Amantadine in Parkinson’s Disease: An Expert Opinion Vinay Goyal
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Akinesia 3
Alanine aminotransferase 46
Amantadine 16, 17, 19, 20, 21f, 22, 23, 25, 2730, 32t, 3439, 42, 44, 47, 48
adverse effects of 42, 45t
clearance of 23, 25t
concentrations 25
dosage 42, 43t
dose of 42
duration of 33
effectiveness 34
efficacy of 28
exhibits 38
general pharmacodynamics of 20
mechanism of action of 20
overdosage of 43
pharmacokinetic properties of 24t
safety of 28, 29
structure of 20f
therapy 35t, 36t
treatment 34
use of 37
Anticholinergics 16
Antidyskinetic effects 28
Antiparkinsonian drugs 42
Antiviral agent 37
Ataxia, management of 38
B
Blood 45
pressure 46, 48
Blurred vision 44
Bradykinesia 3, 35, 36
Brain bank criteria 11
C
Cardiac disorders 45
Cardiovascular system 44
Central nervous system 44
Concomitant therapy, dosage for 42
Constipation 44
Corticostriatal tract 22f
D
Degenerative cerebellar ataxias 38
Dementia 6
Dizziness 48
Dopamine agonist 28
Dopaminergic
medications 16
pathway 38
system 20
Drug–drug interactions 42, 47
Dyskinesia 33
developed 29
risk of 28
levodopa-induced 17, 28
E
End-stage renal disease 47
Erectile dysfunction 7
Extrapyramidal reactions, dosage for drug-induced 43
F
Freezing of gait 31
efficacy of amantadine in 31
questionnaire 33fc
response 32t
G
Gait questionnaire score 33f
Gastric aspiration 44
Gastrointestinal disorders 45
Glutamatergic system 21
H
Hypokinesia 3
Hypophonia 4
I
Immunomodulation 21
Inspiratory respiratory dysfunction 14
L
Levodopa 13, 28
treatment 20
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia, treatment of 29
Lewy body
break staging of 11t
deposition, staging of 11
Liver function test 46
Lymphatic system disorder 45
M
Mental status 46, 48
Metabolism 25, 46
Motor symptoms 4fc
Movement Disorder Society 13, 30
Multiple system atrophy 33fc, 34, 36
N
Nervous system disorders 45
Neurodegenerative movement disorder 1
Nigrostriatal nerve terminal 22f
N-methyl-d-aspartate 21f
Nonmotor symptoms 5, 5fc, 6, 7t
Noradrenergic pathway 38
Noradrenergic system 21
Nutrition disorder 46
O
Overdosage, management of 44
Oxidative stress 10
P
Parkinson's disease 1, 4fc, 5fc, 8, 10, 17, 21, 28, 33fc, 43, 46, 47
advanced 7
clinical signs and symptoms of 1
diagnosis 10, 11, 14fc
dosage for 42
drug therapy 6
early 28
epidemiology of 1
estimated prevalence of 2f
idiopathic 23
management of 15, 16t
pathophysiology 10
postural reflex impairment in 31
premotor 7t
risk factors of 3
role of amantadine in 19
severe 19, 33
supportive criteria for 12
symptoms 4f
Parkinson's hyperpyrexia syndrome 6
Parkinsonian syndrome bradykinesia, diagnosis of 12
Parkinsonism 35, 36
signs of 3
treatment of 22
Periodic skin examinations 46
Placebo arm 39
Plasma
acetylamantadine 25
amantadine concentration 30
concentrations 26
proteins 23
Postural instability 5
Potent neurotoxins 10
Presynaptic dopaminergic system 13
Primary progressive freezing gait 33fc
Progressive supranuclear palsy 33fc, 34, 35
Psychiatric
disorders 45
symptoms 8
Q
Quinidine 47
Quinine 47
R
Renal function 46
Respiratory system 44
Resting tremor 36
Rigidity 5
T
Thioridazine 47
Traumatic brain injury 38
management of 38
Tremor 5
U
Unified dyskinesia rating scale 30
V
Visual hallucinations 44
Vomiting 44
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Amantadine in Parkinson's Disease An Expert Opinion
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Amantadine in Parkinson's Disease An Expert Opinion
Vinay Goyal MD DM (AIIMS) FIAN Ex-Professor of Neurology All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India Director Neurology Medanta - The Medicity Gurugram, Haryana, India
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Amantadine in Parkinson's Disease: An Expert Opinion / Vinay Goyal
First Edition: 2022
9789390595617
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Preface
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly population. The disease remains a huge challenge and its prevalence is expected to double worldwide by 2040.
It is important to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative diseases; therefore, understanding its symptoms is important which can aid in better diagnosis as well as more specific management. The management of Parkinson's disease can often be challenging; hence, it is important to increase awareness of other therapeutic options. Levodopa is the mainstay in the pharmacological management of Parkinson's disease; however, the drug has been associated with some side effects. Additionally, it is important that treatment is individualized and tailored for individual patients based on their condition.
Amantadine has been in use since 1966; however, its use in Parkinson's disease initiated in 1968, when an old woman experienced a remarkable remission in her symptoms of rigidity, tremor, and akinesia. Since then, the drug has been utilized in the management of Parkinson's disease.
The book provides a comprehensive understanding on amantadine and its pharmacological and clinical efficacy.
Vinay Goyal
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