Journal of Medical Academics

Register      Login

Table of Content

2023 | January-June | Volume 6 | Issue 1

Total Views

EDITORIAL

Rajshree R Gupta, Navpreet Mann

The Gut and Behavior

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0125  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

180

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Aditi Dubey, Ruchi Dhuria, Shaifaly M Rustagi, Suraj Prakash

Arcuate Foramen: An Anatomic Variant of Atlas Vertebra and Its Clinical Considerations

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:3 - 7]

Keywords: Arcuate foramen, Atlas screw placement, Atlas vertebra, Ponticulus posticus

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0128  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The ponticulus posticus (PP) or arcuate foramen (AF) is a bony bridge arising from lateral mass of atlas, which transforms the groove of vertebral artery into a canal on posterior arch of atlas. The presence of an AF and its relevance was seen in vertebral artery stretching, dissection, canine impactions, in some unexplained headaches and neck pains. Objective: The aim is to study the presence of AF in atlas vertebrae, their dimensions, and clinical implications. Materials and methods: A total of 80 dry atlas vertebra specimens were obtained from the Anatomy Department of Army College of Medical Sciences and North Delhi Municipal Corporation Medical College, Delhi, India, and were studied for the presence and dimensions of the AF and the incidences were compared. Result and conclusion: In our observational study, the AF was found in 13.75% of specimens. The AF was classified as complete, partial, and bony spicules. The observed dimensions of the complete AF in the present study were comparatively less. Interestingly, in some specimen's minimum thickness of dorsal arch of atlas vertebra was found to be less than the minimum thickness required for the surgical screw placement into the lateral masses. Knowledge about these anatomical variations will be of help to neurosurgeons, radiologists, and general medical practitioners.

222

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Suraj Prakash, Neeta Chhabra

Study of Acromion Process in North Indians and Its Role in Impingement Syndrome

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:8 - 14]

Keywords: Acromion process, Enthesophytes, Impingement syndrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0129  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: The acromion process is a lateral extension of the spine of the scapula. Anatomical variation in the coracoacromial arch and the underlying subacromial space has an important bearing on shoulder mechanics and surgical interventions. Impingement syndrome is a pathological condition that is predominantly found in people with truncated subacromial space. The present study deals with acromion measurements and their importance in pathological conditions of the shoulder region. Methods: The present study was an observational study conducted on 126 adult human scapulae of unknown age and sex after obtaining ethical clearance. The following parameters were analyzed: acromion shape; maximum length of acromion (MLA); maximum breadth of acromion; thickness of acromion (TA); acromio-glenoid, and acromio-coracoid distance (ACD). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0. Results: Curved acromion was the most common shape in the present study; the mean length of the acromion was 44.34 ± 4.98 mm; mean breadth was 24.57 ± 2.57 mm; mean thickness was 7.18 ± 1.21 mm; mean ACD was 26.05 ± 3.94 mm; and the mean acromio-glenoid distance (AGD) was 18.17 ± 2.34 mm. Conclusion: Acromion morphology is an important parameter for surgeons and anthropological scientists.

241

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kritika Tiwari, Gurmeet Kaur, Priya Arora

Reproductive Tract Infections and Its Determinants among Married Women of an Urban Area of Ghaziabad

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:15 - 19]

Keywords: Contraceptive usage, Menstrual problems, Reproductive tract infections, Sexually transmitted infections, Suraksha clinic, Women of reproductive age group

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0127  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and background: Prevention and management of reproductive tract infections (RTI)/sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a proven and cost-effective strategy to reduce reproductive morbidity and chronic complications among the sexually active population. This study was conducted to find the prevalence, common symptoms, and determinants of RTI/STI. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 112 married women of reproductive age group attending the outpatient department (OPD) of an urban health training center (UHTC) of Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, after taking informed consent using a pretested structured questionnaire. The results were analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Chi-squared and Fischer exact tests were used as tests of statistical significance, and significant predictor variables were subjected to binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Half of the study population belonged to the 26–35 years age group. Approximately 90% of women were using sanitary pads, and 30% were facing menstrual problems. We found that 82.1% had heard of RTI/STI, and >50% of the women had symptoms of RTI/STI. The most common symptom of RTI/STI was low backache followed by vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain, and genital itching, and the least common was vulval/inguinal ulcer/swelling. Education (below graduation), living in a joint family, parity, suffering from menstrual problems, intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) use, and not using condoms were found to be significantly associated with RTI/STI symptoms, but after binary logistic regression analysis, only education, menstrual problems, and condom use were found to be the significant predictor variables of RTI/STI. Conclusion: More than half of the study participants had symptoms of RTI/STI. Hence, opportunistic screening for early diagnosis and management is recommended. Clinical significance: Opportunistic screening of the symptoms of RTI/STI and its syndromic management, along with partner management, can help in reducing the burden of RTI/STI.

