Journal of Scientific Dentistry

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2020 | January-June | Volume 10 | Issue 1

EDITORIAL

Dentistry and Covid-19

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/jsd-10-1-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Original Article

Gayathri Chandrasekar, Santha D Arumugam, Vezhavendhan Nagaraj, Kulandairaj Premlal, Sivaramakrishnan Muthanandam, Suganya Rajaram

Comparison of Efficacy of Candida Isolation from Oral Swab and Oral Rinse in HIV-infected Individuals

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

Keywords: Candida, Oral rinse, Swab

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0921  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: The major cause for morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient is fungal infection, which affects the quality of life. The most common fungal opportunistic infection is oral candidiasis. Almost all HIV patients are infected with Candida and 90–95% develop clinically, as the viral disease progresses. High plasma HIV RNA and low CD4 count are found to be associated with carriage of oral candidiasis in HIV patients. When HIV patients are treated with antiretroviral therapy, oropharyngeal candidiasis also subside simultaneously without specific antifungal therapy. The present study is intended to isolate Candida from oral swab and oral rinse and to find out which of these technique would demonstrate more isolation of Candida species. Materials and methods: Samples are collected from 84 HIV seropositive patients attending tertiary care in Puducherry by using swab and rinse. Oral swabbing is done in areas with candidiasis and individuals without candidiasis. The oral rinse technique involves the patient holding 10 mL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (0.01 M, pH 7.2) in the mouth for 1 minute. Collected samples are inoculated in Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: Out of 84 samples collected, 40 (47.6%) were positive for Candida and 44 (52.4%) were negative. Out of which swab isolated 30 (75%) Candida and oral rinse 26 (65%) of Candida with p value 0.46. Conclusion: In our study, oral swab yield more positive colonies compared to concentrated oral rinse; however, the p value was statistically significant.

Original Article

Aravindraaj Velayutham, Jananni Muthu, Pratebha Balu, Saravanakumar Ravindran

Association between Serum Creatinine and Periodontal Disease Severity—A Comparative Clinicobiochemical Study

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:3 - 6]

Keywords: Association, Periodontitis, Renal diseases, Serum creatinine

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0929  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontium that produces adverse systemic effects including diabetes mellitus, adverse pregnancy outcomes, respiratory illness, etc. Based on new studies, chronic inflammation is speculated as a risk factor for impairment of kidney function. Periodontitis, as long time inflammation is posed as one of the nontraditional risk factors for end-stage renal diseases. Literature search reveals contradicting evidence on the influence of periodontal infection and inflammation on the renal function. In lieu of the above, this study aims in estimating and comparing the serum creatinine (SCR) levels with periodontal disease status in systemically healthy subjects. Materials and methods: A total of 45 systemically healthy patients were recruited, and based on their periodontal status, they were divided into two groups: Group I (n = 22)—subjects with periodontitis and Group II (n = 23)—periodontally healthy subjects. Group I was again categorized into mild (CAL 1–2 mm), moderate (CAL 2–4 mm), and severe (CAL ≥ 5 mm) based on the severity of the periodontal disease. After assessing the clinical parameters, blood was collected for SCR estimation. The comparison between PPD, CAL, and SCR was done using the paired t-test. The comparison of SCR levels with severity of the periodontitis (CAL) was done using ANOVA. All the statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The SCR value in Group I was 1.06 ± 0.13 and in Group II, 1.17 ± 0.16. Using the paired t-test to compare the creatinine values revealed that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.00001). By comparing the SCR levels with the severity of the periodontal disease, the mean value for mild periodontitis cases was 1.1 ± 0.12; for moderate periodontitis cases, 1.09 ± 0.25; and for severe periodontitis cases, 1.14 ± 0.14. ANOVA test values between the groups showed a statistical significance (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results from this study showed an inverse relationship between SCR levels and periodontitis. The causal relationship between periodontitis and low SCR could not be established. This inverse relationship might confound the analysis of the link between renal function and periodontal disease. From the results of this study, we conclude that considering other indices such as cystatin C and creatinine clearance is preferable, to explore the association between renal function and periodontal disease.

