Recent Advances in Ophthalmology-15 HV Nema, Nitin Nema
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Acetylcholine 230
Acetylcholinesterase 232
inhibitors 229, 234
Achromatopsia 212
Active retinal vasculitis, diagnosis of 81
Active Sentry handpiece 138
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy 81, 88, 89, 96, 116
Adeno-associated virus 208210, 212
Adenosine triphosphate 219
Adenovirus 210
Adnexal surgery 41
Adult stem cells 213, 215
Aflibercept 167, 189
Age-related eye disease study 27
Age-related macular degeneration 16, 26, 29, 61, 65, 121, 187, 192, 204, 214
treatment of 188, 191, 197
Alcon Verion system 147
American Diabetic Association 154
Amniotic membrane transplant 38
Ampiginous choroiditis 91, 116
Anemia 154
Angiography, traditional 82
Angio-optical coherence tomography, interpretation of 79
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 3, 6
Angle-closure glaucoma 11
Anterior corneal stroma 54
Anterior segment-optical coherence tomography 68, 69
Anteroposterior traction, relief of 175
Antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies 230
Antibiotics 52
Anti-inflammatory treatment 110
Antimetabolites 115
Antivascular endothelial growth factor 83, 152, 166, 189t, 190, 204
drugs 27
treatment 28, 195f
Antiviral therapy 13
Apoptosing retinal cells, detection of 69
Artificial intelligence 1618, 30, 61, 62, 62f, 65, 70, 72, 73
concept of 61
hierarchy 19f
model 18f
risk of 30
system 23
Artificial neural network 61, 63, 64f
Aspirin 165
Atropine sulfate 232
Autoimmune disease 229
Azathioprine 114, 234
B
Bacteria 105
Balanced salt solution 144f
Benzalkonium chloride 53
Best corrected visual acuity 163
Bevacizumab 167, 169, 189, 197
Birdshot chorioretinopathy 81, 90, 96
Birdshot lesions 90
Black box artificial intelligence 71
Blindness 152
Blood
pressure 62
retinal barrier 80
Body mass index 62
Bone marrow derived cells 222, 223
Bowman's and endothelial layers 48
Brain 2
derived neurotrophic factor 222
Branch retinal vein occlusion 4, 10
Brolicizumab 189
Bruch's membrane 126
B-scans 79
Bullous keratopathy 48, 50, 129
Bunsen-Roscoe's law 52
C
Cannula vacuum 143146
continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis 143, 144
Capillary flow deficit 81
Capsular tear using bent 26G needle 144f
Capsulorhexis
advances in 143
overlay for 148f
Capsulotomy 145
Cardiovascular disease 165
Catalys 141
Cataract 16, 30, 64, 138, 152, 178
formation 177
removal 129
surgery 129, 147, 150
complicated 136
image-guided 147
Cell
based therapy, rationale for 216
replacement therapy 204, 216
source of 222
suspension 223
therapy 213
Central artery occlusion 4, 10
Central corneal thickness 50
measurement of 66
Central foveal thickness 158
Central retinal
artery occlusion 1
thickness 90, 162, 194
vein occlusion 10
Central vision 113
Centurion vision system, active fluidics of 138
Cerebrospinal fluid 12
Chest, computed tomography of 233
Choriocapillaris 79, 116, 120
flow, impairment of 164
hypoperfusion 109
nonperfusion 110
segmentation 95f
Choriocapillaritis, inflammatory 81
Chorioretinal inflammatory lesions 94
Chorioretinopathy, central serous 120, 123, 124
Choroid 111, 112
Choroidal capillaries 125
Choroidal hyperpermeability 123, 124f, 125f
Choroidal hyper-reflectivity 111
Choroidal hypofluorescence, cause of 92
Choroidal morphology 127
Choroidal neovascular membrane 86f, 103, 195f, 221
Choroidal neovascularization 27, 79, 82, 84, 86, 9496, 112, 123, 191
Choroidal stroma, inflammatory lesions in 81
Choroidal thickness 121
Choroidal vascular polyps 125
Choroidal veins 121
Choroidal vessels, large 109
Choroideremia 212
Choroiditis 103, 107f, 110, 111
active 111
control of 115
exacerbations of 113
Choroid-sclera junction 121
Circle scan technology 141
Clinically significant macular edema 158
Cogan's lid twitch 231
Collagen 48
crosslinking
accelerated protocol for 52b
pathways 47, 48, 49fc
fibrils 49
Confocal microscopy 54
Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy 160
Conjunctival swab 4
Conjunctivitis 1
Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis 143
Continuous thermal capsulotomy system 146