229

REVIEW ARTICLE

Shivani Juneja, Rohit Kalia, Ratinder P Singh, Vandana Roy

Staphylococcus Infections and Emerging Drug Resistance: A Global Concern

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:20 - 27]

Keywords: Bacterial infection, Drug resistance, Gram-positive, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0124  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections are a global health concern resulting in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Numerous antimicrobial agents (AMAs) have been developed over the years to treat S. aureus infections and then followed by the rapid emergence of resistance to them. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is one of the modern pathogens which poses a formidable clinical threat. Despite the ongoing development of new antibiotics, active surveillance, and advances in infection prevention, MRSA remains an eminent pathogen persevering with high mortality. The clinical impact can be achieved with some promising newer antibiotics which can deal with different types of infections caused by S. aureus. In this review, we provide an overview of clinical research on the treatment of MRSA infections and summarize the expansive body of literature on the clinical trials done to explore new drugs to counteract S. aureus infections.

261

CASE REPORT

Ashwani Sethi, Rohit Bhardwaj, Deepika Sethi

Nevus Sebaceous of External Auditory Canal; Significance of Managing It: A Rare Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:28 - 30]

Keywords: Becker nevus syndrome, Hearing loss, Nevus, Sweat gland neoplasms, Skin neoplasms, Tympanic membrane

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0122  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Nevus sebaceous is a benign mass lesion occurring primarily on the face, scalp, and periauricular region. The occurrence of this lesion in the external auditory canal is very rare. Case description: We present a case of nevus sebaceous of the external auditory canal, which was diagnosed with the help of histopathology and treated successfully by surgical excision. Discussion: The nevus sebaceous is a benign lesion but harbors malignant potential in it, necessitating excision of the lesion with adequate margins in order to avoid recurrence or malignant transformation. Conclusion: Nevus sebaceous although rare but can arise in the external ear canal and can be managed successfully if excised completely with adequate margins.

206

CASE REPORT

Sharmila Dudani

Platelet Satellitism: A Rare In Vitro Phenomenon Causing Spurious Thrombocytopenia

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:31 - 32]

Keywords: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Thrombocytopenia, White blood cells

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0123  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Platelet satellitism is the adherence of platelets around leukocytes (mainly neutrophils, but occasionally seen around lymphocytes and monocytes). It is a rare and important in vitro cause of spurious thrombocytopenia and may lead to unnecessary further investigations in patients. It usually occurs with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulated blood and is not seen with other anticoagulants. It may be seen in a variety of diseases as well as in normal individuals. Both immunological and nonimmunological mechanisms are believed to play a role. Platelet morphology and function are usually normal. We report a case of a 34-year-old female who underwent a complete blood count (CBC) as a part of a routine health checkup. As platelet satellitism was recognized on examining the peripheral smears, it highlights the importance of the same for confirmation.

215

CASE REPORT

Sharmila Dudani, Archna Rautela, Rachna Gulati, Aditi Rawat, Owais Qureshi

Calcific Tendinopathy of Rotator Cuff Causing Frozen Shoulder: Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:33 - 35]

Keywords: Calcific tendinopathy, Frozen shoulder, Pain, Rotator cuff

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0130  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Calcific tendinopathy is common in females of age group 40–60 years causing severe pain and disability in shoulder movements causing a clinical picture of a frozen shoulder. Rarely the onset of pain may be subacute and chronic. It is believed to be a degenerative process with the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals following the metaplastic transformation of tenocytes to chondrocytes in the tendons of the rotator cuff. Three stages have been described. A 55-year-old female with a history of regular intake of calcium supplements came with complaints of excruciating pain and restricted mobility of the left shoulder joint. The patient was managed conservatively and regained the full range of movement. Other treatment modalities may be required in a subset of nonresponsive patients.

302

CASE REPORT

Vinay Maurya, Shweta Sharma, Pankaj Sharma, Kanwaljeet Singh

Gluteal Region Lymphoma Presenting as Neurolymphomatosis

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:36 - 39]

Keywords: Gluteal, Lymphoma, Neurolymphomatosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0121  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Lymphoma is a malignancy of mature lymphocytes arising from B or T cells which can present as a nodal or extranodal disease. Extranodal lymphoma involving the skeletal muscle is a rare event with an incidence of 1.5–8.3% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases. In all the cases reported in the literature, the pathology was localized to a gluteal region with the involvement of bones in some cases. Intradural extension of gluteal lymphoma along the lumbar plexus has not been reported so far. We report here a case of a 64-year-old male who presented with an isolated history of swelling in the right gluteal region with associated progressive severe weakness of bilateral lower limbs and pain in lower back and thigh.

193

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Sharmila Dudani, Kavita Tomar, Aditi Rawat

Growing Epidemic of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in India: Time to Revisit the Diet

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:40 - 41]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11003-0126  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

174

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.