Original Article

Bala Vaishnavi Gunaseelan, Vidhya Gunasekaran

Prevalence of Dental Caries among Junk Food- and Non-junk Food-eating Schoolchildren in Urban and Rural Areas of Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, India

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:7 - 9]

Keywords: Dental caries, Dietary habits, Mayiladuthurai

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0928  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease. Diet plays an important role in the nutritional status and individual development. Migration of people from rural areas and urbanization cause a change in the lifestyle and dietary habits which in turn affects oral health. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in junk food- and non-junk food-eating school students among urban and rural schoolchildren in Mayiladuthurai. Objective: To identify the role of dietary habits (type of diet, skipping meals, snacking between meals, and frequency of visits to fast-food restaurants) in occurrence and severity of caries. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 174 participants were considered, and among them 59 are rural schoolchildren and 115 are urban schoolchildren. Assessment of dental caries based on modern foods was done. A questionnaire was prepared to check the frequency of foods and the student's responses were marked. Results: Among 59 rural schoolchildren, 80% have caries and 20% have no caries. Among 115 urban students, 84% have caries and 16% have no caries. Compared to rural schoolchildren, urban schoolchildren are more affected by dental caries. Conclusion: This study was done to reduce the risk of caries by eliminating the intake of cariogenic food. Our study shows the risk of caries was high among urban schoolchildren.

CASE REPORT

Pazhaniswamy Manivannan, Visweswaran Vijaykumar, Arya J Varma

Novel Approach for Anterior Space Closure: Fixed Single Wire Technique

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:10 - 13]

Keywords: e-chain, New wire technique, Orthodontic fixed appliance, Space closure, Spacing novel

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0915  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Spacing is a very common complication of anterior teeth which has to be corrected to bring perfect smile. Though spacing is a simple malocclusion to treat, knowledge about the type of spacing and treatment plan is required. Dental spacing can be due to various reasons which can be divided into developmental and physiologic causes. There are various treatment objectives available to treat spacing of the dentition such as orthodontic fixed appliances, direct and indirect veneers, crowns and bridges. In this case report, we have used a single wire fixed mechanics to close the space in anterior region. A 0.016 × 0.022 stainless steel wire with a loop mesial to canine on both sides was used in this case. The duration of the treatment was 8 weeks.

CASE REPORT

K Srinivasan, Sivaranjani Kalyan, Jananni Muthu, Pratebha Balu, V Priyadharshini

Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics in the Mandibular Premolar–Molar Region: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:14 - 16]

Keywords: Corticotomy, Decortication, Orthodontic treatment time, Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics, Regional accelerated phenomenon

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0916  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) helps in reshaping and reducing the thickness of alveolar bone and reduces orthodontic treatment time. This is based on the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP), which is a pattern of bone healing. This case report explains the principles and technique of PAOO for faster tooth movement orthodontically within a shorter treatment time.

CASE REPORT

Gowtham Krishna, I Karthikeyan, B Pratebha, E Rajkumar, V Priyadharshini, Vineela Katam Reddy

Immediate Implant Placement and Loading in Anterior Maxilla: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:17 - 20]

Keywords: Anterior maxilla, Bone graft, Immediate implant, Platelet-rich fibrin

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0918  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Immediate implantation is a well-acknowledged treatment methodology that has been shown to have high success rates. First introduced in 1976, immediate implantation followed by tooth extraction offers many advantages which include reduced treatment time, preservation of crestal bone, minimizing soft tissue changes in esthetic zone, increased patient satisfaction, and treatment acceptance. Immediate implants are placed in the extracted socket of the tooth to be replaced. The major difficulty of obtaining predictable results could be associated with the tissue's architectural modification. These changes may occur even before extraction by loss of buccal and/or interproximal tissues, resulting in gingival recession and loss of interdental papilla. This case report describes extraction of fractured maxillary central incisors, followed by immediate implant placement in the prepared socket, and provisional temporization followed by definitive restoration after 4 months of implant placement. Immediate implantation with immediate provisionalization has provided the patient with immediate esthetics and function.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Madhumita Srinivasan, Chakravarthy Dhanavel, Jasmine Rayapudi