Conventional laser photocoagulation 166
Convolutional neural network 19, 20f, 21, 22, 63
Cord
blood 215
lining cells 215
Cornea 29, 54, 55, 64, 132
exposure of 11
Corneal collagen 48, 50
Corneal crosslinking 47
advances in 47
indications for 48b
Corneal decompensation 136
Corneal ectasias 47, 49, 65
Corneal ectatic disorders 48
Corneal edema 177
Corneal stability, evidence of 53
Corneal stroma 53
Corneal surface 55
Corneal thickness 56
Coronavirus disease 1, 6, 10, 12
Corrected visual acuity 50
Corticosteroid 103, 113, 169, 229, 234
administration of 115
drug delivery of 115
side effects 114
therapy 107
Cotton-wool spots 4
COVID-19 1, 5t, 7t, 11, 12t
infection 3, 4, 13
treatment of 11, 13
Cranial mononeuropathies 152
Cranial nerve palsy 1
Cushing syndrome 123
Cyclosporine 114, 235
Cystoid macular edema 92, 93t, 129, 221
D
Deep capillary plexus 79, 86, 96
disruption of 95f
Deep neural networks 18, 19
Deeper choroidal vessels, imaging of 97
Dengue fever 11
Dense scotomas 112
Deoxyribonucleic acid 50, 205, 210, 211
Descemet's stripping 135
Dextran T-500 54
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial 164
Diabetes mellitus 159
gestational 159
Diabetes, eye examination in 159t
Diabetic macular edema 25, 153, 157, 157f, 162f, 163, 164f, 166, 168170, 174, 179
classification of 157t
management of 166
Diabetic membranes 177
Diabetic retinopathy 16, 17, 18, 24, 61, 65, 152, 153, 155, 163, 166, 204
classification 22f
clinical research network 155
disease severity scale 155t
management of 152, 166t
nonsight threatening 158f
screening 159
artificial intelligence in 159
telemedicine for 159
sight-threatening 158, 158f
study, early treatment of 158, 190
vitrectomy study 173, 178
Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of 154
Digital fundus photography 160
Digital retinal photography 159
Diplopia 229, 235
Disk, neovascularization of 156, 163, 166
Dresden protocol 47, 51
Dry eye 152
Dysarthria 234
Dyslipidemia 154
E
Edema 153
macular 61
Edrophonium test 232
Electromyography 229
Electrophysiologic testing 233
Electroretinogram 219
Embryonal stem cells 213, 215, 222
En bloc dissection 177
Endophthalmitis 115
Endoscopic surgery 36
traditional 41
Endothelial loss leading 129
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 10, 219
Epiretinal membrane 27, 36, 40, 174
Erythrocytes 79
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 53
European Society of Retina Specialists 161
Extraocular muscle 230
palsy 152
Eye 1, 64, 133f
care professional 64
disease
diagnosis of 30
treatment of 30
early detection 17
large 132
F
Femtosecond assisted arcuate keratotomy 141f
Femtosecond laser 141
assisted cataract surgery 140
platforms 140
Fetal derived retinal progenitor cells 222
Fetal retina, implantation of 223
Fibrovascular nails, formation of 175
Fibrovascular proliferation 172, 174
Fluocinolone 170
acetonide 170
Fluorescein angiography 81, 161
Focal choroidal excavation 120, 127
Food and Drug Administration 25, 188, 212, 232
Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography 141
Fovea 112
Foveal avascular zone 93, 96
Fuchs endothelial dystrophy 50
Fundus autoflourescence 103, 107, 108, 108f, 109f, 161
imaging 123
Fundus fluorescein angiography 78, 8084, 89, 93, 95, 96, 107, 109, 110f, 111f, 124, 126, 153, 161, 163t, 201
Fungi 105
G
Ganglion cell layer 10
Gene
delivery of 209
expression 205
intraocular injection of 209t
supplementation 208
surgery 208
therapy 204, 205, 210, 212
approaches 208
clinical trials of 212t
Ghost cell glaucoma 173
Glaucoma 16, 29, 61, 64, 66, 152
applications in 67t
artificial intelligence in 66
diagnosis of 61, 66, 71
neovascular 153, 178
subsequent 129
visual defects in 70
Glaucomatous optic neuropathy 68
Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor 222
Glued intrascleral haptic fixation 129, 132, 134, 135
Glycosylation 48
Goldmann applanation tonometry 71
H
Haller's layer 123
Handshake technique 131, 133f
Haptic tuck 136
Hazy cornea 42
Hematopoietic stem cells 215
Hemorrhage
dense premacular 173, 174
macular 196
massive subretinal 126f
premacular 155, 174
preretinal 161f
small subretinal 198f
subretinal 97
