Table of Content

2017 | January-June | Volume 1 | Issue 1

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Richa Ghay Thaman

Editorial

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/ctdt-1-1-v  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Manjeet Kaur, Roopam Bassi, Kiran Mehta, Deepinder Kaur

Study of Serum Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels during Normal Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1 - 5]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0001  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Pregnancy is accompanied by a high-energy demand of all body functions and an increased oxygen requirement, which can give rise to increased levels of oxidative stress.

Aims and objectives

The present study was done to assess the levels of oxidative stress in healthy pregnant females by estimating serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and comparing these with nonpregnant females.

Materials and methods

The study was conducted on 88 female subjects in the age group of 20 to 40 years, who were placed in two groups. Group I consisted of 50 healthy nonpregnant females. Group II consisted of healthy pregnant females further subdivided into three subgroups: Group IIa (1st trimester) n = 38, group IIb (2nd trimester) n = 32, and group IIc (3rd trimester) n = 30. The same subjects were followed up till the 3rd trimester. There was a drop in the number of subjects from 38 to 32 in the 2nd trimester and from 32 to 30 in the 3rd trimester due to noncompliance and development of complications of pregnancy. The subjects were assessed for hemoglobin (Hb), MDA, a marker for lipid peroxidation, and SOD, an antioxidant enzyme along with certain physiological parameters like height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure in the three trimesters.

Results

The levels of SOD and MDA were significantly raised with the progression of pregnancy. There was a fall in Hb levels in the 3rd trimester. But no significant correlation could be drawn between the measured parameters in all the trimesters.

Conclusion

Pregnancy is definitely associated with oxidative stress to the body. Both peroxidation and antioxidation reactions are enhanced during pregnancy. With these findings, we therefore conclude that antioxidant supplements should be prescribed in early pregnancy to prevent the overwhelming of oxidative stress in pregnant females.

How to cite this article

Bassi R, Sharma S, Mehta K, Kaur M, Kaur D. Study of Serum Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels during Normal Pregnancy. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):1-5.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Roopam Bassi, Kiran  , Kawalinder Girgla

Comparison of Autonomic Function using Valsalva Ratio, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure in Meditators and Nonmeditators

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:6 - 9]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0002  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

In recent years, the various health benefits of meditation have been acknowledged by the scientific community as well as by the public. Apart from its physiological benefits, it can also improve the psychological and spiritual well-being. A case–control study was planned to investigate the effect of Rajyoga Meditation on cardiovascular autonomic activity in meditators and nonmeditators.

Materials and methods

The study was conducted on 100 subjects, randomized into two groups: meditators (n = 50; age 35.80 ± 7.69 years) and nonmeditators (n = 50; age 36.76 ± 6.38 years). The meditator group practiced meditation for 30 minutes in the morning as well as in the evening. The control group did not practice any type of meditation or relaxation techniques. The cardiovascular parameters – heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and Valsalva maneuver tests – were performed in both the groups in the same environmental conditions. The data were compiled and analyzed using unpaired t test.

Results

The mean values of HR in meditators and the control group were 77.08 ± 5.39 and 80.68 ± 5.71 respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The mean values of SBP in meditators and nonmeditators were 124.60 ± 5.39 and 129.56 ± 4.30 mm Hg respectively, while those for DBP were 77.84 ± 4.65 and 80.80 ± 4.78 mm Hg respectively. The difference in both was statistically significant. In meditators, Valsalva ratio was 1.60 ± 0.20, while in nonmeditators, it was 1.33 ± 0.13, and the difference was highly significant.

Conclusion

Significant improvement is seen in physiological, cardiac, and parasympathetic parameters in Rajyoga meditators. A shift of the autonomic balance toward the parasympathetic side is seen. By purposefully energizing the parasympathetic system by meditation, we can combat the ill effects of stress and help heal many health conditions.

How to cite this article

Kiran, Thaman RG, Bassi R, Girgla K. Comparison of Autonomic Function using Valsalva Ratio, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure in Meditators and Nonmeditators. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):6-9.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Sahiba Kukreja, Rohit Arora, Rahul Mannan, Sakshi Bhushan, Saroj Arora

Evaluating the Renoprotective Activity of 4-Methylthiobutyl Isothiocyanate against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(α) anthracene generated Radical Stress in Male Wistar Rats

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:10 - 14]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0003  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

An increasing environmental pollution has elevated the number of deleterious pollutants present in the atmosphere. Among these, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) have posed serious threat to the health of both animals and plants. Most of these compounds are genotoxic in nature and an elevated exposure of these carcinogens increases the risk of initiation and promotion of cancer. The low efficacy, specific target sites, and large number of side effects of the available drugs have encouraged researchers to look for an alternate drug with high biological potency. The best alternate for this is the use of medicinal plants and especially their phytochemicals, such as glucosinolate hydrolytic products. A large number of glucosinolate hydrolytic products are available in different plant species, but sulforaphane has emerged as the most potent among them. This important compound is interconverted to 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (4-MTBITC) or erucin in the body of an organism. In contrast to sulforaphane, not much work has been done on the biological properties of 4-MTBITC. The current study, therefore, focuses on evaluating the renoprotective activity of 4-MTBITC on DMBA induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats.

