied for 337
Water 295
Wavelength accuracy 370
test of 371f
Weakness 86
Whether drug 537
Woodward–Fieser rules 355, 357
Working electrode 410, 419
X
Xanthydrol 578
test 95
Xenobiotics 39
Xenon 335
discharge lamps 364
Y
Yersinia pestis 139
Yohimbine 69, 120, 128
Z
Zinc 128, 132
chloride diphenylamine reagent 215
nitrate 584
phosphide 98
sulfate solution 584
uranyl acetate 584
test 156, 162
Zirconium-alizarin test 166
Zirconyl chloride solution 584
Zwikker's reagent 215
×
Chapter Notes

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Modern Toxicology LaboratoryChapter 1

 
INTRODUCTION
A forensic toxicology laboratory is mainly provided with preserved viscera, body fluids, and other biological samples for the determination of presence or absence of toxic substances and their metabolites and to evaluate their role as a determinant or contributory factor in the cause and manner of death or suspect case of poisoning. A forensic toxicology laboratory also plays an integral role in human performance by determining the absence or presence of poisons and chemicals in blood, breath, or other appropriate specimens. A hospital medical toxicology laboratory has to conduct routine biochemical analysis of patients for therapeutic and academic purpose. It has no responsibility to criminal justice process, but a crime laboratory or forensic toxicology laboratory has responsibility to the prosecution, the victim, the suspect, the society, the police, and judiciary.
 
HUMAN RESOURCE
Human resource constitutes the backbone of any system. The personnel employed should be efficient, competent, and technically sound. The number of staff members will depend on the workload of the laboratory and can be segregated in three different levels—(1) administrative, (2) technical, and (3) nontechnical.
 
Director/Chief Scientist/Chief Toxicologist/Chief Chemist
A forensic toxicology laboratory should be directed by a person who is qualified by a reason of appropriate education (Master's degree in Chemistry/Forensic Science/Toxicology) and Doctorate in the field of Chemistry/Toxicology and experience to assume the required professional, organizational, educational, managerial, and administrative responsibilities. The director should have minimum 10 years of full-time laboratory experience in forensic toxicology laboratory. The director should also have a documented training and experience in the forensic application of analytical toxicology (such as court testimony, research, participation in continuing education programs, including knowledge of evidentiary procedures) that apply when toxicological samples are received, stored, 2processed, and analyzed and toxicological data/reports are submitted as a part of legal proceeding.
 
Responsibilities of Chief Scientist/Chief Toxicologist/Chief Chemist/Director
The responsibilities of chief scientist/chief toxicologist/chief chemist/director are:
  1. Maintain and update the standard manual of the laboratory
  2. Monitor laboratory practices to verify continuing compliance with policies and procedures
  3. Evaluate instrument calibration and the maintenance of records
  4. Periodically assess the adequacy of the report and review the activities
  5. Maintain training records of laboratory personnel
  6. Recommend training to improve the quality of laboratory staff, etc.
 
Forensic Scientists
A forensic toxicology laboratory should have a series of forensic scientists as scientist grade III, scientist grade II, and scientist grade I. The grades of scientists are based on their experience and expertise. Senior scientist should be looked upon as an individual with considerable expertise and may serve as a training coordinator for new analysts. He should be skilled in demonstration of competency and allowed to report and testify to the caseworks in the court of law.
 
Laboratory Technicians
A laboratory technician should have a minimum of Bachelor's degree in Natural Science/Forensic Science/Chemistry with hands on experience in Analytical Chemistry/Toxicology and capable of performing variety of test procedures for drugs, alcohol, and other chemicals.
 
Laboratory Assistants
A laboratory assistant should have Bachelor's degree in Natural Science. He should be capable of performing various test procedures and maintaining proper laboratory records.
 
Laboratory Attendants
A laboratory attendant should have an intermediate (10+2) in Science. The responsibility of laboratory attendant is to clean the laboratory equipment and arrange the chemicals and glasswares, etc.
 
Nontechnical Staff
The nontechnical staff consists of clerk, librarian, storekeeper, accountant, viscera cutter, peon, and sweeper. The number of nontechnical staff should be decided as per the requirement.3
 
LOCATION
The forensic toxicology laboratory should be near the mortuary and must have rapid facility for sample transportation. The building should be in area with ample natural light through windows. The laboratory premises should be well connected by road transport network. It should have sufficient number of vehicles for transportation and travel of laboratory personnel from time to time. The area for the functional purpose in forensic toxicology laboratory can be divided into various segments.
 
PHYSICAL FACILITY, AREA, AND SPACE REQUIREMENT
Availability of adequate space and area is one of the prime factors, as it provides the foundation for all further planning and development of the laboratory. The space acquired should be sufficient enough to accommodate all the laboratory buildings, including open area for parking, waste disposal or incineration, etc. The laboratory premises should be well connected with road or with convenient transport network. The area in the main building can be divided into various segments as follows.
 
Reception and Visitor Room (Size 150 sq ft)
Visitor room should always be outside the second security gate.
 
Administrative or Office Room (Size According to Requirement)
It is a place required for all official works.
 
Laboratory Director/Chief Scientist Room (180 sq ft)
Director room should be situated inside the second security gate for the safety purpose.
 
Scientists Room (450 sq ft, Three Cabins of 15 × 10 sq ft each)
It is the room for the scientists to perform works such as documentation, report writing, etc. The room can be divided into cabins according to the number of scientists.
 
Library (360 sq ft)
The scientists and trainees regularly require consultation of reference books, journals, and other literatures during routine casework and for research purpose. To meet the needs, there must be a library in the laboratory premises, with computer facility and internet connection. It should be fully air conditioned with proper lighting.4
 
Conference or Seminar Room (700 sq ft)
There should be a seminar or conference room for seminars, presentations, conferences, meetings, lectures, etc. It should be well equipped with a computer and a projector.
 
Stores (1,500 sq ft)
Proper storage facility is required for chemicals and reagents. Stores of glasswares and stationary items should be moisture free and rodent free.
 
Chemical Store (200 sq ft)
All chemicals which are used for laboratory working should be present in chemical store. The chemical store should consist of racks divided into blocks to store separate chemicals. This room should be air conditioned with proper ventilation.
 
Store for Sample or Parcel (900 sq ft)
It is a place to store samples. Store for exhibits should be divided into two portions, one for incoming (450 sq ft) case parcels and the other for outgoing (450 sq ft) case parcels. A cold chamber should be present in sample store. It should be divided into parts to store samples to prevent contamination. An ultraviolet (UV) lamp should be present inside the room for sterilization that destroys the microorganisms. The switch of UV lamp should always be outside the door of the storeroom. The sample store should always be near the isolation and extraction unit.
 