Evolution of Magnifications in Endodontics: A Review

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:21 - 24]

Keywords: Dental loupes, Dental operating microscope, Orascope

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0917  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Over the past few decades, technological advances in endodontics have taken quantum leaps from conventional hand files to rotary system and from direct vision to magnification. The clarity and details are achieved by magnification devices such as orascope, dental loupes, and dental operating microscope. The details are very clear and revealing so that the endodontists can achieve precision in diagnosis, treatment procedures, and final assessment of procedure performed. Magnification technique is undergoing continuous advancements, allowing a better precision and quality standard. Microdentistry with its expanding possibility and increased clinical implication has now set a higher standard in patient care and in success rate of treatment procedures.

REVIEW ARTICLE

S Nivethaprashanthi, R Kavya, R Priyanga, N Vezhavendhan

Comparing the Efficacy of Herbal and Non-herbal Toothpastes in Controlling Plaque and Gingivitis: A Review

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:25 - 27]

Keywords: Gingival disease, Herbal toothpaste, Non-herbal toothpaste

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0920  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and aim: Dental plaque, a well-organized biofilm, is the established cause for gingivitis. Chronic gingivitis is the second most common disease of oral cavity which may progress to periodontitis. A mechanical plaque control method along with dentifrices is the most recommended method for plaque removal and controlling gingivitis. The aim of this review is to estimate and compare the effectiveness of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes in controlling plaque and gingivitis. Materials and methods: The primary focus of this study was to compare randomized control trials and clinical trials which used herbal toothpaste with non-herbal toothpaste in prevention of plaque and gingivitis. Clinical trials without randomization and other experimental studies were also included. The outcome measures were improvement in duration, objective and subjective difference in plaque accumulation, and gingivitis. Results: Randomized control trial and nonrandomized control trial has shown a remarkable reduction in plaque and gingival scores on an average duration of using herbal toothpaste. Studies (five randomized control trials and four clinical trials) state statistically equal reduction in plaque and gingival scores on using herbal and non-herbal toothpastes. No reports of adverse reactions (bad taste and odor, hard to accept, and allergic reactions) on using herbal toothpaste are evident. Conclusion: Nowadays, there is an increased interest on using herbal products among people. Herbal toothpastes are as effective as non-herbal toothpastes in controlling plaque and gingivitis. There are also no adverse reactions on using herbal toothpaste and can be used as an alternative to conventional (non-herbal) toothpaste. Henceforth, it depends upon the preference of people to choose natural (herbal) or conventional (non-herbal) toothpaste.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Varsha Ravichandran

Cantilever Resin-bonded Bridge Design: A Review

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:28 - 30]

Keywords: Cantilever, Cantilever resin-bonded bridges, Fixed prosthesis, Resin-bonded bridges, Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10083-0925  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Resin-bonded bridges (RBBs) were first described in the 1970s. The present forms of RBBs have evolved from many significant developments. Splinting of periodontally compromised teeth was the initial objective of these prostheses. Their use eventually expanded to replace missing anterior teeth. Cantilever resin-bonded fixed partial denture (RBFPD) is a conservative alternative approach to fixed–fixed partial dentures in replacing missing tooth and should be included as a treatment option wherever possible. For fixed replacement of missing teeth, RBBs can be considered to give a reversible, minimally invasive, esthetic, and predictable restorative outcome in spite of many problems such as debonds. Two-unit cantilevered RBFPDs had a better clinical retention than fixed–fixed RBFPDs because a cantilever RBB eliminates adverse interabutment stresses associated with fixed–fixed designs. The longevity of RBBs is influenced by numerous factors. To achieve successful long-term survival, careful case selection and consideration of various variables like materials used and occlusal protection are crucial.

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