Manipulator guard protecting bladder margin and ureter
by Rajendra S Sankpal

Simplified Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: Practical, Safe and Economic Methodology

by Rajendra S Sankpal, Mahantesh Karoshi, Late Louis G Keith
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The manipulator guard also makes the vaginal fornices prominent, thus protecting the bladder margins and ureters laterally. In addition, the upward push by the vaginal assistant on the manipulator protects the ureters by letting them fall laterally. At the same time the bladder is protected when the vaginal fornices are elevated.

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