Glasswares and Other Consumables (200 sq ft)
It is a place for storing glasswares, gowns, aprons, rubber gloves, gumboots, towels, masks, and other consumables.
 
Stationary Store (200 sq ft)
Most frequently required stationaries in forensic toxicology laboratory are case files, registers, working sheets, pen and pencils, packing envelopes, boxes, packing cloths, reporting sheets, papers, carbon sheets, marker pens, etc. All stationary articles should be stored in moisture-free room.
 
Document Record Room (180 sq ft)
It is a room to maintain all records related to laboratory work, for example, old case files, training records. Regulation policy statement (the laboratory should maintain procedures to control that form the part of regulatory system) controls the data related to testing and calibration memoranda, related software, etc. The entire document forms the part of management system control in various media, whether hard copy or soft copy. Procedure manuals should be reviewed and approved for the authorized personnel 5and authorized edition of appropriate document should be available at all locations, as required for effective functioning of laboratory. These include specialization calibration charts, case file reporting proforma, analysis of records, books, literature, journals, memorandum, operation manuals, laboratory manuals, safety measurements, photographs, visitor records, employee's attendance records, reviews, requests, tenders and contract records, technical records, etc.
 
Case Opening Room (225 sq ft)
It is necessary to have a separate case opening room for the purpose of opening the case, parcel. It should be adjacent to the parcel store or preferably in between the parcel store and isolation/extraction room. It should have proper ventilation and exhaust fans.
 
Toxicology Museum (240 sq ft)
It is useful to have a toxicology museum for academic purpose. It should have all the poison samples properly preserved and labeled with brief facts about the poison. It can be obtained from the authorized supplier. List of items to be placed in toxicology museum has been listed in Table 1.1. Pictorial view of the museum is shown in Figure 1.1.
Table 1.1   List of poison samples for toxicology museum.
S. No.
Scientific name
Common name
1.
Arsenic oxide
Somalkhar sankhya
2.
Copper acetoarsenite
Hirwa Paris green
3.
Iodine
Iodine
4.
Oxazepam
Serepax
5.
Arsenic trisulfide
Hartal
6.
Mercuric sulfide
Ras-Sindoor
7.
Sulfuric acid
Gandhak ka Tezaab
8.
Jatropha curcas
Ratanjot, jangli, and arandi
9.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DDT
10.
Aloe vera
Elio
11.
Helleborus niger
Kali Kutki
12.
Mercury
Para
13.
Capsicum annuum
Lal Mirch pisi
14.
Croton tiglium
Jamalgota seed or Nepala
15.
Camphor—Cinnamomum camphora
Kapoor
16.
Physostigma venenosum
Sem ka key/Sem ka beej6
17.
Sodium carbonate
Washing soda
18.
Sapindus trifoliatus
Ritha
19.
Betel nut
Supari
20.
Calcium hydroxide
Slaked lime
21.
Lead sulfide
Surma
22.
Tobacco
Tambaku
23.
Taxus baccata
Yew
24.
Terpene oil
Terpene oil
25.
Sulfur powder
Sulfur powder, gandhak
26.
Arsenious oxide
Sankhya
27.
Sodium nitrate
Sodium nitrate
28.
Zinc sulfate
Safed tutiya
29.
Ammonium carbonate
Sal volatile
30.
Argemone seed
Prickly poppy
31.
Salicylic acid
Aspirin
32.
Borax
Suhaga tankankhar
33.
Boric acid
Boric acid
34.
Barium carbonate
Rat poison
35.
Acetic acid
Vinegar
36.
Paraffin wax
Paraffin wax
37.
Potassium permanganate
Lal dawa
38.
Ant poison
Ant poison
39.
Cuscuta
Akashbel
40.
Calcium oxychloride
Bleaching powder
41.
Benzene
Benzene
42.
Baygon
Baygon
43.
Bumoel
Bumoel
44.
Barium nitrate
Barium nitrate
45.
Cannabis sativa
Bhang
46.
Abrus precatorius
Rati or gunja
47.
Alum
Phitkari
48.
Quinine
Quinine
49.
Phenol
Phenol
50.
Nitrobenzene
Nitrobenzene
51.
Potassium dichromate
Potassium dichromate
52.
Plaster of Paris
POP
53.
Pearl ash
Pearl ash7
54.
Powdered glass
Powdered glass
55.
Diamond
Heera
56.
Daucus carota
Gajar ka beej
57.
Hyoscyamus niger
Ajwain khurasani
58.
Trichloromethane
Chloroform
59.
Carica papaya seed
Papaya ka beej
60.
Barbitone
Barbitone
61.
Hydrocyanic acid
Karwa badam
62.
Naphthalene balls
Phenyl ki goli
63.
Methaqualone and diphasyoramy
Mandrax-Drimoolis
64.
Amphetamine
Jagne ki goli
65.
Myristica fragrans
Jaiphal-nutmeg
66.
Acetylsalicylic acid
Aspirin
67.
Chloral hydrate
Chloral hydrate
68.
Mercuric chloride
Ras kapoor
69.
Datura fastuosa seed
Datura ka beej
70.
Plumbago rosea
Lal chitra
71.
Ipomoea purga
Jalap
72.
Ethyl alcohol
Sharab, daru, and wine
73.
Papaver somniferum
Afim (opium)
74.
Catfish
Catfish
75.
Aloes/Eilo
Elwa
76.
Centipede
Kankhajura
77.
Calotropis gigantea
Madar/Akdo
78.
Copper sulfate
Nila tutia
79.
Sodium hydroxide
Caustic soda
80.
Castor
Arandi seeds
81.
Formalin
Formol
82.
Eucalyptol
Eucalyptus oil
83.
Datura fastuosa
Datura
84.
Methyl alcohol
Methanol
85.
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
86.
Nitric acid
Nitric acid
87.
Potassium sulfate
Potassium sulfate
88.
Ferrous sulfate
Ferrous sulfate
89.
Ergotoxine and ergotamine
Ergotamine
90.
Areca
Betel nuts8
91.
Sapindus trifoliatus
Ritha
92.
Scorpion
Bichoo
93.
Red lead
Sindoor
94.
Hydrogen sulfide
Sulfur gandhak
95.
Strychnos nux-vomica seeds
Kuchila
96.
Potassium nitrate
Kalmi shora
97.
Semecarpus anacardium
Marking nut (Bhilawa)
98.
Lead carbonate
White lead and spheda
99.
Malathion
Malathion
100.
Lead acetate
Lead acetate
101.
Lead metal
Lead metal
102.
Magnesium carbonate
Magnesium carbonate
zoom view
Fig. 1.1: Pictorial view of the museum.
 