Materials and methods

The bioprotective efficacy of erucin was evaluated in male Wistar rats treated with DMBA using the levels of serum creatinine, urea, sodium, and potassium.

Results

The treatment with erucin significantly ameliorated the DMBA induced stress in male Wistar rats.

Conclusion

Erucin or 4-MTBITC has the potential to impart protection to male Wistar rats against genotoxic carcinogen (DMBA) induced stress.

How to cite this article

Arora R, Kukreja S, Mannan R, Bhushan S, Arora S. Evaluating the Renoprotective Activity of 4-Methylthiobutyl Isothiocyanate against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(α)anthracene generated Radical Stress in Male Wistar Rats. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):10-14.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Saru Singh, Ruchi Gupta, Chashamjot Bawa, Lakshmi Mahajan, Bhanupreet Kaur, Tavleen Kaur

Prospective Placebo-controlled Randomized Trial to compare the Efficacy of Ketamine as an Adjuvant to Epidural Steroids in preventing Repeat Blocks in Chronic Low Back Pain

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:15 - 21]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0004  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Low back pain behaves as a “silent epidemic,” ranking first among complications related to work. Often there is a large gap between a patient's desired pain reduction and the minimum percentage of improvement that would make a treatment worthwhile. Consequently, debate continues as to the value of epidural steroid injections, supremacy of one adjuvant over others, various doses, and concentrations in optimizing pain management.

Objective

To compare the efficacy of ketamine vs normal saline as an adjuvant to epidural steroids in chronic low back pain.

Study design

Randomized prospective placebo-controlled study.

Materials and methods

The study was conducted on 60 patients of age group 18 to 70 years having chronic lower backache with or without radiculitis of minimum 3 months duration and having no relief with conventional treatment. The patients selected were randomly allocated into two groups of 30 patients each: Group I (n = 30) given triamcinolone 40 mg, preservative-free ketamine 30 mg (0.6 mL) made up to 6 mL solution with 0.25% bupivacaine and group II (n = 30) given 0.6 mL normal saline instead of ketamine.

Outcome measures

The primary outcome measured was number of patients requiring repeat blocks and number of repeat blocks administered in 3 months. Other outcome measures were functional improvement quantified by visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) as well as improvement in psychological status by depression scoring, all taken at 2 weeks interval for 3 months. The periprocedural complications were also noted at the end of the study.

Results

In managing lumbar radicular pain with lumbar epidural steroid injection (LESI), ketamine's role as an adjuvant proved to be advantageous for long-term relief by its inhibition of dorsal horn “wind up” phenomenon through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism, thus reducing frequency of repeat blocks in group II (ketamine).

Conclusion

Thus to conclude, ketamine's advantage as a drug that prolongs pain relief from LESI is an avenue for further research and promises a bright future in the field of interventional pain medicine.

How to cite this article

Gupta R, Bawa C, Singh S, Mahajan L, Kaur B, Kaur T. Prospective Placebo-controlled Randomized Trial to compare the Efficacy of Ketamine as an Adjuvant to Epidural Steroids in preventing Repeat Blocks in Chronic Low Back Pain. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):15-21.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Ramandeep S Narang

Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Overview

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:22 - 26]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0005  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Narang RS, Arora A. Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Overview. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):22-26.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Narinder Singh, Geeta Sharma, Rahat Kumar, Vikram Bhandari

Pharmacovigilance in India and its Impact in Patient Management

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:27 - 33]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0006  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Sharma G, Kumar R, Singh J, Bhandari V, Singh N. Pharmacovigilance in India and its Impact in Patient Management. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):27-33.

CASE REPORT

Sanjay Piplani, JS Kullar

Occipitalization of Atlas: A Case Report with its Ontogenic Basis and Review of Literature

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:34 - 37]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0007  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Anatomy of the cervical vertebrae allows free flexion, extension, and rotation, which take place almost entirely in the first two cervical vertebrae. Variation in the articulation of upper cervical spine-like congenital fusion of the atlas to the base of the occiput, i.e., occipitalization of the atlas, is one of the common skeletal abnormalities. Such variations will produce irregular motion and at times a definite instability of the joint involved.