vitreous 153, 155, 156, 173, 175, 178
Hepatocyte growth factor 222
Herpes simplex virus 105
Herpetic keratouveitis, development of 56
Human immunodeficiency virus 12
Human leukocyte antigen 90, 105
Human umbilical cord derived stem cells 222, 223
Hyaloid, posterior 156
Hyaloidotomy, posterior 176
Hydroxychloroquine therapy 13
Hyperautofluorescent foci 123
Hyperautofluorescent lesions 108
Hyperglycemia 154
Hyperplasia 109, 229
Hypertension 154, 165
systemic 123
Hypoosmolar dextran-free riboflavin 54
I
Iatrogenic breaks 177
Ice pack
application 232f
test 231, 235
Immune reaction 213
Immunogenicity 219
Immunoglobulin, intravenous 235
Immunomodulatory agent 113115
Immunosuppressant therapy 103, 113, 229, 234
Indocyanine green angiography 78, 81, 82, 82t, 84, 87, 89, 95, 107, 110, 124, 126
Induced pluripotent stem cells 213, 215, 222
Infection 13
Inflammation, chronic 90
Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization 94
Inflammatory cystoid macular edema 92
Inner plexiform layer 10, 11, 79
Inner retinal layers 116
Internal limiting membrane 79, 162, 174, 209
International Biomedical Devices 146
International Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy 155
Intraepithelial junctions 53
Intraocular bleeding 177
stoppage of 176
Intraocular inflammation 78, 103
idiopathic 105
Intraocular lens 129, 143, 147
Intraocular pressure 12, 66, 138, 169
estimation, automation of 71
measurement, artificial intelligence in 70
Intraocular ranibizumab 194
Intrastromal corneal rings, use of 48
Intravascular blood flow 112
Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone 113
Intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor 152, 167, 172, 187, 195f
Intravitreal implants 115
Intravitreal injection 166, 168, 209, 222
Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide 134
Iridodialysis, large 135
Iris rubeosis 178
Irritable lid phenomenon 231
Irvine-Gass syndrome 94
Ischemia 113
Ischemic optic neuropathy 12, 152
K
Kawasaki disease 12
Keratectasias 48, 56
Keratitis
corneal crosslinking 47
infective 47, 52, 53, 56
microbial 48, 50
Keratoconus 16, 29, 47, 65
management of 56
screening 30
treatment of 30, 47
Keratocyte apoptosis 54
Keratoglobus 47
Keratometry 54, 56
Keratoplasty 135
Kidney 2
disease, diabetic 154
L
Laser
assisted in situ keratomileusis 48, 55
correction surgery 47
photocoagulation 166, 170
complications of 171
Lawnmower technique 177
Leber's congenital amaurosis 212
Lens fragmentation 141
Lensar laser system 147
LenSx laser 141
Lenti virus 210
Levator palpebrae superioris 231
Lid fatigability 231
Liver 2
Loose cortex using 25G cannula, aspiration of 145f
Lucky seven sign 131
Lung 2
M
Machine learning 18, 23, 61, 62
Macula 107f, 199
Major adverse cardiovascular events 62
Major histocompatibility complex 224, 230
Master-slave systems 37
Medrobotics flex robotic systems 41
Meganucleases 208
Mesenchymal stem cells 216, 222, 223
Messenger ribonucleic acid 211
Microbial deoxyribonucleic acid 105
Micropulse diode laser 167
Microscopes, advances in 141
Microvitreoretinal blade 176
miLoop® 146, 147f
Missense mutations 206
Mononuclear cells 222
Multifocal choroidal lesions 108
Multifocal choroiditis 81, 83, 84t, 107, 107f
Multimodal imaging techniques 84t
Multiple diseases, detection of 71
Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome 92, 96
Multisystem autoimmune inflammatory disorder 85
Mutant protein 206
Mutations 205
independent gene replacement 209
Myasthenia gravis 229231
generalized 229, 231
ocular 229, 231, 235
Myasthenic crisis 229
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 91, 105, 115
Mydriatic fundus imaging 160
Myopia 47, 121
N
Neostigmine 234
test 232, 235
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration 94, 191t
management of 187
treatment of 189t, 190
Neovascularization elsewhere 156, 163, 166
Neural retinal transplant 224t
Neural stem cells 215
Neuromuscular junction 229
Neuromuscular transmission 230
Neurons, artificial 63
Neurosurgical stereotactic biopsies 36
Neurotransmitters 229
New intelliAxis refractive capsulorhexis 147
Ngenuity three-dimensional system 142f
Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy 155, 156f, 158, 159, 166
mild 153, 155
moderate 153, 155
severe 153, 155
Nonsense mutations 206
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 136
Nucleic acids 50
Nucleotide 205
Nucleus management, advances in 146
O
Ocular diseases, artificial intelligence in 24
Ocular inflammation 83
Ocular surface
disorder 152
neoplasia, development of 56
Oncology 64
Ophthalmic surgery 36
Ophthalmology 16, 17, 23, 36, 65t
artificial intelligence in 16, 64
current applications in 38
Ophthalmoparesis 235
Ophthalmoplegia 229
Optic disk 66, 104f
images 66
new vessels 174
Optic nerve head 68, 69
Optic neuritis 12
Optical coherence tomography 10, 16, 27, 42, 61, 64, 68, 69, 78, 85, 87, 88, 107, 111, 124, 126, 149, 153, 157, 162, 163t, 194
angiography 7882, 8487, 8995, 97, 112, 163, 164f
applications of 83
limitations of 97
Optiwave refractive analysis
screen of 150f
system 149, 150f
Optogenetic therapy 210, 211t
Oral acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors 236
Oral glycopyrrolate 234
Oral prednisolone 113
Orbicularis oculi 231
Orbital operations 41
Orbital surgery 36, 41
Orbitofacial surgery 36
Outer retina 112f
Outer retinal destruction, severe 112
Oxidative pathways 48
P
Pachychoroid 120, 127
neovasculopathy 120, 123, 125f
phenotype 121, 125
pigment epitheliopathy 120, 122
spectrum 127
Pan uveitis 12
Panretinal photocoagulation 153, 161, 166, 170
Paracentral acute middle maculopathy 4, 10
Paracentral scotomas 116
Pars plana 129
infusion 130
vitrectomy 169
Pegaptanib 189
Pellucid marginal degeneration 47
diagnosis of 50
Peripapillary pachychoroid syndrome 120, 126
Peripheral ulcerative keratitis 56
Persistent epithelial defect 56
Phacoemulsification 138, 146, 147, 150
advances in 138
Phacomachines, advances in 138
Phenocaine-assisted cataract surgery 143
Photoactivated riboflavin 50
Photodynamic therapy 188
Photoreceptor transplantation 219
Photorefractive keratectomy 48
Phthisis bulbi 178
Piezoelectric micromotor 42
Pigment disturbance, severe 116
Pigment epithelial detachment 27, 65, 126
Pivot joint 39
Placental growth factor 188
Placoid chorioretinits 116
Plasma exchange 235
Plasmapheresis 235
Platelet-derived growth factor-AA 169
Pluripotent cells, autologous-induced 215
Polyethylene terephthalate 217
Polymerase chain reaction 3, 6, 10, 12, 91
Polymethylmethacrylate 130
Polymorphisms 205
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy 120, 125, 126f
Porcine corneas 48
Porcine eyes 38
Posterior capsular rupture 133f
Posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy 116
Posterior segment surgery 36, 40
Posterior vitreous detachment, role of 175
Posterior yttrium aluminum garnet 134
Postlaser-assisted in situ keratomileusis 48
Postoperative rhegmatogenous retinal detachment 178
Preceyes surgical system 39f
Prednisolone 114
Pregnancy 154
Preretinal new vessels, growth of 174
Primary open-angle glaucoma 70
Progression, estimation of 70
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy 155, 156, 156f, 161, 166, 170
management of 170
Pro-re-nata treatment 194
Proteinuria 165
Pterygium excision 38
Ptosis 229, 231, 232f, 235
Punctate inner choroidopathy 84, 85, 85f, 86
Pupil block 129
Pyridostigmine 234
R
Ranibizumab 167, 189, 197, 201
Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator 41
Refraction spherical equivalent 55
Refractive analysis system 149
Refractive error, detection of 65
Refractive surgery 48
Remedio's fundus 65
Repetitive nerve stimulation studies 233
Respiratory viruses 3
Retina 16, 56, 136
inherited degenerative disorders of 204
subspecialties of 64
Retinal atrophy 90
Retinal central subfield thickness 201
Retinal degenerations, hereditary 204
Retinal degenerative disorders 215
management of 204
Retinal detachment 65, 178
Retinal diseases 214
Retinal disorders 212, 212t, 213
gene therapy for 210
management of 204
Retinal hemorrhages 4, 153
Retinal images, datasets of 18
Retinal ischemic mechanisms 94
Retinal nerve fiber layer 65, 68
Retinal pigment epithelium 79, 84, 103, 112f, 162, 167, 189, 204, 214, 219221
cells, monolayer of 217
transplantation 216