Area of Sample Analysis
Area of sample analysis can be divided into several sections, such as extraction and isolation unit, screening test unit, sophisticated instrumental unit, washing room, etc.
 
Extraction and Isolation Unit (525 sq ft)
This room is used for extraction and isolation procedure of samples. The extraction and isolation of poison from postmortem samples and other body fluids are a challenging task and the initial step of isolation and purification of compounds are vital for proper analysis and reliable results. The room 9should have proper ventilation with at least two exhaust fans and fume hood each. The following instruments are essential in this unit:
  1. Glasswares
  2. Tissue homogenizer
  3. Steam distillation unit
  4. Ice bath
  5. Ice making machine
  6. Muffle furnace
  7. Oven
  8. Water distillation unit
  9. Hot plate
  10. Microwave digester
  11. Vortex mixer
  12. Desiccators
  13. Centrifuge machine
  14. Water bath
  15. Fume hood
  16. Washbasin with continuous water supply
  17. Room should be nonair conditioned
  18. Electronic balance
  19. Top-loading balance
  20. Incubator
 
Screening Test Unit (300 sq ft)
Screening test is required to individualize a specific group of compounds. It can be done by various spot tests, microcrystal test, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), etc. The essential requirements for screening tests are listed as follows:
  1. Chemicals
  2. Refrigerators
  3. Standard reference sample
  4. pH meter
  5. Vortex mixer
  6. Gutzeit apparatus
  7. Breath alcohol analyzer
  8. Thin-layer chromatography preparation system
  9. Ultraviolet cabinet
  10. Immunoassay kits and reagents
  11. Sink with continuous water supply
  12. Kits for rapid screening of drugs
  13. Conductivity meter
  14. Melting point apparatus
 
Sophisticated Analytical Instrumental Unit (950 sq ft)
This unit should contain all sophisticated analytical instruments required for qualitative and quantitative estimation of toxic substances in the case samples and research work. The instruments used in forensic toxicology 10laboratory should be highly sensitive because the quantity of material involved is extremely small, often in micro- and nanogram level. For a sample material to be identified positively, the techniques should be highly specific and rapid. We have listed the instruments, which are required for proper analysis of samples of routine work, research, and development activities and which require separate room for each instrument:
  1. Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy
  2. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It must be placed in separate cabin, which must be moisture free and fitted with dehumidifier
  3. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)
  4. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC)
  5. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)
  7. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS)
  8. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)
  9. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP)
  10. Gas chromatography-headspace (GC-HS)
  11. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
  12. Accelerated solvent extractor
  13. Total organic halogen (TOX) analyzer
  14. Voltammetric trace metal analyzer
  15. Microwave digester
  16. Ion chromatography
Instrumental unit should be fully air conditioned and dust free. All the gas cylinders must be placed in separate cabins outside the instrument rooms. Each instrument should be arranged in separate cabin, if possible.
 
Washing Room (150 sq ft)
There should be a separate room to clean and wash the used laboratory glasswares, etc. The washing room must have continuous source of water supply, geyser, and oven. It should have sufficient space in order to have separate area for chromic acid washing and normal washing. It should have proper ventilation with exhaust fan.
 
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS
 
Floors
Laboratory work means long hours of standing and walking. It is desirable to have a resilient floor. This reduces breakage. However, the floor should be of a material which is acid, alkali, and salt resistant and can be easily cleaned and disinfected. In washing and sterilizing rooms, moisture-resistant floors are preferable.
 
Walls
The walls of the laboratory should be of the permanent, durable construction, but the partitions should be temporary, so that they can be taken out or 11replaced easily, if need arises or activities expand. Finish of the walls must be hard, impermeable, chemically resistant, and washable. Tiles, as wall finish, are desirable only in washing and sterilization rooms.
 
Ceiling
The ceilings should be made up of materials that are easily washable and disinfected, so as to reduce airborne contamination. The height of ceilings should be 2.5–2.8 m, so as to allow for wall-mounted racks and other equipment.
 
Doors
Width of the doors should not be <1 m wide to allow easy access of equipment. All the doors should open toward the corridor.
 
Lightning
As far as possible, sitting of laboratory should be such to allow natural light by providing square windows. Windows should be as tall as possible and should be at least 90 cm above the floor, so that benches can be put below them. Illumination of the laboratory needs to be carefully planned. Artificial light may be of fluorescent type. On the working benches, the intensity of light may be 250–500 lux.
 
Work Benches
Benching should be so designed that work with microscope can be done on benches running at right angle to the windows and walls. The top of the benches used for seating workers should be 80 cm above floor level and those of where workers stand should be 90 cm.
 
Sanitary Fittings
Basins for washing hands are essential in all laboratories and should have elbow-type taps. Waste pipes should be acid resistant. It is advisable to use polyvinyl chloride (PVC) piping between sink outlet and connection to the main drainage. Hot water connections are required only at the basins for washing hands and at washup sinks. Filtered soft water supply for biochemical investigations is a prerequisite. Sinks may be of porcelain.
 
Refrigeration
Refrigeration is to be provided in the laboratory. A minimum of two 165 L capacity is necessary. Refrigeration for storing standards and samples with –40°C must be available.
 
Communication
Intercom facilities should be provided within the laboratory sections and outside stations. More over, a dedicated telephone line is required for information of the callers.12
 
Ventilation
A mechanical ventilator system is required in the laboratory areas. In the laboratory where fumes are expected, 10–15 air changes per hour are recommended. In other areas, 4–6 air changes per hour are sufficient.
 
Air Conditioning
A system that does not recirculate air is recommended, as laboratory procedures may involve working with an infectious agent.
 
Noise Control
Due consideration should be given to muffling of the sound produced by running of the equipment. Noise level in the laboratory should not exceed 40–50 dB.
 
Coloring
The coloring of the laboratory areas should preferably be lily white or apple, so as to give adequate light as laboratories involve direct observation of many procedures involved.
 
Fire Protection, Detection, and Fighting System
As laboratories are very vulnerable to fire hazards, fire fighting system should be installed in all the laboratory areas.
  • Fire hydrants and fire extinguishers should be provided
  • Fire exit routes are to be clearly identified and earmarked with red paint and well illuminated
 
Water Supply
Besides normal supply, separate reserve emergency overhead tank should be provided for toxicology laboratory services. Filtered soft water supply for biochemical investigations is a prerequisite for accurate estimations.
 