Conclusion

Considering the nature and functional importance of the joints in relation to these bones, the resulting disability is one of the rare occurrences and deserves special attention. Such patients exhibit neurological signs and symptoms usually no sooner than the second decade. Thus, anatomy, variations, and anomalies of the craniocervical junction are of high clinical importance to many specialties like anatomists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and manipulative therapists, as they markedly influence mobility and stability of the cervical region.

How to cite this article

Lalit M, Piplani S, Mahajan A, Kullar JS. Occipitalization of Atlas: A Case Report with its Ontogenic Basis and Review of Literature. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):34-37.

CASE REPORT

Bhangu Gurpreet, Sachdeva Kamal

Appendicular Mucocele—A Diagnostic Dilemma: Managed Laparoscopically

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:38 - 39]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0008  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Darpan B, Gurpreet B, Kamal S. Appendicular Mucocele—A Diagnostic Dilemma: Managed Laparoscopically. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):38-39.

CASE REPORT

Prominent Accessory Hemiazygos Vein representing Persistence of Cranial Portion of Posterior Cardinal Vein: Embryological Variant

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:40 - 41]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0009  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The azygos venous system has developed from the postcardinal veins of the embryo, and small parts persist only at the commencement of the azygos vein. Complex embryological development of these veins is a major cause for many possible variations of the azygos system.

Materials and methods

The present study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar, on a male cadaver aged about 50 years. The thoracic cavity was opened to dissect the azygos system of veins.

Results

The system showed the persistent cranial part of the posterior cardinal vein. This led to the formation of a well-developed venous channel on the left side of the aortic arch and the thoracic aorta. This channel drained the 2nd to 10th left posterior intercostal veins and drained itself into the left brachiocephalic vein (LBV) after crossing the arch of aorta vertically on its right. There was no transvertebral communication between this channel and azygos vein on the right side. The hemiazygos vein (HAV) on the left side was normally formed and immediately drained into the azygos vein by turning to the left. The azygos vein on the right side was also normal.

Conclusion

The presence of such persistent embryological remnant, its position, and approximation to the structures near the arch of aorta should be taken into account to avoid radiological misdiagnosis and surgical complications.

How to cite this article

Sehmi S. Prominent Accessory Hemiazygos Vein representing Persistence of Cranial Portion of Posterior Cardinal Vein: Embryological Variant. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):40-41.

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Punita Sharma, Kanika Sachdeva

Students' Perceptions to Introduction of Problem-based Learning Modules in Anatomy

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:42 - 45]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0010  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit for both the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. This intervention aimed to study whether problem-based learning (PBL) as an educational strategy can help in improving the quality of gross anatomy teaching and the attitude of students toward the learning method in India.

Materials and methods

The study sample included 100 students who were assigned to 10 groups (10 students in each group). Each PBL tutorial was conducted over three sessions. Pre- and post-tutorial tests were conducted. Data collection was done by a questionnaire survey to examine the students' learning attitudes and perceptions toward this platform as a possible learning tool. The obtained data were compared, and the main themes were determined.

Results

We found out the satisfaction of students with this learning method and the students' interest and ability for improvement after this teaching method. Also, the problems and obstacles the students faced in this learning mode were highlighted.

Conclusion

The study clearly pointed out that PBL benefits a lot of students in the study of gross anatomy despite the existing problems. In future, we should implement PBL combined with the characteristics of traditional anatomy teaching.

How to cite this article

Sharma P, Sachdeva K. Students' Perceptions to Introduction of Problem-based Learning Modules in Anatomy. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):42-45.

MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY

Simranpreet Kaur

Surrogacy: The Need, Usage, Misuse, and the much Needed Rectification Step – The Proposed Surrogacy Bill 2016

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:46 - 49]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0011  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Kaur S. Surrogacy: The Need, Usage, Misuse, and the much Needed Rectification Step – The Proposed Surrogacy Bill 2016. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):46-49.

MEDICAL ETHICS, LAW AND SOCIETY

Navpreet Kaur

Informed Consent: A Legal Formality or a Mandate

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:50 - 52]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0012  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Kaur N. Informed Consent: A Legal Formality or a Mandate. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):50-52.

HEALTH MANPOWER AND MANAGEMENT

Rajoo S Chhina, Rajdeep S Chhina, Ananat Sidhu, Amit Bansal

Health Manpower Planning

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:1] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:53 - 57]

GET ACCESS  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10055-0013  |  Restricted |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Chhina RS, Chhina RS, Sidhu A, Bansal A. Health Manpower Planning. Curr Trends Diagn Treat 2017;1(1):53-57.

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