Retinal progenitor cell 204, 214, 222
transplantation, immunogenicity of 224
Retinal thickness 23
Retinal vascular disorders 152
Retinal vasculitis 80, 90, 113
Retinal vein occlusion 1, 94
Retinitis pigmentosa 204, 212, 214, 224
Retinopathy 165
central serous 27
of prematurity 16, 29, 61, 65
Retinoschisis 212
Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment 173
Rhino-orbital mucormycosis 13
Riboflavin 49, 50, 53
concentration 53
Ribonucleic acid 1, 50, 210
Ritonavir 13
Robot-assisted orbital surgery 41
Robotic intraocular vitreoretinal surgery 39f
Robotic pterygium, steps of 39f
Robotic surgery 36, 37, 44, 45
systems 42
Robotic system 37
use of 41
S
Scheimpflug imaging technology 141
Schlagel lines 83
Scleral flaps 129
Sclerotomy 134, 135
anterior 132
ports, creation of 175
Scotomas, central 116
Self-organized retinal tissue, sheets of 223
Semi-active Robotic systems 36
Serous macular detachment 123
Serous retinal detachment 87f
Serpiginous choroiditis 81, 91, 103, 104, 104f, 106, 108f, 116, 117f
active 110f
lesions of 114f
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 1
Sex chromosomes 205
Singapore Eye Disease Study 154
Single nucleotide polymorphism 205
Single-fiber electromyography 233
Sleep test 232
Small incision
cataract surgery 134
lenticule extraction 55
Snellen visual acuity 90
Sørensen-dice similarity coefficient 23
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography 68, 83, 84, 141
Stargardt's disease 212, 214
Stem cell 213, 222
derived retinal pigment epithellium cell transplants 218
potential source of 215
Sterile infiltrates, development of 52
Steroids 13, 52
intravitreal 169
Strabismus
eye 41
surgery 41
Stroma, anterior 54
Stromal haze 53, 56
Subfoveal choroid thickness 121
Subretinal fibrosis 109
Subretinal fluid
accumulation 126
volume 23
Subretinal injection 209
Superficial capillary plexus 79, 86, 90, 95f
Suprachoroidal injection 209
Suture materials 44
Systemic autoimmune disease 105
Systemic corticosteroids 113
dose of 115
Systemic lupus erythematosus 123
T
T-cell inhibitor 115
Telerobotic surgery 42, 43
field of 43
Tetracaine 53
Three-dimensional digital visualization 141
Thymectomy 229, 235
Thymoma 229
Thyroid eye disease 41
Toric alignment, advances in 147
Toric intraocular lens 150f
alignment of 148f
intraoperative 149f
popularity of 147
Tractional retinal detachment 153, 173, 178
Transchoroidal subretinal injection 209
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases 208
Transepithelial potential 219
Transform glaucoma management 73
Transmembrane serine protease 2
Transoral robotic surgery 41
Transplanted cells
acting 222
maturing 222
Triamcinolone 169
Trometamol 53
Tuberculosis 103, 115
U
Ultrasound biomicroscopy 178
United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 164
Usher syndrome 212
Uveitic macular edema 96
Uveitis 78, 8082
idiopathic posterior 90
posterior 78, 103
V
Vacuum rhexis using 25G cannula 145f
Varicella-zoster virus 105
Vascular chorioretinal disorders 204
Vascular endothelial growth factor 10, 86, 153, 188, 208
Vasculitis, inflammatory 96
Verion 147
planning module of 148f
Vessels, radial network of 79
Victus 141
Viruses 105
Visual acuity 17, 23, 27, 52, 54, 106, 189, 212, 220, 221
stability of 49
uncorrected 55
Visual axis 129
Visual defects, progression of 70
Visual field 70
analysis 70
Visual impairment 138
Vitamin 51
Vitesse hypersonic vitrectomy system 139
Vitrectomy 136, 152, 172
basic steps of 175
incomplete 136
indications for 172
Vitreomacular traction 27
Vitreoretinal surgery 40, 172
Vitreoretinopathy, proliferative 216
Vitreoschisis 175
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease 82, 85, 87, 87f, 96, 121
W
Weck-Cel sponge 132
Wet age-related macular degeneration, management of 187, 188fc
White blood cell count 6
Whitestar signature system 140
Wilkinson's classification 158
Wound healing, epithelial 56
X
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 212
Y
Yellowish-white retinal lesion 110
Z
Zeiss Artevo 800 142, 142f
Zeiss cataract suite 148, 149f
Zinc-finger nucleases 208
Zonulopathy 129, 130
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