Electric Supply
Besides providing continuous electricity supply, provision of emergency light and stand by generators for laboratory is to be insured for its smooth functioning.
 
REQUIREMENTS
 
Glasswares
The glassware requirement in forensic toxicology laboratory varies widely. A wide range of glasswares are required in a forensic toxicology laboratory. These have to be purchased according to the requirement. Only those glasswares that are of certain significance related to analytical procedure are listed in Table 1.2 and shown in Figure 1.2.13
Table 1.2   List of glasswares.
S. No.
Name of glasswares
Quantity
1.
Burettes
  • 10 mL cap
  • 25 mL cap
  • 50 mL cap
  • 100 mL cap
1
1
1
1
2.
Column chromatography
  • 200 mm
  • 300 mm
1
1
3.
Graduated test tubes
  • 15 mL
  • 20 mL
100
100
4.
Crucible
  • 25 mL
  • 50 mL
5
5
5.
Lids for crucible
  • 25 mL
  • 50 mL
5
5
6.
Bottle reagent amber
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
  • 1,000 mL
  • 2,000 mL
  • 5,000 mL
1
1
1
1
1
1
7.
Tubes gas sampling
  • 125 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
2
2
2
8.
Water distillation system
1
9.
Beakers graduated
  • 50 mL
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
  • 1,000 mL
10
10
10
10
10
10.
Bottle aspirator
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
  • 1,000 mL
10
10
10
11.
Reagent bottle wide mouth with screw cap
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
  • 1,000 mL
  • 2,000 mL
  • 5,000 mL
10
10
10
10
10
1014
12.
Relative density bottle
  • 10 mL
  • 25 mL
  • 50 mL
10
10
10
13.
Weighing bottle
  • 20 mL
  • 25 mL
  • 40 mL
10
10
5
14.
Wash bottle
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
  • 1,000 mL
5
5
5
15.
Stoppers for wash bottle
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
  • 1,000 mL
5
5
5
16.
Wash bottle squeeze type
  • 500 mL
5
17.
Condenser
  • 200 mm
  • 300 mm
2
2
18.
Condenser interchangeable inner joint
2
19.
Cylinder graduated with penny head
  • 10 mL
  • 25 mL
  • 50 mL
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
5
5
5
5
5
20.
Cylinder graduated single metric scale
  • 50 mL
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
5
5
5
5
21.
Desiccators
5
22.
Tray drying
  • 1,500 mL
  • 1,200 mL
10
10
23.
Dishes evaporating
  • 80 × 45 mm
  • 150 × 80 mm
5
5
24.
Extractors interchangeable
  • 100 mL
  • 200 mL
2
2
25.
Flask boiling
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
2
215
26.
Flask boiling flat bottom
  • 150 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
2
2
2
27.
Flask boiling round bottom
  • 150 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
2
2
2
28.
Flask distilling
  • 125 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
2
2
2
29.
Kjeldahl flask
  • 100 mL
  • 300 mL
  • 500 mL
5
5
5
30.
Flask iodine determination
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
5
5
5
31.
Volumetric flask
  • 25 mL
  • 50 mL
  • 100 mL
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
50
50
100
10
10
32.
Funnel plain
  • 25 mm
  • 50 mm
  • 100 mm
5
5
5
33.
Separating funnel globe shaped
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
10
10
34.
Separating funnel pear shaped
  • 250 mL
  • 500 mL
5
5
35.
Pipettes measuring
  • 0.1 mL
  • 1 mL
  • 2 mL
  • 5 mL
  • 10 mL
5
5
5
5
5
36.
Pipettes transfer volumetric
  • 5 mL
  • 10 mL
  • 20 mL
5
5
516
37.
Stopcocks straight bore
  • 2 mm
  • 4 mm
  • 6 mm
5
5
5
38.
Stopcocks high vacuum
  • 2 mm
  • 4 mm
2
2
39.
Stopper interchangeable ground joint
  • 24/29
  • 29/32
  • 45/40
10
10
10
40.
Centrifuge tubes graduated
  • 15 mL
  • 50 mL
20
20
41.
Test tubes with rim
  • 10 × 75 mm
  • 12 × 75 mm
  • 12 × 100 mm
  • 38 × 200 mm
5
5
5
5
42.
Watch glasses
  • 75 mm
  • 100 mm
  • 125 mm
5
5
5
43.
Funnel Büchner type
  • 35 mL
  • 80 mL
  • 200 mL
2
2
2
44.
Steam distillation unit
2
45.
Gutzeit apparatus
6
zoom view
Fig. 1.2: Glasswares.
17  
Chemicals/Reagents/Solvents
Chemicals are required to perform extraction and isolation of poisons, spot tests, solvent systems, and chromogenic reagents. Particular attention should be given for insuring a reliable supply of such chemicals. Availability of consumables for chromatographic and other techniques must be guaranteed, if equipment is to be used to full advantage. List of minimum required chemicals is given in Table 1.3 and shown in Figure 1.3.
Table 1.3   List of chemicals/reagents/solvents.
S. No.
Name of chemicals
Grade
Minimum quantity
1.
Acetone
AR
500 mL
2.
Ammonium oxalate purified
AR
500 g
3.
1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid
AR
100 g
4.
Ammonium chloride
AR
500 g
5.
Ammonium sulfate
AR
500 g
6.
Ammonium thiosulfate
AR
500 g
7.
Ferrous ammonium sulfate (Mohr's salt)
AR
500 g
8.
Aniline
AR
500 mL
9.
Acetonitrile
AR
500 mL
10.
Ammonium heptamolybdate
AR
500 mL
11.
Aluminum oxide
AR
500 g
12.
Ammonium acetate
AR
500 mL
13.
Amyl alcohol
AR
500 mL
14.
Ammonium oxalate
AR
500 g
15.
Ammonium molybdate
AR
500 g
16.
Antimony(III) oxide
AR
100 g
17.
Aluminum foil
AR
Five packets
18.
Ammonium persulfate
AR
500 g
19.
Ammonium hydroxide
AR
500 mL
20.
Ascorbic acid
AR
500 g
21.
Arsenic trioxide
AR
100 g
22.
Arsenic pentoxide
AR
100 g
23.
Acetic acid
AR
1,000 mL
24.
Acetaldehyde
AR
1,000 mL
25.
Boric acid
AR
500 g
26.
Bromophenol blue
AR
25 g
27.
Benzene
AR
500 mL
28.
Bismuth nitrate
AR
500 g
29.
Barium sulfate purified
AR
500 g18
30.
Barium chloride dihydrate crystal pure
AR
500 g
31.
Barium chloride anhydrous
AR
500 g
32.
Bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate
AR
100 g
33.
Bromocresol green
AR
25 g
34.
Bromoform
AR
100 mL
35.
n-butanol for synthesis
AR
500 mL
36.
Buffer capsule for calibration of pH meter
AR
Two packets of each
37.
Barium carbonate
AR
500 g
38.
Chloroform
AR
500 mL
39.
Cyclohexane
AR
500 mL
40.
Cobalt acetate
AR
500 g
41.
Charcoal activated
AR
500 g
42.
Chromotropic acid
AR
500 mL
43.
Calcium acetate dried
AR
500 g
44.
Calcium chloride dehydrate
AR
500 g
45.
Calcium chloride
AR
500 g
46.
Cupric sulfate
AR
100 g
47.
Copper(II) sykogate 5-hydride
AR
500 g
48.
Cadmium chloride
AR
100 g
49.
Cobaltous acetate tetrahydrate
AR
100 g
50.
Carbon tetrachloride
AR
1 L/1,000 mL
51.
Copper metal powder
AR
500 g
52.
Copper foil
AR
100 g
53.
m-cresol
AR
100 g
54.
Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate
AR
500 g
55.
Congo red indicator paper
AR
One packet
56.
Chlorobenzene
AR
500 mL
57.
1,4-dinitrobenzene
AR
500 mL
58.
Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate
AR
500 mL
59.
Diphenylamine
AR
100 g
60.
Diethylamine
AR
500 mL
61.
1,4-Dioxane
AR
500 mL
62.
Dichloromethane
AR
500 mL
63.
Dextrose anhydrous
AR
100 g
64.
5,5-diethylbarbiturate
AR
100 g
65.
1,5-diphenylcarbazide
AR
100 g
66.
Diphenylcarbazone
AR
100 g19
67.
Dimethyl sulfate
AR
500 g
68.
Dimethylformamide
AR
500 mL
69.
Diethyl ether
AR
1,000 mL
70.
Dithizone
AR
100 mL
71.
4,4-diethylaminobenzaldehyde
AR
500 mL
72.
Ethanol
AR
2,000 mL
73.
Ethyl acetate
AR
500 mL
74.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
AR
100 g
75.
Ferrous sulfate
AR
500 g
76.
Furfural
AR
500 g
77.
Ferric sulfate
AR
500 g
78.
Basic Fuchsin for microscope
AR
100 g
79.
Florisil
AR
100 g
80.
Formaldehyde solution
AR
1,000 mL
81.
Hydroquinone
AR
100 g
82.
Hydrogen peroxide
AR
500 mL
83.
Glycerol about 98% purified
AR
500 mL
84.
Hydrochloric acid
AR
10 L
85.
n-hexane
AR
1,000 mL
86.
Fehling's solution
AR
500 mL
87.
Iron(III) chloride anhydrous purified
AR
500 g
88.
Iron(II) sulfide
AR
500 g
89.
Isoamyl alcohol
AR
500 mL
90.
Isoamyl acetate
AR
500 mL
91.
Iodine solid
AR
100 g
92.
Isopropylamine
AR
500 mL
93.
Iron(II) sulfate anhydrous
AR
500 g
94.
Iron chloride crystal purified
AR
500 g
95.
Iron(III) sulfate anhydrous
AR
500 g
96.
Iodine resublimed
AR
100 g
97.
Lead acetate
AR
100 g
98.
Lead acetate dihydrate
AR
100 g
99.
Lead acetate trihydrate
AR
100 g
100.
Mercuric bromide
AR
100 g
101.
Magnesium oxide
AR
500 g
102.
Mercuric sulfate
AR
500 g
103.
Magnesium chloride crystal
AR
500 g20
104.
Mercury(II) oxide red purified
AR
500 g
105.
Methyl blue
AR
100 mL
106.
Methanol
AR
1,000 mL
107.
Mercury(II) chloride
AR
500 mL
108.
Molybdic acid
AR
100 mL
109.
Methyl tert-butyl acid
AR
100 mL
110.
Mercurous nitrate
AR
500 g
111.
Mercuric acid nitrate
AR
500 g
112.
Mercuric iodide
AR
100 mL
113.
Mercuric oxide red
AR
100 g
114.
Methylene blue
AR
100 g
115.
Nitrobenzene
AR
500 mL
116.
Nitric acid
AR
5,000 mL
117.
Nickel sulfate
AR
100 g
118.
Neutral red chloride
AR
100 g
119.
p-nitrobenzylpyridine
AR
100 g
120.
α-naphthol
AR
100 g
121.
Ninhydrin
AR
100 g
122.
Oxalic acid
AR
500 g
123.
m-phosphoric acid
AR
100 mL
124.
o-phosphoric acid
AR
100 mL
125.
Phenobarbital sodium
AR
100 g
126.
Potassium dichromate
AR
500 g
127.
Potassium hydroxide
AR
500 g
128.
Potassium metabisulfite
AR
100 mL
129.
Propanol
AR
500 mL
130.
Phenol
AR
500 mL
131.
Potassium chromate
AR
500 g
132.
Picric acid
AR
500 g
133.
Potassium bicarbonate
AR
500 g
134.
2-propanol
AR
500 g
135.
Potassium carbonate anhydrous
AR
500 g
136.
Potassium perchloric acid
AR
500 g
137.
Potassium chloride
AR
1,000 g
138.
Potassium permanganate
AR
500 g
139.
Potassium iodide
AR
500 g
140.
Paraffin liquid
AR
One packet21
141.
Phenolphthalein indicator
AR
100 g
142.
Potassium ferrocyanide
AR
100 g
143.
Petroleum ether
AR
500 mL
144.
Pyrogallol
AR
500 mL
145.
Potassium bromide
AR
500 g
146.
Palladium chloride
AR
5 g
147.
Perchloric acid
AR
500 g
148.
Platinic chloride/platinum(III)
AR
1 g
149.
Petroleum benzene
AR
500 mL
150.
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate
AR
100 g
151.
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)
AR
100 g
152.
Potassium sulfate
AR
500 mL
153.
Potassium nitrate
AR
500 g
154.
Pyridine
AR
500 mL
155.
pH indicator paper
AR
One packet
156.
Rhodamine B
AR
100 g
157.
Resorcinol crystal
AR
500 g
158.
Sulfuric acid
AR
5,000 mL
159.
Sodium chloride
AR
5,000 g
160.
Sucrose
AR
100 g
161.
Silica gel
AR
500 g
162.
Sodium carbonate
AR
500 g
163.
Sodium hydroxide
AR
500 mL
164.
Silicic acid
AR
500 g
165.
Sodium nitrate
AR
500 g
166.
Sodium sulfate
AR
500 g
167.
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate
AR
500 g
168.
Sodium fluoride
AR
100 g
169.
Sodium disulfide
AR
500 g
170.
Sodium potassium tartrate
AR
500 g
171.
Stannous dioxide
AR
500 g
172.
Selenium dioxide
AR
500 g
173.
Sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate
AR
500 g
174.
Sodium hydroxide pellet
AR
500 g
175.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
AR
500 g
176.
Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate
AR
100 g
177.
Sodium dithionate
AR
100 g22
178.
Sodium oxide
AR
500 g
179.
Silver diethyldithiocarbamate
AR
500 g
180.
Sodium molybdate
AR
500 g
181.
Sodium metal
AR
500 g
182.
Sodium diorthophosphate
AR
100 g
183.
Starch
AR
1 kg
184.
Sodium borohydrate
AR
500 g
185.
Sodium thiosulfate
AR
500 g
186.
Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate
AR
100 g
187.
Sodium acetate anhydrous pure
AR
100 g
188.
Silver nitrate
AR
10 g
189.
Sodium sulfite anhydrous pure
AR
500 g
190.
Selenous acid
AR
100 g
191.
Disodium oxalate
AR
100 g
192.
Sodium tungstate
AR
10 g
193.
Succinic acid
AR
100 g
194.
Thallium chloride
AR
100 g
195.
Toluene
AR
500 mL
196.
Tin(II) chloride
AR
100 g
197.
Tetraethylenepentamine
AR
100 g
198.
Tetrahydrofuran
AR
100 g
199.
Urea
AR
1 kg
200.
Uranyl acetate
AR
500 g
201.
Universal indicator pH paper
AR
One packet
202.
Xylene
AR
100 mL
203.
Zinc (metal) powder
AR
500 g
204.
Zinc (metal) dust
AR
500 g
205.
Zinc chloride
AR
500 g
206.
Zinc phosphide
AR
500 g
207.
Zinc acetate
AR
500 g
208.
Zinc oxide
AR
500 g
209.
Zinc sulfate
AR
500 g
 
Plasticware
Large number of plasticwares are also required for toxicology laboratory. It has to be purchased according to the demands. List of minimum required plasticware is given in Table 1.4 and shown in Figure 1.4.23
zoom view
Fig. 1.3: Chemicals/reagents/solvents.
Table 1.4   List of plasticwares.
S. No.
Name of items
Quantity (in Pc/Pcs)
1.
Pipette bulb
2
2.
Drying rock
1
3.
Pasteur pipette
2
4.
Hand protector grip
2
5.
Safety goggles
2
6.
Safety eyewear box
1
7.
Wide mouth bottle with capacity of 1,000 mL
6
8.
Aspirator bottle with stopcock of capacity (20 L)
3
9.
Wash bottles of capacity 250 mL
3
10.
New type wash bottles of capacity 250 mL
3
11.
New type wash bottles of capacity 500 mL
3
12.
Conical flask of capacity 250 mL
6
13.
Measuring beaker of capacity 2,000 mL
4
14.
Beaker of capacity 1,000 mL
4
15.
Measuring cylinder of capacity 250 mL
6
16.
Funnel of capacity 100 mL
12
17.
Large funnel of capacity 200 mL
2
18.
Büchner funnel 70 mm
2
19.
Separatory funnel 250 mL
2
20.
Pipette rack horizontal
2
21.
Retort stand 22 × 15 central
2
22.
Burette clamp (single)
324
23.
Separatory funnel holder (single)
2
24.
Funnel holder (single)
2
25.
Pipette stand vertical (28 places)
1
26.
Pipette stand vertical (94 places)
1
27.
Handypette pipette aid (10 mL)
2
28.
Pipette bulb (up to 100 mL)
2
29.
Utility tray (320 × 260 × 100 mm)
2
30.
Drying rack (20 pegs)
1
31.
Drying rack (30 pegs)
1
32.
Microcentrifuge tubes (1.5 mL)
500
33.
Rack for microtubes (1.5 mL)
2
34.
Centrifuge tube conical bottom (50 mL)
100
35.
Centrifuge bottle (250 mL)
3
36.
Cryo babies (32.5 × 12.7)
1,000
37.
Cryo tags (38 × 19)
1,000
38.
Ice bucket (4,500 mL)
1
39.
Cryo cube box (50 places, 1.8 mL)
4
40.
Test tube stand (31 places, 16 mm)
2
41.
SPINIX™ orbital shaker
1
42.
Pasteur pipette (3 mL)
500
43.
Hand protector grip
1
44.
Scoop (250 mL)
2
45.
Scoop (1,000 mL)
2
46.
Scoop (2,000 mL)
2
47.
SPINOT™ magnetic stirrer hot plate (10 × 10 cm)
1
48.
SPINOT™ magnetic stirrer hot plate (18 × 18 cm)
1
49.
Flask stand (160 mm)
2
 
Equipment and Machinery
We need sophisticated analytical instruments, which are sensitive and reliable for the analysis of poisons in the biological samples. The equipment and machinery can be further divided into two categories, i.e., major equipment and minor equipment.
 
Major Equipment
For quantitative analysis and trace analysis, we need sophisticated analytical instruments such as GLC, AAS, ICP, HPLC, etc. Complete list of major equipment is given in Table 1.5 and shown in Figures 1.5A to N.25
zoom view
Fig. 1.4: Plasticwares.
Table 1.5   List of major equipment.
S. No.
List of equipment
Quantity
1.
Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC)
Two
2.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Two
3.
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry
One
4.
Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer
Two
5.
Gas chromatography-headspace (GC-HS)
One
6.
Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)
One
7.
Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)
One
8.
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)
One
9.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
One
10.
Voltammetric trace metal analyzer
One
Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
11.
Ion chromatography
One
12.
Pressurized solvent extraction/accelerated solvent extractor
One
13.
Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS)
One
14.
Microwave digester
One
 
Minor Equipment
For qualitative test, color/spot test is done by using some minor equipment. Complete list of minor equipment is given in Table 1.6 and shown in Figures 1.6A to J.
 
Reference Material
Standards for chemicals, poisons, etc., are essential for standardization and calibration of instruments. A certified reference material (CRM), suitable for the preparation of a standard, to which calibration materials can be compared, must be certified by a method generally recognized by scientific community as one that validates the CRM for this purpose.26
zoom view
Figs. 1.5A to H: Major equipment used in laboratory. (A) Gas-liquid chromatography (Nucon); (B) High-performance liquid chromatography (Dionex Ultimate 3,000); (C) Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer (ECIL); (D) Gas chromatography with headspace (PerkinElmer); (E) Atomic absorption spectrometry (Analytik Jena); (F) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PerkinElmer); (G) High-performance thin-layer chromatography (Desaga); and (H) Accelerated solvent extractor (Dionex).
Reference materials (RMs) should be stored at low temperature or protected from light and moisture.27
zoom view
Figs. 1.5I to N: Major equipment used in laboratory. (I) Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; (J) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (Varian); (K) Voltammetric trace metal analyzer (Metrohm); (L) Breath analyzer (Uniphos); (M) Ion chromatography (Metrohm); and (N) Microwave digester (Aurora).
Table 1.6   List of minor equipment.
S. No.
List of equipment
Quantity
1.
Deep freezer (–20°C)
One
2.
Oven
Two
3.
pH meter
One
4.
Conductivity meter
One
5.
Double distilled glass apparatus
One
6.
Refrigerator
Two
7.
Tissue homogenizer
Two
8.
Gas purification panel for all gases
One
9.
Top loading balance
One
10.
Micropipette controller
Ten28
11.
Micropipette (different range)
One
12.
Dispenser
Five
13.
Computer with printer for laboratory
Two
14.
Hot plates
Two
15.
Ultraviolet (UV)-viewing cabinet
One
16.
Analytical balance
One
17.
Water bath
Two
18.
Muffle furnace
One
19.
Fume hood
One
20.
Centrifuge machine (medico type) of capacity 6/4 tube of 10 mL each
One
21.
Microscope
Two
22.
Breath analyzer
Two
zoom view
Figs. 1.6A to F: Minor equipment used in laboratory. (A) pH meter; (B) Ultrasonic bath; (C) Double distillation unit; (D) Muffle furnace; (E) Mini centrifuge; (F) Vortex mixer.
29
zoom view
Figs. 1.6G and J: Minor equipment used in laboratory. (G) Electronic weighing balance; and (H) Water bath; (I) Heating mantle and (J) Micropipette controller (Biogene).
Lists of drugs standard, pesticides standard, metallic standard, AAS standard, and UV-visible spectrophotometer standard are given in Tables 1.7 to 1.11, respectively.
 
High-performance Liquid Chromatography Solvents
High-performance liquid chromatography instruments require special type of solvents called HPLC solvent. List of few HPLC solvents is given in Table 1.12 and shown in Figure 1.7.
 
Miscellaneous Items
Several miscellaneous items are also required in the laboratory for different purposes, which are listed below in Table 1.13 and shown in Figure 1.8.
 
Waste Disposal Procedures for Biological Material
The laboratory should have documented waste management policy. There must be a clear policy in place for the disposal of materials on completion of examination.
 
SECURITY
The entire laboratory should be secure and the document and exhibit store area should be strictly prohibited to unauthorized person. The area should be locked by biometric lock. The physical layout of the laboratory must be such that unauthorized person cannot enter without direction and unauthorized person should be escorted and may be required to sign a log book upon entry and exit from the laboratory, recording the full name and address, name of the person to whom the visitor will meet, and time, date, and purpose of the visit.30
Table 1.7   List of drugs standard.
S. No.
Name
% purity
Quantity
1.
Morphine
90–100
1 g
2.
Diazepam
90–100
1 g
3.
Nitrazepam
90–100
1 g
4.
Allobarbital
90–100
1 g
5.
Barbital
90–100
1 g
6.
Phenobarbital
90–100
1 g
7.
Alprazolam
90–100
1 g
8.
Bromazepam
90–100
1 g
9.
Atropine sulfate
90–100
1 g
10.
Brucine
90–100
1 g
11.
Codeine
90–100
1 g
12.
Thebaine
90–100
1 g
13.
Papaverine
90–100
1 g
14.
Narcotine
90–100
1 g
15.
Amphetamine
90–100
1 g
16.
Ephedrine
90–100
1 g
17.
Nicotine
90–100
1 g
18.
Amphetamine HCl
90–100
1 g
19.
Heroin HCl
90–100
1 g
20.
Chlordiazepoxide
90–100
1 g
21.
Cocaine
90–100
1 g
(HCl: hydrochloride)
Table 1.8   List of pesticides standard.
S.No.
Name
Quantity
1.
BHC
1 g
2.
Zolone
1 g
3.
Chlordane
1 g
4.
Malathion
1 g
5.
Heptachlor
1 g
6.
Butachlor
1 g
7.
Cygon
1 g
8.
Naled (Dibrom)
1 g
9.
Dieldrin
1 g
10.
Strobane
1 g
11.
Toxaphene
1 g
12.
Chloropicrin
1 g31
13.
DDE
1 g
14.
Guthion
1 g
15.
Diazinon
1 g
16.
Phosdrin
1 g
17.
DDT
1 g
18.
2,4-D
1 g
19.
Fenvalerate
1 g
20.
Cypermethrin
1 g
21.
Carbofuran
1 g
22.
Chlorpyriphos
1 g
23.
Ethion
1 g
24.
Dimethoate
1 g
25.
Isoproturan
1 g
26.
Endosulfan
1 g
27.
Quinalphos
1 g
28.
Aluminum phosphide
1 g
29.
Zinc purified
1 g
(BHC: benzene hexachloride; DDT: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
Table 1.9   List of metallic standard.
S. No.
Name
Quantity
1.
Arsenic trioxide
100 g
2.
Arsenic pentoxide
100 g
3.
Mercuric chloride
100 g
4.
Mercuric sulfate
100 g
5.
Zinc metal
100 g
6.
Antimony nitrate
100 g
7.
Bismuth nitrate
100 g
8.
Cadmium nitrate
100 g
9.
Chromium nitrate
100 g
10.
Cobalt nitrate
100 g
11.
Copper nitrate
100 g
12.
Iron nitrate
100 g
13.
Lead nitrate
100 g
14.
Molybdenum nitrate
100 g
15.
Nickel nitrate
100 g32
16.
Platinum nitrate
100 g
17.
Rhodium nitrate
100 g
18.
Selenium nitrate
100 g
19.
Thallium nitrate
100 g
20.
Tungsten nitrate
100 g
21.
Uranium nitrate
100 g
Table 1.10   List of AAS/ICP standard.
S. No.
List of standards
Concentration
Quantity
1.
Aluminum standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
2.
Antimony standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
3.
Arsenic standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
4.
Barium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
5.
Beryllium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
6.
Bismuth standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
7.
Boron standard solution
1000 ppm
100 mL
8.
Cadmium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
9.
Calcium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
10.
Cesium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
11.
Chromium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
12.
Cobalt standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
13.
Copper standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
14.
Germanium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
15.
Gold standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
16.
Indium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
17.
Iron standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
18.
Lead standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
19.
Lithium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
20.
Magnesium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
21.
Manganese standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
22.
Mercury standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
23.
Molybdenum standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
24.
Nickel standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
25.
Palladium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
26.
Platinum standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
27.
Potassium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL33
28.
Scandium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
29.
Selenium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
30.
Silicon standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
31.
Silver standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
32.
Sodium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
33.
Strontium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
34.
Tellurium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
35.
Thallium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
36.
Tin standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
37.
Titanium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
38.
Tungsten standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
39.
Vanadium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
40.
Zinc standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
41.
Zirconium standard solution
1,000 ppm
100 mL
(AAS: atomic absorption spectrometry; ICP: inductively coupled plasma)
Table 1.11   List of ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer standard.
S. No.
List of chemicals
Quantity
1.
UV-visible standard 1 potassium dichromate
1 unit
2.
UV-visible standard 1a potassium dichromate
1 unit
3.
UV-visible standard 2 sodium nitrite solution
1 unit
4.
UV-visible standard 3 sodium iodide solution
1 unit
5.
UV-visible standard 4 potassium chloride
1 unit
6.
UV-visible standard 5 toluene
1 unit
7.
UV-visible standard 6 holmium oxide
1 unit
Table 1.12   List of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) solvents.
S. No.
List of HPLC solvents
Quantity
1.
Acetone
5 × 1 L
2.
Acetonitrile
5 × 1 L
3.
Carbon tetrachloride
5 × 1 L
4.
Chloroform
5 × 1 L
5.
Cyclohexane
5 × 1 L
6.
Dichloromethane
5 × 1 L
7.
Ethyl acetate
5 × 1 L34
8.
n-hexane
5 × 1 L
9.
Hexane
5 × 1 L
10.
Isooctane
5 × 1 L
11.
Methanol
5 × 1 L
12.
2-propanol
5 × 1 L
13.
Tetrahydrofuran
5 × 1 L
14.
Toluene
5 × 1 L
15.
Distilled water
5 × 1 L
zoom view
Fig. 1.7: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) solvents.
Table 1.13   List of miscellaneous items.
S. No.
Name of items
Quantity
1.
Filter paper Whatman No-40
5 packets
2.
Filter paper Whatman No-41
5 packets
3.
Filter paper Whatman No-42
5 packets
4.
Ordinary filter paper sheet
1 packet
5.
Glass marker
1 packet
6.
Stickers of different sizes
1 packet
7.
Burners
5 numbers
8.
Tongs
3 numbers
9.
Tripod stand
6 numbers
10.
Scissor
2 nos.
11.
Gloves
2 packets
12.
Masks
2 packets
35
zoom view
Fig. 1.8: Miscellaneous items.
 
CONCLUSION
In the field of crime investigation, forensic toxicology has a significant role. The deaths due to poisoning are on increase every year with economic advancement and development in science and technology. The poisoning deaths may be due to acute or chronic poisoning. It involves wide range of poisons such as agricultural poisons, pharmaceutical drugs, drugs of abuse, household poisons, food poisons, mass disaster due to leakage of chemicals and gases from industries, occupational and environmental hazards, etc. In India, there are about 35 forensic science laboratories in various states. These laboratories are overburdened with analytical samples due to increasing crimes related to poisoning and the court of law expects authentic scientific reports as evidence. The government needs to setup well-planned and equipped forensic toxicology laboratory to deal with poisoning cases. Layout of forensic toxicology laboratory is given in Figure 1.9. We have tried to describe in detail the manpower requirement, area requirement, and equipment, glassware, and chemical requirements, along with a clear layout diagram of the laboratory. This chapter provides a detailed guideline for setting up a well-planned modern forensic toxicology laboratory.36
zoom view
Fig. 1.9: Layout of forensic toxicology laboratory.
37  
FURTHER READINGS
  1. Bapuly AK. Forensic Science: Its Application in Crime Investigation, 1st edition. New Delhi: Paras Medical Publishers;  2006.
  1. Borosil Scientific and Laboratory Glassware; 2007.
  1. Borosil Scientific and Laboratory Ware Catalogue; 2006.
  1. Burnett D. A Practical Guide to Accreditation in Laboratory Medicine. London: ACB Venture Publications;  2002.
  1. Clarke EGC, Moffat AC. Clarke's Isolation and Identification of Drugs, 2nd edition. London: Pharmaceutical Press;  1986.
  1. Curry AS. Analytical Methods in Human Toxicology, 1st edition. London: Macmillan Press Ltd;  1985.
  1. Gray DJP. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, 12th edition. London: Churchill Livingstone;  1997.
  1. Kirk PL. DFS Manual of Toxicology, 1st edition. New Delhi: Selective and Scientific Publishers;  2005.
  1. World Health Organization (WHO). (1997). Guidelines for poison control. [online] Available from https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/guidelines-for-poison-control. [Last accessed March, 2021].
  1. Jaiswal AK, Millo T, Murty OP. Extraction, isolation and clean-up methods for pesticides/insecticides and alkaloids from biological material. Part-I. Int J Med Toxicol Legal Med. 2006;9:28–32.
  1. Armour MA. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide, 3rd edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press;  2003.
  1. Merck Chemical and Reagent Catalogue; 2002.
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  1. National Academy of Medical Sciences. (1998). CME Monograph: Proceedings of National Workshop on Practical and Emergency Medical Toxicology. [online] Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282075188_CME_Monograph_-_proceedings_of_National_Workshop_on_Practical_and_Emergency_Medical_Toxicology_AIIMS_24-26th_February_1998_-_sponsored_by_national_Academy_of_Medical_Sciences_new_Delhi. [Last accessed March, 2021].
  1. Sharma BR. Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trials, 4th edition. New Delhi: Universal Law Publishing Co Ltd;  2004.
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Team of Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, AIIMS Delhi
(It is all about team work).